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Hao Zhou, Pingjun Zhu, Jin Wang, Hong Zhu, Jun Ren, Yundai Chen
Disturbed mitochondrial homeostasis contributes to the pathogenesis of cardiac ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury, although the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Here, we demonstrated that casein kinase 2α (CK2α) was upregulated following acute cardiac IR injury. Increased CK2α was shown to be instrumental to mitochondrial damage, cardiomyocyte death, infarction area expansion and cardiac dysfunction, whereas cardiac-specific CK2α knockout (CK2αCKO ) mice were protected against IR injury and mitochondrial damage...
March 14, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
Yang Yuan, Shan-Shan Pan
BACKGROUND: Late exercise preconditioning (LEP) is confirmed to have a protective effect on acute cardiovascular stress. However, the mechanisms by which mitophagy participates in EP-induced cardioprotection remain unclear. LEP may involve mitophagy mediated by the receptors PARK2 gene-encoded E3 ubiquitin ligase (Parkin) and BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa protein-interacting protein 3 (Bnip3) to scavenge damaged mitochondria. METHODS: Our exercise preconditioning (EP) protocol involved four 10-minute periods of running, separated by 10-minute recovery intervals, plus a period of exhaustive running at 24 hours after EP...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Mami Morita, Taku Sato, Miyuki Nomura, Yoshimi Sakamoto, Yui Inoue, Ryota Tanaka, Shigemi Ito, Koreyuki Kurosawa, Kazunori Yamaguchi, Yuki Sugiura, Hiroshi Takizaki, Yoji Yamashita, Ryuichi Katakura, Ikuro Sato, Masaaki Kawai, Yoshinori Okada, Hitomi Watanabe, Gen Kondoh, Shoko Matsumoto, Ayako Kishimoto, Miki Obata, Masaki Matsumoto, Tatsuro Fukuhara, Hozumi Motohashi, Makoto Suematsu, Masaaki Komatsu, Keiichi I Nakayama, Toshio Watanabe, Tomoyoshi Soga, Hiroshi Shima, Makoto Maemondo, Nobuhiro Tanuma
Expression of PKM2, which diverts glucose-derived carbon from catabolic to biosynthetic pathways, is a hallmark of cancer. However, PKM2 function in tumorigenesis remains controversial. Here, we show that, when expressed rather than PKM2, the PKM isoform PKM1 exhibits a tumor-promoting function in KRASG12D -induced or carcinogen-initiated mouse models or in some human cancers. Analysis of Pkm mutant mouse lines expressing specific PKM isoforms established that PKM1 boosts tumor growth cell intrinsically. PKM1 activated glucose catabolism and stimulated autophagy/mitophagy, favoring malignancy...
March 12, 2018: Cancer Cell
Yan Li, Ying Ma, Liqiang Song, Lu Yu, Le Zhang, Yingmei Zhang, Yuan Xing, Yue Yin, Heng Ma
Mitochondrial dynamics have critical roles in aging, and their impairment represents a prominent risk factor for myocardial dysfunction. Mitochondrial deacetylase sirtuin (SIRT)3 contributes greatly to the prevention of redox stress and cell aging. The present study explored the role of SIRT3 on myocardium aging. Western blot analysis demonstrated that SIRT3 expression levels were significantly lower in the myocardia of aged mice compared with young mice. Immunoprecipitation and western blot assays indicated that the activity of mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor γ coactivator (PGC)‑1α was reduced in the aged heart...
March 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Jeong-Min Hong, Sun-Mee Lee
AIMS: Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an endogenous cytoprotective enzyme, is reported that can be localized in mitochondria under stress, contributing to preserve mitochondrial function. Mitochondrial quality control (QC) is essential to cellular health and recovery linked with redox homeostasis. Recent studies reported that phosphoglycerate mutase family member (PGAM) 5, a mitochondria-resident phosphatase, plays critical role in mitochondrial homeostasis. Therefore, we aim to investigate cytoprotective mechanisms of HO-1 in I/R-induced hepatic injury focusing on mitochondrial QC associated with PGAM5 signaling...
March 7, 2018: Life Sciences
Francesca Martorana, Daniela Gaglio, Maria Rosaria Bianco, Federica Aprea, Assunta Virtuoso, Marcella Bonanomi, Lilia Alberghina, Michele Papa, Anna Maria Colangelo
Neuronal differentiation involves extensive modification of biochemical and morphological properties to meet novel functional requirements. Reorganization of the mitochondrial network to match the higher energy demand plays a pivotal role in this process. Mechanisms of neuronal differentiation in response to nerve growth factor (NGF) have been largely characterized in terms of signaling, however, little is known about its impact on mitochondrial remodeling and metabolic function. In this work, we show that NGF-induced differentiation requires the activation of autophagy mediated by Atg9b and Ambra1, as it is disrupted by their genetic knockdown and by autophagy blockers...
March 9, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Daniele Corridoni, Thomas Chapman, Tim Ambrose, Alison Simmons
Activation of the innate immune system through pattern-recognition receptor (PRR) signaling plays a pivotal role in the early induction of host defense following exposure to pathogens. Loss of intestinal innate immune regulation leading aberrant immune responses has been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The precise role of PRRs in gut inflammation is not well understood, but considering their role as bacterial sensors and their genetic association with IBD, they likely contribute to dysregulated immune responses to the commensal microbiota...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Flávia R G Carneiro, Alice Lepelley, John J Seeley, Matthew S Hayden, Sankar Ghosh
ECSIT is a mitochondrial complex I (CI)-associated protein that has been shown to regulate the production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS) following engagement of Toll-like receptors (TLRs). We have generated an Ecsit conditional knockout (CKO) mouse strain to study the in vivo role of ECSIT. ECSIT deletion results in profound alteration of macrophage metabolism, leading to a striking shift to reliance on glycolysis, complete disruption of CI activity, and loss of the CI holoenzyme and multiple subassemblies...
March 6, 2018: Cell Reports
Yufeng Li, Zhiwei Liu, Yiqian Zhang, Qixiang Zhao, Xiaoyu Wang, Peng Lu, Hao Zhang, Zhu Wang, Hongyan Dong, Zhongming Zhang
Pigment epithelial-derived factor (PEDF) is known to exert diverse physiological activities. Previous studies suggest that hypoxia could induce mitophagy. Astoundingly, under hypoxic condition, we found that PEDF decreased the mitochondrial density of cardiomyocytes. In this study, we evaluated whether PEDF could decrease the mitochondrial density and play a protective role in hypoxic cardiomyocytes via promoting mitophagy. Immunostaining and western blotting were used to analyze mitochondrial density and mitophagy of hypoxic cardiomyocytes...
March 6, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Duojiao Wu, Xiangdong Wang, Hongzhi Sun
Mitochondrial malfunction is related to aging and to the onset of many diseases, such as obesity/diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. The molecular principles of biological and toxicological processes the mitochondria can regulate should be disease-specific, cell type-specific, and drug targetable. Mitochondrial biology and toxicology is evolving and undergoing a revolution through fast-developing biotechnologies garnering increasing attention due to the importance of targeted therapies...
March 6, 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
Qun Tang, Hua Wu, Jiushi Lei, Chun Yi, Wenfeng Xu, Wenqu Lan, Fang Yang, Chunyan Liu
Adipose stem cell (ASC) transplantation is a promising therapeutic strategy for diabetic renal fibrosis. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α) is a negative regulatory factor of mitochondrial function. In the current study, we aimed to explore if HIF1α deletion protects against hyperglycemia-induced ASC damage and enhances the therapeutic efficiency of ASCs in diabetic renal fibrosis. Our data indicated that HIF1α was upregulated in ASCs in response to high glucose stimulation. Higher HIF1α expression was associated with ASC apoptosis and proliferation arrest...
March 6, 2018: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
Aurel Popa-Wagner, Raluca E Sandu, Coman Cristin, Adriana Uzoni, Kevin A Welle, Jennifer R Hryhorenko, Sina Ghaemmaghami
Brain structures differ in the magnitude of age-related neuron loss with the cerebellum being more affected. An underlying cause could be an age-related decline in mitochondrial bioenergetics. Successful aging of mitochondria reflects a balanced turnover of proteins involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and mitophagy. Thus, an imbalance in mitochondrial turnover can contribute to the diminution of cellular function seen during aging. Mitochondrial biogenesis and mitophagy are mediated by a set of proteins including MFN1, MFN2, OPA1, DRP1, FIS1 as well as DMN1l and DNM1, all of which are required for mitochondrial fission...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Ingrid González-Casacuberta, Constanza Morén, Diana-Luz Juárez-Flores, Anna Esteve-Codina, Cristina Sierra, Marc Catalán-García, Mariona Guitart-Mampel, Ester Tobías, José César Milisenda, Claustre Pont-Sunyer, María José Martí, Francesc Cardellach, Eduard Tolosa, Rafael Artuch, Mario Ezquerra, Rubén Fernández-Santiago, Glòria Garrabou
Mutations in the parkin gene (PRKN) are the most common cause of autosomal-recessive juvenile Parkinson's disease (PD). PRKN encodes an E3 ubiquitin ligase that is involved in multiple regulatory functions including proteasomal-mediated protein turnover, mitochondrial function, mitophagy, and cell survival. However, the precise molecular events mediated by PRKN mutations in PRKN-associated PD (PRKN-PD) remain unknown. To elucidate the cellular impact of parkin mutations, we performed an RNA sequencing study in skin fibroblasts from PRKN-PD patients carrying different PRKN mutations (n = 4) and genetically unrelated healthy subjects (n = 4)...
February 7, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Yulai Shen, Lu Wu, Jun Wang, Xin Wu, Xuemei Zhang
Methamphetamine (METH) abuse causes significant physical, psychological, and social concerns. Therefore, in this study, we investigated its effects on osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). We found that METH dose-dependently affected MSCs viability. Upon osteogenic induction, the 3 and 30 µmol/l METH dosages without deleterious effects on MSCs viability resulted in the down-regulation of osteoblastic marker genes (Alp, Bglap, and Runx2), suppression of the protein expression of RUNX2, and decreased ALP activity and mineralization ability...
March 1, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Chen Cui, Jingting Qiao, Li Qing, Lingshu Wang, Tianyi He, Chuan Wang, Fuqiang Liu, Lei Gong, Li Chen, Xinguo Hou
Mitochondria play an important role in cellular metabolism and are closely related with metabolic stress. Recently, several studies have shown that mitophagy mediated by PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) and Parkin may play a critical role in clearing the damaged mitochondria and maintaining the overall balance of intracellular mitochondria in quality and quantity. A previous study showed that PINK1 and Parkin were overexpressed in adipose tissue in obese subjects. However, it is still unclear whether a direct relationship exists between obesity and mitophagy...
February 28, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Juliette J Lee, Alvaro Sanchez-Martinez, Aitor Martinez Zarate, Cristiane Benincá, Ugo Mayor, Michael J Clague, Alexander J Whitworth
The Parkinson's disease factors PINK1 and parkin are strongly implicated in stress-induced mitophagy in vitro, but little is known about their impact on basal mitophagy in vivo. We generated transgenic Drosophila melanogaster expressing fluorescent mitophagy reporters to evaluate the impact of Pink1/parkin mutations on basal mitophagy under physiological conditions. We find that mitophagy is readily detectable and abundant in many tissues, including Parkinson's disease-relevant dopaminergic neurons. However, we did not detect mitolysosomes in flight muscle...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
Juliana Cackovic, Susana Gutierrez-Luke, Gerald B Call, Amber Juba, Stephanie O'Brien, Charles H Jun, Lori M Buhlman
Selective degeneration of substantia nigra dopaminergic (DA) neurons is a hallmark pathology of familial Parkinson's disease (PD). While the mechanism of degeneration is elusive, abnormalities in mitochondrial function and turnover are strongly implicated. An Autosomal Recessive-Juvenile Parkinsonism (AR-JP) Drosophila melanogaster model exhibits DA neurodegeneration as well as aberrant mitochondrial dynamics and function. Disruptions in mitophagy have been observed in parkin loss-of-function models, and changes in mitochondrial respiration have been reported in patient fibroblasts...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Sarah E Shires, Åsa B Gustafsson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2, 2018: Circulation Research
Shanthi Ganesan, Sarah C Pearce, Nicholas K Gabler, Lance H Baumgard, Robert P Rhoads, Joshua T Selsby
Prolonged environment-induced hyperthermia causes morbidities and mortality in humans and animals and appears to cause organ-specific injury and dysfunction. We have previously determined autophagic dysfunction and apoptotic signaling in oxidative skeletal muscle following prolonged hyperthermia. The aim of this investigation was to extend our knowledge regarding the early chronology of heat stress-mediated apoptotic and autophagic signaling in oxidative skeletal muscle. We hypothesized that 2, 4, and 6 h of hyperthermia would increase apoptosis and autophagy in oxidative skeletal muscle compared to thermoneutral (TN) conditions...
February 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
Jin Tan, Qi Xie, Shuling Song, Yuyang Miao, Qiang Zhang
BACKGROUND Albumin, as a major urinary protein component, is a risk factor for chronic kidney disease progression. Mitochondrial dysfunction is one of the main causes of albumin-induced proximal tubule cells injury. Mitophagy is considered as a pivotal protective mechanism for the elimination of dysfunctional mitochondria. The objective of this research was to determine whether albumin overload-induced mitochondrial dysfunction can activate PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy in renal tubular epithelial cells (TECs)...
March 1, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
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