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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785663/enterobacteria-and-host-resistance-to-infection
#1
REVIEW
Eugene Kang, Alanna Crouse, Lucie Chevallier, Stéphanie M Pontier, Ashwag Alzahrani, Navoun Silué, François-Xavier Campbell-Valois, Xavier Montagutelli, Samantha Gruenheid, Danielle Malo
Enterobacteriaceae are a large family of Gram-negative, non-spore-forming bacteria. Although many species exist as part of the natural flora of animals including humans, some members are associated with both intestinal and extraintestinal diseases. In this review, we focus on members of this family that have important roles in human disease: Salmonella, Escherichia, Shigella, and Yersinia, providing a brief overview of the disease caused by these bacteria, highlighting the contribution of animal models to our understanding of their pathogenesis and of host genetic determinants involved in susceptibility or resistance to infection...
May 21, 2018: Mammalian Genome: Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781799/an-outbreak-of-a-rare-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-serotype-o117-h7-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#2
Kate S Baker, Timothy J Dallman, Nicholas R Thomson, Claire Jenkins
Sexually transmissible enteric infections (STEIs) are commonly associated with transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM). In the past decade, the UK has experienced multiple parallel STEI emergences in MSM caused by a range of bacterial species of the genus Shigella, and an outbreak of an uncommon serotype (O117 : H7) of Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). Here, we used microbial genomics on 6 outbreak and 30 sporadic STEC O117 : H7 isolates to explore the origins and pathogenic drivers of the STEC O117 : H7 emergence in MSM...
May 21, 2018: Microbial Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780362/characterization-and-genomic-study-of-phage-vb_ecos-b2-infecting-multidrug-resistant-escherichia-coli
#3
Yue Xu, Xinyan Yu, Yu Gu, Xu Huang, Genyan Liu, Xiaoqiu Liu
The potential of bacteriophage as an alternative antibacterial agent has been reconsidered for control of pathogenic bacteria due to the widespread occurrence of multi-drug resistance bacteria. More and more lytic phages have been isolated recently. In the present study, we isolated a lytic phage named vB_EcoS-B2 from waste water. VB_EcoS-B2 has an icosahedral symmetry head and a long tail without a contractile sheath, indicating that it belongs to the family Siphoviridae . The complete genome of vB_EcoS-B2 is composed of a circular double stranded DNA of 44,283 bp in length, with 54...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778048/pathogens-constancy-harbinger-of-nosocomial-infection-cum-identification-of-resistant-genes-and-drug-designing
#4
Sana Farooq Ahmad, Ibrar Khan, Abdul Wadood, Sadiq Azam, Noor Rehman, Muhammad Waqas, Kashif Bashir, Asaf Ali Khan
Hospitals are the most prominent places for the growth and spread of bacteria which are resistant to the available antibiotics. This antibiotic resistance is due to the over and misuse of antibiotic dosages of a high-density of patient population which are in frequent interaction with inanimate items of the hospitals and the consequent risk of cross infection. Out of 1010 samples of the current study, 510 (50.49%) were culture positive of which 329 (64.5%) were Gram-positive while 181 (35.49%) Gram negative...
April 22, 2018: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777720/regulation-of-shigella-effector-kinase-ospg-through-modulation-of-its-dynamic-properties
#5
Andrey M Grishin, Kathryn R Barber, Ruo-Xu Gu, D Peter Tieleman, Gary S Shaw, Miroslaw Cygler
Gram-negative pathogens secrete effector proteins into human cells to modulate normal cellular processes and establish a bacterial replication niche. Shigella and pathogenic E. coli possess homologous effector kinases, OspG and NleH1/2, respectively. Upon translocation, OspG but not NleH binds to ubiquitin and a subset of E2~Ub conjugates, which was shown to activate its kinase activity. Here we show that OspG, having a minimal kinase fold, acquired a novel mechanism of regulation of its activity. Binding of the E2~Ub conjugate to OspG not only stimulates its kinase activity but also increases its optimal temperature for activity to match the human body temperature and stabilizes its labile C-terminal domain...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777316/characterization-of-the-complete-sequences-and-stability-of-plasmids-carrying-the-genes-aac-6-ib-cr-or-qnrs-in-shigella-flexneri-in-the-hangzhou-area-of-china
#6
Xiao-Ying Pu, Yaming Gu, Jun Li, Shu-Juan Song, Zhe Lu
The aim of this study was to explore the fluoroquinolone resistance mechanism of aac (6')-Ib-cr and qnrS gene by comparing complete sequences and stability of the aac(6')-Ib-cr- and qnrS-positive plasmids from Shigella isolates in the Hangzhou area of China. The complete sequences of four newly acquired plasmids carrying aac(6')-Ib-cr or qnrS were compared with those of two plasmids obtained previously and two similar reference Escherichia coli plasmids. The results showed that the length, antibiotic resistance genes and genetic environment were different among the plasmids...
May 18, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772356/assessment-of-toxicity-and-differential-antimicrobial-activity-of-methanol-extract-of-rhizome-of-simaba-ferruginea-a-st-hil-and-its-isolate-canthin-6-one
#7
Vanessa Fátima Gazoni, Sikiru Olaitan Balogun, Karuppusamy Arunacham, Darley Maria Oliveira, Valdir Cechinel Filho, Samara Rosolem Lima, Edson Moleta Colodel, Ilsamar Mendes Soares, Sérgio Donizeti Ascêncio, Domingos Tabajara de Oliveira Martins
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Simaba ferruginea A. St.-Hil., Simaroubaceae, popularly known as "calunga" is a typical subtropical shrub used in Central Brazil mainly for infection, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and gastric duodenal-ulcers. It presents in its composition the alkaloid canthin-6-one, an alkaloid indole β-carboxylic. AIM: This study aims to investigate the toxicity, antimicrobial activities of methanol extract of Simaba ferruginea (MESf) and canthin-6-one by using different experimental models...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770061/canadian-public-health-laboratory-network-position-statement-non-culture-based-diagnostics-for-gastroenteritis-and-implications-for-public-health-investigations
#8
B Berenger, L Chui, A R Reimer, V Allen, D Alexander, M-C Domingo, D Haldane, L Hoang, P Levett, A MacKeen, D Marcino, C Sheitoyan-Pesant, G Zahariadis
As clinical laboratories transition to using culture-independent detection test (CIDT) panels for cases of acute gastroenteritis, culture of clinical specimens is becoming less common. The reduction in bacterial cultures available for public health activities is expected to hinder surveillance and outbreak response by public health laboratories at the local, provincial, national and international levels. These recommendations are intended to serve as guidelines for the implementation of CIDT panels in frontline laboratories in Canada...
December 7, 2017: Canada Communicable Disease Report, Relevé des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768238/one-pot-green-fabrication-of-metallic-silver-nanoscale-materials-using-crescentia-cujete-l-and-assessment-of-their-bactericidal-activity
#9
Seetharaman Prabukumar, Chandrasekaran Rajkuberan, Gnanasekar Sathishkumar, Mani Illaiyaraja, Sivaperumal Sivaramakrishnan
In this study, the leaf extract of an important medicinal plant Crescentia cujete L. (CC) was employed as a green reducing agent to synthesise highly-stable C. cujete silver nanoparticles (CCAgNPs). The reduction of Ag+ to Ag0 nanoparticles was initially observed by a colour change which generates an intense surface plasmon resonance peak at 417 nm using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Various optimisation factors such as temperature, pH, time and the stoichiometric proportion of the reaction mixture were performed, which influence the size, dispersity and synthesis rate of CCAgNPs...
June 2018: IET Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767678/identification-of-etiology-specific-diarrhea-associated-with-linear-growth-faltering-in-bangladeshi-infants
#10
Amanda E Schnee, Rashidul Haque, Mami Taniuchi, Jashim Uddin, Masud Alam, Jie Liu, Elizabeth T Rogawski, Beth Kirkpatrick, Eric R Houpt, William A Petri, James A Platts-Mills
Childhood diarrhea in low-resource settings has been variably linked to linear growth shortfalls. However, the association between etiology-specific diarrhea and growth has not been comprehensively evaluated. We tested diarrheal stools collected from the Performance of Rotavirus and Oral Polio Vaccines in Developing Countries study from 2011-2013 in Dhaka, Bangladesh by quantitative polymerase chain reaction for a broad range of enteropathogens to characterize diarrhea etiology and examine the association between etiology-specific diarrhea and linear growth and systemic inflammation...
May 15, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762756/prevalence-antimicrobial-resistance-profile-and-comparison-of-selective-plating-media-for-the-isolation-of-salmonella-spp-in-free-ranging-waterfowl-from-entre-rios-argentina
#11
F I Rodríguez, J M Osinalde, S C Gómez, D G Pulido, M I Caffer, F C Nicolau, D J Bueno
The present study was conducted to estimate the apparent prevalence of Salmonella spp. in free-ranging waterfowl that inhabitant Entre Ríos, Argentina, determine the antimicrobial resistance of the isolated, and compare the performance of two selective plating media used for Salmonella isolation. Five hundred ninety nine free-living waterfowl were sampled one time by cloacal swab from April 2014 to July 2016. Only 6 samples from waterfowl belonged to all counties sampled were positive to Salmonella spp., so the apparent prevalence was 1%...
May 14, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753223/bioconjugated-nano-bactericidal-complex-for-potent-activity-against-human-and-phytopathogens-with-concern-of-global-drug-resistant-crisis
#12
Baker Syed, M N Nagendra Prasad, K Mohan Kumar, S Satish
The present study emphasizes the need for novel antimicrobial agents to combat the global drug resistant crisis. The development of novel nanomaterials is reported to be of the alternative tool to combat drug resistant pathogens. In present investigation, bioconjugated nano-complex was developed from secondary metabolite secreted from endosymbiont. The endosymbiont capable of secreting antimicrobial metabolite was subjected to fermentation and the culture supernatant was assessed for purification of antimicrobial metabolite via bio-assay guided fraction techniques such as thin layer chromatography (TLC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and column chromatography...
May 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752866/a-requirement-for-septins-and-the-autophagy-receptor-p62-in-the-proliferation-of-intracellular-shigella
#13
Damián Lobato-Márquez, Sina Krokowski, Andrea Sirianni, Gerald Larrouy-Maumus, Serge Mostowy
Shigella flexneri, a Gram-negative enteroinvasive pathogen, causes inflammatory destruction of the human intestinal epithelium. During infection of epithelial cells, Shigella escape from the phagosome to the cytosol, where they reroute host cell glycolysis to obtain nutrients for proliferation. Septins, a poorly understood component of the cytoskeleton, can entrap cytosolic Shigella targeted to autophagy in cage-like structures to restrict bacterial proliferation. Although bacterial entrapment by septin caging has been the subject of intense investigation, the role of septins and the autophagy machinery in the proliferation of non-caged Shigella is mostly unknown...
May 12, 2018: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751923/rapid-identification-of-staphylococcus-aureus-vibrio-parahaemolyticus-and-shigella-sonnei-in-foods-by-solid-phase-microextraction-coupled-with-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#14
Yu Wang, Sijing Liu, Qikang Pu, Yongxin Li, Xixi Wang, Yang Jiang, Danni Yang, Yi Yang, Jinling Yang, Chengjun Sun
A novel approach for rapid identification of three foodborne pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Shigella sonnei in foods by solid phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was established. After cultivation 24, 18 and 20 h for Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Shigella sonnei, respectively, the microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) were extracted with a SPME device equipped with divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS) coated fibers...
October 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748997/the-recycling-endosome-and-bacterial-pathogens
#15
REVIEW
Samual C Allgood, M Ramona Neunuebel
Bacterial pathogens have developed a wide range of strategies to survive within human cells. A number of pathogens multiply in a vacuolar compartment, while others can rupture the vacuole and replicate in the host cytosol. A common theme among many bacterial pathogens is the use of specialized secretion systems to deliver effector proteins into the host cell. These effectors can manipulate the host's membrane trafficking pathways to remodel the vacuole into a replication-permissive niche and prevent degradation...
May 10, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748124/contribution-of-the-filmarray-%C3%A2-gastrointestinal-panel-in-the-laboratory-diagnosis-of-gastroenteritis-in-a-cohort-of-children-a-two-year-prospective-study
#16
Adriana Calderaro, Monica Martinelli, Mirko Buttrini, Sara Montecchini, Silvia Covan, Sabina Rossi, Francesca Ferraglia, Paolo Montagna, Federica Pinardi, Sandra Larini, Maria Cristina Arcangeletti, Maria Cristina Medici, Carlo Chezzi, Flora De Conto
This study represents a 2-year picture of the epidemiology of enteric pathogens in children suffering from gastroenteritis using the FilmArray® Gastrointestinal Panel (FA-GP), a multiplex molecular assay that allows to simultaneously detect a large panel of pathogens independently of the etiological suspicion and to evaluate its potential contribution to the diagnosis compared to the conventional methods. A total of 1716 stool samples, collected from children with clinical suspicion of bacterial and/or viral gastroenteritis attending the University Hospital of Parma, was submitted to the FA-GP and, when an adequate aliquot was available, to electron microscopy (n = 1163) for virus detection and to an enterovirus-targeting real-time PCR (n = 1703)...
May 2, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746835/complement-c3-drives-autophagy-dependent-restriction-of-cyto-invasive-bacteria
#17
Matthew T Sorbara, Elisabeth G Foerster, Jessica Tsalikis, Mena Abdel-Nour, Joseph Mangiapane, Imogen Sirluck-Schroeder, Ivan Tattoli, Rob van Dalen, David E Isenman, John R Rohde, Stephen E Girardin, Dana J Philpott
In physiological settings, the complement protein C3 is deposited on all bacteria, including invasive pathogens. However, because experimental host-bacteria systems typically use decomplemented serum to avoid the lytic action of complement, the impact of C3 coating on epithelial cell responses to invasive bacteria remains unexplored. Here, we demonstrate that following invasion, intracellular C3-positive Listeria monocytogenes is targeted by autophagy through a direct C3/ATG16L1 interaction, resulting in autophagy-dependent bacterial growth restriction...
May 9, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746643/interactions-between-metabolically-active-bacteria-and-host-gene-expression-at-the-cecal-mucosa-in-pigs-of-diverging-feed-efficiency
#18
Barbara U Metzler-Zebeli, Peadar G Lawlor, Elizabeth Magowan, Qendrim Zebeli
Little is known about the role of the gut mucosal microbiota and microbe-host signaling in the variation of pig's feed efficiency (FE). This study therefore aimed to investigate the FE-related differences in the metabolically active mucosal bacterial microbiota and expression of genes for innate immune response, barrier function, nutrient uptake, and incretins in the cecum of finishing pigs. Pigs (n = 72) were ranked for their residual feed intake (RFI; metric for FE) between days 42 and 91 postweaning and were stratified within litter and sex into high (HRFI; n = 8) and low RFI (LRFI; n = 8)...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744120/a-case-of-reactive-arthritis-secondary-to-sexually-acquired-shigella-flexneri
#19
Sarah L Kennedy, Jennifer Murira, Claire Y Wenham
We present the first documented case of reactive arthritis (ReA) secondary to sexually acquired Shigella flexneri infection. The case occurred in the context of a recent change in Shigella epidemiology in England where non-travel associated cases are now contributing the majority of diagnoses. Such non-travel associated cases are occurring predominantly in men who have sex with men with high sexual risk taking behaviour reflecting the importance of the sexual history when assessing a man with Shigella infection who has not travelled...
November 2017: Oxford Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743642/genomic-epidemiology-of-shigella-in-the-united-kingdom-shows-transmission-of-pathogen-sublineages-and-determinants-of-antimicrobial-resistance
#20
Kate S Baker, Timothy J Dallman, Nigel Field, Tristan Childs, Holly Mitchell, Martin Day, François-Xavier Weill, Sophie Lefèvre, Mathieu Tourdjman, Gwenda Hughes, Claire Jenkins, Nicholas Thomson
Shigella are globally important diarrhoeal pathogens that are endemic in low-to-middle income nations and also occur in high income nations, typically in travellers or community-based risk-groups. Shigella phylogenetics reveals population structures that are more reliable than those built with traditional typing methods, and has identified sublineages associated with specific geographical regions or patient groups. Genomic analyses reveal temporal increases in Shigella antimicrobial resistance (AMR) gene content, which is frequently encoded on mobile genetic elements...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
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