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Selective autophagy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447987/live-cell-imaging-and-3d-analysis-of-angiotensin-receptor-type-1a-trafficking-in-transfected-human-embryonic-kidney-cells-using-confocal-microscopy
#1
Parnika Kadam, Ryan McAllister, Jeffrey S Urbach, Kathryn Sandberg, Susette C Mueller
Live-cell imaging is used to simultaneously capture time-lapse images of angiotensin type 1a receptors (AT1aR) and intracellular compartments in transfected human embryonic kidney-293 (HEK) cells following stimulation with angiotensin II (Ang II). HEK cells are transiently transfected with plasmid DNA containing AT1aR tagged with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). Lysosomes are identified with a red fluorescent dye. Live-cell images are captured on a laser scanning confocal microscope after Ang II stimulation and analyzed by software in three dimensions (3D, voxels) over time...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445093/dynamics-of-cytokine-like-activity-in-the-hyperplasic-ovary-of-ex-fissiparous-planarians
#2
Abdel Halim Harrath, Abdelhabib Semlali, Lamjed Mansour, Waleed Aldahmash, Suliman Y Al Omar, Mohamed S Al Anazi, Jens R Nyengaard, Saleh Alwasel
The origin of infertility in the hyperplasic ovary of ex-fissiparous planarians remains poorly understood. In a previous study we demonstrated that a complex process of early autophagy, followed by apoptotic processes, occurs in the hyperplasic ovary of the freshwater planarian Dugesia arabica. The present study aimed to investigate whether the mRNA expression levels of selected mRNA-like genes are altered in the hyperplasic ovary of the ex-fissiparous freshwater planarian D. arabica compared to the normal ovary...
February 2017: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441569/the-cytoskeleton-autophagy-connection
#3
REVIEW
David J Kast, Roberto Dominguez
Actin cytoskeleton dynamics play vital roles in most forms of intracellular trafficking by promoting the biogenesis and transport of vesicular cargoes. Mounting evidence indicates that actin dynamics and membrane-cytoskeleton scaffolds also have essential roles in macroautophagy, the process by which cellular waste is isolated inside specialized vesicles called autophagosomes for recycling and degradation. Branched actin polymerization is necessary for the biogenesis of autophagosomes from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane...
April 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441355/-188-re-liposome-can-induce-mitochondrial-autophagy-and-reverse-drug-resistance-for-ovarian-cancer-from-bench-evidence-to-preliminary-clinical-proof-of-concept
#4
Chia-Ming Chang, Keng-Li Lan, Wen-Sheng Huang, Yi-Jang Lee, Te-Wei Lee, Chih-Hsien Chang, Chi-Mu Chuang
Despite standard treatment, about 70% of ovarian cancer will recur. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been implicated in the drug-resistance mechanism. Several drug resistance mechanisms have been proposed, and among these, autophagy plays a crucial role for the maintenance and tumorigenicity of CSCs. Compared to their differentiated counterparts, CSCs have been demonstrated to display a significantly higher level of autophagy flux. Moreover, mitophagy, a specific type of autophagy that selectively degrades excessive or damaged mitochondria, is shown to contribute to cancer progression and recurrence in several types of tumors...
April 25, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438353/the-role-of-vitamin-d-in-the-immune-system-as-a-pro-survival-molecule
#5
REVIEW
Salvatore Chirumbolo, Geir Bjørklund, Andrea Sboarina, Antonio Vella
PURPOSE: Vitamin D is a fascinating and attractive molecule that has gained particular attention in medicine in recent years. Its immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory potential might resemble the activity of many nature-derived molecules (eg, flavonoids), but its role in biology was selected during a long evolutionary pathway to dampen the damaging effect of cell stress response and of the immune reaction. In this sense, this molecule can be considered an ancient hormone that serves, in its primary role, as a pro-survival agent...
April 21, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437167/the-fgvps39-fgvam7-fgsso1-complex-mediates-vesicle-trafficking-and-is-important-for-the-development-and-virulence-of-fusarium-graminearum
#6
Bing Li, Luping Liu, Ying Li, Xin Dong, Haifeng Zhang, Huaigu Chen, Xiaobo Zheng, Zhengguang Zhang
Vesicle trafficking is an important event in eukaryotic organisms. Many proteins and lipids transported between different organelles or compartments are essential for survival. These processes are mediated by soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins, Rab-GTPases, and multisubunit tethering complexes such as class C core vacuole or endosome tethering and homotypic fusion or vacuole protein sorting (HOPS). Our previous study has demonstrated that FgVam7, which encodes a SNARE protein involving in vesicle trafficking, plays crucial roles in growth, asexual or sexual development, deoxynivalenol production, and pathogenicity in Fusarium graminearum...
April 24, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436637/-research-progress-on-mechanism-of-nix-mediated-mitophagy
#7
Yanrong Zheng, Xiangnan Zhang, Zhong Chen
Autophagy is fundamental to maintain cellular homeostasis. As one kind of the most well-studied selective autophagy, autophagy of mitochondria (mitophagy)is crucial for the clearance of damaged mitochondria. Mitophagy dysfunction has been proved to be closely associated with many human diseases. Nix is a key protein for mitophagy during the maturation of reticulocytes. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms underlying Nix-mediated mitophagy are not fully understood. This article summarizes three possible working models of Nix in mitophagy induction...
January 25, 2017: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431397/sensitization-of-tamoxifen-resistant-breast-cancer-cells-by-z-ligustilide-through-inhibiting-autophagy-and-accumulating-dna-damages
#8
Hongyi Qi, Zhuyun Jiang, Chengqiang Wang, Yi Yang, Li Li, Hui He, Zanyang Yu
Autophagy plays a pro-survival role in the tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cells. Herein we found that autophagy was concomitantly induced in tamoxifen-resistant MCF-7 (MCF-7TR5) cells through the dissociation of Bcl-2 from Beclin 1 and subsequent enhancement of interaction among the ATG14-Beclin1-PI3KC3 complex. Moreover, higher level of DNA damage was observed in MCF-7TR5 cells with the decreased BRCA1 and RAD51 level and the increased Ku80 level. Interestingly, Nur77 was selectively degraded by autophagy, which causes the release of Ku80 from the Nur77-Ku80 complex, resulting in the increase of the DNA binding of Ku80 and DNA-PKcs...
April 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428777/lactobacillus-fermentum-postbiotic-induced-autophagy-as-potential-approach-for-treatment-of-acetaminophen-hepatotoxicity
#9
Miroslav Dinić, Jovanka Lukić, Jelena Djokić, Marina Milenković, Ivana Strahinić, Nataša Golić, Jelena Begović
The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of postbiotics originated from Lactobacillus fermentum BGHV110 strain (HV110) to counteract acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity in HepG2 cells. This strain was selected according to its autophagy inducing potential, based on previous studies reporting protective role of autophagy in APAP caused cellular damage. Cell viability was assessed using MTT and LDH assays, while autophagy was monitored by qPCR analysis of BECN1, Atg5, p62/SQSTM1, and PINK1 mRNA expression and by Western blot analysis of p62/SQSTM1 and lipidated LC3 accumulation...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425584/changes-in-ciap2-survivin-and-bimel-expression-characterize-the-switch-from-autophagy-to-apoptosis-in-prolonged-starvation
#10
A Hay-Koren, S Bialik, V Levin-Salomon, A Kimchi
BACKGROUND: Autophagy is a catabolic process involving the engulfment of cytoplasmic content within autophagosomes followed by their delivery to lysosomes. This process is a survival mechanism, enabling cells to cope with nutrient deprivation by degradation and recycling of macromolecules. Yet during continued stress such as prolonged starvation, a switch from autophagy to apoptosis is often detected. OBJECTIVE: In this work, we characterized the temporal dynamics of the transition from autophagy towards apoptosis with the aim of elucidating the molecular mechanism regulating the switch from survival autophagy to apoptotic cell death...
May 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425080/monitoring-of-paternal-mitochondrial-degradation-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#11
Miyuki Sato, Ken Sato
In Caenorhabditis elegans embryos, paternally inherited mitochondria and their mitochondrial DNA are degraded via selective autophagy called allophagy (allogeneic organelle autophagy). This is a developmentally programmed autophagy and combined with C. elegans genetics and in vivo imaging provides a unique opportunity to analyze selective autophagy under physiological conditions.
April 20, 2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424968/visualization-of-reticulophagy-in-living-cells-using-an-endoplasmic-reticulum-targeted-p62-mutant
#12
Liang Wang, Lei Liu, Lingsong Qin, Qingming Luo, Zhihong Zhang
Reticulophagy is a type of selective autophagy in which protein aggregate-containing and/or damaged endoplasmic reticulum (ER) fragments are engulfed for lysosomal degradation, which is important for ER homeostasis. Several chemical drugs and mutant proteins that promote protein aggregate formation within the ER lumen can efficiently induce reticulophagy in mammalian cells. However, the exact mechanism and cellular localization of reticulophagy remain unclear. In this report, we took advantage of the self-oligomerization property of p62/SQSTM1, an adaptor for selective autophagy, and developed a novel reticulophagy system based on an ER-targeted p62 mutant to investigate the process of reticulophagy in living cells...
April 13, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420757/stress-signals-in-plants
#13
Alexandra A Mushegian
Selective autophagy mediates the cross-talk between plant growth and stress signaling pathways.
April 18, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420690/identification-of-protein-features-encoded-by-alternative-exons-using-exon-ontology
#14
Léon-Charles Tranchevent, Fabien Aubé, Louis Dulaurier, Clara Benoit-Pilven, Amandine Rey, Arnaud Poret, Emilie Chautard, Hussein Mortada, François-Olivier Desmet, Fatima Zahra Chakrama, Maira Alejandra Moreno-Garcia, Evelyne Goillot, Stéphane Janczarski, Franck Mortreux, Cyril F Bourgeois, Didier Auboeuf
Transcriptomic genome-wide analyses demonstrate massive variation of alternative splicing in many physiological and pathological situations. One major challenge is now to establish the biological contribution of alternative splicing variation in physiological- or pathological-associated cellular phenotypes. Toward this end, we developed a computational approach, named Exon Ontology, based on terms corresponding to well-characterized protein features organized in an ontology tree. Exon Ontology is conceptually similar to Gene Ontology-based approaches but focuses on exon-encoded protein features instead of gene level functional annotations...
April 18, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416685/snat7-is-the-primary-lysosomal-glutamine-exporter-required-for-extracellular-protein-dependent-growth-of-cancer-cells
#15
Quentin Verdon, Marielle Boonen, Christopher Ribes, Michel Jadot, Bruno Gasnier, Corinne Sagné
Lysosomes degrade cellular components sequestered by autophagy or extracellular material internalized by endocytosis and phagocytosis. The macromolecule building blocks released by lysosomal hydrolysis are then exported to the cytosol by lysosomal transporters, which remain undercharacterized. In this study, we designed an in situ assay of lysosomal amino acid export based on the transcription factor EB (TFEB), a master regulator of lysosomal biogenesis that detects lysosomal storage. This assay was used to screen candidate lysosomal transporters, leading to the identification of sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 7 (SNAT7), encoded by the SLC38A7 gene, as a lysosomal transporter highly selective for glutamine and asparagine...
April 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415719/endosomal-sorting-and-c-cbl-targeting-of-paxillin-to-autophagosomes-regulate-cell-matrix-adhesion-turnover-in-human-breast-cancer-cells
#16
Chia-Hao Chang, Krikor Bijian, Dinghong Qiu, Jie Su, Amine Saad, Michael S Dahabieh, Wilson H Miller, Moulay A Alaoui-Jamali
Post-translational mechanisms regulating cell-matrix adhesion turnover during cell locomotion are not fully elucidated. In this study, we uncovered an essential role of Y118 site-specific tyrosine phosphorylation of paxillin, an adapter protein of focal adhesion complexes, in paxillin recruitment to autophagosomes to trigger turnover of peripheral focal adhesions in human breast cancer cells. We demonstrate that the Rab-7 GTPase is a key upstream regulator of late endosomal sorting of tyrosine118-phosphorylated paxillin, which is subsequently recruited to autophagosomes via the cargo receptor c-Cbl...
March 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415012/discovery-of-2-4-6-dimethylpyrimidin-2-yl-thio-n-phenylacetamide-derivatives-as-new-potent-and-selective-human-sirtuin-2-inhibitors
#17
Lingling Yang, Xiaobo Ma, Chen Yuan, Yanying He, Ling Li, Sha Fang, Wei Xia, Tao He, Shan Qian, Zhihong Xu, Guobo Li, Zhouyu Wang
Human sirtuin 2 (SIRT2) plays pivotal roles in multiple biological processes such as cell cycle regulation, autophagy, immune and inflammatory responses. Dysregulation of SIRT2 was considered as a main aspect contributing to several human diseases, including cancer. Development of new potent and selective SIRT2 inhibitors is currently desirable, which may provide a new strategy for treatment of related diseases. Herein, a structure-based optimization approach led to new 2-((4,6-dimethylpyrimidin-2-yl)thio)-N-phenylacetamide derivatives as SIRT2 inhibitors...
April 12, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414101/autophagy-in-hemorrhagic-stroke-mechanisms-and-clinical-implications
#18
REVIEW
Haiying Li, Jiang Wu, Haitao Shen, Xiyang Yao, Chenglin Liu, S Pianta, J Han, C V Borlongan, Gang Chen
Accumulating evidence advances the critical role of autophagy in brain pathology after stroke. Investigations employing autophagy induction or inhibition using pharmacological tools or autophagy-related gene knockout mice have recently revealed the biological significance of intact and functional autophagy in stroke. Most of the reported cases attest to a pro-survival role for autophagy in stroke, by facilitating removal of damaged proteins and organelles, which can be recycled for energy generation and cellular defenses...
April 13, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410006/chaperone-mediated-autophagy-prevents-cellular-transformation-by-regulating-myc-proteasomal-degradation
#19
Luciana R Gomes, Carlos F M Menck, Ana Maria Cuervo
Chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA), a selective form of protein lysosomal degradation, is maximally activated in stress situations to ensure maintenance of cellular homeostasis. CMA activity decreases with age and in several human chronic disorders, but in contrast, in most cancer cells, CMA is upregulated and required for tumor growth. However, the role of CMA in malignant transformation remains unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that CMA inhibition in fibroblasts augments the efficiency of MYC/c-Myc-driven cellular transformation...
March 2, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409123/autophagy-and-the-cell-cycle-a-complex-landscape
#20
REVIEW
Søs Grønbæk Mathiassen, Daniela De Zio, Francesco Cecconi
Autophagy is a self-degradation pathway, in which cytoplasmic material is sequestered in double-membrane vesicles and delivered to the lysosome for degradation. Under basal conditions, autophagy plays a homeostatic function. However, in response to various stresses, the pathway can be further induced to mediate cytoprotection. Defective autophagy has been linked to a number of human pathologies, including neoplastic transformation, even though autophagy can also sustain the growth of tumor cells in certain contexts...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
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