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Selective autophagy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324487/mitophagy-in-yeast-a-screen-of-mitophagy-deficient-mutants
#1
Kentaro Furukawa, Tomotake Kanki
Mitochondrial autophagy (mitophagy) is a process that selectively degrades mitochondria via autophagy. Recent studies have shown that mitophagy plays an important role in mitochondrial homeostasis by degrading damaged or excess mitochondria. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a powerful model organism that has been employed to study several biological phenomena. Recently, there has been significant progress in the understanding of mitophagy in yeast following the identification of Atg32, a mitochondrial outer membrane receptor protein for mitophagy...
March 22, 2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324486/mitopho8%C3%AE-60-assay-as-a-tool-to-quantitatively-measure-mitophagy-activity
#2
Zhiyuan Yao, Xu Liu, Daniel J Klionsky
Mitophagy, a selective type of macroautophagy (hereafter referred to as autophagy), specifically mediates the vacuole/lysosome-dependent degradation of damaged or surplus mitochondria. Because this process regulates the number and quality of mitochondria, it is vital for proper cellular homeostasis. Mitophagy also plays critical roles in the clearance of paternal mitochondria in C. elegans embryos, in erythroid cell maturation, and in the prevention of neurodegenerative disease and cancer. In order to study the molecular mechanism and regulation of mitophagy, sensitive assays are necessary to quantitatively measure mitophagy activity...
March 22, 2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322253/ubiquitylation-of-p62-sequestosome1-activates-its-autophagy-receptor-function-and-controls-selective-autophagy-upon-ubiquitin-stress
#3
Hong Peng, Jiao Yang, Guangyi Li, Qing You, Wen Han, Tianrang Li, Daming Gao, Xiaoduo Xie, Byung-Hoon Lee, Juan Du, Jian Hou, Tao Zhang, Hai Rao, Ying Huang, Qinrun Li, Rong Zeng, Lijian Hui, Hongyan Wang, Qin Xia, Xuemin Zhang, Yongning He, Masaaki Komatsu, Ivan Dikic, Daniel Finley, Ronggui Hu
Alterations in cellular ubiquitin (Ub) homeostasis, known as Ub stress, feature and affect cellular responses in multiple conditions, yet the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Here we report that autophagy receptor p62/sequestosome-1 interacts with E2 Ub conjugating enzymes, UBE2D2 and UBE2D3. Endogenous p62 undergoes E2-dependent ubiquitylation during upregulation of Ub homeostasis, a condition termed as Ub(+) stress, that is intrinsic to Ub overexpression, heat shock or prolonged proteasomal inhibition by bortezomib, a chemotherapeutic drug...
March 21, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318036/autophagy-determines-efficiency-of-liver-directed-gene-therapy-with-adeno-associated-viral-vectors
#4
Marianna Hösel, Anke Huber, Susanne Bohlen, Julie Lucifora, Giuseppe Ronzitti, Francesco Puzzo, Florence Boisgerault, Ulrich T Hacker, Wilhelmus J Kwanten, Nora Klöting, Matthias Blüher, Alexander Gluschko, Michael Schramm, Olaf Utermöhlen, Wilhelm Bloch, Federico Mingozzi, Oleg Krut, Hildegard Büning
Use of Adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors for liver-directed gene therapy has shown considerable success, particularly in patients with severe hemophilia B. However, the high vector doses required to reach therapeutic levels of transgene expression caused liver inflammation in some patients that selectively destroyed transduced hepatocytes. We hypothesized that such detrimental immune responses can be avoided by enhancing the efficacy of AAV vectors in hepatocytes. Because autophagy is a key liver response to environmental stresses, we characterized the impact of hepatic autophagy on AAV infection...
March 20, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317932/bacterial-secretion-system-skews-the-fate-of-legionella-containing-vacuoles-towards-lc3-associated-phagocytosis
#5
Andree Hubber, Tomoko Kubori, Cevayir Coban, Takeshi Matsuzawa, Michinaga Ogawa, Tsuyoshi Kawabata, Tamotsu Yoshimori, Hiroki Nagai
The evolutionarily conserved processes of endosome-lysosome maturation and macroautophagy are established mechanisms that limit survival of intracellular bacteria. Similarly, another emerging mechanism is LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP). Here we report that an intracellular vacuolar pathogen, Legionella dumoffii, is specifically targeted by LAP over classical endocytic maturation and macroautophagy pathways. Upon infection, the majority of L. dumoffii resides in ER-like vacuoles and replicate within this niche, which involves inhibition of classical endosomal maturation...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298606/dengue-virus-activates-the-amp-kinase-mtor-axis-to-stimulate-a-proviral-lipophagy
#6
Tristan X Jordan, Glenn Randall
Robust dengue virus (DENV) replication requires lipophagy, a selective autophagy that targets lipid droplets. The autophagic mobilization of lipids leads to increased β-oxidation in DENV-infected cells. The mechanism by which DENV induces lipophagy is unknown. Here, we show that infection with DENV activates the metabolic regulator 5' adenosine-monophosphate activated kinase (AMPK), and that the silencing or pharmacological inhibition of AMPK activity decreases DENV replication and the induction of lipophagy...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298203/methylene-blue-photodynamic-therapy-induces-selective-and-massive-cell-death-in-human-breast-cancer-cells
#7
Ancély F Dos Santos, Letícia F Terra, Rosangela A M Wailemann, Talita C Oliveira, Vinícius de Morais Gomes, Marcela Franco Mineiro, Flávia Carla Meotti, Alexandre Bruni-Cardoso, Maurício S Baptista, Leticia Labriola
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the main cause of mortality among women. The disease presents high recurrence mainly due to incomplete efficacy of primary treatment in killing all cancer cells. Photodynamic therapy (PDT), an approach that causes tissue destruction by visible light in the presence of a photosensitizer (Ps) and oxygen, appears as a promising alternative therapy that could be used adjunct to chemotherapy and surgery for curing cancer. However, the efficacy of PDT to treat breast tumours as well as the molecular mechanisms that lead to cell death remain unclear...
March 15, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297802/-influence-of-high-fat-diet-in-paternal-c57bl-6-mice-on-liver-fat-deposition-in-offspring
#8
J Zhang, H G Li, L Fu, F S Di
Objective: To investigate the influence of high-fat diet (HFD) in paternal C57BL/6 mice on HFD-induced liver fat deposition in male offspring, as well as transgenerational inheritance caused by paternal HFD and related mechanisms. Methods: A total of 20 male C57BL/6 mice aged 3 weeks (F0) were randomly divided into normal control group (C, 10 mice) and HFD group (HF, 10 mice). After 12 weeks of HFD intervention, the male mice in the HFD group mated with female ones treated with normal diet and pups were obtained...
February 20, 2017: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294062/warming-up-to-new-possibilities-with-the-capsaicin-receptor-trpv1-mtor-ampk-and-erythropoietin
#9
Kenneth Maiese
BACKGROUND: Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are a superfamily of ion channels termed after the trp gene in Drosophila that are diverse in structure and control a wide range of biological functions including cell development and growth, thermal regulation, and vascular physiology. Of significant interest is the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) receptor, also known as the capsaicin receptor and the vanilloid receptor 1, that is a non-selective cation channel sensitive to a host of external stimuli including capsaicin and camphor, venoms, acid/basic pH changes, and temperature...
March 13, 2017: Current Neurovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287478/myocardial-ischemic-postconditioning-promotes-autophagy-against-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-via-the-activation-of-the-nnos-ampk-mtor-pathway
#10
Maojuan Hao, Suhua Zhu, Liang Hu, Hongyi Zhu, Xiaowei Wu, Qingping Li
Autophagy participates in the progression of many diseases, comprising ischemia/ reperfusion (I/R). It is reported that it is involved in the protective mechanism of ischemic postconditioning (IPostC). According to research, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is also involved in the condition of I/R and IPostC. However, the relationship between nNOS, autophagy and IPostC has not been previously investigated. We hypothesize that IPostC promotes autophagy activity against I/R injury partially through nNOS-mediated pathways...
March 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286171/epigallocatechin-3-gallate-increases-autophagy-signaling-in-resting-and-unloaded-plantaris-muscles-but-selectively-suppresses-autophagy-protein-abundance-in-reloaded-muscles-of-aged-rats
#11
Hideyuki Takahashi, Yutaka Suzuki, Junaith S Mohamed, Takafumi Gotoh, Suzette L Pereira, Stephen E Alway
We have previously found that Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCg), an abundant catechin in green tea, reduced apoptotic signaling and improved muscle recovery in response to reloading after hindlimb suspension (HS). In this study, we investigated if EGCg altered autophagy signaling in skeletal muscle of old rats in response to HS or reloading after HS. Fischer 344×Brown Norway inbred rats (age 34months) were given 1ml/day of purified EGCg (50mg/kg body weight), or the same sample volume of the vehicle by gavage...
March 7, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283035/inhibition-of-autophagy-enhances-the-selective-anti-cancer-activity-of-tigecycline-to-overcome-drug-resistance-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-myeloid-leukemia
#12
Ziyuan Lu, Na Xu, Bolin He, Chengyun Pan, Yangqing Lan, Hongsheng Zhou, Xiaoli Liu
BACKGROUND: Drug resistance and disease progression are still the major obstacles in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Increasing researches have demonstrated that autophagy becomes activated when cancer cells are subjected to chemotherapy, which is involved in the development of drug resistance. Therefore, combining chemotherapy with inhibition of autophagy serves as a new strategy in cancer treatment. Tigecycline is an antibiotic that has received attention as an anti-cancer agent due to its inhibitory effect on mitochondrial translation...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280367/clarifying-the-molecular-mechanism-associated-with-carfilzomib-resistance-in-human-multiple-myeloma-using-microarray-gene-expression-profile-and-genetic-interaction-network
#13
Zhihong Zheng, Tingbo Liu, Jing Zheng, Jianda Hu
Carfilzomib is a Food and Drug Administration-approved selective proteasome inhibitor for patients with multiple myeloma (MM). However, recent studies indicate that MM cells still develop resistance to carfilzomib, and the molecular mechanisms associated with carfilzomib resistance have not been studied in detail. In this study, to better understand its potential resistant effect and its underlying mechanisms in MM, microarray gene expression profile associated with carfilzomib-resistant KMS-11 and its parental cell line was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus database...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276029/assessing-mitochondrial-selective-autophagy-in-the-nematode-caenorhabditis-elegans
#14
Konstantinos Palikaras, Nektarios Tavernarakis
Eukaryotic cells heavily depend on ATP generated by oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) within mitochondria. Besides being the main suppliers of cell's energy, mitochondria also provide an additional compartment for a wide range of cellular processes and metabolic pathways. Mitochondria constantly undergo fusion/fission events and form a mitochondrial network, which is a highly dynamic, tubular structure allowing for rapid and continuous exchange of genetic material, as well as, targeting dysfunctional mitochondria for degradation through mitochondrial selective autophagy (mitophagy)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276028/assays-for-mitophagy-in-yeast
#15
Akinori Eiyama, Koji Okamoto
Elimination of damaged or surplus mitochondria is crucial to maintain cellular integrity and an energy supply-demand balance. Mitophagy serves to selectively catabolize mitochondria in a manner dependent on autophagy, and contributes to mitochondrial quality and quantity control. This degradation system is highly conserved among eukaryotes including the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Therefore, analyses of mitophagy using yeast have the potential to provide insights into the common mechanisms of mitophagy...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275944/fine-tuning-of-actin-dynamics-by-the-hspb8-bag3-chaperone-complex-facilitates-cytokinesis-and-contributes-to-its-impact-on-cell-division
#16
Alice Anaïs Varlet, Margit Fuchs, Carole Luthold, Herman Lambert, Jacques Landry, Josée N Lavoie
The small heat shock protein HSPB8 and its co-chaperone BAG3 are proposed to regulate cytoskeletal proteostasis in response to mechanical signaling in muscle cells. Here, we show that in dividing cells, the HSPB8-BAG3 complex is instrumental to the accurate disassembly of the actin-based contractile ring during cytokinesis, a process required to allow abscission of daughter cells. Silencing of HSPB8 markedly decreased the mitotic levels of BAG3 in HeLa cells, supporting its crucial role in BAG3 mitotic functions...
March 8, 2017: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275691/targeting-the-enterohepatic-bile-acid-signaling-induces-hepatic-autophagy-via-a-cyp7a1-akt-mtor-axis-in-mice
#17
Yifeng Wang, Yifeng Ding, Jibiao Li, Hemantkumar Chavan, David Matye, Hong-Min Ni, John Y L Chiang, Partha Krishnamurthy, Wen-Xing Ding, Tiangang Li
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatic cholesterol accumulation and autophagy defects contribute to hepatocyte injury in fatty liver disease. Bile acid synthesis is a major pathway for cholesterol catabolism in the liver. This study aims to understand the molecular link between cholesterol and bile acid metabolism and hepatic autophagy activity. METHODS: The effects of cholesterol and cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) expression on autophagy and lysosome function were studied in cell models...
March 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270807/the-autophagic-machinery-in-viral-exocytosis
#18
REVIEW
Christian Münz
The discovery of the molecular machinery of autophagy, namely Atg proteins, was awarded with the Nobel prize in physiology and medicine to Yoshinori Ohsumi in 2016. While this machinery was originally identified by its ability to allow cells to survive starvation via lysosomal degradation to recycle cellular components, it has recently become apparent that it also is used by cells to secrete cytoplasmic constituents. Furthermore, viruses have learned to use this Atg supported exocytosis to exit cells, acquire envelopes in the cytosol and select lipids into their surrounding membranes that might allow for increased robustness of their virions and altered infection behavior...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270805/induction-of-early-autophagic-process-on-leishmania-amazonensis-by-synergistic-effect-of-miltefosine-and-innovative-semi-synthetic-thiosemicarbazone
#19
Débora B Scariot, Elizandra A Britta, Amanda L Moreira, Hugo Falzirolli, Cleuza C Silva, Tânia Ueda-Nakamura, Benedito P Dias-Filho, Celso V Nakamura
Drug combination therapy is a current trend to treat complex diseases. Many benefits are expected from this strategy, such as cytotoxicity decrease, retardation of resistant strains development, and activity increment. This study evaluated in vitro combination between an innovative thiosemicarbazone molecule - BZTS with miltefosine, a drug already consolidated in the leishmaniasis treatment, against Leishmania amazonensis. Cytotoxicity effects were also evaluated on macrophages and erythrocytes. Synergistic antileishmania effect and antagonist cytotoxicity were revealed from this combination therapy...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264932/zinc-starvation-induces-autophagy-in-yeast
#20
Tomoko Kawamata, Tetsuro Horie, Miou Matsunami, Michiko Sasaki, Yoshinori Ohsumi
Zinc is an essential nutrient for all forms of life. Within cells, most zinc is bound to protein. Because zinc serves as a catalytic or structural cofactor for many proteins, cells must maintain zinc homeostasis under severely zinc-deficient conditions. In yeast, the transcription factor Zap1 controls the expression of genes required for uptake and mobilization of zinc, but to date the fate of existing zinc-binding proteins under zinc starvation remains poorly understood. Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved cellular degradation/recycling process in which cytoplasmic proteins and organelles are sequestered for degradation in the vacuole/lysosome...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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