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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159689/antibacterial-and-antioxidant-metabolites-of-diaporthe-spp-isolated-from-flowers-of-melodorum-fruticosum
#1
Chutima Tanapichatsakul, Sakon Monggoot, Eleni Gentekaki, Patcharee Pripdeevech
Fifty-two strains of endophytic fungi were isolated from flowers of the medicinal plant Melodorum fruticosum. Seven genera were identified including Alternaria, Aspergillus, Colletotrichum, Diaporthe, Fusarium, Greeneria and Nigrospora. All strains were cultured for 30 days and further macerated in ethyl acetate solvent for 3 days. The obtained fungal extracts were examined for antibacterial activity using agar disc diffusion against nine pathogenic bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Vibrio cholerae and V...
November 20, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154198/evaluation-of-antioxidant-dna-targeting-antimicrobial-and-cytotoxic-studies-of-imine-capped-copper-and-nickel-nanoparticles
#2
P Adwin Jose, J Dhaveethu Raja, M Sankarganesh, J Rajesh
In this work, we have synthesized pyrimidine derivatives of Schiff base ligand 2-(4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-ylimino)methyl)-6-methoxyphenol (DPMM) stabilized copper nanoparticles (DPMM-CuNPs) and nickel nanoparticles (DPMM-NiNPs) by modified Brust-Schiffrin technique as two step phase transfer assisted method and confirmed by UV-Visible, SEM and TEM analysis. The free radical scavenging activity of DPMM, DPMM-CuNPs &DPMM-NiNPs with 2, 2'-diphenylpicryl hydrazyl (DPPH), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) super oxide dismutase (SOD) and nitric oxide (NO) shows that the antioxidant activity of DPMM-CuNPs is higher than DPMM &DPMM-NiNPs...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149625/the-effects-of-pre-and-post-slaughter-spray-application-with-organic-acids-on-microbial-population-reductions-on-beef-carcasses
#3
Hoa Van Ba, Hyun-Woo Seo, Seong Pil-Nam, Yoon-Seok Kim, Beom Young Park, Sung-Sil Moon, Se-Ju Kang, Yong-Min Choi, Jin-Hyoung Kim
As an attempt to control bacterial cross-contamination of beef carcasses, in the present investigation acetic acid and lactic acid (3% v/v) were used for bacterial decontamination. For the decontamination, cows were sprayed with each above acid at two different stages; (i) on live animal's hides, (ii) on carcass surfaces immediately after slaughter. Microbiological samples were taken on different hide areas of animals before spraying and on carcass surfaces at 24h after spraying. Meat quality traits were also analyzed on the sprayed animals...
November 6, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148915/the-frequency-of-mutations-in-quinolone-resistance-determining-regions-and-plasmid-mediated-quinolone-resistance-in-shigella-isolates-recovered-from-pediatric-patients-in-tehran-iran-an-overlooked-problem
#4
Sajad Yaghoubi, Reza Ranjbar, Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal, Mohammad Hasan Shirazi, Mohammad Kazem Sharifi-Yazdi
Fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance in clinical isolates of Shigella species has been increasing reported in recent years. This study was carried out to find the mutations within the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) and the prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) determinants among the clinical isolates of Shigella sp. in Tehran, Iran. A total of 50 Shigella isolates were collected from five teaching therapeutic centers in Tehran, Iran and analyzed for antibiotic susceptibility over a period of 20 months from July 2015 to January 2017...
November 17, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146903/wiskott-aldrich-syndrome-protein-regulates-autophagy-and-inflammasome-activity-in-innate-immune-cells
#5
Pamela P Lee, Damián Lobato-Márquez, Nayani Pramanik, Andrea Sirianni, Vanessa Daza-Cajigal, Elizabeth Rivers, Alessia Cavazza, Gerben Bouma, Dale Moulding, Kjell Hultenby, Lisa S Westerberg, Michael Hollinshead, Yu-Lung Lau, Siobhan O Burns, Serge Mostowy, Mona Bajaj-Elliott, Adrian J Thrasher
Dysregulation of autophagy and inflammasome activity contributes to the development of auto-inflammatory diseases. Emerging evidence highlights the importance of the actin cytoskeleton in modulating inflammatory responses. Here we show that deficiency of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp), which signals to the actin cytoskeleton, modulates autophagy and inflammasome function. In a model of sterile inflammation utilizing TLR4 ligation followed by ATP or nigericin treatment, inflammasome activation is enhanced in monocytes from WAS patients and in WAS-knockout mouse dendritic cells...
November 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144452/ubiquitination-and-degradation-of-gbps-by-a-shigella-effector-to-suppress-host-defence
#6
Peng Li, Wei Jiang, Qin Yu, Wang Liu, Ping Zhou, Jun Li, Junjie Xu, Bo Xu, Fengchao Wang, Feng Shao
Interferon-inducible guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs) mediate cell-autonomous antimicrobial defences. Shigella flexneri, a Gram-negative cytoplasmic free-living bacterium that causes bacillary dysentery, encodes a repertoire of highly similar type III secretion system effectors called invasion plasmid antigen Hs (IpaHs). IpaHs represent a large family of bacterial ubiquitin-ligases, but their function is poorly understood. Here we show that S. flexneri infection induces rapid proteasomal degradation of human guanylate binding protein-1 (hGBP1)...
November 16, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141986/arfgap1-restricts-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-entry-by-controlling-the-actin-cytoskeleton
#7
Ok-Ryul Song, Christophe J Queval, Raffaella Iantomasi, Vincent Delorme, Sabrina Marion, Romain Veyron-Churlet, Elisabeth Werkmeister, Michka Popoff, Isabelle Ricard, Samuel Jouny, Nathalie Deboosere, Frank Lafont, Alain Baulard, Edouard Yeramian, Laurent Marsollier, Eik Hoffmann, Priscille Brodin
The interaction of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) with pulmonary epithelial cells is critical for early stages of bacillus colonization and during the progression of tuberculosis. Entry of Mtb into epithelial cells has been shown to depend on F-actin polymerization, though the molecular mechanisms are still unclear. Here, we demonstrate that mycobacterial uptake into epithelial cells requires rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton, which are regulated by ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (Arf1) and phospholipase D1 (PLD1), and is dependent on the M3 muscarinic receptor (M3R)...
November 15, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141346/-etiologic-characteristics-of-shigella-sonnei-strains-isolated-from-some-areas-of-guangdong-province-and-guangxi-zhuang-autonomous-region-of-china-2014-2016
#8
B S Li, L J Chen, B X Ke, J M Lin, L Q Xu, H L Tan, D M He, Y H Liang, C W Ke, Y H Zhang
Objective: To investigated the etiologic characteristics of Shigella (S.) sonnei strains causing outbreaks and sporadic cases in some areas of Guangdong province and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region during 2014-2016. Methods: Fourteen S. sonnei strains isolated from outbreaks and 6 S. sonnei strains from sporadic cases from Guangdong and Liuzhou of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region were tested for antimicrobial resistance and analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Six typical strains were selected for whole genome sequencing typing and compared with 51 strains isolated both at home and abroad from NCBI genome database...
November 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138083/adaptations-in-the-physiological-heterogeneity-and-viability-of-shigella-dysenteriae-shigella-flexneri-and-salmonella-typhimurium-after-exposure-to-simulated-gastric-acid-fluid
#9
Atheesha Singh, Tobias George Barnard
Stomach acidity is an important barrier of the human body to protect itself from microbial pathogens entering the small intestine and causing infection. This study examined the survival adaptations of non-acid adapted diarrheal Shigella and Salmonella strains in an environment mimicking the human stomach. The bacterial responses to the challenge of acidic simulated gastric fluid were studied using flow cytometry physiological heterogeneity, membrane integrity and survival (culturability) respectively. Flow cytometry showed that bacterial cells, when exposed to gastric fluid, transformed distinctly, into physiologically heterogeneous sub-populations: intact, stressed and damaged cells, when stained with propidium iodide and thiazole orange...
November 11, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134812/deoxycholate-enhanced-shigella-virulence-is-regulated-by-a-rare-%C3%AF-helix-in-the-type-three-secretion-system-tip-protein-ipad
#10
Abram R Bernard, T Carson Jessop, Prashant Kumar, Nicholas E Dickenson
Type three secretion systems (T3SS) are specialized nano-machines that support infection by injecting bacterial proteins directly into host cells. The Shigella T3SS has uniquely evolved to sense environmental levels of the bile salt deoxycholate (DOC) and up-regulate virulence in response to DOC. In this study, we describe a rare i+5 hydrogen bonding secondary structure element (π-helix) within the type three secretion system tip protein IpaD that plays a critical role in DOC-enhanced virulence. Specifically, engineered mutations within the π-helix altered the pathogen's response to DOC with one mutant construct in particular exhibiting an unprecedented reduction in virulence following DOC exposure...
November 14, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134117/identification-of-nonserotypeable-shigella-spp-using-genome-sequencing-a-step-forward
#11
Muthuirulandi Sethuvel Dhiviya Prabaa, Devanga Ragupathi Naveen Kumar, Inbanathan Francis Yesurajan, Shalini Anandan, Walia Kamini, Veeraraghavan Balaji
Aim: Sequencing technology has replaced conventional methods in identifying and characterizing bacterial pathogens. We characterized 23 nonserotypeable Shigella that biochemically resembled Shigella spp. using whole genome sequencing. Materials & methods: Genome sequences were analyzed using online tools based on 16S rRNA, k-mer, gyrB sequences and analysis of O-antigen arrangement was done using PATRIC database for species identification. Sequence types, plasmid types, antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes were also investigated...
November 2017: Future Science OA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133155/a-prospective-study-of-travellers-diarrhoea-analysis-of-pathogen-findings-by-destination-in-various-sub-tropical-regions
#12
Tinja Lääveri, Katri Vilkman, Sari H Pakkanen, Juha Kirveskari, Anu Kantele
OBJECTIVES: Eighty million travellers visiting (sub)tropical regions contract travellers' diarrhoea (TD) each year, yet prospective data comparing the prevalence of TD pathogens in various geographical regions are scarce. Our recent study employing modern molecular methods found enteropathogenic (EPEC) and enteroaggregative (EAEC) Escherichia coli to be the most frequent pathogens, followed by enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) and Campylobacter. We revisited our data to compare the findings by geographical region...
November 10, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132613/identification-and-management-of-shigella-infection-in-children-with-diarrhoea-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
Kirkby D Tickell, Rebecca L Brander, Hannah E Atlas, Jeffrey M Pernica, Judd L Walson, Patricia B Pavlinac
BACKGROUND: Shigella infections are a leading cause of diarrhoeal death among children in low-income and middle-income countries. WHO guidelines reserve antibiotics for treating children with dysentery. Reliance on dysentery for identification and management of Shigella infection might miss an opportunity to reduce Shigella-associated morbidity and mortality. We aimed to systematically review and evaluate Shigella-associated and dysentery-associated mortality, the diagnostic value of dysentery for the identification of Shigella infection, and the efficacy of antibiotics for children with Shigella or dysentery, or both...
December 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132604/shigella-infection-in-children-and-adults-a-formidable-foe
#14
Karen L Kotloff
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122007/pancreatic-cyst-fluid-harbors-a-unique-microbiome
#15
Shan Li, Gwenny M Fuhler, Nahush Bn, Tony Jose, Marco J Bruno, Maikel P Peppelenbosch, Sergey R Konstantinov
BACKGROUND: It is clear that specific intestinal bacteria are involved in the development of different premalignant conditions along the gastrointestinal tract. An analysis of the microbial constituents in the context of pancreatic cystic lesions has, however, as yet not been performed. This consideration prompted us to explore whether endoscopically obtained pancreatic cyst fluids (PCF) contain bacterial DNA and to determine the genera of bacteria present in such material. METHODS: Total DNA was isolated from 69 PCF samples...
November 9, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121863/multiplex-real-time-pcr-assay-for-detection-of-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-and-screening-for-non-o157-shiga-toxin-producing-e-coli
#16
Baoguang Li, Huanli Liu, Weimin Wang
BACKGROUND: Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), including E. coli O157:H7, are responsible for numerous foodborne outbreaks annually worldwide. E. coli O157:H7, as well as pathogenic non-O157:H7 STECs, can cause life-threating complications, such as bloody diarrhea (hemolytic colitis) and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). Previously, we developed a real-time PCR assay to detect E. coli O157:H7 in foods by targeting a unique putative fimbriae protein Z3276. To extend the detection spectrum of the assay, we report a multiplex real-time PCR assay to specifically detect E...
November 9, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121443/can-e-coli-fly-the-role-of-flies-as-transmitters-of-escherichia-coli-to-food-in-an-urban-slum-in-bangladesh
#17
Yrja Lisa Lindeberg, Karen Egedal, Zenat Zebin Hossain, Matthew Phelps, Suhella Tulsiani, Israt Farhana, Anowara Begum, Peter Kjaer Mackie Jensen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the transmission of fecal bacteria by flies to food under natural settings. METHODS: Over a period of two months paired (exposed and non-exposed) containers with cooked rice were placed on the ground in kitchen areas in an urban slum area in Dhaka, Bangladesh, and the numbers of flies landing on the exposed rice were counted. Following exposure, the surface of the rice was microbiologically and molecularly analysed for the presence of E...
November 9, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121442/enteric-infections-in-young-children-are-associated-with-environmental-enteropathy-and-impaired-growth
#18
Christine Marie George, Vanessa Burrowes, Jamie Perin, Lauren Oldja, Shwapon Biswas, David Sack, Shahnawaz Ahmed, Rashidul Haque, Nurul Amin Bhuiyan, Tahmina Parvin, Sazzadul Islam Bhuyian, Mahmuda Akter, Shan Li, Gayathri Natarajan, Mohammad Shahnaij, Abu G Faruque, O Colin Stine
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between fecal contamination in child play spaces, enteric infections, environmental enteropathy (EE), and impaired growth among young children. METHODS: Prospective cohort study of 203 children 6-30 months of age in rural Bangladesh. Stool samples were analyzed by quantitative PCR for Shigella, Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), Campylobacter jejuni, Giardia spp, and Cryptosporidium spp. Four fecal markers of intestinal inflammation were also measured: alpha-1-antitrypsin, myeloperoxidase, neopterin, and calprotectin...
November 9, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118939/escherichia-coli-pathotypes-and-shigella-sero-groups-in-diarrheic-children-in-nairobi-city-kenya
#19
Peter Lokamar Nyanga, Jackson Onyuka, Mark Kilongosi Webale, Tom Were, Valentine Budambula
Aim: In the present study, we investigated the prevalence of E. coli pathotypes and Shigella sero-groups and their antimicrobial profiles among diarrheic children in Nairobi city, Kenya. Background: Although diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes and Shigella sero-groups are leading causes of diarrhea in children under five years in developing countries, their distribution and antimicrobial resistance vary from place to place and over time in a given region. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, we enrolled diarrheic children (n=354) under five years seeking treatment at Mbagathi Hospital, Nairobi city, Kenya,...
2017: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118177/detection-of-shigella-in-direct-stool-specimens-using-a-metagenomic-approach
#20
Jie Liu, Mathieu Almeida, Furqan Kabir, Sadia Shakoor, Shahida Qureshi, Anita Zaidi, Shan Li, Boubou Tamboura, Samba O Sow, Inacio Mandomando, Pedro L Alonso, Thandavarayan Ramamurthy, Dipika Sur, Karen Kotloff, James Nataro, Myron M Levine, O Colin Stine, Eric Houpt
The underestimation of Shigella species as a cause of childhood diarrhea disease has become increasingly apparent with quantitative (q)PCR based diagnostic methods versus culture. We sought to confirm qPCR-based detection of Shigella via a metagenomics approach. Three groups of samples were selected from diarrheal cases from the Global Enteric Multicenter Study: 9 Shigella culture positive and qPCR positive (culture+/qPCR+), 9 culture negative but qPCR positive (culture-/qPCR+), 9 culture negative and qPCR negative (culture-/qPCR-)...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
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