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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933654/in-vitro-detection-of-diesel-exhaust-particles-induced-human-lung-carcinoma-epithelial-cells-damage-and-the-effect-of-resveratrol
#1
Qifei Li, Mingjie Tang, Anhong Zhou
People are taking up antioxidants in their daily diet and being exposed to a potential diesel exhaust particles (DEP)-containing environment. Thus it is important to study in vitro cellular responses when cells are exposed to DEP with or without antioxidant treatment. The investigation of DEP and resveratrol (RES) on cellular biophysical and biochemical changes is needed to better understand the mechanisms of DEP and RES in mammalian cells. A combination of two non-invasive techniques (atomic force microscopy, AFM, and Raman spectroscopy, RM) and multimodal tools were applied to evaluate the biophysical, biochemical alterations and cytokine, membrane potential and cell cycle of cells with or without RES pretreatment to different times of DEP exposure...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933465/nano-mechanical-characterization-of-ataxia-telangiectasia-cells-treated-with-dexamethasone
#2
Michele Menotta, Sara Biagiotti, Giulia Bartolini, Bianchi Marzia, Sara Orazi, Aldo Germani, Luciana Chessa, Mauro Magnani
Ataxia telangiectasia is a rare genetic disease and no therapy is currently available. Glucocorticoid analogues have been shown to improve the neurological symptoms of treated patients. In the present study ataxia telangiectasia and wild type cells were used as a cellular model and treated with dexamethasone. The cells were subsequently investigated for membrane and whole cell mechanical properties by atomic force microscopy. In addition, cytoskeleton protein dynamics and nuclear shapes were assayed by fluorescence microscopy, while western blots were used to assess actin and tubulin content...
December 8, 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932955/what-do-we-really-know-about-5-ht1a-receptor-signaling-in-neuronal-cells
#3
REVIEW
Paulina S Rojas, Jenny L Fiedler
Serotonin (5-HT) is a neurotransmitter that plays an important role in neuronal plasticity. Variations in the levels of 5-HT at the synaptic cleft, expression or dysfunction of 5-HT receptors may alter brain development and predispose to various mental diseases. Here, we review the transduction pathways described in various cell types transfected with recombinant 5-HT1A receptor (5-HT1AR), specially contrasting with those findings obtained in neuronal cells. The 5-HT1AR is detected in early stages of neural development and is located in the soma, dendrites and spines of hippocampal neurons...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932480/magi2-mutations-cause-congenital-nephrotic-syndrome
#4
Agnieszka Bierzynska, Katrina Soderquest, Philip Dean, Elizabeth Colby, Ruth Rollason, Caroline Jones, Carol D Inward, Hugh J McCarthy, Michael A Simpson, Graham M Lord, Maggie Williams, Gavin I Welsh, Ania B Koziell, Moin A Saleem
Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS), a heterogeneous disorder of the renal glomerular filtration barrier, results in impairment of glomerular permselectivity. Inheritance of genetic SRNS may be autosomal dominant or recessive, with a subset of autosomal recessive SRNS presenting as congenital nephrotic syndrome (CNS). Mutations in 53 genes are associated with human SRNS, but these mutations explain ≤30% of patients with hereditary cases and only 20% of patients with sporadic cases. The proteins encoded by these genes are expressed in podocytes, and malfunction of these proteins leads to a universal end point of podocyte injury, glomerular filtration barrier disruption, and SRNS...
December 8, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930920/indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-regulates-t-cell-activity-through-vav1-rac-pathway
#5
Runmei Li, Hui Li, Qian Sun, Liang Liu, Chen Zhang, Xiubao Ren
The immunoregulatory enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) suppresses T-cell responses and promotes immune tolerance in tumor resistance. A previous study determined that IDO inhibits Vav1 mRNA expression and the activation of Vav1 and its downstream targets in T cells in the guanine exchange factor (GEF)-independent pathway. The current study aims to determine whether IDO induces T-cell immunosuppression through Vav1/Rac signaling pathway, which is a GEF-dependent pathway. The correlation between Vav1 mRNA expressions in T cells of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and the levels of IDO expression in lung cancer tissues from lung cancer patients was detected...
December 5, 2016: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930828/integrin-and-cadherin-clusters-a-robust-way-to-organize-adhesions-for-cell-mechanics
#6
Rishita Changede, Michael Sheetz
Recent studies at the nanometer scale have revealed that relatively uniform clusters of adhesion proteins (50-100 nm) constitute the modular units of cell adhesion sites in both cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesions. Super resolution microscopy and membrane protein diffusion studies both suggest that even large focal adhesions are formed of 100 nm clusters that are loosely aggregated. Clusters of 20-50 adhesion molecules (integrins or cadherins) can support large forces through avidity binding interactions but can also be disassembled or endocytosed rapidly...
December 8, 2016: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929542/autophagy-and-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-an-intricate-interplay-in-cancer
#7
REVIEW
Mila Gugnoni, Valentina Sancisi, Gloria Manzotti, Greta Gandolfi, Alessia Ciarrocchi
Autophagy and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) are major biological processes in cancer. Autophagy is a catabolic pathway that aids cancer cells to overcome intracellular or environmental stress, including nutrient deprivation, hypoxia and drugs effect. EMT is a complex transdifferentiation through which cancer cells acquire mesenchymal features, including motility and metastatic potential. Recent observations indicate that these two processes are linked in a complex relationship. On the one side, cells that underwent EMT require autophagy activation to survive during the metastatic spreading...
December 8, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929472/three-dimensional-super-resolution-microscopy-of-f-actin-filaments-by-interferometric-photoactivated-localization-microscopy-ipalm
#8
Yilin Wang, Pakorn Kanchanawong
Fluorescence microscopy enables direct visualization of specific biomolecules within cells. However, for conventional fluorescence microscopy, the spatial resolution is restricted by diffraction to ~ 200 nm within the image plane and > 500 nm along the optical axis. As a result, fluorescence microscopy has long been severely limited in the observation of ultrastructural features within cells. The recent development of super resolution microscopy methods has overcome this limitation. In particular, the advent of photoswitchable fluorophores enables localization-based super resolution microscopy, which provides resolving power approaching the molecular-length scale...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929117/cct-complex-restricts-neuropathogenic-protein-aggregation-via-autophagy
#9
Mariana Pavel, Sara Imarisio, Fiona M Menzies, Maria Jimenez-Sanchez, Farah H Siddiqi, Xiaoting Wu, Maurizio Renna, Cahir J O'Kane, Damian C Crowther, David C Rubinsztein
Aberrant protein aggregation is controlled by various chaperones, including CCT (chaperonin containing TCP-1)/TCP-1/TRiC. Mutated CCT4/5 subunits cause sensory neuropathy and CCT5 expression is decreased in Alzheimer's disease. Here, we show that CCT integrity is essential for autophagosome degradation in cells or Drosophila and this phenomenon is orchestrated by the actin cytoskeleton. When autophagic flux is reduced by compromise of individual CCT subunits, various disease-relevant autophagy substrates accumulate and aggregate...
December 8, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928923/primary-murine-neurons-as-in-vitro-model-for-studying-neuroinfections-caused-by-human-adenoviruses
#10
J Cymerys, A Słońska, M Chodkowski, M Przybylski, M W Bańbura
Adenoviral infections of the central nervous system are rare, but they are characteristic for their high mortality rate. People with impaired immunity and children are particularly vulnerable. A few reports of neuroinfections caused by adenoviruses are found in literature. In this study the tropism of the human adenoviruses type 4, 5, 7 to primary cultures of murine neurons and the influence of infection on the neuron morphology and actin cytoskeleton was examined. The A549 non-small-cell lung cancer cell line was used as a reference line...
2016: Acta Virologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927957/the-proteome-of-bloc-1-genetic-defects-identifies-the-arp2-3-actin-polymerization-complex-to-function-downstream-of-the-schizophrenia-susceptibility-factor-dysbindin-at-the-synapse
#11
Avanti Gokhale, Cortnie Hartwig, Amanda H Freeman, Ravi Das, Stephanie A Zlatic, Rachel Vistein, Amelia Burch, Guillemette Carrot, Arielle F Lewis, Sheldon Nelms, Dion K Dickman, Manojkumar A Puthenveedu, Daniel N Cox, Victor Faundez
: Proteome modifications downstream of monogenic or polygenic disorders have the potential to uncover novel molecular mechanisms participating in pathogenesis and/or extragenic modification of phenotypic expression. We tested this idea by determining the proteome sensitive to genetic defects in a locus encoding dysbindin, a protein required for synapse biology and implicated in schizophrenia risk. We applied quantitative mass spectrometry to identify proteins expressed in neuronal cells the abundance of which was altered after downregulation of the schizophrenia susceptibility factor dysbindin (Bloc1s8) or two other dysbindin-interacting polypeptides, which assemble into the octameric biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex 1 (BLOC-1)...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927737/the-rock-inhibitor-fasudil-prevents-chronic-restraint-stress-induced-depressive-like-behaviors-and-dendritic-spine-loss-in-rat-hippocampus
#12
Gonzalo García-Rojo, Cristóbal Fresno, Natalia Vilches, Gabriela Díaz-Véliz, Sergio Mora, Felipe Aguayo, Aníbal Pacheco, Nicolás Parra-Fiedler, Claudio S Parra, Paulina S Rojas, Macarena Tejos, Esteban Aliaga, Jenny L Fiedler
BACKGROUND: Dendritic arbor simplification and dendritic spine loss in the hippocampus -a limbic structure implicated in mood disorders- are assumed to contribute to symptoms of depression. These morphological changes imply changes in dendritic cytoskeleton. Rho GTPases are regulators of actin dynamics through their effector Rho kinase (ROCK). We have reported that chronic stress promotes depressive-like behaviors in rats, along with dendritic spine loss in apical dendrites of hippocampal pyramidal neurons; changes associated with ROCK activation...
December 7, 2016: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927723/coordinated-activation-of-mitochondrial-respiration-and-exocytosis-mediated-by-pkc-signaling-in-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells
#13
Jaime Santo-Domingo, Isabelle Chareyron, Loïc Dayon, Antonio Núñez Galindo, Ornella Cominetti, María Pilar Giner Giménez, Umberto De Marchi, Carles Canto, Martin Kussmann, Andreas Wiederkehr
Mitochondria play a central role in pancreatic β-cell nutrient sensing by coupling their metabolism to plasma membrane excitability and insulin granule exocytosis. Whether non-nutrient secretagogues stimulate mitochondria as part of the molecular mechanism to promote insulin secretion is not known. Here, we show that PKC signaling, which is employed by many non-nutrient secretagogues, augments mitochondrial respiration in INS-1E (rat insulinoma cell line clone 1E) and human pancreatic β-cells. The phorbol ester, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, accelerates mitochondrial respiration at both resting and stimulatory glucose concentrations...
December 7, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926529/altered-microrna-profiles-in-plasma-exosomes-from-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-with-hippocampal-sclerosis
#14
Shaofeng Yan, Hua Zhang, Wenyan Xie, Fangang Meng, Kai Zhang, Yin Jiang, Xin Zhang, Jianguo Zhang
Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (mTLE-HS) is the most common type of focal epilepsy. The present study aimed to explore the expression and functions of exosomal microRNAs in mTLE-HS. A total of 50 microRNAs were found to be differentially expressed in mTLE-HS compared with healthy controls. Among them, 2 were increased and 48 were decreased. The 6 significant differentially expressed candidate microRNAs (miR-3613-5p, miR-4668-5p, miR-8071, miR-197-5p, miR-4322, and miR-6781-5p ) in exosome were validated...
December 1, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926525/apoptosis-linked-gene-2-promotes-breast-cancer-growth-and-metastasis-by-regulating-the-cytoskeleton
#15
Juan Qin, Dengwen Li, Yunqiang Zhou, Songbo Xie, Xin Du, Ziwei Hao, Ruming Liu, Xinqi Liu, Min Liu, Jun Zhou
Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer in women. Although it begins as local disease, breast cancer frequently metastasizes to the lymph nodes and distant organs. Therefore, novel therapeutic targets are needed for the management of this disease. Apoptosis-linked gene 2 (ALG-2) is a calcium-binding protein crucial for diverse physiological processes and has recently been implicated in cancer development. However, it remains unclear whether this protein is involved in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. Here, we demonstrate that the expression of ALG-2 is significantly upregulated in breast cancer tissues and is correlated with clinicopathological characteristics indicative of tumor malignancy...
December 1, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926506/disruption-of-the-association-between-drug-transporter-and-actin-cytoskeleton-abolishes-drug-resistance-in-hypertrophic-scar
#16
Linlin Su, Lanqing Fu, Yan Li, Fangfang Yang, Min Zhang, Dahai Hu
Hypertrophic scar is characterized by the overgrowth of fibroblasts and often considered as a kind of benign skin tumor, thus chemotherapeutic drugs have been used to treat scars. In view of the similarity, this study aims to investigate whether drug resistance in cancer that contributes to the failure of chemotherapy also exists in hypertrophic scar, and what is the possible mechanism. Fibroblasts derived from hypertrophic scar and normal skin tissues were first compared for their resistance to verapamil and etoposide phosphate...
December 1, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925190/s100a1-and-s100b-calcium-sensors-at-the-cross-roads-of-multiple-chondrogenic-pathways
#17
REVIEW
José Diaz-Romero, Dobrila Nesic
The S100 protein family comprises more than 20 members of small calcium binding proteins operating as Ca2 + -activated switches that interact and modulate the activity of a large number of targets. S100A1 and S100B, two members of this family, have been recently associated with the differentiation status of human articular chondrocytes. Both proteins are homogeneously expressed in all cartilage zones, their expression decreases during chondrocyte dedifferentiation, and can be induced under conditions promoting redifferentiation...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924678/a-novel-role-for-14-kda-phosphohistidine-phosphatase-in-lamellipodia-formation
#18
Anjian Xu, Xiaojin Li, Siwen Li, Lan Sun, Shanna Wu, Bei Zhang, Jian Huang
Cell migration involves dynamic regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, which exhibits rapid actin polymerization at the leading edge of migrating cells. This process relies on regulated recruitment of actin nucleators and actin-binding proteins to the leading edge to polymerize new actin filaments. Many of these proteins have been identified, including the actin-related protein (Arp) 2/3 complex, which has emerged as the core player in the initiation of actin polymerization. However, the functional coordination of these proteins is unclear...
December 7, 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924570/quantifying-tensile-force-and-erk-phosphorylation-on-actin-stress-fibers
#19
Hiroaki Hirata, Mukund Gupta, Sri Ram Krishna Vedula, Chwee Teck Lim, Benoit Ladoux, Masahiro Sokabe
ERK associates with the actin cytoskeleton, and the actin-associated pool of ERK can be activated (phosphorylated in the activation loop) to induce specific cell responses. Increasing evidence has shown that mechanical conditions of cells significantly affect ERK activation. In particular, tension developed in the actin cytoskeleton has been implicated as a critical mechanism driving ERK signaling. However, a quantitative study of the relationship between actin tension and ERK phosphorylation is missing. In this chapter, we describe our novel methods to quantify tensile force and ERK phosphorylation on individual actin stress fibers...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924566/cell-based-assays-to-study-erk-pathway-caveolin1-interactions
#20
Raffaele Strippoli, Asier Echarri, Miguel Angel Del Pozo
Caveolin1, the main component of caveolae, plays a major role in regulating cell motility, gene expression, and cytoskeleton remodeling downstream of many membrane receptors. Here, we summarize different techniques set up to study changes in cell morphology and cell motility regulated by ERK/caveolin1 interactions during induction of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) in mesothelial cells (MCs).
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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