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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342242/meiotic-spindle-formation-in-mammalian-oocytes-implications-for-human-infertility
#1
Suk Namgoong, Nam-Hyung Kim
In the final stage of oogenesis, mammalian oocytes generate a meiotic spindle and undergo chromosome segregation to yield an egg that is ready for fertilization. Herein, we describe the recent advances in understanding the mechanisms controlling formation of the meiotic spindle in metaphase I (MI) and metaphase II (MII) in mammalian oocytes, and focus on the differences between mouse and human oocytes. Unlike mitotic cells, mammalian oocytes lack typical centrosomes that consist of two centrioles and the surrounding pericentriolar matrix proteins (PCM), which serve as microtubule-organizing centers (MTOCs) in most somatic cells...
January 12, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342190/potential-of-vegetation-indices-combined-with-laser-induced-fluorescence-parameters-for-monitoring-leaf-nitrogen-content-in-paddy-rice
#2
Jian Yang, Lin Du, Wei Gong, Shuo Shi, Jia Sun, Biwu Chen
Nitrogen (N) is important for the growth of crops. Leaf nitrogen content (LNC) serves as a crucial indicator of the growth status of crops and can help determine the dose of N fertilizer. Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) technology and the reflectance spectra of crops are widely used to detect the biochemical content of leaves. Many vegetation indices (VIs) and fluorescence parameters have been developed to estimate LNC. However, the comparison among VIs and between fluorescence parameters and VIs has been rarely studied in the estimation of LNC...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342185/nanocarrier-mediated-foliar-zinc-fertilization-influences-expression-of-metal-homeostasis-related-genes-in-flag-leaves-and-enhances-gluten-content-in-durum-wheat
#3
Paresh Deshpande, Ashwin Dapkekar, Manoj Oak, Kishore Paknikar, Jyutika Rajwade
BACKGROUND: Wheat is the staple food for most of the world's population; however, it is a poor source of zinc. Foliar fertilization of zinc via zinc loaded chitosan nanocarriers (Zn-CNP) post-anthesis has proved to be a promising approach for grain zinc enhancement in durum wheat as evidenced in our earlier study. However, the molecular mechanism of uptake of zinc via Zn-CNP remains unclear. METHODS/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Foliar application of Zn-CNP was performed at post anthesis stages in two durum wheat cultivars (MACS 3125 and UC1114, containing the Gpc-B1 gene), and expression levels of several metal-related genes were analyzed during early senescence...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342175/immunocontraceptive-target-repertoire-defined-by-systematic-identification-of-sperm-membrane-alloantigens-in-a-single-species
#4
Nathaly Cormier, John J McGlone, John Leszyk, Daniel M Hardy
Sperm competence in animal fertilization requires the collective activities of numerous sperm-specific proteins that are typically alloimmunogenic in females. Consequently, sperm membrane alloantigens are potential targets for contraceptives that act by blocking the proteins' functions in gamete interactions. Here we used a targeted proteomics approach to identify the major alloantigens in swine sperm membranes and lipid rafts, and thereby systematically defined the repertoire of these sperm-specific proteins in a single species...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342167/effects-of-ammonium-based-ionic-liquids-and-2-4-dichlorophenol-on-the-phospholipid-fatty-acid-composition-of-zebrafish-embryos
#5
Aleksandra Piotrowska, Anna Syguda, Bogdan Wyrwas, Lukasz Chrzanowski, Till Luckenbach, Hermann J Heipieper
Ionic liquids consisting of a combination of herbicidal anions with a quaternary ammonium cation act as efficient herbicides, which are under consideration to be used in the agriculture. In the present study, we used embryos of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a model to assess the toxic potential of ammonium-based ionic liquids for aquatic organisms. As we assumed interference of the partially hydrophobic ionic liquid cation with lipids, we investigated the adaptation response in the lipid composition of the zebrafish embryos, triggered by the ionic compound...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341896/luteinizing-hormone-signaling-phosphorylates-and-activates-the-cyclic-gmp-phosphodiesterase-pde5-in-mouse-ovarian-follicles-contributing-an-additional-component-to-the-hormonally-induced-decrease-in-cyclic-gmp-that-reinitiates-meiosis
#6
Jeremy R Egbert, Siu-Pok Yee, Laurinda A Jaffe
Prior to birth, oocytes within mammalian ovarian follicles initiate meiosis, but then arrest in prophase until puberty, when with each reproductive cycle, one or more follicles are stimulated by luteinizing hormone (LH) to resume meiosis in preparation for fertilization. Within preovulatory follicles, granulosa cells produce high levels of cGMP, which diffuses into the oocyte to maintain meiotic arrest. LH signaling restarts meiosis by rapidly lowering the levels of cGMP in the follicle and oocyte. Part of this decrease is mediated by the dephosphorylation and inactivation the NPR2 guanylyl cyclase in response to LH, but the mechanism for the remainder of the cGMP decrease is unknown...
January 13, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340966/cannabinomimetric-lipids-from-natural-extract-to-artificial-synthesis
#7
REVIEW
Ya-Ru Gao, Yong-Qiang Wang
Endocannabinoid system is related with various physiological and cognitive processes including fertility, pregnancy, during pre- and postnatal development, pain-sensation, mood, appetite, and memory. In the latest decades, an important milestone concerning the endocannabinoid system was the discovery of the existence of the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2. Anandamide was the first reported endogenous metabolite, which adjusted the release of some neurotransmitters through binding to the CB1 or CB2 receptors...
January 16, 2018: Natural Products and Bioprospecting
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340863/effects-of-urease-and-nitrification-inhibitors-on-the-soil-mineral-nitrogen-dynamics-and-nitrous-oxide-n2o-emissions-on-calcareous-soil
#8
Rui Tao, Jun Li, Yu Guan, Yongchao Liang, Baowei Hu, Jun Lv, Guixin Chu
Urease inhibitors and nitrification inhibitors can reduce nitrogen (N) loss in agriculture soil. However, the effect of inhibitors on soil N2O emissions under the drip irrigation system remains unclear. A pot and a field experiment with two inhibitors were conducted to explore how inhibitors regulate soil nitrogen transformation and N2O emissions. In the pot experiment, three treatments included control, urea, and urea + N-(n-butyl)thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT, urease inhibitor). In the field experiment, three treatments included control, urea, and urea + NBPT + 2-chloro-6-(trichloromethyl)pyridine (nitrapyrin, nitrification inhibitor)...
January 17, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340835/repurposed-fda-approved-drugs-targeting-genes-influencing-aging-can-extend-lifespan-and-healthspan-in-rotifers
#9
Terry W Snell, Rachel K Johnston, Amelia B Matthews, Hongyi Zhou, Mu Gao, Jeffrey Skolnick
Pharmaceutical interventions can slow aging in animals, and have advantages because their dose can be tightly regulated and the timing of the intervention can be closely controlled. They also may complement environmental interventions like caloric restriction by acting additively. A fertile source for therapies slowing aging is FDA approved drugs whose safety has been investigated. Because drugs bind to several protein targets, they cause multiple effects, many of which have not been characterized. It is possible that some of the side effects of drugs prescribed for one therapy may have benefits in retarding aging...
January 16, 2018: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340704/delayed-conception-in-women-with-low-urinary-iodine-concentrations-a-population-based-prospective-cohort-study
#10
J L Mills, G M Buck Louis, K Kannan, J Weck, Y Wan, J Maisog, A Giannakou, Q Wu, R Sundaram
STUDY QUESTION: Is iodine deficiency associated with decreased fecundability? SUMMARY ANSWER: Moderate to severe iodine deficiency is associated with a 46% decrease in fecundability. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Iodine deficiency is common in women of childbearing age but its effect on fecundability has not been investigated. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: The LIFE Study, a population-based prospective cohort study, enrolled 501 women who had discontinued contraception within 2 months to become pregnant between 2005 and 2009...
January 11, 2018: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340603/characterization-of-antibiosis-to-diabrotica-speciosa-coleoptera-chrysomelidae-in-brazilian-maize-landraces
#11
Eduardo Neves Costa, Luciano Nogueira, Bruno Henrique Sardinha de Souza, Zulene Antônio Ribeiro, Helder Louvandini, Sarah Natalie Zukoff, Arlindo Leal Boiça Júnior
Resistance to insect pests can be found in several native, landrace plants and can be an important alternative to conventional control methods. Diabrotica speciosa (Germar) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) larvae are important maize (Zea mays L.) (Cyperales: Poaceae) root pests and finding native resistance in landraces would greatly contribute to maize-breeding programs aimed at controlling this pest. This study investigated whether the growth, survival, oviposition rhythm, fecundity, and fertility of D. speciosa are negatively influenced by specific maize landraces, and the existence of any morphological barriers in the roots that may correlate with plant resistance to the larval attack...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340252/positive-selection-on-human-gamete-recognition-genes
#12
Michael W Hart, Daryn A Stover, Vanessa Guerra, Sahar V Mozaffari, Carole Ober, Carina F Mugal, Ingemar Kaj
Coevolution of genes that encode interacting proteins expressed on the surfaces of sperm and eggs can lead to variation in reproductive compatibility between mates and reproductive isolation between members of different species. Previous studies in mice and other mammals have focused in particular on evidence for positive or diversifying selection that shapes the evolution of genes that encode sperm-binding proteins expressed in the egg coat or zona pellucida (ZP). By fitting phylogenetic models of codon evolution to data from the 1000 Genomes Project, we identified candidate sites evolving under diversifying selection in the human genes ZP3 and ZP2...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339599/full-scale-performance-of-selected-starch-based-biodegradable-polymers-in-sludge-dewatering-and-recommendation-for-applications
#13
Kuangxin Zhou, Johan Stüber, Rabea-Luisa Schubert, Christian Kabbe, Matthias Barjenbruch
Agricultural reuse of dewatered sludge is a valid route for sludge valorization for small and mid-size wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) due to the direct utilization of nutrients. A more stringent of German fertilizer ordinance requires the degradation of 20% of the synthetic additives like polymeric substance within two years, which came into force on 1 January 2017. This study assessed the use of starch-based polymers for full-scale dewatering of municipal sewage sludge. The laboratory-scale and pilot-scale trials paved the way for full-scale trials at three WWTPs in Germany...
January 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339528/gonadal-function-in-adult-male-patients-with-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia
#14
Manon Engels, Katharina Gehrmann, Henrik Falhammar, Emma A Webb, Anna Nordenstrom, Fred Sweep, Paul N Span, Antonius Eduard van Herwaarden, Julia Rohayem, Annette Richter-Unruh, Claire Bouvattier, Birgit Koehler, Barbara B Kortmann, Wiebke Arlt, Nel Roeleveld, Nicole Reisch, Nike Stikkelbroeck, Hedi L Claahsen-van der Grinten
CONTEXT: Current knowledge on gonadal function in Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) is mostly limited to single center/country studies enrolling small patient numbers. Overall data indicate that gonadal function can be compromised in men with CAH. OBJECTIVE: To determine gonadal function in men with CAH within the European "dsd-LIFE" cohort. DESIGN: Cross-sectional clinical outcome study, including retrospective data from medical records...
January 16, 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339265/spatio-temporal-distribution-of-soil-nitrogen-in-poyang-lake-ecological-economic-zone-south-china
#15
Yefeng Jiang, Lei Rao, Kai Sun, Yi Han, Xi Guo
Revealing the spatio-temporal distribution of soil nitrogen (N) contributes to N management and prevention of N pollution. The objective of this work is to study the spatio-temporal distribution of soil N and their driving factors in the topsoil (0-20 cm) of farmland in Yugan county, China in 1982 and 2012. Data were collected from 200 sampling sites of the second national soil survey in Yugan in 1982 and 423 sampling sites of the soil testing and formula fertilization project in 2012. On average total N (TN) and available N (AN) significantly increased from 1...
January 13, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339164/nanos2-acts-as-an-intrinsic-regulator-of-gonocytes-to-spermatogonia-transition-in-the-murine-testes
#16
Han Pin Pui, Yumiko Saga
In the male mouse embryos, the primordial germ cells colonize the developing testes at E11.5. These resident germ cells termed gonocytes are the predecessors of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) and differentiating spermatogonia. Both of which are essential for male fertility where the former maintains the continuity of spermatogenesis and the latter generates pioneering waves of spermatozoa. Therefore the timely initiation of gonocytes-to-spermatogonia transition (GST) is an important process during which the cell fates of gonocytes might be segregated...
January 12, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339104/region-specific-innate-antiviral-responses-of-the-human-epididymis
#17
James A Browne, Shih Hsing Leir, Scott Eggener, Ann Harris
Viral infections of the epididymis are associated with epididymitis, which damages the epithelium and impairs fertility. We showed previously that innate immune response genes were differentially expressed in the corpus and cauda region of the human epididymis in comparison to the caput. Here we investigate the antiviral defense response mechanisms of human epididymis epithelial (HEE) cells. Toll-like receptor (TLR) 3 and retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs) are enriched in HEE cells from the corpus and cauda region...
January 12, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339016/expression-of-sperm-plc%C3%AE-and-clinical-outcomes-of-icsi-aoa-in-men-affected-by-globozoospermia-due-to-dpy19l2-deletion
#18
Marziyeh Tavalaee, Michail Nomikos, F Anthony Lai, Mohammad Hossein Nasr-Esfahani
Globozoospermia is characterized by the presence of 100% acrosomeless round-headed spermatozoa in an ejaculate. Failed fertilization after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is commonly reported for globozoospermic couples and can be overcome by artificial oocyte activation (AOA). Phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ) is one of the main sperm factors involved in oocyte activation and its low expression levels mainly account for fertilization failure. Deletion of the DPY19L2 gene is reported as a main genetic cause in over 70% of infertile men with globozoospermia...
December 29, 2017: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338992/subsequent-fertility-pregnancy-and-gynecologic-outcomes-after-fetoscopic-laser-therapy-for-twin-twin-transfusion-syndrome-compared-to-normal-monochorionic-twin-gestations
#19
Simen Vergote, Liesbeth Lewi, Willem Gheysen, Luc de Catte, Roland Devlieger, Jan Deprest
BACKGROUND: An improved survival and quality of life for neonatal survivors after fetoscopic laser therapy (FLC) for twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) has been reported. However, little is known about the medium-term maternal effects after FLC with respect to reproductive and gynecologic outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To document reproductive, obstetric, gynecologic and psychological outcomes in women who underwent FLC for TTTS. STUDY DESIGN: Monocentric controlled study on consecutive women who underwent FLC for TTTS between 2007 and 2013 at the University Hospitals Leuven (cases; n=198)...
January 12, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338854/long-term-outcomes-in-cancer-patients-who-did-or-did-not-pursue-fertility-preservation
#20
Molly B Moravek, Rafael Confino, Kristin N Smith, Ralph R Kazer, Susan C Klock, Angela K Lawson, William J Gradishar, Mary Ellen Pavone
OBJECTIVE: To compare long-term outcomes of cancer patients who pursued fertility preservation (FP) with those who did not and compare random-start (RS) and menstrual cycle-specific (CS) protocols for FP. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort. SETTING: Single urban academic institution. PATIENT(S): Oncology patients who contacted the FP patient navigator, 2005-2015. INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Time to cancer treatment, disease-free survival, and reproductive outcomes in FP versus no-FP patients and cycle outcomes for RS versus CS protocols...
January 12, 2018: Fertility and Sterility
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