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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822801/microarray-gene-expression-study-in-fibroblast-and-lymphoblastoid-cell-lines-from-antipsychotic-na%C3%A3-ve-first-episode-schizophrenia-patients
#1
Patricia Gassó, Sergi Mas, Natalia Rodríguez, Daniel Boloc, Susana García-Cerro, Miquel Bernardo, Amalia Lafuente, Eduard Parellada
Schizophrenia (SZ) is a chronic psychiatric disorder whose onset of symptoms occurs in late adolescence and early adulthood. The etiology is complex and involves important gene-environment interactions. Microarray gene-expression studies on SZ have identified alterations in several biological processes. The heterogeneity in the results can be attributed to the use of different sample types and other important confounding factors including age, illness chronicity and antipsychotic exposure. The aim of the present microarray study was to analyze, for the first time to our knowledge, differences in gene expression profiles in 18 fibroblast (FCLs) and 14 lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) from antipsychotic-naïve first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients and healthy controls...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821766/protein-composition-analysis-of-polyhedra-matrix-of-bombyx-mori-nucleopolyhedrovirus-bmnpv-showed-powerful-capacity-of-polyhedra-to-encapsulate-foreign-proteins
#2
Zhong-Jian Guo, Meng-Han Yu, Xian-Yun Dong, Wei-Li Wang, Ting Tian, Xian-Yin Yu, Xu-Dong Tang
Polyhedra can encapsulate other proteins and have potential applications as protein stabilizers. The extremely stable polyhedra matrix may provide a platform for future engineered micro-crystal devices. However, the protein composition of the polyhedra matrix remains largely unknown. In this study, the occlusion-derived virus (ODV)-removed BmNPV polyhedra matrix fraction was subjected to SDS-PAGE and then an LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis using a Thermo Scientific Q Exactive mass spectrometer. In total, 28 host and 91 viral proteins were identified...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821742/rock-1-mediates-diabetes-induced-retinal-pigment-epithelial-and-endothelial-cell-blebbing-contribution-to-diabetic-retinopathy
#3
Pierre-Raphaël Rothschild, Sawsen Salah, Marianne Berdugo, Emmanuelle Gélizé, Kimberley Delaunay, Marie-Christine Naud, Christophe Klein, Alexandre Moulin, Michèle Savoldelli, Ciara Bergin, Jean-Claude Jeanny, Laurent Jonet, Yvan Arsenijevic, Francine Behar-Cohen, Patricia Crisanti
In diabetic retinopathy, the exact mechanisms leading to retinal capillary closure and to retinal barriers breakdown remain imperfectly understood. Rho-associated kinase (ROCK), an effector of the small GTPase Rho, involved in cytoskeleton dynamic regulation and cell polarity is activated by hyperglycemia. In one year-old Goto Kakizaki (GK) type 2 diabetic rats retina, ROCK-1 activation was assessed by its cellular distribution and by phosphorylation of its substrates, MYPT1 and MLC. In both GK rat and in human type 2 diabetic retinas, ROCK-1 is activated and associated with non-apoptotic membrane blebbing in retinal vessels and in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) that respectively form the inner and the outer barriers...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821434/cleavage-of-%C3%AE-dystroglycan-occurs-in-sarcoglycan-deficient-skeletal-muscle-without-mmp-2-and-mmp-9
#4
Yuta Fukai, Yutaka Ohsawa, Hideaki Ohtsubo, Shin-Ichiro Nishimatsu, Hiroki Hagiwara, Makoto Noda, Toshikuni Sasaoka, Tatsufumi Murakami, Yoshihide Sunada
BACKGROUND: The dystroglycan complex consists of two subunits: extracellular α-dystroglycan and membrane-spanning β-dystroglycan, which provide a tight link between the extracellular matrix and the intracellular cytoskeleton. Previous studies showed that 43 kDa β-dystroglycan is proteolytically cleaved into the 30 kDa fragment by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in various non-muscle tissues, whereas it is protected from cleavage in muscles by the sarcoglycan complex which resides close to the dystroglycan complex...
August 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819695/theoretical-modeling-of-mechanical-homeostasis-of-a-mammalian-cell-under-gravity-directed-vector
#5
Lüwen Zhou, Chen Zhang, Fan Zhang, Shouqin Lü, Shujin Sun, Dongyuan Lü, Mian Long
Translocation of dense nucleus along gravity vector initiates mechanical remodeling of a eukaryotic cell. In our previous experiments, we quantified the impact of gravity vector on cell remodeling by placing an MC3T3-E1 cell onto upward (U)-, downward (D)-, or edge-on (E)- orientated substrate. Our experimental data demonstrate that orientation dependence of nucleus longitudinal translocation is positively correlated with cytoskeletal (CSK) remodeling of their expressions and structures and also is associated with rearrangement of focal adhesion complex (FAC)...
August 17, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819074/-molecular-pathogenesis-of-polyglutamine-diseases
#6
Yuji Takahashi
Polyglutamine diseases result from gain-of-function mutations. The expanded polyglutamine tracts lead to conformational changes in proteins, resulting in their aggregation. The intermediates including monomers or oligomers, are more toxic than the aggregates to neurons. At the molecular level, protein misfolding, transcriptional dysregulation, deranged calcium homeostasis, impaired cytoskeleton/axonal transport, mitochondrial dysfunction, and RNA toxicity contribute to disease progression. Understanding the underlying pathogenesis facilitates development of therapy for polyglutamine diseases...
August 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818948/vinculin-forms-a-directionally-asymmetric-catch-bond-with-f-actin
#7
Derek L Huang, Nicolas A Bax, Craig D Buckley, William I Weis, Alexander R Dunn
Vinculin is an actin-binding protein thought to reinforce cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesions. However, how mechanical load affects the vinculin-F-actin bond is unclear. Using a single-molecule optical trap assay, we found that vinculin forms a force-dependent catch bond with F-actin through its tail domain, but with lifetimes that depend strongly on the direction of the applied force. Force toward the pointed (-) end of the actin filament resulted in a bond that was maximally stable at 8 piconewtons, with a mean lifetime (12 seconds) 10 times as long as the mean lifetime when force was applied toward the barbed (+) end...
August 18, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818615/deep-transcriptome-profiling-sheds-light-on-key-players-in-nucleus-implantation-induced-immune-response-in-the-pearl-oyster-pinctada-martensii
#8
Wei Wang, Yuyuan Wu, Qiannan Lei, Haiying Liang, Yuewen Deng
Immunological rejection of the pearl oysters following nucleus implantation is a major issue limiting the successful rate of cultured pearls. To date, the molecular mechanism of immune tolerance during pearl formation in the pearl oysters is still largely unknown. Through the RNA sequencing platform and comparative transcriptomic analysis, we investigated the chronic gene expression changes at seven time points (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 60 days post implantation or dpi) over a period of 60 days following nucleus implantation in the pearl oyster Pinctada martensii...
August 14, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818081/what-makes-gouty-inflammation-so-variable
#9
REVIEW
Robert Terkeltaub
Acute gout arthritis flares contribute dominantly to gout-specific impaired health-related quality of life, representing a progressively increasing public health problem. Flares can be complex and expensive to treat, partly due to the frequent comorbidities. Unmet needs in gout management are more pressing given the markedly increasing gout flare hospital admission rates. In addition, chronic gouty arthritis can cause joint damage and functional impairment. This review addresses new knowledge on the basis for the marked, inherent variability of responses to deposited urate crystals, including the unpredictable and self-limited aspects of many gout flares...
August 18, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816391/cytoskeleton-and-nucleoskeleton-involvement-in-processes-of-cytomixis-in-plants
#10
REVIEW
E A Kravets, A I Yemets, Ya B Blume
Cytomixis, is a form of cell-to-cell nuclear migration that involves the interaction of dynamic cytoskeletal components with the nucleus through signalling systems and linker complexes. In cytomixis two known mechanisms can be involved: actomyosin and/or microtubules and their associated motors. Perinuclear actin anchors and determines the direction of nuclear movement. In microsporogenesis cytomixis is probably initiated by a cascade of signals that trigger prophase reorganization of nucleus and cytoskeleton, and is a result of cytoskeletal protein activation, as well as a weakening of mechanisms responsible for anchoring the nucleus...
August 17, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816099/sex-differences-of-steroid-receptor-coactivator-1-expression-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-mice
#11
Jiayu Xiao, Jiqiang Zhang, Yangang Zhao, Wenjie Huang, Zhikai Guo, Bingyin Su, Qiang Guo
OBJECTIVE: The neural functional recovery of female is often better than that of male after spinal cord injury (SCI). Evidences show that estrogen can attenuate inflammation and promote the neural survival and regeneration after SCI. SRC-1 is an essential initiation factor for the estrogen-regulated target gene transcription and plays a key role in regulating estrogen activity. However, it is not known whether and how SRC-1 mediates the neural regeneration promoted by estrogen after SCI...
August 17, 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815725/p2y6-regulates-cytoskeleton-reorganization-and-cell-migration-of-c2c12-myoblasts-via-rock-pathway
#12
Wei Wang, Mengjie Chen, Yingna Gao, Xianmin Song, Hongliang Zheng, Kaiyong Zhang, Bimeng Zhang, Donghui Chen
Migration of skeletal muscle precursor cells is required for limb muscle development and skeletal muscle repair. This study aimed to examine the role of P2Y6 receptor in C2C12 myoblasts migration. C2C12 myoblasts were treated with P2Y6 agonist UDP, P2Y6 antagonist MRS2578, Ca(2+) channel blocker BTP2, or ROCK inhibitor GSK269962 or Y27632, and the migration ability of C2C12 cells was assessed by wound healing assay. The cellular Ca(2+) content was analyzed with fluo-4 probe and the activation of ROCK (phosphorlyation of LIMK and cofilin) was assayed by western blot...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815590/juxtanodin-in-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells-expression-and-biological-activities-in-regulating-cell-morphology-and-actin-cytoskeleton-organization
#13
Fengyi Liang, Ji Hyun Hwang, Nicholas Weiwei Tang, Walter Hunziker
Juxtanodin (also known as ermin) was initially identified as an actin cytoskeleton-related oligodendroglial protein in the rat central nervous system. It was subsequently also found in the rat olfactory neuroepithelium, especially at the apical junctional belt of the sustentacular cells. We further examined juxtanodin expression and functional roles in the retina using fluorescence histochemistry, confocal microscopy, immuno-electron microscopy, molecular biology and cell culture. Prominent juxtanodin expression was found in the photoreceptor-supporting retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), especially in a zone corresponding to the apices of RPE cells, at the roots of the RPE microvilli, and at the base of RPE cells next to the Bruch's membrane...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815520/regulation-of-mitochondrial-dynamics-and-autophagy-by-the-mitochondria-associated-membrane
#14
Mitsuo Tagaya, Kohei Arasaki
Mitochondria are powerhouses and central to metabolism in cells. They are highly dynamic organelles that continuously fuse, divide, and move along the cytoskeleton to form the mitochondrial network. The fusion and fission are catalyzed by four dynamin-related GTPases in mammals that are controlled by a variety of protein-protein interactions and posttranslational modifications. Mitochondrial dynamics and metabolism are linked and regulate each other. Starvation induces mitochondrial elongation, which enables the mitochondria to produce energy more efficiently and to escape from autophagic degradation...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814817/conjugated-polymers-mediate-effective-activation-of-the-mammalian-ion-channel-transient-receptor-potential-vanilloid-1
#15
F Lodola, N Martino, G Tullii, G Lanzani, M R Antognazza
Selective and rapid regulation of ionic channels is pivotal to the understanding of physiological processes and has a crucial impact in developing novel therapeutic strategies. Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels are emerging as essential cellular switches that allow animals to respond to their environment. In particular, the Vanilloid Receptor 1 (TRPV1), besides being involved in the body temperature regulation and in the response to pain, has important roles in several neuronal functions, as cytoskeleton dynamics, injured neurons regeneration, synaptic plasticity...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814668/injury-induced-actin-cytoskeleton-reorganization-in-podocytes-revealed-by-super-resolution-microscopy
#16
Hani Y Suleiman, Robyn Roth, Sanjay Jain, John E Heuser, Andrey S Shaw, Jeffrey H Miner
The architectural integrity of tissues requires complex interactions, both between cells and between cells and the extracellular matrix. Fundamental to cell and tissue homeostasis are the specific mechanical forces conveyed by the actomyosin cytoskeleton. Here we used super-resolution imaging methods to visualize the actin cytoskeleton in the kidney glomerulus, an organized collection of capillaries that filters the blood to make the primary urine. Our analysis of both mouse and human glomeruli reveals a network of myosin IIA-containing contractile actin cables within podocyte cell bodies and major processes at the outer aspects of the glomerular tuft...
August 17, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812227/effects-of-fluoride-on-surface-structure-of-primary-culture-leydig-cells-in-mouse
#17
Jian Li, Yan Shi, Hua Fan, Yanyan Li, Yuchen Zhu, Xijun Lin, Jianhai Zhang
Fluoride (F) is known to induce reproduction toxicity, and the elucidation of its underlying mechanisms is an ongoing research. These findings aim to provide deeper insights into roles of soduim fluoride (NaF) in testis damage, which could contribute to a better understanding of fluoride-induced male reproductive toxicity. The Leydig cells were administrated by 0, 5, 10, and 20 mg/L NaF for 24 h, respectively. Scanning electron microscope was used to identify the change of surface structure in the Leydig cells...
August 15, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812094/force-percolation-of-contractile-active-gels
#18
REVIEW
José Alvarado, Michael Sheinman, Abhinav Sharma, Fred C MacKintosh, Gijsje H Koenderink
Living systems provide a paradigmatic example of active soft matter. Cells and tissues comprise viscoelastic materials that exert forces and can actively change shape. This strikingly autonomous behavior is powered by the cytoskeleton, an active gel of semiflexible filaments, crosslinks, and molecular motors inside cells. Although individual motors are only a few nm in size and exert minute forces of a few pN, cells spatially integrate the activity of an ensemble of motors to produce larger contractile forces (∼nN and greater) on cellular, tissue, and organismal length scales...
August 16, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811865/oxidative-biochemistry-disbalance-and-changes-on-proteomic-profile-in-salivary-glands-of-rats-induced-by-chronic-exposure-to-methylmercury
#19
Leonardo Oliveira Bittencourt, Bruna Puty, Senda Charone, Walessa Alana Bragança Aragão, Paulo Mecenas Farias-Junior, Marcia Cristina Freitas Silva, Maria Elena Crespo-Lopez, Aline de Lima Leite, Marilia Afonso Rabelo Buzalaf, Rafael Rodrigues Lima
Methylmercury (MeHg) is one of the most toxic mercury species, which can cause many systemic damages, but little is known about its effect in the salivary glands. This study aimed to analyze the mercury levels, oxidative stress, and proteomic profile in parotid, submandibular, and sublingual salivary glands of rats, after chronic MeHg intoxication. Two groups of twenty male Wistar rats (90 days of age) were used on the experiment. MeHg group was intoxicated by intragastric gavage with MeHg at a dose of 0.04 mg/kg/day for 60 days, while the control group received only oil...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811617/cell-surface-binding-uptaking-and-anticancer-activity-of-l-k6-a-lysine-leucine-rich-peptide-on-human-breast-cancer-mcf-7-cells
#20
Che Wang, Shaodan Dong, Lin Zhang, Ying Zhao, Lili Huang, Xiange Gong, He Wang, Dejing Shang
Cell surface binding and internalization are critical for the specific targeting and biofunctions of some cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAPs) with anticancer activities. However, the detailed cellular process for CAPs interacting with cancer cells and the exact molecular basis for their anticancer effects are still far from being fully understood. In the present study, we examined the cell surface binding, uptaking and anti-cancer activity of L-K6, a lysine/leucine-rich CAP, in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
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