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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092699/infection-of-human-intestinal-epithelial-cells-by-invasive-bacteria-activates-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-increases-icam-1-expression-through-nod1
#1
Woon Geon Shin, Bum Joon Park, Sung Joong Lee, Jae Gyu Kim
Background/Aims: Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 1 (NOD1) is required for primary intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) to respond to natural mucopeptides secreted by gram-negative bacteria. Infection of human IECs with invasive bacteria up-regulates intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression. However, the role of NOD family members in host defense has been largely unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a functional role for NOD1 in the up-regulation of ICAM-1 expression in invasive bacteria-infected IECs...
January 16, 2017: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091598/characterization-of-two-polyvalent-phages-infecting-enterobacteriaceae
#2
Sana Hamdi, Geneviève M Rousseau, Simon J Labrie, Denise M Tremblay, Rim Saïed Kourda, Karim Ben Slama, Sylvain Moineau
Bacteriophages display remarkable genetic diversity and host specificity. In this study, we explore phages infecting bacterial strains of the Enterobacteriaceae family because of their ability to infect related but distinct hosts. We isolated and characterized two novel virulent phages, SH6 and SH7, using a strain of Shigella flexneri as host bacterium. Morphological and genomic analyses revealed that phage SH6 belongs to the T1virus genus of the Siphoviridae family. Conversely, phage SH7 was classified in the T4virus genus of the Myoviridae family...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072950/-epidemiology-and-etiology-of-bacillary-dysentery-in-xinjiang-uigur-autonomous-region-2004-2014
#3
J Zhang, Mahemuti Mahemuti, Y D Xia, Mutalifu Mutalifu, Muheyati Muheyati, F Li, B S Gu, X L Li
Objective: To understand the epidemiological and etiological characteristics of bacillary dysentery in Xinjiang Uigur Autonomous Region (Xinjiang) during 2004-2014, and provide evidence for the prevention and control of bacillary dysentery. Methods: Descriptive epidemiological analysis was conducted by using the incidence data of bacillary dysentery in Xinjiang during 2004-2014 and the serotyping and the antibiotic susceptibility test of the pathogens isolated were performed. Results: A total of 123 238 cases of bacillary dysentery were reported in Xinjiang from 2004 to 2014...
November 10, 2016: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070317/prevention-of-microbial-hazard-on-fresh-cut-lettuce-through%C3%A2-adoption-of-food-safety-and-hygienic-practices-by%C3%A2-lettuce-farmers
#4
Lateefah A Oyinlola, Adewale O Obadina, Adebukunola M Omemu, Olusola B Oyewole
Lettuce is consumed raw in salads and is susceptible to microbial contamination through environment, agricultural practices, and its morphology, thus, a potential vehicle for food-borne illness. This study investigated the effect of adoption of food safety and hygienic practices by lettuce farmers on the microbial safety of field sourced lettuce in Lagos State, Nigeria. Ten structured questionnaires were administered randomly to 10 lettuce farmers to assess food safety and hygienic practices (FSH). Two farmers who practice FSH and two farmers who do not practice NFSH were finally used for this study...
January 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060810/whole-genome-sequence-analysis-of-salmonella-typhi-isolated-in-thailand-before-and-after-the-introduction-of-a-national-immunization-program
#5
Zoe A Dyson, Duy Pham Thanh, Ladaporn Bodhidatta, Carl Jeffries Mason, Apichai Srijan, Maia A Rabaa, Phat Voong Vinh, Tuyen Ha Thanh, Guy E Thwaites, Stephen Baker, Kathryn E Holt
Vaccines against Salmonella Typhi, the causative agent of typhoid fever, are commonly used by travellers, however, there are few examples of national immunization programs in endemic areas. There is therefore a paucity of data on the impact of typhoid immunization programs on localised populations of S. Typhi. Here we have used whole genome sequencing (WGS) to characterise 44 historical bacterial isolates collected before and after a national typhoid immunization program that was implemented in Thailand in 1977 in response to a large outbreak; the program was highly effective in reducing typhoid case numbers...
January 6, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057113/-monitoring-and-research-on-pathogen-spectrum-in-patients-with-acute-diarrhea-from-sentinel-hospital-of-zhejiang-province-during-2009-to-2014
#6
S F Zheng, F Yu, X Chen, D W Cui, X Z Yang, G L Xie, Y Y Wang, J X Yu, Z J Li, Y Chen
Objective: To explore pathogen spectrum constitution of acute diarrhea in outpatient and emergency of Zhejiang Province, and provide basis for treatment, prevention and control of the disease. Methods: During January 2009 to December 2014, we selected seven sentinel hospitals in different regions of Zhejiang, monitored and researched on pathogen spectrum in patients with acute diarrhea from outpatient and emergency. We recorded patients' personal basic information, the main symptoms and signs, and collected stool samples (5 g)...
December 6, 2016: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056944/iridoids-from-canthium-subcordatum-iso-butanol-fraction-with-potent-biological-activities
#7
Christelle Joubouhi, Jean-de-Dieu Tamokou, David Ngnokam, Laurence Voutquenne-Nazabadioko, Jules-Roger Kuiate
BACKGROUND: The continuous emergence of multi-drug-resistant bacteria drastically reduces the efficacy of antibiotic armory and, consequently, increases the frequency of therapeutic failure. The discovery of new antibacterial drugs is an urgent need. The present study reports the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the methanol extract, fractions and iridoids from Canthium subcordatum, a plant traditionally used as antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial. METHODS: Broth microdilution assay was used to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of extracts and iridoids against Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholerae and Shigella flexneri...
January 5, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054368/acid-suppression-medications-and-bacterial-gastroenteritis-a-population-based-cohort-study
#8
Li Wei, Lasantha Ratnayake, Gabby Phillips, Chris C McGuigan, Steve V Morant, Robert W Flynn, Isla S Mackenzie, Thomas M MacDonald
AIMS: To investigate whether acid suppression medicines (ASMs) increase the risk of bacterial gastroenteritis. METHODS: A population-based, propensity-score matched cohort study using a record-linkage database in Tayside, Scotland. The study consisted of 188,323 exposed to ASMs [proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and H2 receptor antagonists (H2RA)] and 376,646 controls (a propensity-score matched cohort from the rest of population who were not exposed to ASMs) between 1999 and 2013...
January 5, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053842/rapid-molecular-approach-for-simultaneous-detection-of-salmonella-spp-shigella-spp-and-vibrio-cholera
#9
Reza Ranjbar, Ali Naghoni, Davoud Afshar, Farhad Nikkhahi, Mohsen Mohammadi
OBJECTIVES: Gastrointestinal tract infection is still one of the serious public health problems in many geographic areas and is endemic in most countries including Iran. Early detection of the gastrointestinal tract pathogens can be extremely important. The aim of the current study was to apply a shortened time-multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for rapid and simultaneous detection of Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., and Vibrio cholera. METHODS: The standard and clinical strains of Salmonella spp...
December 2016: Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051856/enhanced-cellular-internalization-a-bactericidal-mechanism-more-relative-to-biogenic-nanoparticles-than-chemical-counterparts
#10
Madhuree Kumari, Shatrunajay Shukla, Shipra Pandey, Ved P Giri, Anil Bhatia, Tusha Tripathi, Poonam Kakkar, Chandra Shekhar Nautiyal, Aradhana Mishra
Biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles for enhanced antimicrobial activity has gained a lot of momentum making it an urgent need to search for a suitable bio-candidate which could be utilized for efficient capping and shaping of silver nanoparticles with enhanced bactericidal activity utilising its secondary metabolites. Current work illustrates the enhancement of antimicrobial efficacy of silver nanoparticles by reducing and modifying their surface with antimicrobial metabolites of cell free extract of Trichoderma viride (MTCC 5661) in comparison to citrate stabilized silver nanoparticles...
January 4, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028611/comparative-analysis-of-the-gut-microbiota-of-black-bears-in-china-using-high-throughput-sequencing
#11
Can Song, Bochu Wang, Jun Tan, Liancai Zhu, Deshuai Lou, Xiaoxi Cen
The Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus) is a protected species from eastern Asia. In China, the Asiatic black bear occurs in 17 provinces from northeast to southwest regions. To date, information on microbial diversity in the gut of the Asiatic black bears from different populations remains limited. To determine the species composition and community structure of the gut microbiota in the Asiatic black bear, we characterized 36 fecal samples from Sichuan, Yunnan, and Heilongjiang provinces, China, by pyrosequencing the 16S V3-V4 hypervariable regions using the Illumina Miseq platform...
December 27, 2016: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028547/recent-outbreaks-of-shigellosis-in-california-caused-by-two-distinct-populations-of-shigella-sonnei-with-either-increased-virulence-or-fluoroquinolone-resistance
#12
Varvara K Kozyreva, Guillaume Jospin, Alexander L Greninger, James P Watt, Jonathan A Eisen, Vishnu Chaturvedi
Shigella sonnei has caused unusually large outbreaks of shigellosis in California in 2014 and 2015. Preliminary data indicated the involvement of two distinct bacterial populations, one from San Diego and San Joaquin (SDi/SJo) and one from the San Francisco (SFr) Bay area. Whole-genome analysis and antibiotic susceptibility testing of 68 outbreak and archival isolates of S. sonnei were performed to investigate the microbiological factors related to these outbreaks. Both SDi/SJo and SFr populations, as well as almost all of the archival S...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024611/facile-microwave-assisted-synthesis-of-te-doped-hydroxyapatite-nanorods-and-nanosheets-and-their-characterizations-for-bone-cement-applications
#13
I S Yahia, Mohd Shkir, S AlFaify, V Ganesh, H Y Zahran, Mona Kilany
In this work, the authors have fabricated the nanorods and nanosheets of pure and Te-doped HAp with different Te concentrations (0.04, 0.08, 0.16, 0.24wt%) by microwave-assisted technique at low temperature. The crystallite size, degree of crystallinity and lattice parameters are calculated. FE-SEM study confirms that the fabricated nanostructures are nanorods of diameter about 10nm in undoped and at low concentration of Te doping. However, at and higher concentration, it becomes nanosheets of about 5nm thickness...
March 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010770/a-single-and-two-step-isomerization-process-for-d-tagatose-and-l-ribose-bioproduction-using-l-arabinose-isomerase-and-d-lyxose-isomerase
#14
Manisha J Patel, Rekha C Akhani, Arti T Patel, Samir R Dedania, Darshan H Patel
l-ribose and d-tagatose are biochemically synthesized using sugar isomerases. The l-arabinose isomerase gene from Shigella flexneri (Sf-AI) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL-21. Sf-AI was applied for the bioproduction of d-tagatose from d-galactose. l-ribose synthesis was performed by two step isomerization using Sf-AI and d-lyxose/ribose isomerase from Cohnella laevoribosii. The overall 22.3% and 25% conversion rate were observed for d-tagatose and l-ribose production from d-galactose and l-arabinose respectively...
February 2017: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008711/a-proteomics-assay-to-detect-eight-cbrn-relevant-toxins-in-food
#15
Benoit Gilquin, Michel Jaquinod, Mathilde Louwagie, Sylvie Kieffer-Jaquinod, Alexandra Kraut, Myriam Ferro, François Becher, Virginie Brun
A proteomics assay was set up to analyze food substrates for eight toxins of the CBRN (chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear) threat, namely ricin, Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin (ETX), Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins (SEA, SEB and SED), shigatoxins from Shigella dysenteriae and entero-hemorragic Escherichia coli strains (STX1 and STX2) and Campylobacter jejuni cytolethal distending toxin (CDT). The assay developed was based on an antibody-free sample preparation followed by bottom-up LC-MS/MS analysis operated in targeted mode...
November 7, 2016: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004519/antimicrobial-assay-and-genetic-screening-of-selected-freshwater-cyanobacteria-and-identification-of-a-biomolecule-dihydro-2h-pyran-2-one-derivative
#16
A Srivastava, V K Singh, S Patnaik, J Tripathi, P Singh, G Nath, R K Asthana
AIMS: Explorations of freshwater cyanobacteria as antimicrobial (bacteria, fungi and MRSA strains) drug resource using bioassay, NRPS (non-ribosomal polypeptide synthetase) and PKS (polyketide synthase) genes, as well as in silico approach. METHODS AND RESULTS: We have bioassayed the extracts of Phormidium CCC727, Geitlerinema CCC728, Arthrospira CCC729, Leptolyngbya CCC732, Phormidium CCC730, Phormidium CCC731 against six pathogenic bacteria Gram (+ve): Staphylococcus aureus including seven clinical methicillin-resistant S...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994634/serum-microrna-profiling-and-bioinformatics-of-patients-with-spleen-deficiency-syndrome
#17
Ze-Min Yang, Long-Hui Chen, Min Hong, Ying-Yu Chen, Xiao-Rong Yang, Si-Meng Tang, Qian-Fa Yuan, Zhen-Yu He, Wei-Wen Chen
To investigate serum microRNA (miRNA) profile and bioinformatics of patients with spleen-deficiency syndrome (SDS) and explore pathogenesis of SDS patients from miRNA levels, 10 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), within which 5 patients were with SDS and the remaining were with blood stasis syndrome (BSS), and 5 healthy volunteers were recruited. Serum miRNA profiles of SDS patients were identified by quantitative PCR array. Target prediction and functional annotation for miRNAs were performed by miRSystem database...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994213/host-cell-nuclear-localization-of-shigella-flexneri-effector-ospf-is-facilitated-by-sumoylation
#18
Kyungmin Jo, Eun Jin Kim, Hyun Jin Yu, Cheol-Heui Yun, Dong Wook Kim
When Shigella infect host cells, various effecter molecules are delivered into cytoplasm of the host cell through the type III secretion system (TTSS) to facilitate their invasion process and control the host immune responses. Among these effectors, the S. flexneri effector OspF dephosphorylates mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and translocates itself to the nucleus, thus preventing histone H3 modification to regulate expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Despite the critical role of OspF, the mechanism by which OspF localizes in the nucleus has remained to be elucidated...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990010/a-case-of-endoscopic-retrieval-of-a-long-bamboo-stick-from-a-humboldt-penguin-spheniscus-humboldti
#19
Woo-Sung Jung, Minho Ko, Hyun Kee Cho, Byung-Jae Kang, Jung Hoon Choi, Jin-Young Chung
An eighteen-month-old female Humboldt penguin (Spheniscus humboldti) that was 50 cm in length and 4.5 kg in weight was presented with anorexia and vomiting. The hematological and blood biochemical profiles revealed no remarkable findings, and no Salmonella, Shigella or Vibrio spp. were isolated from the fecal culture. However, radiographic imaging revealed a long linear foreign body presenting from the lower esophagus to the stomach. To retrieve this foreign body, flexible endoscopic extraction was performed using flexible rat tooth grasping forceps...
December 17, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989610/microbiological-quality-of-honey-from-the-pampas-region-argentina-throughout-the-extraction-process
#20
Leticia A Fernández, Carolina Ghilardi, Betiana Hoffmann, Carlos Busso, Liliana M Gallez
The microbiological quality of honey obtained from different processing points and the environmental quality within honey houses were assessed in the Pampas Region (Argentina). Mold and yeast (MY), culturable heterotrophic mesophilic bacteria (CHMB), the number of spore-forming bacteria as well as the presence of Shigella spp., Salmonella spp. and fecal coliforms were evaluated in 163 samples. These samples were taken from eight honey houses. Results showed that 89 samples had ≤10CFU of MY/g honey, 69 ranged from 10 to 50CFU/g and two reached 65...
December 16, 2016: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
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