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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635589/regulation-of-escherichia-coli-pathogenesis-by-alternative-sigma-factor-n
#1
James T Riordan, Avishek Mitra
σ(N) (also σ(54)) is an alternative sigma factor subunit of the RNA polymerase complex that regulates the expression of genes from many different ontological groups. It is broadly conserved in the Eubacteria with major roles in nitrogen metabolism, membrane biogenesis, and motility. σ(N) is encoded as the first gene of a five-gene operon including rpoN (σ(N)), ptsN, hpf, rapZ, and npr that has been genetically retained among species of Escherichia, Shigella, and Salmonella. In an increasing number of bacteria, σ(N) has been implicated in the control of genes essential to pathogenic behavior, including those involved in adherence, secretion, immune subversion, biofilm formation, toxin production, and resistance to both antimicrobials and biological stressors...
June 2017: EcoSal Plus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630433/gut-microbiota-of-liver-transplantation-recipients
#2
Li-Ying Sun, Yun-Sheng Yang, Wei Qu, Zhi-Jun Zhu, Lin Wei, Zhi-Sheng Ye, Jian-Rui Zhang, Xiao-Ye Sun, Zhi-Gui Zeng
The characteristics of intestinal microbial communities may be affected by changes in the pathophysiology of patients with end-stage liver disease. Here, we focused on the characteristics of intestinal fecal microbial communities in post-liver transplantation (LT) patients in comparison with those in the same individuals pre-LT and in healthy individuals. The fecal microbial communities were analyzed via MiSeq-PE250 sequencing of the V4 region of 16S ribosomal RNA and were then compared between groups. We found that the gut microbiota of patients with severe liver disease who were awaiting LT was significantly different from that of healthy controls, as represented by the first principal component (p = 0...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630074/the-enterohaemorrhagic-escherichia-coli-effector-espw-triggers-actin-remodeling-in-a-rac1-dependent-manner
#3
Pamela Sandu, Valerie F Crepin, Hauke Drechsler, Andrew D McAinsh, Gad Frankel, Cedric N Berger
Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is a diarrheagenic pathogen that colonizes the gut mucosa and induces attaching-and-effacing lesions. EHEC employs a type III secretion system (T3SS) to translocate 50 effector proteins that hijack and manipulate host cell signalling pathways, which allow bacterial colonization, subversion of immune responses and disease progression. The aim of this study was to characterize the T3SS effector EspW. We found espW in the sequenced O157:H7 and non-O157 EHEC strains as well as in Shigella boydii Furthermore, a truncated version of EspW, containing the first 206 residues is present in EPEC strains belonging to serotype O55:H7...
June 19, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629407/antibacterial-activity-of-crude-extracts-of-some-south-african-medicinal-plants-against-multidrug-resistant-etiological-agents-of-diarrhoea
#4
Mary A Bisi-Johnson, Chikwelu L Obi, Babatunde B Samuel, Jacobus N Eloff, Anthony I Okoh
BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the antibacterial activity of some plants used in folklore medicine to treat diarrhoea in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. METHODS: The acetone extracts of Acacia mearnsii De Wild., Aloe arborescens Mill., A. striata Haw., Cyathula uncinulata (Schrad.) Schinz, Eucomis autumnalis (Mill.) Chitt., E. comosa (Houtt.) Wehrh., Hermbstaedtia odorata (Burch. ex Moq.) T.Cooke, Hydnora africana Thunb, Hypoxis latifolia Wight, Pelargonium sidoides DC, Psidium guajava L and Schizocarphus nervosus (Burch...
June 19, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627855/multiplex-pcr-gastro-intestinal-panels-for-the-management-of-traveller-s-diarrhea-are-they-accurate-and-useful
#5
Laurence Rochat, Antony Croxatto, Serge De Vallière, Valérie D'Acremont, Blaise Genton
Until recently, the search for enteropathogens causing travellers' diarrhea was based on stool culture (Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp.), direct microscopy with (Cryptosporidium spp.) or without specific staining (Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica) or specific antigen detection (Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica). Molecular analyses are progressively replacing traditional diagnostic methods but their clinical usefulness remains to be better defined. This article attempts to describe the advantages and disadvantages of these new molecular methods and to illustrate situations where they could be useful using clinical cases frequently encountered in the practice of travel medicine...
May 3, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627567/dissecting-binding-of-a-%C3%AE-barrel-membrane-protein-by-phage-display
#6
Luz M Meneghini, Sarvind Tripathi, Marcus A Woodworth, Sudipta Majumdar, Thomas L Poulos, Gregory A Weiss
Membrane proteins (MPs) constitute a third of all proteomes, and contribute to a myriad of cellular functions including intercellular communication, nutrient transport and energy generation. For example, TonB-dependent transporters (TBDTs) in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria play an essential role transporting iron and other nutrients into the bacterial cell. The inherently hydrophobic surfaces of MPs complicates protein expression, purification, and characterization. Thus, dissecting the functional contributions of individual amino acids or structural features through mutagenesis can be a challenging ordeal...
June 19, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625530/the-emerging-roles-of-sting-in-bacterial-infections
#7
REVIEW
Fabio V Marinho, Sulayman Benmerzoug, Sergio C Oliveira, Bernhard Ryffel, V F J Quesniaux
The STING (Stimulator of Interferon Genes) protein connects microorganism cytosolic sensing with effector functions of the host cell by sensing directly cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs), originating from pathogens or from the host upon DNA recognition. Although STING activation favors effective immune responses against viral infections, its role during bacterial diseases is controversial, ranging from protective to detrimental effects for the host. In this review, we summarize important features of the STING activation pathway and recent highlights about the role of STING in bacterial infections by Chlamydia, Listeria, Francisella, Brucella, Shigella, Salmonella, Streptococcus, and Neisseria genera, with a special focus on mycobacteria...
June 15, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618272/shigella-sonnei-encodes-a-functional-t6ss-used-for-interbacterial-competition-and-niche-occupancy
#8
Mark C Anderson, Pascale Vonaesch, Azadeh Saffarian, Benoit S Marteyn, Philippe J Sansonetti
Shigella is a leading cause of dysentery worldwide, with the majority of infections caused by two subgroups, S. flexneri and S. sonnei. Although S. flexneri has been highly prevalent in low-income countries, global development has brought an increase in S. sonnei at the expense of S. flexneri. However, the mechanisms behind this shift are not understood. Here we report that S. sonnei, but not S. flexneri, encodes a type VI secretion system (T6SS) that provides a competitive advantage in the gut. S. sonnei competes against E...
June 14, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617325/development-of-biopolymer-composite-films-using-a-microfluidization-technique-for-carboxymethylcellulose-and-apple-skin-particles
#9
Inyoung Choi, Yoonjee Chang, So-Hyang Shin, Eunmi Joo, Hyun Ju Song, Haeyoung Eom, Jaejoon Han
Biopolymer films based on apple skin powder (ASP) and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) were developed with the addition of apple skin extract (ASE) and tartaric acid (TA). ASP/CMC composite films were prepared by mixing CMC with ASP solution using a microfluidization technique to reduce particle size. Then, various concentrations of ASE and TA were incorporated into the film solution as an antioxidant and an antimicrobial agent, respectively. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), optical, mechanical, water barrier, and solubility properties of the developed films were then evaluated to determine the effects of ASE and TA on physicochemical properties...
June 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617307/erratum-michael-a-picker-et-al-h-ns-its-family-members-and-their-regulation-of-virulence-genes-in-shigella-species-genes-2016-7-112
#10
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611956/comparative-genomic-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-a-shiga-toxin-producing-shigella-sonnei-stss-strain
#11
Domonkos Sváb, Balázs Bálint, Bálint Vásárhelyi, Gergely Maróti, István Tóth
Shigella strains are important agents of bacillary dysentery, and in recent years Shigella sonnei has emerged as the leading cause of shigellosis in industrialized and rapidly developing countries. More recently, several S. sonnei and Shigella flexneri strains producing Shiga toxin (Stx) have been reported from sporadic cases and from an outbreak in America. In the present study we aimed to shed light on the evolution of a recently identified Shiga toxin producing S. sonnei (STSS) isolated in Europe. Here we report the first completely assembled whole genome sequence of a multidrug resistant (MDR) Stx-producing S...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606485/a-10-year-surveillance-of-antimicrobial-susceptibility-patterns-in-shigella-sonnei-isolates-circulating-in-jiangsu-province-china
#12
Bing Gu, Ting Xu, Haiquan Kang, Yanling Xu, Genyan Liu, Shiyang Pan, Huimin Qian, Ping Ma
OBJECTIVES: The rapid emergence of drug-resistant Shigella sonnei is a serious public health problem. This study aimed to characterise the antimicrobial resistance patterns, molecular subtypes, and integron types and resistance gene cassettes in S. sonnei from Jiangsu Province, China. METHODS: In total, 340 S. sonnei were collected in 2002-2011 throughout Jiangsu Province. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), PCR amplification of integrons, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and DNA sequencing of cassette regions were performed...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603782/socioeconomic-determinants-of-cipro-floxacin-resistant-shigella-infections-in-bangladeshi-children
#13
Randon J Gruninger, Russell A Johnson, Sumon K Das, Eric J Nelson, Emily S Spivak, John R Contreras, A S G Faruque, Daniel T Leung
BACKGROUND: Shigella species (spp.) are a leading cause of moderate to severe diarrhea in children worldwide. The recent emergence of quinolone-resistant Shigella spp. gives cause for concern, and South Asia has been identified as a reservoir for global spread. The influence of socioeconomic status on antimicrobial resistance in developing countries, such as those in South Asia, remains unknown. METHODS: We used data collected from 2009 to 2014 from a hospital specializing in the treatment of diarrhea in Dhaka, Bangladesh, to determine the relationship between Ciprofloxacin-resistant Shigella spp...
2017: Pathogens & Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602988/characterization-of-hypericum-perforatum-polysaccharides-with-antioxidant-and-antimicrobial-activities-optimization-based-statistical-modeling
#14
Marzieh Heydarian, Hossein Jooyandeh, Behzad Nasehi, Mohammad Noshad
In this study, the extracting parameters of crude polysaccharides (CPSs) from the Hypericum perforatum (HP) including extraction time (ETi, 60-180min), extraction temperature (ETe, 60-90°C), and the water/solid ratio (W/S, 10-30 was optimized by using three-variable-three-level Box-Behnken design-response surface methodology (BBD-RSM) based on the single-factor experiments. The optimal extraction conditions were as follow: ETi 117.5min, ETe 74.28°C, and W/S 20.3:1. Under these conditions, the experimental yield was 6...
June 8, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602163/investigation-of-a-food-borne-outbreak-of-gastroenteritis-in-a-school-canteen-revealed-a-variant-of-sapovirus-genogroup-v-not-detected-by-standard-pcr-sollentuna-sweden-2016
#15
Maria-Pia Hergens, Joanna Nederby Öhd, Erik Alm, Helena H Askling, Sofia Helgesson, Mona Insulander, Nina Lagerqvist, Bo Svenungsson, Malin Tihane, Thomas Tolfvenstam, Per Follin
A food-borne outbreak of gastroenteritis with more than 650 suspected cases occurred in April 2016 in Sollentuna, Sweden. It originated in a school kitchen serving a total of 2,700 meals daily. Initial microbiological testing (for Campylobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Entamoeba histolytica, adeno-, astro-, noro-, rota- and sapovirus) of stool samples from 15 symptomatic cases was negative, despite a clinical presentation suggestive of calicivirus. Analyses of the findings from both the Sollentuna municipality environmental team and a web-based questionnaire suggested that the source of the outbreak was the salad buffet served on 20 April, although no specific food item could be identified...
June 1, 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599915/multiplex-polymerase-chain-reaction-for-identification-of-escherichia-coli-escherichia-albertii-and-escherichia-fergusonii
#16
Rebecca L Lindsey, L Garcia-Toledo, D Fasulo, L M Gladney, N Strockbine
Escherichia coli, Escherichia albertii, and Escherichia fergusonii are closely related bacteria that can cause illness in humans, such as bacteremia, urinary tract infections and diarrhea. Current identification strategies for these three species vary in complexity and typically rely on the use of multiple phenotypic and genetic tests. To facilitate their rapid identification, we developed a multiplex PCR assay targeting conserved, species-specific genes. We used the Daydreamer™ (Pattern Genomics, USA) software platform to concurrently analyze whole genome sequence assemblies (WGS) from 150 Enterobacteriaceae genomes (107 E...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598765/shigella-depends-on-sepa-to-destabilize-the-intestinal-epithelial-integrity-via-cofilin-activation
#17
Ana Maldonado-Contreras, James R Birtley, Erik Boll, Yun Zhao, Karen L Mumy, Juan Toscano, Seyoum Ayehunie, Hans-Christian Reinecker, Lawrence J Stern, Beth A McCormick
Shigella is unique among enteric pathogens, as it invades colonic epithelia through the basolateral pole. Therefore, it has evolved the ability to breach the intestinal epithelial barrier to deploy an arsenal of effector proteins, which permits bacterial invasion and leads to a severe inflammatory response. However, the mechanisms used by Shigella to regulate epithelial barrier permeability remain unknown. To address this question, we used both an intestinal polarized model and a human ex-vivo model to further characterize the early events of host-bacteria interactions...
June 9, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598348/mortality-from-selected-diseases-that-can-be-transmitted-by-water-united-states-2003-2009
#18
J W Gargano, E A Adam, S A Collier, K E Fullerton, S J Feinman, M J Beach
Diseases spread by water are caused by fecal-oral, contact, inhalation, or other routes, resulting in illnesses affecting multiple body systems. We selected 13 pathogens or syndromes implicated in waterborne disease outbreaks or other well-documented waterborne transmission (acute otitis externa, Campylobacter, Cryptosporidium, Escherichia coli (E. coli), free-living ameba, Giardia, Hepatitis A virus, Legionella (Legionnaires' disease), nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), Pseudomonas-related pneumonia or septicemia, Salmonella, Shigella, and Vibrio)...
June 2017: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597684/protection-against-shigellosis-caused-by-shigella-dysenteriae-serotype-4-in-guinea-pigs-using-escherichia-albertii-dm104-as-a-live-vaccine-candidate-strain
#19
Fatema Moni Chowdhury, Mohammed Ziaur Rahman, Md Murshed Hasan Sarkar, Fazle Rabbi, Sirajul Islam Khan, Chowdhury Rafiqul Ahsan, Nils-Kåre Birkeland
Recently, we reported the induction of protective immunity by environmental Escherichia albertii strain DM104 against Shigella dysenteriae in guinea pig model. In this study, we assessed three different immunization routes, such as intranasal, oral, and intrarectal routes, and revealed differences in immune responses by measuring both the serum IgG and mucosal IgA antibody titers. Protective efficacy of different routes of immunization was also determined by challenging immunized guinea pigs against live S...
June 9, 2017: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597303/current-pathogenic-escherichia-coli-foodborne-outbreak-cases-and-therapy-development
#20
REVIEW
Shih-Chun Yang, Chih-Hung Lin, Ibrahim A Aljuffali, Jia-You Fang
Food contamination by pathogenic microorganisms has been a serious public health problem and a cause of huge economic losses worldwide. Foodborne pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) contamination, such as that with E. coli O157 and O104, is very common, even in developed countries. Bacterial contamination may occur during any of the steps in the farm-to-table continuum from environmental, animal, or human sources and cause foodborne illness. To understand the causes of the foodborne outbreaks by E. coli and food-contamination prevention measures, we collected and investigated the past 10 years' worldwide reports of foodborne E...
June 9, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
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