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Cytoskeleton

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636946/ptbp2-controls-an-alternative-splicing-network-required-for-cell-communication-during-spermatogenesis
#1
Molly M Hannigan, Leah L Zagore, Donny D Licatalosi
Alternative splicing has essential roles in development. Remarkably, spermatogenic cells express more alternatively spliced RNAs compared to most whole tissues; however, regulation of these RNAs remains unclear. Here, we characterize the alternative splicing landscape during spermatogenesis and reveal an essential function for the RNA-binding protein Ptbp2 in this highly regulated developmental program. We found that Ptbp2 controls a network of genes involved in cell adhesion, migration, and polarity, suggesting that splicing regulation by Ptbp2 is critical for germ cell communication with Sertoli cells (multifunctional somatic cells necessary for spermatogenesis)...
June 20, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636921/characterizing-intracellular-ice-formation-of%C3%A2-lymphoblasts-using-low-temperature-raman%C3%A2-spectroscopy
#2
Guanglin Yu, Yan Rou Yap, Kathryn Pollock, Allison Hubel
Raman microspectroscopy was used to quantify freezing response of cells to various cooling rates and solution compositions. The distribution pattern of cytochrome c in individual cells was used as a measure of cell viability in the frozen state and this metric agreed well with the population-averaged viability and trypan blue staining experiments. Raman imaging of cells demonstrated that intracellular ice formation (IIF) was common and did not necessarily result in cell death. The amount of intracellular ice as well as ice crystal size played a role in determining whether or not ice inside the cell was a lethal event...
June 20, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636198/actin-filament-reorganisation-controlled-by-the-scar-wave-complex-mediates-stomatal-response-to-darkness
#3
Jean-Charles Isner, Zaoxu Xu, Joaquim Miguel Costa, Fabien Monnet, Thomas Batstone, Xiaobin Ou, Michael J Deeks, Bernard Genty, Kun Jiang, Alistair M Hetherington
Stomata respond to darkness by closing to prevent excessive water loss during the night. Although the reorganisation of actin filaments during stomatal closure is documented, the underlying mechanisms responsible for dark-induced cytoskeletal arrangement remain largely unknown. We used genetic, physiological and cell biological approaches to show that reorganisation of the actin cytoskeleton is required for dark-induced stomatal closure. The opal5 mutant does not close in response to darkness but exhibits wild-type (WT) behaviour when exposed to abscisic acid (ABA) or CaCl2 ...
June 21, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635615/topography-on-a-subcellular-scale-modulates-cellular-adhesions-and-actin-stress-fiber-dynamics-in-tumor-associated-fibroblasts
#4
Mikheil Azatov, Xiaoyu Sun, Alexandra Suberi, John T Fourkas, Arpita Upadhyaya
Cells can sense and adapt to mechanical properties of their environment. The local geometry of the extracellular matrix, such as its topography, has been shown to modulate cell morphology, migration, and proliferation. Here we investigate the effect of micro/nanotopography on the morphology and cytoskeletal dynamics of human pancreatic tumor-associated fibroblast cells (TAFs). We use arrays of parallel nanoridges with variable spacings on a subcellular scale to investigate the response of TAFs to the topography of their environment...
June 21, 2017: Physical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634183/syk-inhibitors-interfere-with-erythrocyte-membrane-modification-during-p-falciparum-growth-and-suppress-parasite-egress
#5
Antonella Pantaleo, Kristina R Kesely, Maria Carmina Pau, Ioannis Tsamesidis, Evelin Schwarzer, Oleksii A Skorokhod, Huynh D Chien, Marta Ponzi, Lucia Bertuccini, Philip S Low, Francesco M Turrini
Band 3 (a.k.a. the anion exchanger, SLCA1, AE1) constitutes the major attachment site of the spectrin-based cytoskeleton to the erythrocyte's lipid bilayer and thereby contributes critically to the stability of the red cell membrane. During the intra-erythrocytic stage of Plasmodium falciparum's life cycle, band 3 becomes tyrosine phosphorylated in response to oxidative stress, leading to a decrease in its affinity for the spectrin/actin cytoskeleton and causing global membrane destabilization. Because this membrane weakening is hypothesized to facilitate parasite egress and the consequent dissemination of released merozoites throughout the bloodstream, we decided to explore which tyrosine kinase inhibitors might block the kinase-induced membrane destabilization...
June 20, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634045/egfr-egfrviii-remodels-the-cytoskeleton-via-epigenetic-silencing-of-ajap1-in-glioma-cells
#6
Chao Yang, Yan-Sheng Li, Qi-Xue Wang, Kai Huang, Jian-Wei Wei, Yun-Fei Wang, Jun-Hu Zhou, Kai-Kai Yi, Kai-Liang Zhang, Bing-Cong Zhou, Cong Liu, Liang Zeng, Chun-Sheng Kang
EGFR amplification and mutations are the most common oncogenic events in GBM. EGFR overexpression correlates with GBM invasion, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In a previous study, we showed that AJAP1 is involved in regulating F-actin to inhibit the invasive ability of GBM. In addition, in a GBM cell line, the AJAP1 promoter was highly bound by H3K27me3 and, through bioinformatics analysis, we found that AJAP1 expression was negatively correlated with EGFR. In this study, we found that the pathway downstream of EGFR had a higher activation level in GBM cell lines, which led to excessive tumor suppressor silencing...
June 17, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633952/chronic-methylphenidate-regulates-genes-and-proteins-mediating-neuroplasticity-in-the-juvenile-rat-brain
#7
Emmanuel Quansah, Tiziana Sgamma, Estabraq Jaddoa, Tyra S C Zetterström
Methylphenidate (MPH) is the front-line psychostimulant medication prescribed for alleviating the symptoms associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. Here, we investigated the effects of chronic MPH (2.0mg/kg, twice daily for 15 days) exposure to young rats (20-25days old at start of treatment) on the expression of genes and proteins associated with neuroplasticity, such as activity regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc), insulin receptor substrate protein 53 (IRSp53), cell division control protein 42 (Cdc42), and actin-related protein 2 (Arp2)...
June 17, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632484/rab-gtpases-and-their-interacting-protein-partners-structural-insights-into-rab-functional-diversity
#8
Olena Pylypenko, Hussein Hammich, I-Mei Yu, Anne Houdusse
Rab molecular switches are key players in defining membrane identity and regulating intracellular trafficking events in eukaryotic cells. In spite of their global structural similarity, Rab-family members acquired particular features that allow them to perform specific cellular functions. The overall fold and local sequence conservations enable them to utilize a common machinery for prenylation and recycling; while individual Rab structural differences determine interactions with specific partners such as GEFs, GAPs and effector proteins...
June 20, 2017: Small GTPases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631920/microfluidic-mapping-of-cancer-cell-protein-binding-interaction
#9
Zongbin Liu, Xin Han, Rui Chen, Kai Zhang, Ying Li, Shelby Fruge, Joon Hee Jang, Yuan Ma, Lidong Qin
The interaction between tumor cells and microenvironment during metastasis is mediated by the binding of cell surface receptors, such as integrins and selectins, with protein ligands. Delineation of their binding interaction and identification of key receptors may be particularly important both in understanding ECM remodeling and in developing potential therapeutic targets. Here we present a microfluidic chip that allows qualitative and quantitative mapping of large population cell-protein interaction. It was found that β1 integrin showed stronger binding interaction with collagen than with other ECM proteins...
June 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631898/mass-spectrometry-based-protein-analytics-to-unravel-the-tissue-pathophysiology-in-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#10
Stephanie J Carr, René P Zahedi, Hanns Lochmüller, Andreas Roos
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a genetic muscle wasting condition with limited treatment options available and is caused by the lack of Dystrophin. However, pathophysiology of different tissues is variable showing different histological and molecular signatures. Recently, a number of studies have employed gel-free proteomic approaches to unveil the molecular pathophysiology in terms of tissue-specific proteome changes in dystrophin-deficiency. We analysed studies in models of dystrophin-deficiency and patients both from the published literature...
June 20, 2017: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631375/3d-mimicry-of-native-tissue-fiber-architecture-guides-tendon-derived-cells-and-adipose-stem-cells-into-artificial-tendon-constructs
#11
Mariana Laranjeira, Rui M A Domingues, Raquel Costa-Almeida, Rui L Reis, Manuela E Gomes
Tendon and ligament (T/L) function is intrinsically related with their unique hierarchically and anisotropically organized extracellular matrix. Their natural healing capacity is, however, limited. Here, continuous and aligned electrospun nanofiber threads (CANT) based on synthetic/natural polymer blends mechanically reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals are produced to replicate the nanoscale collagen fibrils grouped into microscale collagen fibers that compose the native T/L. CANT are then incrementally assembled into 3D hierarchical scaffolds, resulting in woven constructions, which simultaneously mimic T/L nano-to-macro architecture, nanotopography, and nonlinear biomechanical behavior...
June 20, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630441/overcoming-the-biological-aging-of-titanium-using-a-wet-storage-method-after-ultraviolet-treatment
#12
Sung-Hwan Choi, Won-Seok Jeong, Jung-Yul Cha, Jae-Hoon Lee, Kee-Joon Lee, Hyung-Seog Yu, Eun-Ha Choi, Kwang-Mahn Kim, Chung-Ju Hwang
We evaluated whether the biological activity of the surface of titanium, when stored in an aqueous solution after ultraviolet (UV) treatment, is comparable to that of the surface immediately after UV treatment. We subjected Grade IV titanium discs with machined surfaces to UV radiation for 15 min and then tested them immediately and after storage for 28 days, with and without distilled H2O (dH2O). We evaluated the surface characteristics using surface profiling, contact angle analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and in terms of the surface zeta-potential...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630355/apical-and-basal-epitheliomuscular-f-actin-dynamics-during-hydra-bud-evagination
#13
Roland Aufschnaiter, Roland Wedlich-Söldner, Xiaoming Zhang, Bert Hobmayer
Bending of 2D cell sheets is a fundamental morphogenetic mechanism during animal development and reproduction. A critical player driving cell shape during tissue bending is the actin cytoskeleton. Much of our current knowledge about actin dynamics in whole organisms stems from studies of embryonic development in bilaterian model organisms. Here, we have analysed actin-based processes during asexual bud evagination in the simple metazoan Hydra We created transgenic Hydra strains stably expressing the actin marker Lifeact-GFP in either ectodermal or endodermal epitheliomuscular cells...
June 19, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630256/the-small-gtpase-rac1-contributes-to-extinction-of-aversive-memories-of-drug-withdrawal-by-facilitating-gabaa-receptor-endocytosis-in-the-vmpfc
#14
Wei-Sheng Wang, Yun-Yue Ju, Qi-Xin Zhou, Jian-Xin Tang, Meng Li, Lei Zhang, Shuo Kang, Zhong-Guo Chen, Yu-Jun Wang, Hui Ji, Yu-Qiang Ding, Lin Xu, Jing-Gen Liu
Extinction of aversive memories has been a major concern in neuropsychiatric disorders such as anxiety disorders and drug addiction. However, the mechanisms underlying extinction of aversive memories are not fully understood. Here, we report that extinction of conditioned place aversion (CPA) to naloxone-precipitated opiate withdrawal in male rats activates Rho GTPase Rac1 in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) in a BDNF-dependent manner, which determines GABAA receptor (GABAAR) endocytosis via triggering synaptic translocation of activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) through facilitating actin polymerization...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630144/crmp-1-enhances-evl-mediated-actin-elongation-to-build-lamellipodia-and-the-actin-cortex
#15
Hui-Chia Yu-Kemp, James P Kemp, William M Brieher
Cells can control actin polymerization by nucleating new filaments or elongating existing ones. We recently identified CRMP-1 as a factor that stimulates the formation of Listeria monocytogenes actin comet tails, thereby implicating it in actin assembly. We now show that CRMP-1 is a major contributor to actin assembly in epithelial cells, where it works with the Ena/VASP family member EVL to assemble the actin cytoskeleton in the apical cortex and in protruding lamellipodia. CRMP-1 and EVL bind to one another and together accelerate actin filament barbed-end elongation...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630074/the-enterohaemorrhagic-escherichia-coli-effector-espw-triggers-actin-remodeling-in-a-rac1-dependent-manner
#16
Pamela Sandu, Valerie F Crepin, Hauke Drechsler, Andrew D McAinsh, Gad Frankel, Cedric N Berger
Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is a diarrheagenic pathogen that colonizes the gut mucosa and induces attaching-and-effacing lesions. EHEC employs a type III secretion system (T3SS) to translocate 50 effector proteins that hijack and manipulate host cell signalling pathways, which allow bacterial colonization, subversion of immune responses and disease progression. The aim of this study was to characterize the T3SS effector EspW. We found espW in the sequenced O157:H7 and non-O157 EHEC strains as well as in Shigella boydii Furthermore, a truncated version of EspW, containing the first 206 residues is present in EPEC strains belonging to serotype O55:H7...
June 19, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629307/tumor-reversion-mesenchymal-epithelial-transition-as-a-critical-step-in-managing-the-tumor-microenvironment-cross-talk
#17
Mariano Bizzarri, Alessandra Cucina, Sara Proietti
Tumour reversion represents a promising field of investigation. The occurrence of cancer reversion both in vitro and in vivo has been ascertained by an increasing number of reports. The reverting process may be triggered in a wide range of different cancer types by both molecular and physical cues. This process encompasses mandatorily a change in the cell-stroma interactions, leading to profound modification in tissue architecture. Indeed, cancer reversion may be obtained by only resetting the overall burden of biophysical cues acting on the cell-stroma system, thus indicating that conformational changes induced by cell shape and cytoskeleton remodelling trigger downstream the cascade of molecular events required for phenotypic reversion...
June 8, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627734/role-of-cytoskeletal-mechanics-and-cell-membrane-fluidity-in-the-intracellular-delivery-of-molecules-mediated-by-laser-activated-carbon-nanoparticles
#18
Stefany Y Holguin, Caleb F Anderson, Naresh N Thadhani, Mark R Prausnitz
Exposure of cells and nanoparticles to near-infrared nanosecond pulsed laser light can lead to efficient intracellular delivery of molecules while maintaining high cell viability by a photoacoustic phenomenon known as transient nanoparticle energy transduction (TNET). Here, we examined the influence of cytoskeletal mechanics and plasma membrane fluidity on intracellular uptake of molecules and loss of cell viability due to TNET. We found that destabilization of actin filaments using latrunculin A led to greater uptake of molecules and less viability loss caused by TNET...
June 19, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627476/deciphering-the-protein-protein-interaction-network-regulating-hepatocellular-carcinoma-metastasis
#19
Guoxuan Qin, Mengjiao Dang, Huajun Gao, Hao Wang, Fengting Luo, Ruibing Chen
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of mortality related to cancer all over the world. To better understand the molecular mechanisms of HCC metastasis, we analyzed the proteome of three HCC cell lines with different metastasis potentials by quantitative proteomics and bioinformatics analysis. As a result, we identified 378 cellular proteins potentially associated to HCC metastasis, and constructed a highly connected protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. Functional annotation of the network uncovered prominent pathways and key roles of these proteins, suggesting that the metabolism and cytoskeleton biological processes are greatly involved with HCC metastasis...
June 13, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627382/bpag1-a-distinctive-role-in-skin-and-neurological-diseases
#20
REVIEW
Arshad Ali, Lifang Hu, Fan Zhao, Wuxia Qiu, Pai Wang, Xiaoli Ma, Yan Zhang, Lei Chen, Airong Qian
Spectraplakins are multifunctional cytoskeletal linker proteins that act as important communicators, connecting cytoskeletal components with each other and to cellular junctions. Bullous pemphigoid antigen 1 (BPAG1)/dystonin is a member of spectraplakin family and expressed in various tissues. Alternative splicing of BPAG1 gene produces various isoforms with unique structure and domains. BPAG1 plays crucial roles in numerous biological processes, such as cytoskeleton organization, cell polarization, cell adhesion, and cell migration as well as signaling transduction...
June 13, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
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