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"Hunter gatherer diet"

John Kappelman, Dereje Tewabe, Lawrence Todd, Mulugeta Feseha, Marvin Kay, Gary Kocurek, Brett Nachman, Neil Tabor, Meklit Yadeta
Aquatic food resources are important components of many modern human hunter-gatherer diets and yet evidence attesting to the widespread exploitation of this food type appears rather late in the archaeological record. While there are times when, for example, the capture of fish and shellfish requires sophisticated technology, there are other cases when the exact ecological attributes of an individual species and the particulars of its environment make it possible for these foods to be incorporated into the human diet with little or no tool use and only a minimal time investment...
December 2014: Journal of Human Evolution
Alexander Ströhle, Andreas Hahn
In the past, attempts have been made to estimate the carbohydrate contents of preagricultural human diets. Those estimations have primarily been based on interpretations of ethnographic data of modern hunter-gatherers. In this study, it was hypothesized that diets of modern hunter-gatherers vary in their carbohydrate content depending on ecoenvironments. Thus, using data of plant-to-animal subsistence ratios, we calculated the carbohydrate intake (percentage of the total energy) in 229 hunter-gatherer diets throughout the world and determined how differences in ecological environments altered carbohydrate intake...
June 2011: Nutrition Research
Melvin Konner, S Boyd Eaton
A quarter century has passed since the first publication of the evolutionary discordance hypothesis, according to which departures from the nutrition and activity patterns of our hunter-gatherer ancestors have contributed greatly and in specifically definable ways to the endemic chronic diseases of modern civilization. Refinements of the model have changed it in some respects, but anthropological evidence continues to indicate that ancestral human diets prevalent during our evolution were characterized by much lower levels of refined carbohydrates and sodium, much higher levels of fiber and protein, and comparable levels of fat (primarily unsaturated fat) and cholesterol...
December 2010: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
Alexander Ströhle, Andreas Hahn, Anthony Sebastian
BACKGROUND: Past estimations of the net base-producing nature of the Paleolithic "Diet of Evolutionary Adaptedness" derived primarily from interpretations of ethnographic data of modern historically studied hunter-gatherers. In our recent ethnographic analyses, we observed large variations in diet-dependent net endogenous acid production (NEAP) among hunter-gatherer diets. OBJECTIVE: We proposed to determine whether differences in ecologic environments influence estimations of NEAP...
October 2010: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Alexander Ströhle, Andreas Hahn, Anthony Sebastian
BACKGROUND: Nutrition scientists are showing growing interest in the diet patterns of preagricultural (hunter-gatherer) humans. Retrojected preagricultural diets are reportedly predominantly net base producing in contrast to the net acid-producing modern Western diets. OBJECTIVE: We examined the dietary net acid load [net endogenous acid production (NEAP)] for 229 worldwide historically studied hunter-gatherer societies to determine how differences in plant-to-animal (P:A) dietary subsistence patterns and differences in the percentage of body fat in prey animals affect the NEAP...
February 2010: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Christopher Naugler
The Neolithic period in Europe marked the transition from a hunter-gatherer diet rich in red meat to an iron-reduced cereal grain diet. This dietary shift likely resulted in an increased incidence of iron deficiency anemia, especially in women of reproductive age. I propose that hereditary hemochromatosis and in particular the common HFE C282Y mutation may represent an adaptation to decreased dietary iron in cereal grain-based Neolithic diets. Both homozygous and heterozygous carriers of the HFE C282Y mutation have increased iron stores and therefore possessed an adaptive advantage under Neolithic conditions...
2008: Medical Hypotheses
M Osterdahl, T Kocturk, A Koochek, P E Wändell
OBJECTIVES: Prevention of cardiovascular diseases by paleolithic or hunter-gatherer diets has been discussed during recent years. METHODS: Our aim was to assess the effect of a paleolithic diet in a pilot study on healthy volunteers during 3 weeks. The intention was to include 20 subjects, of whom 14 fulfilled the study. Complete dietary assessment was available for six subjects. RESULTS: Mean weight decreased by 2.3 kg (P<0.001), body mass index by 0...
May 2008: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Tommy Jönsson, Stefan Olsson, Bo Ahrén, Thorkild C Bøg-Hansen, Anita Dole, Staffan Lindeberg
BACKGROUND: The global pattern of varying prevalence of diseases of affluence, such as obesity, cardiovascular disease and diabetes, suggests that some environmental factor specific to agrarian societies could initiate these diseases. PRESENTATION OF THE HYPOTHESIS: We propose that a cereal-based diet could be such an environmental factor. Through previous studies in archaeology and molecular evolution we conclude that humans and the human leptin system are not specifically adapted to a cereal-based diet, and that leptin resistance associated with diseases of affluence could be a sign of insufficient adaptation to such a diet...
2005: BMC Endocrine Disorders
Marianne Haag, Nola G Dippenaar
Insulin resistance is a growing worldwide phenomenon, which progressively develops over years, and finally, if unchecked, predisposes to cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus type 2. Insulin resistance is a generalized metabolic disorder characterized by inefficient insulin function in skeletal muscle, liver and adipocytes. There is growing evidence that an increased free fatty acid level, and more importantly, the relative amounts of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids contributing to it, plays an important role in the development of insulin resistance...
December 2005: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
L Cordain, S B Eaton, J Brand Miller, N Mann, K Hill
OBJECTIVE: Field studies of twentieth century hunter-gathers (HG) showed them to be generally free of the signs and symptoms of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Consequently, the characterization of HG diets may have important implications in designing therapeutic diets that reduce the risk for CVD in Westernized societies. Based upon limited ethnographic data (n=58 HG societies) and a single quantitative dietary study, it has been commonly inferred that gathered plant foods provided the dominant energy source in HG diets...
March 2002: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
L Cordain, J B Miller, S B Eaton, N Mann, S H Holt, J D Speth
Both anthropologists and nutritionists have long recognized that the diets of modern-day hunter-gatherers may represent a reference standard for modern human nutrition and a model for defense against certain diseases of affluence. Because the hunter-gatherer way of life is now probably extinct in its purely un-Westernized form, nutritionists and anthropologists must rely on indirect procedures to reconstruct the traditional diet of preagricultural humans. In this analysis, we incorporate the most recent ethnographic compilation of plant-to-animal economic subsistence patterns of hunter-gatherers to estimate likely dietary macronutrient intakes (% of energy) for environmentally diverse hunter-gatherer populations...
March 2000: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
K Milton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2000: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
A S Truswell
Nutrition research cannot improve people's health until the results influence their purchases and consumption of food and drink. There is much noise in the food information system. The most efficient solution to the problem of insufficient or conflicting public information is for all the data to be critically evaluated by a well-balanced expert committee convened by an authoritative body to produce dietary guidelines for wide publication. Such guidelines in different countries have many similar elements. Guidelines cannot be revised every year, but should be adapted only in response to major new research findings rather than to reports about nutrition in the media, which are no more than trivial distractions...
March 1998: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
K O'Dea
1. Aborigines from all over Australia develop unusually high prevalence rates for obesity, non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and cardiovascular disease when they make the transition from their traditional hunter-gatherer lifestyle to a Westernized lifestyle. 2. There is no evidence that they experienced these diseases as hunter-gatherers. Data from the few extant traditionally orientated groups in very remote areas of northern Australia indicate that they were very lean (BMI less than 20 kg/m2), with low blood pressure, and that neither blood pressure nor BMI rose with age...
February 1991: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
K H Christiansen
Serum concentrations of testosterone (Tser), 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estradiol 17 beta (E2), and free testosterone in saliva (Tsal) were determined by means of the radioimmunoassay method in 114 !Kung San men living in the Bushmanland district of Namibia. The healthy men (mean age 26.4 years) were asked about their dietary habits over the last two months and their acute alcohol intake during the 24 hours preceding the blood and saliva sampling. Although the sex hormone status of the !Kung lies within the range of normal men reported for Caucasoid samples, both Tser and Tsal exhibit relatively low concentrations in comparison to the great majority of published mean values...
September 1991: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
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