keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Cytoskeleton

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036929/interaction-between-rho-gtpases-and-14-3-3-proteins
#1
REVIEW
Daniel Brandwein, Zhixiang Wang
The Rho GTPase family accounts for as many as 20 members. Among them, the archetypes RhoA, Rac1, and Cdc42 have been the most well-characterized. Like all members of the small GTPases superfamily, Rho proteins act as molecular switches to control cellular processes by cycling between active, GTP-bound and inactive, GDP-bound states. The 14-3-3 family proteins comprise seven isoforms. They exist as dimers (homo- or hetero-dimer) in cells. They function by binding to Ser/Thr phosphorylated intracellular proteins, which alters the conformation, activity, and subcellular localization of their binding partners...
October 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036578/the-roles-of-membranes-and-associated-cytoskeleton-in-plant-virus-replication-and-cell-to-cell-movement
#2
Nicolas Pitzalis, Manfred Heinlein, Gian Pietro Di Sansebastiano
The infection of plants by viruses depends on cellular mechanisms that support the replication of the viral genomes, and the cell-to-cell and systemic movement of the virus via plasmodesmata (PD) and the connected phloem. While the propagation of some viruses requires the conventional endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi pathway, others replicate and spread between cells in association with the ER and are independent of this pathway. Using selected viruses as examples, this review re-examines the involvement of membranes and the cytoskeleton during virus infection and proposes potential roles of class VIII myosins and membrane-tethering proteins in controlling viral functions at specific ER subdomains, such as cortical microtubule-associated ER sites, ER-plasma membrane contact sites, and PD...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036553/two-track-control-of-cellular-machinery-for-photomovement-in-spirogyra-varians-streptophyta-zygnematales
#3
Ji Woong Lee, Gwang Hoon Kim
Plants and freshwater algae devoid of flagella evolved various photomovements to optimize their photosynthetic efficiency. The filaments of Spirogyra varians exhibit complex swaying and undulating movement and form a compact mat which enables them to adjust their light exposure. Photomovement of filament fragments (1-10 cells) was analyzed using various photoreceptor and cytoskeleton inhibitors under monochromatic light. Different patterns of movement were observed under red and blue light. The filaments showed positive phototropism under blue light...
September 27, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036437/fimbrins-4-and-5-act-synergistically-during-polarized-pollen-tube-growth-to-ensure-fertility-in-arabidopsis
#4
Hui Su, Hualing Feng, Xiaoting Chao, Xia Ding, Qiong Nan, Chenxi Wen, Huidong Liu, Sinuo Liu, Yun Xiang, Wenzhe Liu
The germination and polar growth of pollen are prerequisite for double fertilization in plants. The actin cytoskeleton and its binding proteins play pivotal roles in pollen germination and pollen-tube growth. Two homologs of the actin-bundling protein fimbrin, AtFIM4 and AtFIM5, are highly expressed in pollen in Arabidopsis and can form distinct actin architectures in vitro, but how they cooperatively regulate pollen germination and pollen-tube growth in vivo is largely unknown. In this study, we explored their functions during pollen germination and polar growth...
September 29, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036200/the-effect-of-the-pathological-v72i-d109n-and-t190m-missense-mutations-on-the-molecular-structure-of-%C3%AE-dystroglycan
#5
Sonia Covaceuszach, Manuela Bozzi, Maria Giulia Bigotti, Francesca Sciandra, Petr V Konarev, Andrea Brancaccio, Alberto Cassetta
Dystroglycan (DG) is a highly glycosylated protein complex that links the cytoskeleton with the extracellular matrix, mediating fundamental physiological functions such as mechanical stability of tissues, matrix organization and cell polarity. A crucial role in the glycosylation of the DG α subunit is played by its own N-terminal region that is required by the glycosyltransferase LARGE. Alteration in this O-glycosylation deeply impairs the high affinity binding to other extracellular matrix proteins such as laminins...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035375/upregulation-of-the-actin-cytoskeleton-via-myocardin-leads-to-increased-expression-of-type-1-collagen
#6
Zengdun Shi, Don C Rockey
Liver fibrosis, a model wound healing system, is characterized by excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) in the liver. Although many fibrogenic cell types may express ECM, the hepatic stellate cell (HSC) is currently considered to be the major effector. HSCs transform into myofibroblast-like cells, also known as hepatic myofibroblasts in a process known as activation; this process is characterized in particular by de novo expression of smooth muscle alpha actin (SM α-actin) and type 1 collagen...
October 16, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035355/sequential-bottom-up-assembly-of-mechanically-stabilized-synthetic-cells-by-microfluidics
#7
Marian Weiss, Johannes Patrick Frohnmayer, Lucia Theresa Benk, Barbara Haller, Jan-Willi Janiesch, Thomas Heitkamp, Michael Börsch, Rafael B Lira, Rumiana Dimova, Reinhard Lipowsky, Eberhard Bodenschatz, Jean-Christophe Baret, Tanja Vidakovic-Koch, Kai Sundmacher, Ilia Platzman, Joachim P Spatz
Compartments for the spatially and temporally controlled assembly of biological processes are essential towards cellular life. Synthetic mimics of cellular compartments based on lipid-based protocells lack the mechanical and chemical stability to allow their manipulation into a complex and fully functional synthetic cell. Here, we present a high-throughput microfluidic method to generate stable, defined sized liposomes termed 'droplet-stabilized giant unilamellar vesicles (dsGUVs)'. The enhanced stability of dsGUVs enables the sequential loading of these compartments with biomolecules, namely purified transmembrane and cytoskeleton proteins by microfluidic pico-injection technology...
October 16, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035202/localised-dynactin-protects-growing-microtubules-to-deliver-oskar-mrna-to-the-posterior-cortex-of-the-drosophila-oocyte
#8
Ross Nieuwburg, Dmitry Nashchekin, Maximilian Jakobs, Andrew P Carter, Philipp Khuc Trong, Raymond E Goldstein, Daniel St Johnston
The localisation of oskar mRNA to the posterior of the Drosophila oocyte defines where the abdomen and germ cells form in the embryo. Kinesin 1 transports oskar mRNA to the oocyte posterior along a polarised microtubule cytoskeleton that grows from non-centrosomal microtubule organising centres (ncMTOCs) along the anterior/lateral cortex. Here, we show that the formation of this polarised microtubule network also requires the posterior regulation of microtubule growth. A missense mutation in the dynactin Arp1 subunit causes most oskar mRNA to localise in the posterior cytoplasm rather than cortically...
October 16, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035140/cytoskeleton-genes-expression-and-survival-rate-comparison-between-immature-and-mature-yak-oocyte-after-ops-vitrification
#9
Xia Wei, Ye Sijie, Zeng Weibin, Xu Qing, Zheng Jie, Zi Xiangdong
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of vitrification on survival rate and cytoskeleton gene expression during yak oocyte maturation. The yak oocytes were incubated for 0 h [germinal vesicle (GV) stage] and in vitro matured for 24 h [metaphase II (MII) stage] to obtain immature and mature oocytes. Survival rate after vitrification were compared between immature and mature yak oocytes and cytoskeleton-related genes [cytokeratin 8 (CK8), β-actin (ACTB), and gap junction protein, alpha 1 (GJA1)] were tested by real-time PCR...
October 16, 2017: Animal Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034471/lipid-signaling-affects-primary-fibroblast-collective-migration-and-anchorage-in-response-to-stiffness-and-microtopography
#10
Michael A Mkrtschjan, Snehal B Gaikwad, Kevin J Kappenman, Christopher Solís, Sagar Dommaraju, Long Le, Tejal A Desai, Brenda Russell
Cell migration is regulated by several mechanotransduction pathways, which consist of sensing and converting mechanical microenvironmental cues to internal biochemical cellular signals, such as protein phosphorylation and lipid signaling. While there has been significant progress in understanding protein changes in the context of mechanotransduction, lipid signaling is more difficult to investigate. In this study, physical cues of stiffness (10 kPa, 100 kPa, 400 kPa, and glass), and microrod or micropost topography were manipulated in order to reprogram primary fibroblasts and assess the effects of lipid signaling on the actin cytoskeleton...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033970/spermine-regulates-pollen-tube-growth-by-modulating-ca-2-dependent-actin-organization-and-cell-wall-structure
#11
Iris Aloisi, Giampiero Cai, Claudia Faleri, Lorella Navazio, Donatella Serafini-Fracassini, Stefano Del Duca
Proper growth of the pollen tube depends on an elaborate mechanism that integrates several molecular and cytological sub-processes and ensures a cell shape adapted to the transport of gametes. This growth mechanism is controlled by several molecules among which cytoplasmic and apoplastic polyamines. Spermine (Spm) has been correlated with various physiological processes in pollen, including structuring of the cell wall and modulation of protein (mainly cytoskeletal) assembly. In this work, the effects of Spm on the growth of pear pollen tubes were analyzed...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033191/effect-of-the-ultraviolet-light-treatment-and-storage-methods-on-the-biological-activity-of-a-titanium-implant-surface
#12
Sung-Hwan Choi, Won-Seok Jeong, Jung-Yul Cha, Jae-Hoon Lee, Kee-Joon Lee, Hyung-Seog Yu, Eun-Ha Choi, Kwang-Mahn Kim, Chung-Ju Hwang
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated whether the biological activity of the surface of titanium, when stored in an aqueous solution, in low vacuum, and under ambient conditions after ultraviolet light (UV) treatment is comparable to that of the surface immediately after UV treatment for 15min and that after dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma treatment for 15min. METHODS: Grade IV titanium discs with machined surfaces were irradiated with UV and their surface properties were evaluated immediately and after storage for 28days in distilled H2O (dH2O), a vacuum desiccator (31...
October 12, 2017: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032607/erythroblast-macrophage-protein-emp-past-present-and-future
#13
REVIEW
Gulnaz T Javan, Amandeep Salhotra, Sheree J Finley, Shivani Soni
This review is a journey of the landmark protein Erythroblast macrophage protein (Emp) discovered in 1994, and it walks chronologically through the progress that has been made in understanding the biological function of this protein. Historically, Emp was the first identified cell attachment molecule and is expressed in both erythroblasts and macrophages and mediate their attachments to form erythroblastic islands. The absence of Emp erythroblasts shows defects in differentiation and enucleation. Emp-deficient macrophages display immature morphology characterized by small size, round shapes, and the lack of cytoplasmic projections...
October 15, 2017: European Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032545/identification-of-acetylated-proteins-in-borrelia-burgdorferi
#14
Youyun Yang, Alan Wolfe, X Frank Yang
Posttranslational modification (PTM) of proteins has emerged as a major regulatory mechanism in all three domains of life. One emerging PTM is Nε-lysine acetylation-the acetylation of the epsilon amino group of lysine residues. Nε-lysine acetylation is known to regulate multiple cellular processes. In eukaryotes, it regulates chromatin structure, transcription, metabolism, signal transduction, and the cytoskeleton. Recently, multiple groups have detected Nε-lysine acetylation in diverse bacterial phyla, but no work on protein acetylation in Borrelia burgdorferi has been reported...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032357/actin-assembly-mechanisms-at-a-glance
#15
REVIEW
Klemens Rottner, Jan Faix, Sven Bogdan, Stefan Linder, Eugen Kerkhoff
The actin cytoskeleton and associated motor proteins provide the driving forces for establishing the astonishing morphological diversity and dynamics of mammalian cells. Aside from functions in protruding and contracting cell membranes for motility, differentiation or cell division, the actin cytoskeleton provides forces to shape and move intracellular membranes of organelles and vesicles. To establish the many different actin assembly functions required in time and space, actin nucleators are targeted to specific subcellular compartments, thereby restricting the generation of specific actin filament structures to those sites...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032114/epigallocatechin-3-gallate-reduces-the-proliferation-of-benign-prostatic-hyperplasia-cells-via-regulation-of-focal-adhesions
#16
Burcu Erbaykent Tepedelen, Elif Soya, Mehmet Korkmaz
AIMS: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common urological disease that is characterized by the excessive growth of prostatic epithelial and stromal cells. Pharmacological therapy for BPH has limited use due to the many side effects so there is a need for new agents including natural compounds such as epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). This study was undertaken to assess the role of EGCG, suppressing the formation of BPH by reducing inflammation and oxidative stress, in cytoskeleton organization and ECM interactions via focal adhesions...
October 11, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029205/transcriptome-analysis-of-the-triatoma-infestans-hemiptera-reduviidae-integument
#17
Gustavo M Calderón-Fernández, Débora E Moriconi, Andrea B Dulbecco, M Patricia Juárez
The insect integument, formed by the cuticle and the underlying epidermis, is essential for insect fitness, regulation of lipid biosynthesis and storage, insect growth and feeding, together with development progress. Its participation in insecticide resistance has also been outlined. Triatoma infestans Klug (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) is one of the major vectors of Chagas disease in South America; however, genomic data are scarce. In this study, we performed a transcriptome analysis of the nymph integument in order to identify which genes are expressed and their putative role...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028549/mta-promotes-chemotaxis-and-chemokinesis-of-immune-cells-through-distinct-calcium-sensing-receptor-signaling-pathways
#18
Fengjiao Chang, Jin Man Kim, Youngnim Choi, Kyungpyo Park
Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) has been introduced as a choice material for regenerative dentistry. To date, the diverse biological activities of MTA, including its anti-inflammatory effects, have been extensively discussed. However, there is limited insight into the link between MTA and immune cell migration. In this study, we report the role of MTA in enhancing both chemotactic and chemokinetic immune cell migration through distinct signaling pathways. By using versatile live imaging techniques, we demonstrated that MTA-mediated CaSR activation induced diverse downstream pathways to govern cell migratory capacity...
October 4, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028349/proteomic-profiling-of-%C3%AE-hcg-induced-spheres-in-brca1-defective-triple-negative-breast-cancer-cells
#19
Satheesh Kumar Sengodan, Arathi Rajan, Sreelatha Krishnakumar Hemalatha, Revathy Nadhan, Abdul Jaleel, Priya Srinivas
Previously we identified that β-hCG is expressed by BRCA1 mutated but not wild type breast cancers in-vitro/in-vivo and exhibit a novel event in β-hCG over expressing BRCA1 mutated HCC1937cells where the cells were able to form spheres in adherent cell culture plates even in the absence of any growth factors. These spheres express stem cell and EMT markers. In the present study we carried out the total proteomic profiling of these HCC1937 β spheres obtained from BRCA1 defective β-hCG expressing stable breast cancer cells to analyze the cell signaling pathways that are active in these cells...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027931/discovering-the-biological-target-of-5-epi-sinuleptolide-using-a-combination-of-proteomic-approaches
#20
Elva Morretta, Roberta Esposito, Carmen Festa, Raffaele Riccio, Agostino Casapullo, Maria Chiara Monti
Sinuleptolide and its congeners are diterpenes with a norcembranoid skeleton isolated from the soft coral genus Sinularia. These marine metabolites are endowed with relevant biological activities, mainly associated with cancer development. 5-epi-sinuleptolide has been selected as a candidate for target discovery studies through the application of complementary proteomic approaches. Specifically, a combination of conventional chemical proteomics based on affinity chromatography, coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry and bioinformatics, as well as drug affinity responsive target stability (DARTS), led to a clear identification of actins as main targets for 5-epi-sinuleptolide...
October 13, 2017: Marine Drugs
keyword
keyword
17442
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"