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Selective autophagy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786968/p62-mediated-autophagy-affects-nutrition-dependent-insulin-receptor-substrate-1-dynamics-in-3t3-l1-preadipocytes
#1
Hirobumi Igawa, Akihiro Kikuchi, Hirofumi Misu, Kiyo-Aki Ishii, Shuichi Kaneko, Toshinari Takamura
AIMS/INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have shown that the organism's nutritional status changes the protein levels of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) in a tissue-specific manner. Although the mechanisms underlying the regulation of IRS-1 in the nutrient-rich conditions associated with diabetes and insulin resistance have been well studied, those under nutrient-poor conditions remain unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate how IRS-1 protein levels change depending on the nutritional status of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784660/interleukin-6-reduces-%C3%AE-cell-oxidative-stress-by-linking-autophagy-with-the-antioxidant-response
#2
Michelle R Marasco, Abass M Conteh, Christopher A Reissaus, John E Cupit V, Evan M Appleman, Raghavendra G Mirmira, Amelia K Linnemann
Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a key instigator of β-cell dysfunction in diabetes. The pleiotropic cytokine IL-6 has previously been linked to β-cell autophagy but has not been studied in the context of β-cell antioxidant response. We used a combination of animal models of diabetes and analysis of cultured human islets and rodent β-cells to study how IL-6 influences antioxidant response. We show that IL-6 couples autophagy to antioxidant response to reduce β-cell and human islet ROS. β cell-specific loss of IL-6 signaling in vivo renders mice more susceptible to oxidative damage and cell death by the selective β-cell toxins streptozotocin and alloxan...
May 21, 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774216/autophagic-regulation-of-lipid-homeostasis-in-cardiometabolic-syndrome
#3
Mingjie Yang, Yingmei Zhang, Jun Ren
As an important protein quality control process, autophagy is essential for the degradation and removal of long-lived or injured cellular components and organelles. Autophagy is known to participate in a number of pathophysiological processes including cardiometabolic syndrome. Recent findings have shown compelling evidence for the intricate interplay between autophagy and lipid metabolism. Autophagy serves as a major regulator of lipid homeostasis while lipid can also influence autophagosome formation and autophagic signaling...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773580/resistin-inhibits-neuronal-autophagy-through-toll-like-receptor-4
#4
Jie Miao, Yacir Benomar, Sarah Al-Rifai, Ghislaine Poizat, Laure Riffault, Delphine Crepin, Mohammed Taouis
Autophagy is as a non-selective degradation pathway induced in energy-deprived cells and in non-starved cells by participating in cellular inflammatory responses mainly through the elimination of injured and aged mitochondria that constitute an important source of reactive oxygen species. We have previously reported that resistin/TLR4 signaling pathway induces inflammation and insulin resistance in neuronal cell. However, the impact of resistin-induced inflammation on neuronal autophagy is unknown. In the present study, we hypothesized that resistin-induced neuroinflammation could be attributed, at least partially, to the impairment of autophagy pathways in neuronal cells...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773057/nucleophagy-plays-a-major-role-in-human-diseases
#5
Nian Fu, XueFeng Yang, Linxi Chen
Nucleophagy is a selective autophagy, which selectively remove damaged or non-essential nuclear material from a cell by the autophagy pathway. Additionally, nucleophagy is crucial for promoting cell longevity and ensure body proper function. Increasing evidences have shown that nucleophagy may play a major role in such human diseases as degenerative disorders, tumorigenesis, malnutrition and metabolic disorders, parakeratosis and psoriasis. Studies indicated that nucleophagy can improve degenerative disorders by delaying premature cell senescence, prevent malnutrition and metabolic disorder via maintaining nuclear structure and releasing nutrients for energy production, and alleviate parakeratosis and psoriasis...
May 17, 2018: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771174/signaling-and-induction-of-chaperone-mediated-autophagy-by-the-endoplasmic-reticulum-under-stress-conditions
#6
Wenming Li, Qian Yang, Zixu Mao
Chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA), a form of selective autophagy, maintains cellular proteostasis in response to diverse stress conditions. Whether and how endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress triggers CMA remains elusive. In our recent study, we demonstrate that various types of ER stress activate the CMA pathway via an EIF2AK3/PERK-MAP2K4/MKK4-MAPK14/p38-dependent manner. We term this process ERICA for ER stress-induced chaperone-mediated autophagy. This pathway is activated in response to stress associated with Parkinson disease and is required for the viability of the SNc dopaminergic neurons in an animal model of Parkinson disease...
May 17, 2018: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770111/chronic-caffeine-treatment-protects-against-%C3%AE-synucleinopathy-by-reestablishing-autophagy-activity-in-the-mouse-striatum
#7
Yanan Luan, Xiangpeng Ren, Wu Zheng, Zhenhai Zeng, Yingzi Guo, Zhidong Hou, Wei Guo, Xingjun Chen, Fei Li, Jiang-Fan Chen
Despite converging epidemiological evidence for the inverse relationship of regular caffeine consumption and risk of developing Parkinson's disease (PD) with animal studies demonstrating protective effect of caffeine in various neurotoxin models of PD, whether caffeine can protect against mutant α-synuclein (α-Syn) A53T-induced neurotoxicity in intact animals has not been examined. Here, we determined the effect of chronic caffeine treatment using the α-Syn fibril model of PD by intra-striatal injection of preformed A53T α-Syn fibrils...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769449/fatty-acid-receptor-modulator-pbi-4050-inhibits-kidney-fibrosis-and-improves-glycemic-control
#8
Yan Li, Sungjin Chung, Zhilian Li, Jessica M Overstreet, Lyne Gagnon, Brigitte Grouix, Martin Leduc, Pierre Laurin, Ming-Zhi Zhang, Raymond C Harris
Extensive kidney fibrosis occurs in several types of chronic kidney diseases. PBI-4050, a potentially novel first-in-class orally active low-molecular weight compound, has antifibrotic and antiinflammatory properties. We examined whether PBI-4050 affected the progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN) in a mouse model of accelerated type 2 diabetes and in a model of selective tubulointerstitial fibrosis. eNOS-/- db/db mice were treated with PBI-4050 from 8-20 weeks of age (early treatment) or from 16-24 weeks of age (late treatment)...
May 17, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768192/nuclear-export-inhibition-enhances-hlh-30-tfeb-activity-autophagy-and-lifespan
#9
Melissa J Silvestrini, Joseph R Johnson, Anita V Kumar, Tara G Thakurta, Karine Blais, Zachary A Neill, Sarah W Marion, Victoria St Amand, Robert A Reenan, Louis R Lapierre
Transcriptional modulation of the process of autophagy involves the transcription factor HLH-30/TFEB. In order to systematically determine the regulatory network of HLH-30/TFEB, we performed a genome-wide RNAi screen in C. elegans and found that silencing the nuclear export protein XPO-1/XPO1 enhances autophagy by significantly enriching HLH-30 in the nucleus, which is accompanied by proteostatic benefits and improved longevity. Lifespan extension via xpo-1 silencing requires HLH-30 and autophagy, overlapping mechanistically with several established longevity models...
May 15, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766811/p2x7-receptor-associated-programmed-cell-death-in-the-pathophysiology-of-hemorrhagic-stroke
#10
Hengli Zhao, Yujie Chen, Hua Feng
Hemorrhagic stroke is a life-threatening disease characterized by a sudden rupture of cerebral blood vessels, and cell death is widely believed to occur after exposure to blood metabolites or subsequently damaged cells. Recently, programmed cell death, such as apoptosis, autophagy, necroptosis, pyroptosis, and ferroptosis, has been demonstrated to play crucial roles in the pathophysiology of stroke. However, the detailed mechanisms of these novel kinds of cell death are still unclear. The P2X7 receptor, previously known for its cytotoxic activity, is an ATP-gated, non-selective cation channel that belongs to the family of ionotropic P2X receptors...
May 15, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763615/anticancer-activity-study-of-a-3-adenosine-receptor-agonists
#11
Gabriella Marucci, Claudia Santinelli, Michela Buccioni, Aleix Martí Navia, Catia Lambertucci, Anastasia Zhurina, Olli Yli-Harja, Rosaria Volpini, Meenakshisundaram Kandhavelu
AIMS: A3 adenosine receptor (A3 AR) signalling activation seems to mediate anticancer effect, and it has been targeted for drug development. The identification of potent and selective A3 AR agonists could be crucial for cancer drug development. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present study was determined the in vitro activity of known 1-3 and newly 4-6 synthesized compounds with high A3 AR affinity and selectivity (Ki in the low nanomolar range) in binding studies...
May 13, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755319/ambra1-mediated-mitophagy-counteracts-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis-induced-by-neurotoxicity-in-human-neuroblastoma-sh-sy5y-cells
#12
Anthea Di Rita, Pasquale D'Acunzo, Luca Simula, Silvia Campello, Flavie Strappazzon, Francesco Cecconi
Therapeutic strategies are needed to protect dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Oxidative stress caused by dopamine may play an important role in PD pathogenesis. Selective autophagy of mitochondria (mitophagy), mainly regulated by PINK1 and PARKIN, plays an important role in the maintenance of cell homeostasis. Mutations in those genes cause accumulation of damaged mitochondria, leading to nigral degeneration and early-onset PD. AMBRA1ActA is a fusion protein specifically expressed at the mitochondria, and whose expression has been shown to induce a powerful mitophagy in mammalian cells...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753736/catalase-inhibition-induces-pexophagy-through-ros-accumulation
#13
Joon No Lee, Raghbendra Kumar Dutta, Yunash Maharjan, Zhi-Qiang Liu, Jae-Young Lim, Se-Jin Kim, Dong-Hyung Cho, Hong-Seob So, Seong-Kyu Choe, Raekil Park
Peroxisomes are dynamic and multifunctional organelles involved in various cellular metabolic processes, and their numbers are tightly regulated by pexophagy, a selective degradation of peroxisomes through autophagy to maintain peroxisome homeostasis in cells. Catalase, a major peroxisome protein, plays a critical role in removing peroxisome-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by peroxisome enzymes, but the contribution of catalase to pexophagy has not been reported. Here, we investigated the role of catalase in peroxisome degradation during nutrient deprivation...
May 10, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753725/ca-2-signaling-and-src-kinases-controlled-cellular-functions
#14
REVIEW
Estefanía Anguita, Antonio Villalobo
Calcium-mediated signaling and the functionality of Src-family tyrosine kinases (SFKs) are two interconnected processes. Activation of these kinases, which are coupled to a series of receptors, mediates Ca2+ mobilization by regulating Ca2+ channels, and the generated Ca2+ signal in turn exerts control on the kinase activity via calmodulin. In this review, we shall cover the regulation of selected processes where crosstalk between the functionality of SFKs and the Ca2+ signal occurs during the lifespan of the cell, when subjected to different extracellular or intracellular stimuli...
May 10, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751795/inhibition-of-glutamate-oxaloacetate-transaminase-1-in-cancer-cell-lines-results-in-altered-metabolism-with-increased-dependency-of-glucose
#15
Xiaoshan Zhou, Sophie Curbo, Fuqiang Li, Shuba Krishnan, Anna Karlsson
BACKGROUND: Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase 1 (GOT1) regulates cellular metabolism through coordinating the utilization of carbohydrates and amino acids to meet nutrient requirements. KRAS mutated cancer cells were recently shown to rely on GOT1 to support long-term cell proliferation. The aim of the present study was to address the role of GOT1 in the metabolic adaption of cancer cells. METHODS: GOT1-null and knockdown cell lines were established through CRISPR/Cas9 and shRNA techniques...
May 11, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749795/aim-lir-based-fluorescent-sensors-new-tools-to-monitor-matg8-functions
#16
Katarzyna Zientara-Rytter, Suresh Subramani
Macroautophagy/autophagy, a catabolic process by which cytoplasmic materials are degraded and recycled in lysosomes/vacuoles, remains a rapidly expanding research topic with the need for constantly improved methodologies to study each step of this pathway. Recently Lee and colleagues, as well as Stolz et al., independently reported the development of new AIM/LIR-based fluorescent sensors, which mark individual endogenous mammalian Atg8-family (mAtg8) proteins without affecting the autophagic flux. When expressed in cells, each sensor selectively recognizes individual mAtg8 isoforms and distinguishes mammalian MAP1LC3/LC3 proteins from the related GABARAPs...
May 11, 2018: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749543/comprehensive-analysis-of-the-clinical-significance-and-prospective-molecular-mechanisms-of-differentially-expressed-autophagy-related-genes-in-thyroid-cancer
#17
Peng Lin, Yun He, Dong-Yue Wen, Xiao-Jiao Li, Jing-Jing Zeng, Wei-Jia Mo, Qing Li, Jin-Bo Peng, Yu-Quan Wu, Deng-Hua Pan, Hai-Yuan Li, Qiu-Yan Mo, Yun-Peng Wei, Hong Yang, Gang Chen
Thyroid cancer (TC) is the most common endocrine malignancy, accounting for approximately 90% of all malignancies of the endocrine system. Despite the fact that patients with TC tend to have good prognoses, the high incidence rate and lymph node metastases remain unresolved issues. Autophagy is an indispensable process that maintains intracellular homeostasis; however, the role of autophagy in several steps of the initiation and progression of TC has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we first identified several autophagy-related genes (ARGs) that were provoked in the onset of TC...
May 11, 2018: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748433/selective-elimination-of-membrane-damaged-chloroplasts-via-microautophagy
#18
Sakuya Nakamura, Jun Hidema, Wataru Sakamoto, Hiroyuki Ishida, Masanori Izumi
Plant chloroplasts constantly accumulate damage caused by visible light during photosynthesis. Our previous study revealed that entire photodamaged chloroplasts are subjected to vacuolar digestion through an autophagy process termed chlorophagy; however, how this process is induced and executed remained poorly understood. In the current study, we monitored intracellular induction of chlorophagy in Arabidopsis leaves, and found that mesophyll cells damaged by high visible light (HL) displayed abnormal chloroplasts with a swollen shape and 2...
May 10, 2018: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744037/endoplasmic-reticulum-turnover-er-phagy-and-other-flavors-in-selective-and-non-selective-er-clearance
#19
REVIEW
Ilaria Fregno, Maurizio Molinari
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a highly dynamic organelle in eukaryotic cells. It is deputed to lipid and protein biosynthesis, calcium storage, and the detoxification of various exogenous and endogenous harmful compounds. ER activity and size must be adapted rapidly to environmental and developmental conditions or biosynthetic demand. This is achieved on induction of thoroughly studied transcriptional/translational programs defined as "unfolded protein responses" that increase the ER volume and the expression of ER-resident proteins regulating the numerous ER functions...
2018: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741771/gp78-involvement-in-cellular-proliferation-can-act-as-a-promising-modulator-for-cell-cycle-regulatory-proteins
#20
Vibhuti Joshi, Arun Upadhyay, Deepak Chhangani, Ayeman Amanullah, Rajesh N Sharan, Amit Mishra
In cells, protein synthesis and degradation are normal processes, which are tightly regulated by various cellular metabolic pathways. Cellular protein quality control (PQC) mechanisms always present a continuous and rigorous check over all intracellular proteins before they can participate in various cellular physiological processes with the help of PQC pathways like autophagy and ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS). The UPS employs few selective E3 ubiquitin ligases for the intracellular degradation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (p27Kip1 ) that tightly controls cell cycle progression...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
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