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Hunter gatherer diet

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317553/dietary-reconstruction-of-the-el-sidr%C3%A3-n-neandertal-familial-group%C3%A2-spain-in-the-context-of-other-neandertal-and-modern-hunter-gatherer-groups-a-molar-microwear-texture-analysis
#1
Almudena Estalrrich, Sireen El Zaatari, Antonio Rosas
Here, we present the analysis of occlusal molar microwear textures of eight individuals from the El Sidrón Neandertal group (Spain). The aims of the study were: 1) to document potential age-, sex-, and maternal lineage-related differences in diet within a Neandertal familial group, and 2) to place the diet of El Sidrón individuals in the context of those of other Neandertal groups. This study also offers an interpretation of the diet of the El Sidrón Neandertals by comparing their microwear signatures to those of recent hunter-gatherer populations with diverse but known diets...
March 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296885/oral-health-in-transition-the-hadza-foragers-of-tanzania
#2
Alyssa N Crittenden, John Sorrentino, Sheniz A Moonie, Mika Peterson, Audax Mabulla, Peter S Ungar
Conventional wisdom holds that a decline in oral health accompanies the transition from hunting and gathering to agriculture, given increased consumption of carbohydrates. This widely touted example of the mismatch between our biology and modern lifestyle has been intuited largely from the bioarchaeological record of the Neolithic Revolution in the New World. Recent studies of other populations have, however, challenged the universality of this assertion. Here, we present the first comprehensive study of oral health among a living population in transition from the bush to village life, the Hadza hunter-gatherers of Tanzania, to test the hypothesis that the shift from foraging to farming, or agricultural intensification, inevitably leads to increased periodontal disease, caries, and orthodontic disorders...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109124/domestication-and-human-demographic-history-in-south-america
#3
S Ivan Perez, María Bárbara Postillone, Diego Rindel
OBJECTIVES: The early groups of hunter-gatherers who peopled South America faced significant ecological changes in their trophic niche for a relatively short period after the initial peopling. In particular, the incorporation of cultigens during the Holocene led to a wider trophic niche and probably to an increased carrying capacity of the environment. Here, we study the relationship between the incorporation of domestic resources during the Holocene and the demographic dynamics of human populations at a regional scale in South America...
January 21, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105723/current-views-on-hunter-gatherer-nutrition-and-the-evolution-of-the-human-diet
#4
Alyssa N Crittenden, Stephanie L Schnorr
Diet composition and food choice are not only central to the daily lives of all living people, but are consistently linked with turning points in human evolutionary history. As such, scholars from a wide range of fields have taken great interest in the role that subsistence has played in both human cultural and biological evolution. Central to this discussion is the diet composition and nutrition of contemporary hunters and gatherers, who are frequently conscripted as model populations for ancestral human nutrition...
January 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070563/gut-microbiome-of-the-canadian-arctic-inuit
#5
Catherine Girard, Nicolas Tromas, Marc Amyot, B Jesse Shapiro
Diet is a major determinant of community composition in the human gut microbiome, and "traditional" diets have been associated with distinct and highly diverse communities, compared to Western diets. However, most traditional diets studied have been those of agrarians and hunter-gatherers consuming fiber-rich diets. In contrast, the Inuit of the Canadian Arctic have been consuming a traditional diet low in carbohydrates and rich in animal fats and protein for thousands of years. We hypothesized that the Inuit diet and lifestyle would be associated with a distinct microbiome...
January 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991880/earliest-direct-evidence-of-plant-processing-in-prehistoric-saharan-pottery
#6
Julie Dunne, Anna Maria Mercuri, Richard P Evershed, Silvia Bruni, Savino di Lernia
The invention of thermally resistant ceramic cooking vessels around 15,000 years ago was a major advance in human diet and nutrition(1-3), opening up new food groups and preparation techniques. Previous investigations of lipid biomarkers contained in food residues have routinely demonstrated the importance of prehistoric cooking pots for the processing of animal products across the world(4). Remarkably, however, direct evidence for plant processing in prehistoric pottery has not been forthcoming, despite the potential to cook otherwise unpalatable or even toxic plants(2,5)...
December 19, 2016: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960261/a-concise-history-of-mycotoxin-research
#7
John I Pitt, J David Miller
Toxigenic fungi and mycotoxins entered human food supplies about the time when mankind first began to cultivate crops and to store them from one season to the next, perhaps 10,000 years ago. The storage of cereals probably initiated the transition by mankind from hunter-gatherer to cultivator, at the same time providing a vast new ecological niche for fungi pathogenic on grain crops or saprophytic on harvested grain, many of which produced mycotoxins. Grains have always been the major source of mycotoxins in the diet of man and his domestic animals...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900469/holocene-changes-in-the-trophic-ecology-of-an-apex-marine-predator-in-the-south-atlantic-ocean
#8
Damián G Vales, Luis Cardona, Atilio F Zangrando, Florencia Borella, Fabiana Saporiti, R Natalie P Goodall, Larissa Rosa de Oliveira, Enrique A Crespo
Predators may modify their diets as a result of both anthropogenic and natural environmental changes. Stable isotope ratios of nitrogen and carbon in bone collagen have been used to reconstruct the foraging ecology of South American fur seals (Arctocephalus australis) in the southwestern South Atlantic Ocean since the Middle Holocene, a region inhabited by hunter-gatherers by millennia and modified by two centuries of whaling, sealing and fishing. Results suggest that the isotopic niche of fur seals from Patagonia has not changed over the last two millennia (average for the period: δ(13)C2200-0BP = -13...
November 29, 2016: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891602/cannabimimetic-phytochemicals-in-the-diet-an-evolutionary-link-to-food-selection-and-metabolic-stress-adaptation
#9
REVIEW
Jürg Gertsch
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a major lipid signalling network that plays important pro-homeostatic (allostatic) roles not only in the nervous system but also in peripheral organs. There is increasing evidence that there is a dietary component in the modulation of the ECS. Cannabinoid receptors in hominids co-evolved with diet, and the ECS constitutes a feedback loop for food selection and energy metabolism. Here, it is postulated that the mismatch of ancient lipid genes of hunter-gatherers and pastoralists with the high-carbohydrate diet introduced by agriculture could be compensated for via dietary modulation of the ECS...
November 27, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886812/foraging-potential-of-underground-storage-organ-plants-in-the-southern-cape-south-africa
#10
Elzanne Singels, Alastair J Potts, Richard M Cowling, Curtis W Marean, Jan De Vynck, Karen J Esler
Underground storage organs (USOs) serve as a staple source of carbohydrates for many hunter-gatherer societies and they feature prominently in discussions of diets of early modern humans. While the way of life of hunter-gatherers in South Africa's Cape no longer exists, there is extensive ethnographic, historical, and archaeological evidence of hunter-gatherers' use of USOs. This is to be expected, given that the Cape supports the largest concentration of plant species with USOs globally. The southern Cape is the location of several Middle Stone Age sites that are highly significant to research on the origins of behaviourally modern humans, and this provided the context for our research...
December 2016: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624970/fecal-metabolome-of-the-hadza-hunter-gatherers-a-host-microbiome-integrative-view
#11
Silvia Turroni, Jessica Fiori, Simone Rampelli, Stephanie L Schnorr, Clarissa Consolandi, Monica Barone, Elena Biagi, Flaminia Fanelli, Marco Mezzullo, Alyssa N Crittenden, Amanda G Henry, Patrizia Brigidi, Marco Candela
The recent characterization of the gut microbiome of traditional rural and foraging societies allowed us to appreciate the essential co-adaptive role of the microbiome in complementing our physiology, opening up significant questions on how the microbiota changes that have occurred in industrialized urban populations may have altered the microbiota-host co-metabolic network, contributing to the growing list of Western diseases. Here, we applied a targeted metabolomics approach to profile the fecal metabolome of the Hadza of Tanzania, one of the world's few remaining foraging populations, and compared them to the profiles of urban living Italians, as representative of people in the post-industrialized West...
September 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27508584/-op-8e-03-relation-between-24-hours-urinary-sodium-and-potassium-excretion-and-blood-pressure-in-rural-and-urban-pygmies-and-bantus-of-southern-cameroon
#12
D Lemogoum, Y Hako, C Bika Lele, C Okalla, J Dissongo, J M'buyamba-Kabangu, J Degaute, M Leeman, P van de Borne
OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between 24 hours urinary sodium and potassium excretion with blood pressure (BP) in rural and urban pygmies and Bantus of southern Cameroon. DESIGN AND METHOD: In this cross-sectional survey, we compared 100 traditional pygmies (TP) living in equatorial forest (Lolodorf) and their 100 neighbors traditional Bantus (TB) living in Bidjouka village, to 100 contemporary pygmies (CP) and 100 contemporary Bantus (CB) both living in urban environment in Kribi city...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27462302/variations-in-the-post-weaning-human-gut-metagenome-profile-as-result-of-bifidobacterium-acquisition-in-the-western-microbiome
#13
Matteo Soverini, Simone Rampelli, Silvia Turroni, Stephanie L Schnorr, Sara Quercia, Andrea Castagnetti, Elena Biagi, Patrizia Brigidi, Marco Candela
Studies of the gut microbiome variation among human populations revealed the existence of robust compositional and functional layouts matching the three subsistence strategies that describe a trajectory of changes across our recent evolutionary history: hunting and gathering, rural agriculture, and urban post-industrialized agriculture. In particular, beside the overall reduction of ecosystem diversity, the gut microbiome of Western industrial populations is typically characterized by the loss of Treponema and the acquisition of Bifidobacterium as an abundant inhabitant of the post-weaning gut microbial ecosystem...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27319035/is-there-a-relationship-between-nutrition-facial-development-and-crowding-of-the-teeth
#14
Monika Tyszkowski
Nutrition plays an important role, especially key vitamins D3 and K2 which are necessary for proper dentofacial development and food consistency influence on crowding and dental arches narrowing. Changes in our dentition and facial appearance are caused by changing our diet from primitive hunter gatherer to a more modern industrialized agriculture. Nutrition and its impact on epigeneticaly- mediated mechanisms continuously shape our phenotype which impacts overall health and can reverse the path for overall health and facial bone development...
2016: International Journal of Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27166918/physical-burden-and-lower-limb-bone-structure-at-the-origin-of-agriculture-in-the-levant
#15
Hila May, Christopher Ruff
OBJECTIVES: To examine the femoral midshaft morphological characteristics in hunter-gathering Natufian and farming Pre-pottery Neolithic (PPN) populations in the southern Levant and relate these to changes in mobility, physical stress, and diet. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 32 Natufian, 41 PPNB, and 26 PPNC femora, dating from 14,900 to 8,250 cal BP, were studied. Femoral diaphyseal cross-sectional images were obtained from CT scans. Dedicated software was used to measure cross-sectional breadths, areas, cortical bone thickness, rigidity, and strength...
September 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26919277/comparative-analysis-of-dentognathic-pathologies-in-the-dmanisi-mandibles
#16
Ann Margvelashvili, Christoph P E Zollikofer, David Lordkipanidze, Paul Tafforeau, Marcia S Ponce de León
OBJECTIVES: Due to the scarcity of the fossil record, in vivo changes in the dentognathic system of early Homo are typically documented at the level of individual fossil specimens, and it remains difficult to draw population-level inferences about dietary habits, diet-related activities and lifestyle from individual patterns of dentognathic alterations. The Plio-Pleistocene hominin sample from Dmanisi (Georgia), dated to 1.77 million years ago, offers a unique opportunity to study in vivo changes in the dentognathic system of individuals belonging to a single paleodeme of early Homo...
June 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26626156/metabolic-and-physiologic-improvements-from-consuming-a-paleolithic-hunter-gatherer-type-diet
#17
L A Frassetto, M Schloetter, M Mietus-Synder, R C Morris, A Sebastian
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2015: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26619199/variation-in-rural-african-gut-microbiota-is-strongly-correlated-with-colonization-by-entamoeba-and-subsistence
#18
Elise R Morton, Joshua Lynch, Alain Froment, Sophie Lafosse, Evelyne Heyer, Molly Przeworski, Ran Blekhman, Laure Ségurel
The human gut microbiota is impacted by host nutrition and health status and therefore represents a potentially adaptive phenotype influenced by metabolic and immune constraints. Previous studies contrasting rural populations in developing countries to urban industrialized ones have shown that industrialization is strongly correlated with patterns in human gut microbiota; however, we know little about the relative contribution of factors such as climate, diet, medicine, hygiene practices, host genetics, and parasitism...
November 2015: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26606684/adverse-effects-of-wheat-gluten
#19
Frits Koning
Man began to consume cereals approximately 10,000 years ago when hunter-gatherers settled in the fertile golden crescent in the Middle East. Gluten has been an integral part of the Western type of diet ever since, and wheat consumption is also common in the Middle East, parts of India and China as well as Australia and Africa. In fact, the food supply in the world heavily depends on the availability of cereal-based food products, with wheat being one of the largest crops in the world. Part of this is due to the unique properties of wheat gluten, which has a high nutritional value and is crucial for the preparation of high-quality dough...
2015: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26279451/carbon-isotope-ratios-of-human-tooth-enamel-record-the-evidence-of-terrestrial-resource-consumption-during-the-jomon-period-japan
#20
Soichiro Kusaka, Kevin T Uno, Takanori Nakano, Masato Nakatsukasa, Thure E Cerling
OBJECTIVE: Archaeological remains strongly suggest that the Holocene Japanese hunter-gatherers, the Jomon people, utilized terrestrial plants as their primary food source. However, carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis of bone collagen indicates that they primarily exploited marine resources. We hypothesize that this inconsistency stems from the route of protein synthesis and the different proportions of protein-derived carbon in tooth enamel versus bone collagen. Carbon isotope ratios from bone collagen reflect that of dietary protein and may provide a biased signal of diet, whereas isotope ratios from tooth enamel reflect the integrated diet from all macronutrients (carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins)...
August 17, 2015: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
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