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Hunter gatherer diet

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900469/holocene-changes-in-the-trophic-ecology-of-an-apex-marine-predator-in-the-south-atlantic-ocean
#1
Damián G Vales, Luis Cardona, Atilio F Zangrando, Florencia Borella, Fabiana Saporiti, R Natalie P Goodall, Larissa Rosa de Oliveira, Enrique A Crespo
Predators may modify their diets as a result of both anthropogenic and natural environmental changes. Stable isotope ratios of nitrogen and carbon in bone collagen have been used to reconstruct the foraging ecology of South American fur seals (Arctocephalus australis) in the southwestern South Atlantic Ocean since the Middle Holocene, a region inhabited by hunter-gatherers by millennia and modified by two centuries of whaling, sealing and fishing. Results suggest that the isotopic niche of fur seals from Patagonia has not changed over the last two millennia (average for the period: δ(13)C2200-0BP = -13...
November 29, 2016: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891602/cannabimimetic-phytochemicals-in-the-diet-an-evolutionary-link-to-food-selection-and-metabolic-stress-adaptation
#2
REVIEW
Jürg Gertsch
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a major lipid signaling network that plays important pro-homeostatic (allostatic) roles not only in the nervous system but in peripheral organs. Increasing evidence points towards a dietary component in the modulation of the ECS. Cannabinoid receptors in hominids co-evolved with diet and the ECS constitutes a feedback loop for food selection and energy metabolism. Here it is postulated that the mismatch of ancient lipid genes of hunter-gatheres and pastoralists with the high carbohydrate diet introduced by agriculture could be compensated via dietary modulation of the ECS...
November 27, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886812/foraging-potential-of-underground-storage-organ-plants-in-the-southern-cape-south-africa
#3
Elzanne Singels, Alastair J Potts, Richard M Cowling, Curtis W Marean, Jan De Vynck, Karen J Esler
Underground storage organs (USOs) serve as a staple source of carbohydrates for many hunter-gatherer societies and they feature prominently in discussions of diets of early modern humans. While the way of life of hunter-gatherers in South Africa's Cape no longer exists, there is extensive ethnographic, historical, and archaeological evidence of hunter-gatherers' use of USOs. This is to be expected, given that the Cape supports the largest concentration of plant species with USOs globally. The southern Cape is the location of several Middle Stone Age sites that are highly significant to research on the origins of behaviourally modern humans, and this provided the context for our research...
December 2016: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624970/fecal-metabolome-of-the-hadza-hunter-gatherers-a-host-microbiome-integrative-view
#4
Silvia Turroni, Jessica Fiori, Simone Rampelli, Stephanie L Schnorr, Clarissa Consolandi, Monica Barone, Elena Biagi, Flaminia Fanelli, Marco Mezzullo, Alyssa N Crittenden, Amanda G Henry, Patrizia Brigidi, Marco Candela
The recent characterization of the gut microbiome of traditional rural and foraging societies allowed us to appreciate the essential co-adaptive role of the microbiome in complementing our physiology, opening up significant questions on how the microbiota changes that have occurred in industrialized urban populations may have altered the microbiota-host co-metabolic network, contributing to the growing list of Western diseases. Here, we applied a targeted metabolomics approach to profile the fecal metabolome of the Hadza of Tanzania, one of the world's few remaining foraging populations, and compared them to the profiles of urban living Italians, as representative of people in the post-industrialized West...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27508584/-op-8e-03-relation-between-24-hours-urinary-sodium-and-potassium-excretion-and-blood-pressure-in-rural-and-urban-pygmies-and-bantus-of-southern-cameroon
#5
D Lemogoum, Y Hako, C Bika Lele, C Okalla, J Dissongo, J M'buyamba-Kabangu, J Degaute, M Leeman, P van de Borne
OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between 24 hours urinary sodium and potassium excretion with blood pressure (BP) in rural and urban pygmies and Bantus of southern Cameroon. DESIGN AND METHOD: In this cross-sectional survey, we compared 100 traditional pygmies (TP) living in equatorial forest (Lolodorf) and their 100 neighbors traditional Bantus (TB) living in Bidjouka village, to 100 contemporary pygmies (CP) and 100 contemporary Bantus (CB) both living in urban environment in Kribi city...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27462302/variations-in-the-post-weaning-human-gut-metagenome-profile-as-result-of-bifidobacterium-acquisition-in-the-western-microbiome
#6
Matteo Soverini, Simone Rampelli, Silvia Turroni, Stephanie L Schnorr, Sara Quercia, Andrea Castagnetti, Elena Biagi, Patrizia Brigidi, Marco Candela
Studies of the gut microbiome variation among human populations revealed the existence of robust compositional and functional layouts matching the three subsistence strategies that describe a trajectory of changes across our recent evolutionary history: hunting and gathering, rural agriculture, and urban post-industrialized agriculture. In particular, beside the overall reduction of ecosystem diversity, the gut microbiome of Western industrial populations is typically characterized by the loss of Treponema and the acquisition of Bifidobacterium as an abundant inhabitant of the post-weaning gut microbial ecosystem...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27319035/is-there-a-relationship-between-nutrition-facial-development-and-crowding-of-the-teeth
#7
Monika Tyszkowski
Nutrition plays an important role, especially key vitamins D3 and K2 which are necessary for proper dentofacial development and food consistency influence on crowding and dental arches narrowing. Changes in our dentition and facial appearance are caused by changing our diet from primitive hunter gatherer to a more modern industrialized agriculture. Nutrition and its impact on epigeneticaly- mediated mechanisms continuously shape our phenotype which impacts overall health and can reverse the path for overall health and facial bone development...
2016: International Journal of Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27166918/physical-burden-and-lower-limb-bone-structure-at-the-origin-of-agriculture-in-the-levant
#8
Hila May, Christopher Ruff
OBJECTIVES: To examine the femoral midshaft morphological characteristics in hunter-gathering Natufian and farming Pre-pottery Neolithic (PPN) populations in the southern Levant and relate these to changes in mobility, physical stress, and diet. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 32 Natufian, 41 PPNB, and 26 PPNC femora, dating from 14,900 to 8,250 cal BP, were studied. Femoral diaphyseal cross-sectional images were obtained from CT scans. Dedicated software was used to measure cross-sectional breadths, areas, cortical bone thickness, rigidity, and strength...
September 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26919277/comparative-analysis-of-dentognathic-pathologies-in-the-dmanisi-mandibles
#9
Ann Margvelashvili, Christoph P E Zollikofer, David Lordkipanidze, Paul Tafforeau, Marcia S Ponce de León
OBJECTIVES: Due to the scarcity of the fossil record, in vivo changes in the dentognathic system of early Homo are typically documented at the level of individual fossil specimens, and it remains difficult to draw population-level inferences about dietary habits, diet-related activities and lifestyle from individual patterns of dentognathic alterations. The Plio-Pleistocene hominin sample from Dmanisi (Georgia), dated to 1.77 million years ago, offers a unique opportunity to study in vivo changes in the dentognathic system of individuals belonging to a single paleodeme of early Homo...
June 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26626156/metabolic-and-physiologic-improvements-from-consuming-a-paleolithic-hunter-gatherer-type-diet
#10
L A Frassetto, M Schloetter, M Mietus-Synder, R C Morris, A Sebastian
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2015: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26619199/variation-in-rural-african-gut-microbiota-is-strongly-correlated-with-colonization-by-entamoeba-and-subsistence
#11
Elise R Morton, Joshua Lynch, Alain Froment, Sophie Lafosse, Evelyne Heyer, Molly Przeworski, Ran Blekhman, Laure Ségurel
The human gut microbiota is impacted by host nutrition and health status and therefore represents a potentially adaptive phenotype influenced by metabolic and immune constraints. Previous studies contrasting rural populations in developing countries to urban industrialized ones have shown that industrialization is strongly correlated with patterns in human gut microbiota; however, we know little about the relative contribution of factors such as climate, diet, medicine, hygiene practices, host genetics, and parasitism...
November 2015: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26606684/adverse-effects-of-wheat-gluten
#12
Frits Koning
Man began to consume cereals approximately 10,000 years ago when hunter-gatherers settled in the fertile golden crescent in the Middle East. Gluten has been an integral part of the Western type of diet ever since, and wheat consumption is also common in the Middle East, parts of India and China as well as Australia and Africa. In fact, the food supply in the world heavily depends on the availability of cereal-based food products, with wheat being one of the largest crops in the world. Part of this is due to the unique properties of wheat gluten, which has a high nutritional value and is crucial for the preparation of high-quality dough...
2015: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26279451/carbon-isotope-ratios-of-human-tooth-enamel-record-the-evidence-of-terrestrial-resource-consumption-during-the-jomon-period-japan
#13
Soichiro Kusaka, Kevin T Uno, Takanori Nakano, Masato Nakatsukasa, Thure E Cerling
OBJECTIVE: Archaeological remains strongly suggest that the Holocene Japanese hunter-gatherers, the Jomon people, utilized terrestrial plants as their primary food source. However, carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis of bone collagen indicates that they primarily exploited marine resources. We hypothesize that this inconsistency stems from the route of protein synthesis and the different proportions of protein-derived carbon in tooth enamel versus bone collagen. Carbon isotope ratios from bone collagen reflect that of dietary protein and may provide a biased signal of diet, whereas isotope ratios from tooth enamel reflect the integrated diet from all macronutrients (carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins)...
August 17, 2015: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26250356/dietary-practices-in-ancient-populations-from-northern-chile-during-the-transition-to-agriculture-tarapac%C3%A3-region-1000-bc-ad-900
#14
Francisca Santana-Sagredo, Mauricio Uribe, María José Herrera, Rodrigo Retamal, Sergio Flores
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this research is to understand the relevance of diet diversity during the transition to agriculture, in ancient populations from northern Chile, especially considering the significance of marine resources and crops in a lesser degree. METHODS: A total of 14 human individuals were sampled from the Tarapacá 40 cemetery. Both bone and tooth samples were collected. Samples were studied from bone/dentine collagen for carbon and nitrogen isotopic analysis; and bone/enamel apatite for carbon isotope analysis...
December 2015: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26230855/agave-chewing-and-dental-wear-evidence-from-quids
#15
Emily E Hammerl, Melissa A Baier, Karl J Reinhard
Agave quid chewing is examined as a potential contributing behavior to hunter-gatherer dental wear. It has previously been hypothesized that the contribution of Agave quid chewing to dental wear would be observed in communities wherever phytolith-rich desert succulents were part of subsistence. Previous analysis of coprolites from a prehistoric agricultural site, La Cueva de los Muertos Chiquitos in Durango, Mexico, showed that Agave was a consistent part of a diverse diet. Therefore, quids recovered at this site ought to be useful materials to test the hypothesis that dental wear was related to desert succulent consumption...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26196489/gut-microbiome-westernization-and-the-disappearance-of-intestinal-diversity
#16
COMMENT
Nicola Segata
The environment shapes our intestinal microbiome. By contrasting the gut microbiomes of African hunter-gatherer and European subjects, a new study reveals that urbanization is associated with a loss of microbial organisms and genes. What will be the consequences of the lost biodiversity in the sanitized, western-diet world?
July 20, 2015: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26118989/using-isotopic-evidence-to-assess-the-impact-of-migration-and-the-two-layer-hypothesis-in-prehistoric-northeast-thailand
#17
Charlotte L King, Nancy Tayles, Charles Higham, Una Strand-Viđarsdóttir, R Alexander Bentley, Colin G Macpherson, Geoff Nowell
OBJECTIVES: The nature of the agricultural transition in Southeast Asia has been a topic of some debate for archaeologists over the past decades. A prominent model, known as the two-layer hypothesis, states that indigenous hunter-gatherers were subsumed by the expansion of exotic Neolithic farmers into the area around 2000 BC. These farmers had ultimate origins in East Asia and brought rice and millet agriculture. Ban Non Wat is one of the few archaeological sites in Southeast Asia where this model can potentially be tested...
September 2015: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25981789/metagenome-sequencing-of-the-hadza-hunter-gatherer-gut-microbiota
#18
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Simone Rampelli, Stephanie L Schnorr, Clarissa Consolandi, Silvia Turroni, Marco Severgnini, Clelia Peano, Patrizia Brigidi, Alyssa N Crittenden, Amanda G Henry, Marco Candela
Through human microbiome sequencing, we can better understand how host evolutionary and ontogenetic history is reflected in the microbial function. However, there has been no information on the gut metagenome configuration in hunter-gatherer populations, posing a gap in our knowledge of gut microbiota (GM)-host mutualism arising from a lifestyle that describes over 90% of human evolutionary history. Here, we present the first metagenomic analysis of GM from Hadza hunter-gatherers of Tanzania, showing a unique enrichment in metabolic pathways that aligns with the dietary and environmental factors characteristic of their foraging lifestyle...
June 29, 2015: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25828624/metabolic-and-physiologic-effects-from-consuming-a-hunter-gatherer-paleolithic-type-diet-in-type-2-diabetes
#19
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
U Masharani, P Sherchan, M Schloetter, S Stratford, A Xiao, A Sebastian, M Nolte Kennedy, L Frassetto
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The contemporary American diet figures centrally in the pathogenesis of numerous chronic diseases--'diseases of civilization'--such as obesity and diabetes. We investigated in type 2 diabetes whether a diet similar to that consumed by our pre-agricultural hunter-gatherer ancestors ('Paleolithic' type diet) confers health benefits. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We performed an outpatient, metabolically controlled diet study in type 2 diabetes patients...
August 2015: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25758745/the-sialo-microbial-dental-complex-in-oral-health-and-disease
#20
REVIEW
John Kaidonis, Grant Townsend
Biofilms are naturally found in all wet environments including the oral structures of nearly all species. Human oral biofilms have existed since our earliest ancestors and have evolved symbiotically with the dentition over many millennia within a Palaeolithic, hunter-gatherer setting. Irrespective of the plant-animal ratio, it can be argued that the Palaeolithic diet was essentially acidic, and acted as a selective force for much of the evolution of the stomatognathic system. The relationship between saliva, biofilm and teeth, the 'sialo-microbial-dental complex', provides oral health benefits and offers a different perspective to the old dental paradigm that only associated oral biofilms (plaque) with disease (caries)...
January 2016: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
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