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Shigella

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331460/inhibition-of-shigella-sonnei-induced-epithelial-barrier-disruption-by-surface-layer-associated-proteins-of-lactobacilli-from-chinese-fermented-food
#1
Yingchun Zhang, Xiaolu Shi, Siqi Hao, Qianhui Lu, Lanwei Zhang, Xue Han, Weihong Lu
Surface-layer associated proteins (SLAP) of Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei M5-L and Lactobacillus casei Q8-L were examined to identify the functional basis for their protection within intestinal epithelial cells. The results showed that SLAP of M5-L and Q8-L remained active in a trypsin solution and retained a 45-kDa protein band, similar to that observed in controls. In contrast, under conditions of simulated gastric juice, the SLAP were partially degraded. Inhibitory effects of SLAP on adherence of Shigella sonnei to HT-29 cells were assessed with use of exclusion, competition, and replacement assays...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320234/influence-of-soap-characteristics-and-food-service-facility-type-on-the-degree-of-bacterial-contamination-of-open-refillable-bulk-soaps
#2
Donald W Schaffner, Dane Jensen, Charles P Gerba, David Shumaker, James W Arbogast
Concern has been raised regarding the public health risks from refillable bulk-soap dispensers because they provide an environment for potentially pathogenic bacteria to grow. This study surveyed the microbial quality of open refillable bulk soap in four different food establishment types in three states. Two hundred ninety-six samples of bulk soap were collected from food service establishments in Arizona, New Jersey, and Ohio. Samples were tested for total heterotrophic viable bacteria, Pseudomonas, coliforms and Escherichia coli, and Salmonella...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320233/antibacterial-activities-of-hibiscus-sabdariffa-extracts-and-chemical-sanitizers-directly-on-green-leaves-contaminated-with-foodborne-pathogens
#3
Carlos A Gómez-Aldapa, Esmeralda Rangel-Vargas, Ma Refugio Torres-Vitela, Angélica Villarruel-López, Otilio A Acevedo-Sandoval, Alberto J Gordillo-Martínez, Angélica Godínez-Oviedo, Javier Castro-Rosas
Leafy greens have been associated with foodborne disease outbreaks in different countries. To decrease microbial contamination of leafy greens, chemical agents are commonly used; however, a number of studies have shown these agents to have limited antimicrobial effect against pathogenic bacteria on vegetables. The objective of this study was to compare the antibacterial effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx extracts (water, methanol, acetone, and ethyl acetate), sodium hypochlorite, acetic acid, and colloidal silver against foodborne bacteria on leafy greens...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319752/effectiveness-of-aqueous-and-hydroalcoholic-extracts-of-acanthospermum-australe-loefl-kuntze-against-diarrhea-inducing-bacteria
#4
R Mallmann, E M Ethur, P Bianchetti, D Faleiro, L Hoehne, M I Goettert
Leaves and roots of Acanthospermum australe (Asteraceae) have been used in Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of various ailments including diarrhea, skin diseases, blennorrhagia, dyspepsia, parasitic worms and malaria. The aim of study was to characterize the chemical profiles of the aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of leaves and roots of A. australe, and to evaluate their antimicrobial activities against diarrhea-inducing bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis, Shigella dysenteriae and Yersinia enterocolitica), as well as their cytotoxic properties...
January 8, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318984/a-brief-history-of-shigella
#5
Keith A Lampel, Samuel B Formal, Anthony T Maurelli
The history of Shigella, the causative agent of bacillary dysentery, is a long and fascinating one. This brief historical account starts with descriptions of the disease and its impact on human health from ancient time to the present. Our story of the bacterium starts just before the identification of the dysentery bacillus by Kiyoshi Shiga in 1898 and follows the scientific discoveries and principal scientists who contributed to the elucidation of Shigella pathogenesis in the first 100 years. Over the past century, Shigella has proved to be an outstanding model of an invasive bacterial pathogen and has served as a paradigm for the study of other bacterial pathogens...
January 2018: EcoSal Plus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313353/simulated-digestion-and-fermentation-in-vitro-by-human-gut-microbiota-of-polysaccharides-from-bee-collected-pollen-of-chinese-wolfberry
#6
Wangting Zhou, Yamei Yan, Jia Mi, Hongcheng Zhang, Lu Lu, Qing Luo, Xiaoying Li, Xiaoxiong Zeng, Youlong Cao
Digestion and fermentation in vitro of polysaccharides from bee collected pollen of Chinese wolfberry (WBPPS) were investigated in the present study. It was found that WBPPS was mainly consisted of mannose, ribose, rhamnose, galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose, xylose and arabinose in a molar ratio of 0.38: 0.09: 0.17: 0.64: 0.22: 0.67: 0.08: 1.03, respectively. WBPPS was not affected by human saliva. The fraction A (molecular weight 1340 kDa) of WBPPS was not broken down in simulated gastric and small intestinal juices, while the small fraction B (molecular weight 523 kDa) of WBPPS was degraded...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313242/cost-of-illness-for-five-major-foodborne-illnesses-and-sequelae-in-sweden
#7
Kristian Sundström
OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this study was to derive cost estimates of five major foodborne illnesses (campylobacteriosis, salmonellosis, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), yersiniosis and shigellosis) in Sweden. These estimates provide a necessary contribution to perform future cost-benefit analyses aimed at reducing the burden of foodborne disease. A secondary aim was to obtain estimates of the true number of cases that occur in the community, thus providing necessary ground for calculating costs...
January 8, 2018: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311457/-intestinal-microbiota-in-migrating-barn-swallows-around-osaka
#8
Takehiko Kenzaka, Kenji Kataoka, Takashi Fujimitsu, Katsuji Tani
 Migratory birds are considered as vectors of infectious diseases, owing to their potential for transmitting pathogens over large distances. The populations of barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) migrate from Southeast Asia to the Japanese mainland during spring and migrate back to Southeast Asia during autumn. This migratory population is estimated to comprise approximately hundreds to thousands of individuals per year. However, to date, not much is known about the gastrointestinal microbiota of the barn swallow...
2018: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309918/structure-elucidation-of-the-o-specific-polysaccharide-by-nmr-spectroscopy-and-selective-cleavage-and-genetic-characterization-of%C3%A2-the-o-antigen-of-escherichia-albertii-o5
#9
Olesya I Naumenko, Han Zheng, Jianping Wang, Sof'ya N Senchenkova, Hong Wang, Alexander S Shashkov, Alexander O Chizhov, Qun Li, Yuriy A Knirel, Yanwen Xiong
The O-specific polysaccharide (O-antigen) was obtained by mild acid degradation of the lipopolysaccharide of Escherichia albertii O5 (strain T150248) and studied by sugar analysis, selective cleavages of glycosidic linkages, and 1D and 2D 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Partial solvolysis with anh (anhydrous) CF3CO2H and hydrolysis with 0.05 M CF3CO2H cleaved predominantly the glycosidic linkage of β-GalpNAc or β-Galf, respectively, whereas the linkages of α-GlcpNAc and β-Galp were stable. Mixtures of the corresponding tri- and tetra-saccharides thus obtained were studied by NMR spectroscopy and high-resolution ESI MS...
January 3, 2018: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308661/analysis-and-evaluation-of-the-antimicrobial-and-anticancer-activities-of-the-essential-oil-isolated-from-foeniculum-vulgare-from-hamedan-iran
#10
Maryam Akhbari, Reza Kord, Saeedeh Jafari Nodooshan, Sepideh Hamedi
In this study, biological properties of the essential oil isolated from seeds of Foeniculum vulgare (F. vulgare) were evaluated. GC-MS analysis revealed Trans-Anethole (80.63%), L-Fenchone (11.57%), Estragole (3.67%) and Limonene (2.68%) were the major compounds of the essential oil. Antibacterial activity of the essential oil against nine Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains was studied using disc diffusion and micro-well dilution assays. Essential oil exhibited the antibacterial activity against three Gram-negative strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Shigella dysenteriae...
January 7, 2018: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307861/differences-in-tetracycline-resistance-determinants-carriage-among-shigella-flexneri-and-shigella-sonnei-are-not-related-to-different-plasmid-inc-type-carriage
#11
María J Pons, Alba Torrents de la Peña, Laura Mensa, Pilar Martón, Lidia Ruiz-Roldán, Sandra Martínez-Puchol, Jordi Vila, Joaquim Gascón, Joaquim Ruiz
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to establish the different prevalence of the most common molecular mechanisms involved in tetracycline resistance as well as their relationship with plasmid incompatibility groups in a collection of Shigella spp. causing traveler's diarrhea. METHODS: Tetracycline susceptibility was established in 187 Shigella spp. (74S. flexneri and 113S. sonnei). Of these, 153 isolates were recovered as a confirmed cause of traveler's diarrhea...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304144/a-clinically-parameterized-mathematical-model-of-shigella-immunity-to-inform-vaccine-design
#12
Courtney L Davis, Rezwanul Wahid, Franklin R Toapanta, Jakub K Simon, Marcelo B Sztein
We refine and clinically parameterize a mathematical model of the humoral immune response against Shigella, a diarrheal bacteria that infects 80-165 million people and kills an estimated 600,000 people worldwide each year. Using Latin hypercube sampling and Monte Carlo simulations for parameter estimation, we fit our model to human immune data from two Shigella EcSf2a-2 vaccine trials and a rechallenge study in which antibody and B-cell responses against Shigella's lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and O-membrane proteins (OMP) were recorded...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301876/high-quality-complete-and-draft-genome-sequences-for-three-escherichia-spp-and-three-shigella-spp-generated-with-pacific-biosciences-and-illumina-sequencing-and-optical-mapping
#13
Max R Schroeder, Phalasy Juieng, Dhwani Batra, Kristen Knipe, Lori A Rowe, Mili Sheth, Peyton Smith, Lisley Garcia-Toledo, Vladimir N Loparev, Rebecca L Lindsey
Escherichia spp., including E. albertii and E. coli, Shigella dysenteriae, and S. flexneri are causative agents of foodborne disease. We report here reference-level whole-genome sequences of E. albertii (2014C-4356), E. coli (2011C-4315 and 2012C-4431), S. dysenteriae (BU53M1), and S. flexneri (94-3007 and 71-2783).
January 4, 2018: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296272/a-study-of-prevalence-of-shigella-species-and-antimicrobial-resistance-patterns-in-paediatric-medical-center-ahvaz-iran
#14
Roya Nikfar, Ahmad Shamsizadeh, Marjan Darbor, Soheila Khaghani, Mina Moghaddam
Background and Objectives: Shigella infections are one of the major causes of diarrhea worldwide, and especially in developing countries. Antimicrobial resistance has complicated the empirical treatment. The aim of this study was to define the clinical and antibiotic resistance patterns of Shigella gastroenteritis cases. Materials and Methods: Stool samples of patients with diarrhea and fever diagnosed with shigellosis were collected, from June 2013 to May 2014 at Abuzar Hospital, Iran...
October 2017: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290231/antimicrobial-treatment-of-diarrhea-acute-gastroenteritis-in-children
#15
R Cohen, J Raymond, D Gendrel
Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) are usually caused by viruses, especially Rotavirus and Norovirus. Among the bacterial causes, very few warrant antibiotic treatment, mainly Shigella, Vibrio cholerae, Campylobacter (only for severe cases, particularly in the initial phase) and severe cases of Salmonella infection. The antimicrobial treatments proposed in this guide follow the latest guidelines of the European Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases and the European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition...
December 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285573/bacterial-lpx-motif-harboring-virulence-factors-constitute-a-species-spanning-family-of-cell-penetrating-effectors
#16
Stefanie Norkowski, Britta Körner, Lilo Greune, Anne-Sophie Stolle, Marie-Luise Lubos, Philip R Hardwidge, M Alexander Schmidt, Christian Rüter
Effector proteins are key virulence factors of pathogenic bacteria that target and subvert the functions of essential host defense mechanisms. Typically, these proteins are delivered into infected host cells via the type III secretion system (T3SS). Recently, however, several effector proteins have been found to enter host cells in a T3SS-independent manner thereby widening the potential range of these virulence factors. Prototypes of such bacteria-derived cell-penetrating effectors (CPEs) are the Yersinia enterocolitica-derived YopM as well as the Salmonella typhimurium effector SspH1...
December 28, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282610/trends-of-foodborne-diseases-in-china-lessons-from-laboratory-based-surveillance-since-2011
#17
REVIEW
Jikai Liu, Li Bai, Weiwei Li, Haihong Han, Ping Fu, Xiaochen Ma, Zhenwang Bi, Xiaorong Yang, Xiuli Zhang, Shiqi Zhen, Xiaoling Deng, Xiumei Liu, Yunchang Guo
Foodborne disease is one of the most important public health issues worldwide. China faces various and unprecedented challenges in all aspects of the food chain. Data from laboratory-based foodborne disease surveillance systems from 2013 to 2016, as well as different regions and ages, can be found along with differences in the patterns of pathogens detected with diverse characteristics. Vibrio parahaemolyticus has been the leading cause of infectious diarrhea in China, especially among adults in coastal regions...
December 27, 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280312/dysbiosis-signatures-of-gut-microbiota-along-the-sequence-from-healthy-young-patients-to-those-with-overweight-and-obesity
#18
Renyuan Gao, Cuiling Zhu, Hao Li, Mingming Yin, Cheng Pan, Linsheng Huang, Cheng Kong, Xingchun Wang, Yi Zhang, Shen Qu, Huanlong Qin
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the gut microbiota in healthy volunteers (HVs), patients with overweight (OW), and patients with obesity (OB), including those with acanthosis nigricans (AN) or without AN (N-AN). METHODS: Microbial 16S rRNA genes were examined by using pyrosequencing technology and analyzed by using bioinformatics methods. RESULTS: Subjects in the OW and OB groups showed severe disturbances in glycemic control, lipid profile, and inflammatory markers (all P < 0...
December 27, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276660/profiling-of-red-pigment-produced-by-streptomyces-sp-jar6-and-its-bioactivity
#19
Jayanthi Abraham, Ritika Chauhan
Actinomycetes strain was isolated from leaf litter soil sample and was identified as Streptomyces sp. by conventional and molecular approaches. The biologically active compound responsible for antimicrobial and anticancer activity of the strain JAR6 was elucidated by solid state fermentation followed by subsequent chromatographic and spectroscopic analysis. Extraction, purification and structural confirmation of red pigment metabolite viz undecylprodigiosin were established on the basis of spectroscopic studies and comparing the data from the literature...
January 2018: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262293/verification-and-large-scale-clinical-evaluation-of-a-national-standard-protocol-for-salmonella-spp-shigella-spp-screening-using-real-time-pcr-combined-with-guided-culture
#20
Xi-Jun Tang, Ze Yang, Xin-Bin Chen, Wen-Fang Tian, Cheng-Ning Tu, Hai-Bo Wang
Salmonella spp./Shigella spp. are often associated with food poisoning and fecal-oral transmission of acute gastroenteritis that requires strict monitoring, especially among people who would handle food and water. In 2014, the National Health and Family Planning Commission of the P. R. China issued a national standard protocol (recommendatory) for the screening of Salmonella spp./Shigella spp.. However, its performance has not been fully studied. Whether it was suitable for use in our laboratory was still unknown...
December 17, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
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