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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818557/dna-aptamer-identification-and-characterization-for-e-coli-o157-detection-using-cell-based-selex-method
#1
Masoum Amraee, Mana Oloomi, Afsaneh Yavari, Saeid Bouzari
Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7 is a foodborne pathogen that causes symptoms in humans. Its rapid identification should be considered to avoid toxic effects of the pathogen. In this study, systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment using whole cells (Cell-SELEX) method was used for recognizing E. coli strain, O157 by single-stranded DNA library of aptamer. Nine rounds of cell-selex procedure were applied using O157, as a whole-cell target, with O42, K12, Top10, DH5α E. coli cells, Shigella flexneri and Salmonella typhi as counterparts...
August 14, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816527/use-of-whey-as-a-culture-medium-for-bacillus-clausii-for-the-production-of-protein-hydrolysates-with-antimicrobial-and-antioxidant-activity
#2
Jesús J Rochín-Medina, Hilda K Ramírez-Medina, Jesús G Rangel-Peraza, Karen V Pineda-Hidalgo, Pablo Iribe-Arellano
The use of whey as a natural culture medium to produce hydrolysates with antimicrobial from Bacillus clausii is the objective of this research. The fermentation process was carried out at 25 ℃ for five days, where proteolytic activity, soluble peptides quantification, and antimicrobial activity using the disc diffusion method were determined every day. The fermented whey reached values ​​of proteolytic activity between 90 and 260 U ml(-1) and a production of soluble peptides between 100 and 2070 µg ml(-1)...
January 1, 2017: Food Science and Technology International, Ciencia y Tecnología de Los Alimentos Internacional
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808162/listeria-monocytogenes-and-shigella-flexneri-activate-the-nlrp1b-inflammasome
#3
Jana Neiman-Zenevich, Sarah Stuart, Mena Abdel-Nour, Stephen E Girardin, Jeremy Mogridge
Activation of the innate immune receptor NLRP1B leads to the formation of an inflammasome, which induces autoproteolytic processing of pro-caspase-1, and ultimately to the release of inflammatory cytokines and to the execution of pyroptosis. One of the signals to which NLRP1B responds is metabolic stress that occurs in cells deprived of glucose or treated with metabolic inhibitors. NLRP1B might, therefore, sense microbial infection as intracellular pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes and Shigella flexneri cause metabolic stress as a result of nutrient scavenging and host cell damage...
August 14, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807622/community-associated-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-emergency-department-patients-in-western-australia
#4
Deirdre A Collins, Linda A Selvey, Antonio Celenza, Thomas V Riley
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is primarily associated with hospitalised patients, however, community-associated CDI (CA-CDI) has increased in Australia. We aimed to investigate the epidemiology and outcomes of CA-CDI cases presenting to hospital emergency departments in Western Australia (WA). A retrospective case-control study of CA-CDI cases presenting at six emergency departments in WA from July 2013 to June 2014 was performed. Clinical signs, recent medication, hospitalisations and potential risk factors for CA-CDI were investigated for cases (n = 34) and unmatched controls (n = 62) who were infected with another gastrointestinal pathogen, including Campylobacter spp...
August 11, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806780/the-arac-negative-regulator-family-modulates-the-activity-of-histone-like-proteins-in-pathogenic-bacteria
#5
Araceli E Santiago, Michael B Yan, Tracy H Hazen, Brooke Sauder, Mario Meza-Segura, David A Rasko, Melissa M Kendall, Fernando Ruiz-Perez, James P Nataro
The AraC Negative Regulators (ANR) comprise a large family of virulence regulators distributed among diverse clinically important Gram-negative pathogens, including Vibrio spp., Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Yersinia spp., Citrobacter spp., and pathogenic E. coli strains. We have previously reported broad effects of the ANR members on regulators of the AraC/XylS family. Here, we interrogate possible broader effects of the ANR members on the bacterial transcriptome. Our studies focused on Aar (AggR-activated regulator), an ANR family archetype in enteroaggregative E...
August 14, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802838/identification-of-immune-correlates-of-protection-in-shigella-infection-by-application-of-machine-learning
#6
Jorge M Arevalillo, Marcelo B Sztein, Karen L Kotloff, Myron M Levine, Jakub K Simon
BACKGROUND: Immunologic correlates of protection are important in vaccine development because they give insight into mechanisms of protection, assist in the identification of promising vaccine candidates, and serve as endpoints in bridging clinical vaccine studies. Our goal is the development of a methodology to identify immunologic correlates of protection using the Shigella challenge as a model. METHODS: The proposed methodology utilizes the Random Forests (RF) machine learning algorithm as well as Classification and Regression Trees (CART) to detect immune markers that predict protection, identify interactions between variables, and define optimal cutoffs...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797729/vaccination-with-shigella-flexneri-2a-conjugate-induces-type-2a-and-cross-reactive-type-6-antibodies-in-humans-but-not-in-mice
#7
Nahid Farzam, Reut Ramon-Saraf, Yonit Banet-Levi, Liat Lerner-Geva, Shai Ashkenazi, Joanna Kubler-Kielb, Evgeny Vinogradov, John B Robbins, Rachel Schneerson
Shigella flexneri (S. flexneri) 6 has emerged as an important cause of shigellosis. Our efficacy study of Shigella sonnei and S. flexneri 2a O-specific polysaccharide (O-SP) conjugates in 1-4year-olds had too few S. flexneri 2a cases for efficacy evaluation but surprisingly showed protection of 3-4year-olds, S. flexneri 2a-recipients, from S. flexneri 6 infection. To investigate this cross-protection antibodies to both Shigella types were investigated in all sera remaining from previous studies. Twenty to 30% of 3-44year-old humans injected with S...
August 7, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783414/guanine-nucleotide-exchange-factor-h1-promotes-inflammatory-cytokine-production-and-intracellular-mycobacterial-elimination-in-macrophages
#8
Hui Wang, Jinli Wang, Jiahui Yang, Xiaofan Yang, Jianchun He, Ruining Wang, Sudong Liu, Lin Zhou, Li Ma
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), which causes tuberculosis, is a host-adapted intracellular pathogen that can live within macrophages owning to its ability to arrest phagolysosome biogenesis. The guanine nucleotide exchange factor H1 (GEF-H1) may contribute to the phagocytosis of bacteria by macrophages through mediating the crosstalk between microtubules and the actin cytoskeleton. Its role in Shigella infection has been determined but little is known about the role of GEF-H1 in mycobacterial infection. In the present study, we demonstrated that GEF-H1 functioned as a key regulator of the macrophage-mediated anti-mycobacterial response...
August 7, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781945/profiling-of-virulence-associated-factors-in-shigella-species-isolated-from-acute-pediatric-diarrheal-samples-in-tehran-iran
#9
Sajad Yaghoubi, Reza Ranjbar, Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal, Somayeh Yasliani Fard, Mohammad Hasan Shirazi, Mahmood Mahmoudi
OBJECTIVES: The genus Shigella comprises the most infectious and diarrheagenic bacteria causing severe diseases, mostly in children under five years of age. This study aimed to detect nine virulence genes (ipaBCD, VirA, sen, set1A, set1B, ial, ipaH, stx, and sat) in Shigella species (spp.) using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (MPCR) and to determine the relation of Shigella spp. from pediatric diarrheal samples with hospitalization and bloody diarrhea in Tehran, Iran. METHODS: Shigella spp...
June 2017: Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772238/eco-friendly-fabrication-of-ag-nanostructures-using-the-seed-extract-of-pedalium-murex-an-ancient-indian-medicinal-plant-histopathological-effects-on-the-zika-virus-vector-aedes-aegypti-and-inhibition-of-biofilm-forming-pathogenic-bacteria
#10
Ramachandran Ishwarya, Baskaralingam Vaseeharan, Ramasamy Anuradha, Ravichandran Rekha, Marimuthu Govindarajan, Naiyf S Alharbi, Shine Kadaikunnan, Jamal M Khaled, Giovanni Benelli
The control of Zika virus mosquito vectors and well as the development of drugs in the fight against biofilm-forming microbial pathogens, are timely and important challenges in current bionanoscience. Here we focused on the eco-friendly fabrication of Ag nanostructures using the seed extract of Pedalium murex, an ancient Indian medicinal plant. Initial confirmation of Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) production was showed by a color change from transparent to dark brown. The UV-Visible spectrum (476nm), X-ray diffraction peaks (101, 200, 220 and 311) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy shed light on the production of green-capped AgNPs...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770177/bipc-a-predicted-burkholderia-pseudomallei-type-3-secretion-system-translocator-protein-with-actin-binding-activity
#11
Charles W Vander Broek, Nurhamimah Zainal Abidin, Joanne M Stevens
Burkholderia pseudomallei is an intracellular bacterial pathogen and the causative agent of melioidosis, a severe disease of humans and animals. Like other clinically important Gram-negative bacteria, fundamental to B. pseudomallei pathogenesis is the Bsa Type III Secretion System. The Bsa system injects bacterial effector proteins into the cytoplasm of target host cells subverting cellular pathways for the benefit of the bacteria. It is required for invasion of non-phagocytic host cells, escape from the endocytic compartment into the host cell cytoplasm, and for virulence in murine models of melioidosis...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767653/in-silico-analysis-to-identify-vaccine-candidates-common-to-multiple-serotypes-of-shigella-and-evaluation-of-their-immunogenicity
#12
Sapna Pahil, Neelam Taneja, Hifzur Rahman Ansari, G P S Raghava
Shigellosis or bacillary dysentery is an important cause of diarrhea, with the majority of the cases occurring in developing countries. Considering the high disease burden, increasing antibiotic resistance, serotype-specific immunity and the post-infectious sequelae associated with shigellosis, there is a pressing need of an effective vaccine against multiple serotypes of the pathogen. In the present study, we used bio-informatics approach to identify antigens shared among multiple serotypes of Shigella spp...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765005/summary-of-workshop-global-burden-of-diarrheal-diseases-among-children-in-developing-countries-incidence-etiology-and-insights-from-new-molecular-diagnostic-techniques
#13
Karen L Kotloff, James A Platts-Mills, Dilruba Nasrin, Anna Roose, William C Blackwelder, Myron M Levine
The Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) demonstrated that Shigella and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) producing heat stable toxin (ST) (either alone or in combination with heat labile toxin) are among the most important pathogens associated with moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD) in children younger than 5years of age living in developing countries. To inform the design of vaccines and other interventions, we reviewed published data and new results from GEMS characterizing the burden of Shigella and ST-ETEC infections...
July 29, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757024/16s-rrna-genes-illumina-sequencing-revealed-differential-cecal-microbiome-in-specific-pathogen-free-chickens-infected-with-different-subgroup-of-avian-leukosis-viruses
#14
Xinxin Ma, Qi Wang, Hongmei Li, Chuantian Xu, Ning Cui, Xiaomin Zhao
Intestinal flora play important roles in the pathogenisis of many pathogens. This study examined the cecal microbiome of chickens infected with avian leukosis virus (ALV) using 16S rRNA genes Illumina sequencing. One-day-old specific pathogen free chicks were inoculated in the abdomen with subgroup J or K of ALV. At 21-day-old, chickens positive for ALV viremia were selected and their cecal contents were extracted and examined for the composition of gut microflora by illumina sequencing of the V3+V4 region of the 16S rRNA genes...
August 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755871/cyclohexene-fused-1-3-oxazines-with-selective-antibacterial-and-antiparasitic-action-and-low-cytotoxic-effects
#15
Maria R M de Brito, Walter J Peláez, Martín S Faillace, Gardenia C G Militão, Jackson R G S Almeida, Gustavo A Argüello, Zsolt Szakonyi, Ferenc Fülöp, Maria C Salvadori, Fernanda S Teixeira, Rivelilson M Freitas, Pedro L S Pinto, Ana C Mengarda, Marcos P N Silva, Ademar A Da Silva Filho, Josué de Moraes
Oxazine derivatives, a class of heterocyclic compounds, exhibit a variety of biological properties, such as anticonvulsant and antitumor activities. In this study, we evaluated the effect of two cyclohexene-fused 1,3-oxazines (cis‑1-benzyl-N-phenyl-1,4,4a,5,8,8a-hexahydro-3,1-benzoxazin-2-imine (1) and trans‑N-phenyl-1,4,4a,5,8,8a-hexahydro-3,1-benzoxazin-2-imine (2)) in cultures of Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella enterica, Serratia marcescens, Shigella flexneri and Staphylococcus aureus by the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC)...
July 26, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750143/characterization-of-small-molecule-scaffolds-that-bind-to-the-shigella-type-iii-secretion-system-protein-ipad
#16
Supratim Dey, Asokan Anbanandam, Ben E Mumford, Roberto N De Guzman
Many pathogens such as Shigella and other bacteria assemble the type III secretion system (T3SS) nanoinjector to inject virulence proteins into their target cells to cause infectious diseases in humans. The rise of drug resistance among pathogens that rely on the T3SS for infectivity, plus the dearth of new antibiotics require alternative strategies in developing new antibiotics. The Shigella T3SS tip protein IpaD is an attractive target for developing anti-infectives because of its essential role in virulence and its exposure on the bacterial surface...
July 27, 2017: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748516/colorimetric-sensing-of-toxic-metal-and-antibacterial-studies-by-using-bioextract-synthesized-silver-nanoparticles
#17
A Kalam, A G Al-Sehemi, S Alrumman, G Du, M Pannipara, Mohammed Assiri, Hussain Almalki, Mahmoud F Moustafa
Here, we report the simple and cost effective colorimetric technique for the determination of toxic metals (Hg(2+)) in aqueous sample by using bioextract silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The indigenous AgNPs were synthesised by green and ecologically friendly style using extract of fig (Ficus carica) leaf. The synthesized AgNPs were confirmed by UV-vis spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy methods. The synthesis of AgNPs was observed by its colour changing from light yellow to dark brownish...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Fluorescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748023/antagonistic-and-quantitative-assessment-of-indigenous-lactic-acid-bacteria-in-different-varieties-of-ogi-against-gastrointestinal-pathogens
#18
Ayorinde Oluwatobiloba Afolayan, Funmilola Abidemi Ayeni, Werner Ruppitsch
INTRODUCTION: Ogi is a popular fermented cereal gruel consumed mainly in the western part of Nigeria. Traditionally, uncooked Ogi is normally administered to diarrhoea patients to reduce the frequency of stooling. This study was therefore undertaken to identify, quantify and determine the antimicrobial properties of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from Ogi. METHODS: The Ogi samples (Yellow, white, sorghum) were obtained from different market in Ibadan, Nigeria and Ogi control (cooked, uncooked and Omidun) were prepared with the viable counts of bacteria monitored over 5 days period...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746227/diagnostic-yield-of-stool-culture-and-predictive-factors-for-positive-culture-in-patients-with-diarrheal-illness
#19
Jae Young Lee, Sun Young Cho, Hannah Sun Hae Hwang, Ja Young Ryu, Jongjin Lee, In Do Song, Beom Jin Kim, Jeong Wook Kim, Sae Kyung Chang, Chang Hwan Choi
We aimed to investigate the diagnostic yield of stool cultures and identify predictive factors for positive cultures in patients with diarrheal illness.A total of 13,327 patients who underwent stool cultures due to diarrheal illness were reviewed. Stool cultures were performed for enteric pathogens, including Salmonella, Shigella, Vibrio, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Yersinia. The culture-positive group was compared with the culture-negative group who were randomly selected from culture negative patients.A total of 196 patients (1...
July 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744259/development-of-human-breast-milk-microbiota-associated-mice-as-a-method-to-identify-breast-milk-bacteria-capable-of-colonizing-gut
#20
Xiaoxin Wang, Huifang Lu, Zhou Feng, Jie Cao, Chao Fang, Xianming Xu, Liping Zhao, Jian Shen
Human breast milk is recognized as one of multiple important sources of commensal bacteria for infant gut. Previous studies searched for the bacterial strains shared between breast milk and infant feces by isolating bacteria and performing strain-level bacterial genotyping, but only limited number of milk bacteria were identified to colonize infant gut, including bacteria from Bifidobacterium, Staphylococcus, Lactobacillus, and Escherichia/Shigella. Here, to identify the breast milk bacteria capable of colonizing gut without the interference of bacteria of origins other than the milk or the necessity to analyze infant feces, normal chow-fed germ-free mice were orally inoculated with the breast milk collected from a mother 2 days after vaginal delivery...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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