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Cytoskeleton

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913199/genome-wide-profiling-of-adult-human-papillary-and-reticular-fibroblasts-identifies-acan-col-xi-%C3%AE-1-and-psg1-as-general-biomarkers-of-dermis-ageing-and-kank4-as-an-exemplary-effector-of-papillary-fibroblast-ageing-related-to-contractility
#1
Valérie Haydont, Véronique Neiveyans, Hélène Zucchi, Nicolas O Fortunel, Daniel Asselineau
Deciphering the characteristics of dermal fibroblasts is critical to further understand skin ageing. We have conducted a genome-wide transcriptomic characterization of papillary (Fp) and reticular (Fr) fibroblasts extracted from human skin samples corresponding to younger and older adult ages. From this screen, biomarkers suitable for the assessment of chronological ageing were identified, and extrapolated to the context of photo-damaged skin. In particular, KANK4, ACAN, Col XI α1, and PSG1, were expressed at an increased level in both chronologically-aged and photo-damaged skin...
June 15, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913180/identification-of-the-actc1c-cardiac-actin-gene-in-zebrafish
#2
Matiyo Ojehomon, Sarah L Alderman, Love Sandhu, Sierra Sutcliffe, Terry Van Raay, Todd E Gillis, John F Dawson
Zebrafish is rapidly becoming a key model organism for studying a variety of biological processes from molecules to organisms. Interactions involving actin, a contractile protein and part of the cytoskeleton, are regulated by actin binding proteins in the majority of physiological processes in eukaryotic cells. To understand the contribution of actin proteins to the physiological processes of zebrafish, it is important to identify the diverse isoforms of actin encoded by its genome; however, significant sequence identity complicates isoform assignments...
June 15, 2018: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913154/interactions-between-monomeric-cct%C3%AE-and-p150-glued-a-novel-function-for-cct%C3%AE-at-the-cell-periphery-distinct-from-the-protein-folding-activity-of-the-molecular-chaperone-cct
#3
Meriem Echbarthi, Josefine Vallin, Julie Grantham
Chaperonin containing tailless complex polypeptide 1 (CCT) is a molecular chaperone consisting of eight distinct protein subunits, that when oligomeric is essential for the folding of newly synthesized tubulin and actin. In addition to folding, CCT activity includes functions of individual subunits in their monomeric form. For example, when CCTδ monomer levels are increased in cultured mammalian cells, numerous cell surface protrusions are formed from retraction fibres, indicating that an underlying function for the CCTδ monomer exists...
June 15, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913076/formin-proteins-in-megakaryocytes-and-platelets-regulation-of-actin-and-microtubule-dynamics
#4
Malou Zuidscherwoude, Hannah L H Green, Steven G Thomas
The platelet and megakaryocyte cytoskeletons are essential for formation and function of these cells. A dynamic, properly organised tubulin and actin cytoskeleton is critical for the development of the megakaryocyte and the extension of proplatelets. Tubulin in particular plays a pivotal role in the extension of these proplatelets and the release of platelets from them. Tubulin is further required for the maintenance of platelet size, and actin is the driving force for shape change, spreading and platelet contraction during platelet activation...
June 18, 2018: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913074/rho-gtpases-and-their-downstream-effectors-in-megakaryocyte-biology
#5
Irina Pleines, Deya Cherpokova, Markus Bender
Megakaryocytes differentiate from hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow. The transition of megakaryocytes to platelets is a complex process. Thereby, megakaryocytes extend proplatelets into sinusoidal blood vessels, where the proplatelets undergo fission to release platelets. Defects in platelet production can lead to a low platelet count (thrombocytopenia) with increased bleeding risk. Rho GTPases comprise a family of small signaling G proteins that have been shown to be master regulators of the cytoskeleton controlling many aspects of intracellular processes...
June 18, 2018: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910809/sailing-to-and-docking-at-the-immune-synapse-role-of-tubulin-dynamics-and-molecular-motors
#6
REVIEW
Noa Beatriz Martín-Cófreces, Francisco Sánchez-Madrid
The different cytoskeleton systems and their connecting molecular motors move vesicles and intracellular organelles to shape cells. Polarized cells with specialized functions display an exquisite spatio-temporal regulation of both cytoskeletal and organelle arrangements that support their specific tasks. In particular, T cells rapidly change their shape and cellular function through the establishment of cell surface and intracellular polarity in response to a variety of cues. This review focuses on the contribution of the microtubule-based dynein/dynactin motor complex, the tubulin and actin cytoskeletons, and different organelles to the formation of the antigen-driven immune synapse...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910073/activity-dependent-actin-remodeling-at-the-base-of-dendritic-spines-promotes-microtubule-entry
#7
Philipp Schätzle, Marta Esteves da Silva, Roderick P Tas, Eugene A Katrukha, Hai Yin Hu, Corette J Wierenga, Lukas C Kapitein, Casper C Hoogenraad
In neurons, microtubules form dense bundles and run along the length of axons and dendrites. Occasionally, dendritic microtubules can grow from the shaft directly into dendritic spines. Microtubules target dendritic spines that are undergoing activity-dependent changes, but the mechanism by which microtubules enter spines has remained poorly understood. Using live-cell imaging, high-resolution microscopy, and local glutamate uncaging, we show that local actin remodeling at the base of a spine promotes microtubule spine targeting...
June 5, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909279/the-kank-family-proteins-in-adhesion-dynamics
#8
REVIEW
Nan-Peng Chen, Zhiqi Sun, Reinhard Fässler
Integrin-mediated cell adhesion plays key roles for cell movement during development and tissue homeostasis. The dynamic life cycle of various integrin adhesions structures is required for the cell movements and regulated by the coordinated actions of both actomyosin and the microtubule (MT) cytoskeleton. The evolutionarily conserved Kank family proteins have emerged as regulators of adhesion dynamics by coordinating integrin-mediated force transmission with the recruitment of microtubules to integrins. These novel functions may play important roles in vivo and in human diseases...
June 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909276/quantitative-analysis-reveals-that-actin-and-src-family-kinases-regulate-nuclear-yap1-and-its-export
#9
Nil Ege, Anna M Dowbaj, Ming Jiang, Michael Howell, Steven Hooper, Charles Foster, Robert P Jenkins, Erik Sahai
The transcriptional regulator YAP1 is critical for the pathological activation of fibroblasts. In normal fibroblasts, YAP1 is located in the cytoplasm, while in activated cancer-associated fibroblasts, it is nuclear and promotes the expression of genes required for pro-tumorigenic functions. Here, we investigate the dynamics of YAP1 shuttling in normal and activated fibroblasts, using EYFP-YAP1, quantitative photobleaching methods, and mathematical modeling. Imaging of migrating fibroblasts reveals the tight temporal coupling of cell shape change and altered YAP1 localization...
June 8, 2018: Cell Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908486/radiation-therapy-affects-the-mechanical-behavior-of-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells
#10
Alireza Mohammadkarim, Mohammad Tabatabaei, Azim Parandakh, Manijhe Mokhtari-Dizaji, Mohammad Tafazzoli-Shadpour, Mohammad-Mehdi Khani
Radiation therapy has been widely utilized as an effective method to eliminate malignant tumors and cancerous cells. However, subjection of healthy tissues and the related networks of blood vessels adjacent to the tumor area to irradiation is inevitable. The aim of this study was to investigate the consequent effects of fractionation radiotherapy on the mechanical characteristics of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) through alterations in cytoskeleton organization and cell and nucleus morphology...
June 6, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908261/a-proteomic-study-of-the-pulmonary-injury-induced-by-microcystin-lr-in-mice
#11
Sujuan Zhao, Hong Sun, Wei Yan, Dexiang Xu, Tong Shen
MCLR has been shown to act as potent hepatotoxin, and recent studies showed that MCs can accumulate in lung tissue and exert adverse effects. However, the exact mechanism still remain unclear. The present study mainly focuses on the impairments of respiratory system after MCLR exposure in mice. After intratracheal instillation with MCLR (0, 10 and 25 μg/kg bw), histological change was examined in MCLR exposure groups. Results indicated that exposure of MCLR led to serious histopathology alteration and apoptosis in lung of mice...
June 13, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907663/reorganization-of-destabilized-nodes-of-ranvier-in-%C3%AE-iv-spectrin-mutants-uncovers-critical-timelines-for-nodal-restoration-and-prevention-of-motor-paresis
#12
Julia Saifetiarova, Qian Shi, Martin Paukert, Masayuki Komada, Manzoor A Bhat
Disorganization of nodes of Ranvier is associated with motor and sensory dysfunctions. Mechanisms that allow nodal recovery during pathological processes remain poorly understood. A highly enriched nodal cytoskeletal protein βIV Spectrin anchors and stabilizes the nodal complex to actin cytoskeleton. Loss of murine βIV Spectrin allows the initial nodal organization, but causes gradual nodal destabilization. Mutations in human βIV SPECTRIN cause auditory neuropathy and impairment in motor coordination and similar phenotypes are caused by nodal disruption due to demyelination...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907643/integrin-activity-in-neuronal-connectivity
#13
REVIEW
Johanna Lilja, Johanna Ivaska
The formation of correct synaptic structures and neuronal connections is paramount for normal brain development and a functioning adult brain. The integrin family of cell adhesion receptors and their ligands play essential roles in the control of several processes regulating neuronal connectivity - including neurite outgrowth, the formation and maintenance of synapses, and synaptic plasticity - that are affected in neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and schizophrenia. Many ASD- and schizophrenia-associated genes are linked to alterations in the genetic code of integrins and associated signalling pathways...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907081/genome-wide-surveys-reveal-polarity-and-cytoskeletal-regulators-mediate-lkb1-associated-germline-stem-cell-quiescence
#14
Pratik Kadekar, Rita Chaouni, Emily Clark, Anna Kazanets, Richard Roy
BACKGROUND: Caenorhabditis elegans can endure long periods of environmental stress by altering their development to execute a quiescent state called "dauer". Previous work has implicated LKB1 - the causative gene in the autosomal dominant, cancer pre-disposing disease called Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome (PJS), and its downstream target AMPK, in the establishment of germline stem cell (GSC) quiescence during the dauer stage. Loss of function mutations in both LKB1/par-4 and AMPK/aak(0) result in untimely GSC proliferation during the onset of the dauer stage, although the molecular mechanism through which these factors regulate quiescence remains unclear...
June 15, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906906/strain-energy-storage-and-dissipation-rate-in-active-cell-mechanics
#15
A Agosti, D Ambrosi, S Turzi
When living cells are observed at rest on a flat substrate, they can typically exhibit a rounded (symmetric) or an elongated (polarized) shape. Although the cells are apparently at rest, the active stress generated by the molecular motors continuously stretches and drifts the actin network, the cytoskeleton of the cell. In this paper we theoretically compare the energy stored and dissipated in this active system in two geometric configurations of interest: symmetric and polarized. We find that the stored energy is larger for a radially symmetric cell at low activation regime, while the polar configuration has larger strain energy when the active stress is beyond a critical threshold...
May 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906693/proteomic-response-of-gill-microsomes-of-crassostrea-brasiliana-exposed-to-diesel-fuel-water-accommodated-fraction
#16
Gabrielle do Amaral E Silva Müller, Karim Hahn Lüchmann, Guilherme Razzera, Guilherme Toledo-Silva, Maria João Bebianno, Maria Risoleta Freire Marques, Afonso Celso Dias Bainy
Diesel fuel water-accommodated fraction (diesel-WAF) is a complex mixture of organic compounds that may cause harmful effects to marine invertebrates. Expression of microsomal proteins can be changed by oil exposure, causing functional alterations in endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The aim of this study was to investigate changes in protein expression signatures in microsomes of oysterl Crassostrea brasiliana (=C.gasar) gill after exposure to 10% diesel-WAF for 24 and 72 h. Protein expression signatures of gills of oysters exposed to diesel-WAF were compared to those of unexposed oysters using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) to identify differentially expressed proteins...
June 6, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906485/deciphering-brain-specific-transcriptomic-expression-of-ezr-rad-and-msn-genes-in-the-development-of-mus-musculus
#17
Syed Aoun Ali, Deeba N Baig
Ezrin, Radixin and Moesin (ERM) are critical membranous component involved in cross-linking of actin filaments. Moesin (Msn) is recognized as a pivotal protein involved in regulation of cell signalling events associated with the maintenance of epithelial integrity, actin organization and polarity. Radixin (Rad) is known to cell-to-cell adherens junction as a barbed end-capping protein whereas ezrin (Ezr) is recognized at cell adhesion, motility, apoptosis and phagocytosis. The current study for the first time reports the transcriptional and RNA secondary structural variations among brain-specific ERM genes...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904389/rhoa-drives-t-cell-activation-and-encephalitogenic-potential-in-an-animal-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#18
Alba Manresa-Arraut, Flemming Fryd Johansen, Cord Brakebusch, Shohreh Issazadeh-Navikas, Henrik Hasseldam
T-cells are known to be intimately involved in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). T-cell activation is controlled by a range of intracellular signaling pathways regulating cellular responses such as proliferation, cytokine production, integrin expression, and migration. These processes are crucial for the T-cells' ability to mediate inflammatory processes in autoimmune diseases such as MS. RhoA is a ubiquitously expressed small GTPase well described as a regulator of the actin cytoskeleton...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902570/profiling-of-phosphoinositide-molecular-species-in-human-and-mouse-platelets-identifies-new-species-increasing-following-stimulation
#19
Abdulrahman Mujalli, Gaëtan Chicanne, Justine Bertrand-Michel, Fanny Viars, Len Stephens, Phil Hawkins, Julien Viaud, Frédérique Gaits-Iacovoni, Sonia Severin, Marie-Pierre Gratacap, Anne-Dominique Terrisse, Bernard Payrastre
Phosphoinositides are bioactive lipids essential in the regulation of cell signaling as well as cytoskeleton and membrane dynamics. Their metabolism is highly active in blood platelets where they play a critical role during activation, at least through two well identified pathways involving phospholipase C and phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K). Here, using a sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method recently developed, we monitored for the first time the profiling of phosphatidylinositol (PI), PIP, PIP2 and PIP3 molecular species (fatty-acyl profiles) in human and mouse platelets during the course of stimulation by thrombin and collagen-related peptide...
June 11, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902551/catalytically-inactive-phosphatase-mtmr12-is-a-novel-regulator-of-osteoclast-function-through-f-actin-ring-formation
#20
Yang Lei, Lang Lei, Yunbing Wang, Sasha A Singh, Elena Aikawa
Vascular calcification contributes to clinical mortality and morbidity. One possible mechanism for vascular calcification is lack of functional osteoclast formation in atherosclerotic plaques. Here, we seek to discover novel regulators of osteoclastogenesis with the aim to reduce vascular calcification. We used quantitative proteomics and functional network analysis to identify novel proteins in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)-derived osteoclast model. In the current studies we focus on novel proteins in osteoclast ruffled border, a plasma membrane contacting the bone surface during bone resorption...
June 11, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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