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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675785/neuronal-autophagy-and-axon-degeneration
#1
REVIEW
Yu Wang, Mingxue Song, Fuyong Song
Axon degeneration is a pathophysiological process of axonal dying and breakdown, which is characterized by several morphological features including the accumulation of axoplasmic organelles, disassembly of microtubules, and fragmentation of the axonal cytoskeleton. Autophagy, a highly conserved lysosomal-degradation machinery responsible for the control of cellular protein quality, is widely believed to be essential for the maintenance of axonal homeostasis in neurons. In recent years, more and more evidence suggests that dysfunctional autophagy is associated with axonal degeneration in many neurodegenerative diseases...
April 19, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675549/snai1-an-endothelial-mesenchymal-transition-transcription-factor-promotes-the-early-phase-of-ocular-neovascularization
#2
Jia-Xing Sun, Tian-Fang Chang, Man-Hong Li, Li-Juan Sun, Xian-Chun Yan, Zi-Yan Yang, Yuan Liu, Wen-Qin Xu, Yang Lv, Jing-Bo Su, Liang Liang, Hua Han, Guo-Rui Dou, Yu-Sheng Wang
Ocular neovascularization is a comprehensive process involved in retinal vascular development and several blinding diseases such as age-related macular degeneration and retinopathy of prematurity, with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) regarded as the master regulator. However, the qualified effect of anti-VEGF therapy reveals that the underlying mechanisms are still not clearly identified. To initialize angiogenesis, endothelial cells undergo a phenotype switching to generate highly migratory and invasive cells...
April 19, 2018: Angiogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675452/attaching-and-effacing-pathogens-exploit-junction-regulatory-activities-of-n-wasp-and-snx9-to-disrupt-the-intestinal-barrier
#3
John J Garber, Emily M Mallick, Karen M Scanlon, Jerrold R Turner, Michael S Donnenberg, John M Leong, Scott B Snapper
Background & Aims: Neural Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein (N-WASP) is a key regulator of the actin cytoskeleton in epithelial tissues and is poised to mediate cytoskeletal-dependent aspects of apical junction complex (AJC) homeostasis. Attaching-and-effacing (AE) pathogens disrupt this homeostasis through translocation of the effector molecule early secreted antigenic target-6 (ESX)-1 secretion-associated protein F (EspF). Although the mechanisms underlying AJC disruption by EspF are unknown, EspF contains putative binding sites for N-WASP and the endocytic regulator sorting nexin 9 (SNX9)...
March 2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673970/the-role-of-compartmentalized-signaling-pathways-in-the-control-of-mitochondrial-activities-in-cancer-cells
#4
REVIEW
Laura Rinaldi, Rossella Delle Donne, Domenica Borzacchiello, Luigi Insabato, Antonio Feliciello
Mitochondria are the powerhouse organelles present in all eukaryotic cells. They play a fundamental role in cell respiration, survival and metabolism. Stimulation of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) by dedicated ligands and consequent activation of the cAMP·PKA pathway finely coupleenergy production and metabolism to cell growth and survival. Compartmentalization of PKA signaling at mitochondria by A-Kinase Anchor Proteins (AKAPs) ensures efficient transduction of signals generated at the cell membrane to the organelles, controlling important aspects of mitochondrial biology...
April 16, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671923/sucrose-assists-selection-of-high-quality-oocytes-in-pigs
#5
Thanh Quang Dang-Nguyen, Hiep Thi Nguyen, Tamas Somfai, David Wells, Nguyen Thi Men, Nguyen Viet-Linh, Junko Noguchi, Hiroyuki Kaneko, Kazuhiro Kikuchi, Takashi Nagai
We investigated whether high-quality in vitro matured (IVM) oocytes can be distinguished from poor ones based on the morphological changes after treatment with hyperosmotic medium containing 0.2 mol/L sucrose in pigs. We hypothesize that IVM oocytes maintaining round shape have higher quality than mis-shapened oocytes following dehydration. Oocyte quality was verified by determining embryonic developmental competence using in vitro fertilization, nuclear transfer and parthenogenetic activation. In all cases, the round oocytes had greater (p < ...
April 19, 2018: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671787/proteomic-identification-of-the-galectin-1-involved-molecular-pathways-in-urinary-bladder-urothelial-carcinoma
#6
Chien-Feng Li, Kun-Hung Shen, Lan-Hsiang Chien, Cheng-Hao Huang, Ting-Feng Wu, Hong-Lin He
Among various heterogeneous types of bladder tumors, urothelial carcinoma is the most prevalent lesion. Some of the urinary bladder urothelial carcinomas (UBUCs) develop local recurrence and may cause distal invasion. Galectin-1 de-regulation significantly affects cell transformation, cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and cell invasiveness. In continuation of our previous investigation on the role of galectin-1 in UBUC tumorigenesis, in this study, proteomics strategies were implemented in order to find more galectin-1-associated signaling pathways...
April 19, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671277/reduced-adrenomedullin-parallels-microtubule-dismantlement-in-frontotemporal-lobar-degeneration
#7
Hilda Ferrero, Ignacio M Larrayoz, Maite Solas, Alfredo Martínez, María J Ramírez, Francisco J Gil-Bea
Tau is a microtubule-associated protein highly expressed in neurons with a chief role in microtubule dynamics and axonal maintenance. Adrenomedullin gene (ADM) codifies for various peptides that exert broad range of actions in the body. Previous works in our groups have shown that increased ADM products are positively correlated to microtubule disruption and tau pathology in Alzheimer's disease brains. In the present study, we explore the involvement of ADM in the neuropathology of frontotemporal lobar degeneration that presents with primary tauopathy (FTLD-tau)...
April 18, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670521/the-prenylflavonoid-xanthohumol-reduces-alzheimer-like-changes-and-modulates-multiple-pathogenic-molecular-pathways-in-the-neuro2a-app-swe-cell-model-of-ad
#8
Xianfeng Huang, Jing Wang, Xiao Chen, Pan Liu, Shujin Wang, Fangchen Song, Zaijun Zhang, Feiqi Zhu, Xinfeng Huang, Jianjun Liu, Guoqiang Song, Peter S Spencer, Xifei Yang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that has proved refractory to drug treatment. Given evidence of neuroprotection in animal models of ischemic stroke, we assessed the prenylflavonoid xanthohumol from the Common Hop ( Humulus lupulus L.) for therapeutic potential in murine neuroblastoma N2a cells stably expressing human Swedish mutant amyloid precursor protein (N2a/APP), a well-characterized cellular model of AD. The ELISA and Western-blot analysis revealed that xanthohumol (Xn) inhibited Aβ accumulation and APP processing, and that Xn ameliorated tau hyperphosphorylation via PP2A, GSK3β pathways in N2a/APP cells...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669760/rho-kinase-inhibition-by-at13148-blocks-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarinoma-invasion-and-tumor-growth
#9
Nicola Rath, June Munro, Marie Fa Cutiongco, Alicja Jagiełło, Nikolaj Gadegaard, Lynn McGarry, Mathieu Unbekandt, Evdokia Michalopoulou, Jurre J Kamphorst, David Sumpton, Gillian Mackay, Claire Vennin, Marina Pajic, Paul Timpson, Michael F Olson
The high mortality of pancreatic cancer demands that new therapeutic avenues be developed. The orally available small molecule inhibitor AT13148 potently inhibits ROCK1 and ROCK2 kinases that regulate the actomyosin cytoskeleton. We previously reported that ROCK kinase expression increases with human and mouse pancreatic cancer progression and that conditional ROCK activation accelerates mortality in a genetically modified LSL-KrasG12D; LSL-p53R172H; Pdx1-Cre; (KPC) mouse pancreatic cancer model. In this study, we show that treatment of KPC mouse and human TKCC5 patient-derived pancreatic tumor cells with AT13148, as well as the ROCK selective inhibitors Y27632 and H1152, act comparably in blocking ROCK substrate phosphorylation...
April 18, 2018: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669427/vector-analysis-of-cytoskeleton-structural-tension-and-the-mechanisms-that-underpin-spectrin-related-forces-in-pyroptosis
#10
Tingting Chen, Yichen Guo, Jinjun Shan, Jiarui Zhang, Xu Shen, Jun Guo, Xiaoguang Margaret Liu
AIMS: Pyroptotic cells are characterized by plasma swelling, membrane blebbing, and disintegration of the cell membrane mediated by spectrin-based membrane skeleton and intercellular competitive tension activities. The spectrin-based membrane skeleton is involved in membrane organization through the regulation of intercellular tension. Using genetically encoded tension sensors to attain non-invasive force measurements in structural proteins, we investigated how cytoskeletal structural tension influences changes in plasma morphology during pyroptosis and the regulatory mechanism of cytoskeletal structural tension that underpins pyroptosis...
April 19, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669319/bubbles-induce-endothelial-microparticle-formation-via-a-calcium-dependent-pathway-involving-flippase-inactivation-and-rho-kinase-activation
#11
Xuhua Yu, Jiajun Xu, Wenwu Liu, Weigang Xu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Intravascular bubbles can exert pleiotropic detrimental effects, partly by inducing endothelial microparticles (EMPs) production, which play critical roles in cell communication and vascular inflammation cascades. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study aimed to delineate the possible mechanisms involving bubble-induced EMPs formation. METHODS: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were contacted by bubbles and EMPs level in supernatant were quantified by flow cytometry...
April 13, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669094/hydroxylated-graphene-quantum-dots-induce-dna-damage-and-disrupt-microtubule-structure-in-human-esophageal-epithelial-cells
#12
Ming Li, Meng-Meng Gu, Xin Tian, Bei-Bei Xiao, Siyuan Lu, Wei Zhu, Lan Yu, Zeng-Fu Shang
Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have attracted significant interests due to their unique chemical and physical properties. In the present study, we investigated the potential effects of hydroxyl-modified GQDs (OH-GQDs) on the human esophageal epithelial cell line HET-1A. Our data revealed significant cytotoxicity of OH-GQDs which decreased the viability of HET-1A in a dose and time dependent manner. The moderate concentration (25 or 50 µg/ml) of OH-GQDs significantly blocked HET-1A cells in G0/G1 cell cycle phase...
April 14, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667261/apple-s-rnase-interacts-with-an-actin-binding-protein-mdmvg-to-reduce-pollen-tube-growth-by-inhibiting-its-actin-severing-activity-at-the-early-stage-of-self-pollination-induction
#13
Qing Yang, Dong Meng, Zhaoyu Gu, Wei Li, Qiuju Chen, Yang Li, Hui Yuan, Jie Yu, Chunsheng Liu, Tianzhong Li
In S-RNase-mediated self-incompatibility (SI), S-RNase secreted from the style destroys the actin cytoskeleton of the self-pollen tubes, eventually halting its growth, but the mechanism remains unclear. In vitro biochemical assays revealed that S-RNase does not bind or sever filamentous actin (F-actin). In apple (Malus×domestica), we identified an actin-binding protein containing myosin, villin and GRAM, MdMVG, that physically interacts with S-RNase and directly binds and severs F-actin. Immunofluorescence assays and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) indicated that S-RNase inhibits the F-actin-severing activity of MdMVG in vitro...
April 18, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666795/cell-chirality-drives-left-right-asymmetric-morphogenesis
#14
REVIEW
Mikiko Inaki, Takeshi Sasamura, Kenji Matsuno
Most macromolecules found in cells are chiral, meaning that they cannot be superimposed onto their mirror image. However, cells themselves can also be chiral, a subject that has received little attention until very recently. In our studies on the mechanisms of left-right (LR) asymmetric development in Drosophila , we discovered that cells can have an intrinsic chirality to their structure, and that this "cell chirality" is generally responsible for the LR asymmetric development of certain organs in this species...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664925/actin-and-myosin-ii-modulate-differentiation-of-pluripotent-stem-cells
#15
Liana C Boraas, Emma T Pineda, Tabassum Ahsan
Use of stem cell-based therapies in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine is hindered by efficient means of directed differentiation. For pluripotent stem cells, an initial critical differentiation event is specification to one of three germ lineages: endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. Differentiation is known to be regulated by numerous extracellular and intracellular factors, but the role of the cytoskeleton during specification, or early differentiation, is still unknown. In these studies, we used agonists and antagonists to modulate actin polymerization and the actin-myosin molecular motor during spontaneous differentiation of embryonic stem cells in embryoid bodies...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663725/quartz-crystal-microbalance-as-cell-based-biosensor-to-detect-and-study-cytoskeletal-alterations-and-dynamics
#16
Monica Bianco, Daniele Vergara, Stefania De Domenico, Michele Maffia, Antonio Gaballo, Valentina Arima
Several techniques can be used to monitor cell dynamism after a perturbation. Among these, Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation Monitoring (QCM-D) offers the great advantage to study the mechanical properties of cells in real-time and with a great sensitivity. Here, we used QCM-D to investigate the effects of two cytoskeleton-targeting agents, cytochalasin D (CytoD) and Y27632, on human MCF-7 cells. Cell adhesion on the sensor surface, crucial for in-flow experiments, was obtained by covalent adsorption of a fibronectin (FN) film, an extracellular matrix (ECM) protein...
April 16, 2018: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663696/interactions-of-%C3%AE-tubulin-isotypes-with-glutathione-in-differentiated-neuroblastoma-cells-subject-to-oxidative-stress
#17
Jiayan Guo, Hong Seok Kim, Reto Asmis, Richard F Ludueña
Microtubules are a major component of the neuronal cytoskeleton. Tubulin, the subunit protein of microtubules, is an α/β heterodimer. Both α and β exist as families of isotypes, whose members are encoded by different genes and have different amino acid sequences. The βII and βIII isotypes are very prominent in the nervous system. Our previous work has suggested that βII may play a role in neuronal differentiation, but the role of βIII in neurons is not well understood. In the work reported here, we examined the roles of the different β-tubulin isotypes in response to glutamate/glycine treatment, and found that both βII and βIII bind to glutathione in the presence of ROS, especially βIII...
April 16, 2018: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663616/ehrho1-regulates-phagocytosis-by-modulating-actin-dynamics-through-ehformin1-and-ehprofilin1-in-entamoeba-histolytica
#18
Ravi Bharadwaj, Shalini Sharma, Janhawi, Ranjana Arya, Sudha Bhattacharya, Alok Bhattacharya
The protist parasite Entamoeba histolytica causes amoebiasis, a major public health problem in developing countries and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Invasive infection in amoebiasis mostly affects intestinal epithelial cell lining, but can also involve other organs, such as liver, lungs or brain. Phagocytosis is an essential mode of nutrition in amoeba and has often been associated with virulence behaviour of E. histolytica. E. histolytica possesses a highly dynamic and actin-rich cytoskeleton that is thought to be involved in many processes, such as motility, pseudopod formation and pathogenesis...
April 17, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663474/effect-of-pharmacological-modulation-of-actin-and-myosin-on-collective-cell-electrotaxis
#19
Yashar Bashirzadeh, Jonathan Poole, Shizhi Qian, Venkat Maruthamuthu
Electrotaxis-the directional migration of cells in response to an electric field-is most evident in multicellular collectives and plays an important role in physiological contexts. While most cell types respond to applied electric fields of the order of a Volt per centimeter, our knowledge of the factors influencing this response is limited. This is especially true for collective cell electrotaxis, in which the subcellular migration response within a cell has to be coordinated with coupled neighboring cells...
April 17, 2018: Bioelectromagnetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663073/ultra-structure-of-the-sperm-head-to-tail-linkage-complex-in-the-absence-of-the-spermatid-specific-linc-component-spag4
#20
Kefei Yang, Ibrahim M Adham, Andreas Meinhardt, Sigrid Hoyer-Fender
Tight connection between sperm head and tail is crucial for the transport of the male genome and fertilization. The linkage complex, the sperm head-to-tail coupling apparatus (HTCA), originates from the centrosome and anchors to the nuclear membrane. In contrast to its ultra-structural organization, which is already well known for decades, its protein composition largely still awaits future deciphering. SUN-domain proteins are essential components of a complex that links the cytoskeleton to the peripheral nucleoskeleton, which is the nuclear lamina...
April 16, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
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