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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348633/contrasting-patterns-of-prehistoric-human-diet-and-subsistence-in-northernmost-europe
#1
Mirva Pääkkönen, Auli Bläuer, Bjørnar Olsen, Richard P Evershed, Henrik Asplund
Current archaeological evidence indicates the transition from hunting-fishing-gathering to agriculture in Northern Europe was a gradual process. This transition was especially complex in the prehistoric North Fennoscandian landscape where the high latitude posed a challenge to both domestic animal breeding and cereal cultivation. The conditions varied, the coastal dwellers had access to rich marine resources and enjoyed a milder climate due to the Gulf Stream, while those living in the inland Boreal forest zone faced longer and colder winters and less diversity in animal and plant resources...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333059/innate-food-aversions-and-culturally-transmitted-food-taboos-in-pregnant-women-in-rural-southwest-india-separate-systems-to-protect-the-fetus
#2
Caitlyn D Placek, Purnima Madhivanan, Edward H Hagen
Pregnancy increases women's nutritional requirements, yet causes aversions to nutritious foods. Most societies further restrict pregnant women's diet with food taboos. Pregnancy food aversions are theorized to protect mothers and fetuses from teratogens and pathogens or increase dietary diversity in response to resource scarcity. Tests of these hypotheses have had mixed results, perhaps because many studies are in Westernized populations with reliable access to food and low exposure to pathogens. If pregnancy food aversions are adaptations, however, then they likely evolved in environments with uncertain access to food and high exposure to pathogens...
November 2017: Evolution and Human Behavior: Official Journal of the Human Behavior and Evolution Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165844/oral-microbiomes-from-hunter-gatherers-and-traditional-farmers-reveal-shifts-in-commensal-balance-and-pathogen-load-linked-to-diet
#3
Florent Lassalle, Matteo Spagnoletti, Matteo Fumagalli, Liam Shaw, Mark Dyble, Catherine Walker, Mark G Thomas, Andrea Bamberg Migliano, Francois Balloux
Maladaptation to modern diets has been implicated in several chronic disorders. Given the higher prevalence of disease such as dental caries and chronic gum diseases in industrialized societies, we sought to investigate the impact of different subsistence strategies on oral health and physiology, as documented by the oral microbiome. To control for confounding variables such as environment and host genetics, we sampled saliva from three pairs of populations of hunter-gatherers and traditional farmers living in close proximity in the Philippines...
November 22, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029754/oral-pathology-patterns-in-late-farmers-of-the-central-andes-a-comparative-perspective-between-coastal-and-highland-populations
#4
Luis Pezo-Lanfranco, Arturo Peralta, Sonia Guillén, Sabine Eggers
Aiming at future comparisons with earlier hunter-gatherers or transitional populations, this paper intends to characterize and describe the oral pathology pattern of late agriculturalists from Central Andes dating to the Late Intermediate Period (LIP) and Inca periods (1000-1532 CE), and identify differences and/or similarities between coastal and highland populations. Although the botanical inventories of the LIP suggest carbohydrate-rich diets and similar components, it has been hypothesized that coastal and highland populations had, nevertheless, substantially different oral pathology patterns...
October 2017: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704953/sugar-metabolism-in-hummingbirds-and-nectar-bats
#5
REVIEW
Raul K Suarez, Kenneth C Welch
Hummingbirds and nectar bats coevolved with the plants they visit to feed on floral nectars rich in sugars. The extremely high metabolic costs imposed by small size and hovering flight in combination with reliance upon sugars as their main source of dietary calories resulted in convergent evolution of a suite of structural and functional traits. These allow high rates of aerobic energy metabolism in the flight muscles, fueled almost entirely by the oxidation of dietary sugars, during flight. High intestinal sucrase activities enable high rates of sucrose hydrolysis...
July 12, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690602/geography-ethnicity-or-subsistence-specific-variations-in-human-microbiome-composition-and-diversity
#6
REVIEW
Vinod K Gupta, Sandip Paul, Chitra Dutta
One of the fundamental issues in the microbiome research is characterization of the healthy human microbiota. Recent studies have elucidated substantial divergences in the microbiome structure between healthy individuals from different race and ethnicity. This review provides a comprehensive account of such geography, ethnicity or life-style-specific variations in healthy microbiome at five major body habitats-Gut, Oral-cavity, Respiratory Tract, Skin, and Urogenital Tract (UGT). The review focuses on the general trend in the human microbiome evolution-a gradual transition in the gross compositional structure along with a continual decrease in diversity of the microbiome, especially of the gut microbiome, as the human populations passed through three stages of subsistence like foraging, rural farming and industrialized urban western life...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592672/primate-energy-input-and-the-evolutionary-transition-to-energy-dense-diets-in-humans
#7
Bruno Simmen, Patrick Pasquet, Shelly Masi, Georgius J A Koppert, Jonathan C K Wells, Claude Marcel Hladik
Humans and other large-brained hominins have been proposed to increase energy turnover during their evolutionary history. Such increased energy turnover is plausible, given the evolution of energy-rich diets, but requires empirical confirmation. Framing human energetics in a phylogenetic context, our meta-analysis of 17 wild non-human primate species shows that daily metabolizable energy input follows an allometric relationship with body mass where the allometric exponent for mass is 0.75 ± 0.04, close to that reported for daily energy expenditure measured with doubly labelled water in primates...
June 14, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579801/meat-intake-and-the-dose-of-vitamin-b3-nicotinamide-cause-of-the-causes-of-disease-transitions-health-divides-and-health-futures
#8
REVIEW
Lisa J Hill, Adrian C Williams
Meat and vitamin B3 - nicotinamide - intake was high during hunter-gatherer times. Intake then fell and variances increased during and after the Neolithic agricultural revolution. Health, height, and IQ deteriorated. Low dietary doses are buffered by 'welcoming' gut symbionts and tuberculosis that can supply nicotinamide, but this co-evolved homeostatic metagenomic strategy risks dysbioses and impaired resistance to pathogens. Vitamin B3 deficiency may now be common among the poor billions on a low-meat diet...
2017: International Journal of Tryptophan Research: IJTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552360/paleogenomic-evidence-for-multi-generational-mixing-between-neolithic-farmers-and-mesolithic-hunter-gatherers-in-the-lower-danube-basin
#9
Gloria González-Fortes, Eppie R Jones, Emma Lightfoot, Clive Bonsall, Catalin Lazar, Aurora Grandal-d'Anglade, María Dolores Garralda, Labib Drak, Veronika Siska, Angela Simalcsik, Adina Boroneanţ, Juan Ramón Vidal Romaní, Marcos Vaqueiro Rodríguez, Pablo Arias, Ron Pinhasi, Andrea Manica, Michael Hofreiter
The transition from hunting and gathering to farming involved profound cultural and technological changes. In Western and Central Europe, these changes occurred rapidly and synchronously after the arrival of early farmers of Anatolian origin [1-3], who largely replaced the local Mesolithic hunter-gatherers [1, 4-6]. Further east, in the Baltic region, the transition was gradual, with little or no genetic input from incoming farmers [7]. Here we use ancient DNA to investigate the relationship between hunter-gatherers and farmers in the Lower Danube basin, a geographically intermediate area that is characterized by a rapid Neolithic transition but also by the presence of archaeological evidence that points to cultural exchange, and thus possible admixture, between hunter-gatherers and farmers...
June 19, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533441/trends-in-dna-methylation-with-age-replicate-across-diverse-human-populations
#10
Shyamalika Gopalan, Oana Carja, Maud Fagny, Etienne Patin, Justin W Myrick, Lisa M McEwen, Sarah M Mah, Michael S Kobor, Alain Froment, Marcus W Feldman, Lluis Quintana-Murci, Brenna M Henn
Aging is associated with widespread changes in genome-wide patterns of DNA methylation. Thousands of CpG sites whose tissue-specific methylation levels are strongly correlated with chronological age have been previously identified. However, the majority of these studies have focused primarily on cosmopolitan populations living in the developed world; it is not known if age-related patterns of DNA methylation at these loci are similar across a broad range of human genetic and ecological diversity. We investigated genome-wide methylation patterns using saliva- and whole blood-derived DNA from two traditionally hunting and gathering African populations: the Baka of the western Central African rain forest and the ≠Khomani San of the South African Kalahari Desert...
July 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499932/dietary-customs-and-food-availability-shape-the-preferences-for-basic-tastes-a-cross-cultural-study-among-polish-tsimane-and-hadza-societies
#11
Agnieszka Sorokowska, Robert Pellegrino, Marina Butovskaya, Michalina Marczak, Agnieszka Niemczyk, Tomas Huanca, Piotr Sorokowski
Biological significance of food components suggests that preferences for basic tastes should be similar across cultures. On the other hand, cultural factors play an important role in diet and can consequently influence individual preference for food. To date, very few studies have compared basic tastes preferences among populations of very diverse environmental and cultural conditions, and research rather did not involve traditional populations for whom the biological significance of different food components might be the most pronounced...
May 9, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407013/dietary-resilience-among-hunter-gatherers-of-tierra-del-fuego-isotopic-evidence-in-a-diachronic-perspective
#12
Mary Anne Tafuri, Atilio Francisco Javier Zangrando, Augusto Tessone, Sayuri Kochi, Jacopo Moggi Cecchi, Fabio Di Vincenzo, Antonio Profico, Giorgio Manzi
The native groups of Patagonia have relied on a hunter-gatherer economy well after the first Europeans and North Americans reached this part of the world. The large exploitation of marine mammals (i.e., seals) by such allochthonous groups has had a strong impact on the local ecology in a way that might have forced the natives to adjust their subsistence strategies. Similarly, the introduction of new foods might have changed local diet. These are the premises of our isotopic-based analysis. There is a large set of paleonutritional investigations through isotopic analysis on Fuegians groups, however a systematic exploration of food practices across time in relation to possible pre- and post-contact changes is still lacking...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317553/dietary-reconstruction-of-the-el-sidr%C3%A3-n-neandertal-familial-group%C3%A2-spain-in-the-context-of-other-neandertal-and-modern-hunter-gatherer-groups-a-molar-microwear-texture-analysis
#13
Almudena Estalrrich, Sireen El Zaatari, Antonio Rosas
Here, we present the analysis of occlusal molar microwear textures of eight individuals from the El Sidrón Neandertal group (Spain). The aims of the study were: 1) to document potential age-, sex-, and maternal lineage-related differences in diet within a Neandertal familial group, and 2) to place the diet of El Sidrón individuals in the context of those of other Neandertal groups. This study also offers an interpretation of the diet of the El Sidrón Neandertals by comparing their microwear signatures to those of recent hunter-gatherer populations with diverse but known diets...
March 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296885/oral-health-in-transition-the-hadza-foragers-of-tanzania
#14
Alyssa N Crittenden, John Sorrentino, Sheniz A Moonie, Mika Peterson, Audax Mabulla, Peter S Ungar
Conventional wisdom holds that a decline in oral health accompanies the transition from hunting and gathering to agriculture, given increased consumption of carbohydrates. This widely touted example of the mismatch between our biology and modern lifestyle has been intuited largely from the bioarchaeological record of the Neolithic Revolution in the New World. Recent studies of other populations have, however, challenged the universality of this assertion. Here, we present the first comprehensive study of oral health among a living population in transition from the bush to village life, the Hadza hunter-gatherers of Tanzania, to test the hypothesis that the shift from foraging to farming, or agricultural intensification, inevitably leads to increased periodontal disease, caries, and orthodontic disorders...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109124/domestication-and-human-demographic-history-in-south-america
#15
S Ivan Perez, María Bárbara Postillone, Diego Rindel
OBJECTIVES: The early groups of hunter-gatherers who peopled South America faced significant ecological changes in their trophic niche for a relatively short period after the initial peopling. In particular, the incorporation of cultigens during the Holocene led to a wider trophic niche and probably to an increased carrying capacity of the environment. Here, we study the relationship between the incorporation of domestic resources during the Holocene and the demographic dynamics of human populations at a regional scale in South America...
May 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105723/current-views-on-hunter-gatherer-nutrition-and-the-evolution-of-the-human-diet
#16
Alyssa N Crittenden, Stephanie L Schnorr
Diet composition and food choice are not only central to the daily lives of all living people, but are consistently linked with turning points in human evolutionary history. As such, scholars from a wide range of fields have taken great interest in the role that subsistence has played in both human cultural and biological evolution. Central to this discussion is the diet composition and nutrition of contemporary hunters and gatherers, who are frequently conscripted as model populations for ancestral human nutrition...
January 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070563/gut-microbiome-of-the-canadian-arctic-inuit
#17
Catherine Girard, Nicolas Tromas, Marc Amyot, B Jesse Shapiro
Diet is a major determinant of community composition in the human gut microbiome, and "traditional" diets have been associated with distinct and highly diverse communities, compared to Western diets. However, most traditional diets studied have been those of agrarians and hunter-gatherers consuming fiber-rich diets. In contrast, the Inuit of the Canadian Arctic have been consuming a traditional diet low in carbohydrates and rich in animal fats and protein for thousands of years. We hypothesized that the Inuit diet and lifestyle would be associated with a distinct microbiome...
January 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991880/earliest-direct-evidence-of-plant-processing-in-prehistoric-saharan-pottery
#18
Julie Dunne, Anna Maria Mercuri, Richard P Evershed, Silvia Bruni, Savino di Lernia
The invention of thermally resistant ceramic cooking vessels around 15,000 years ago was a major advance in human diet and nutrition(1-3), opening up new food groups and preparation techniques. Previous investigations of lipid biomarkers contained in food residues have routinely demonstrated the importance of prehistoric cooking pots for the processing of animal products across the world(4). Remarkably, however, direct evidence for plant processing in prehistoric pottery has not been forthcoming, despite the potential to cook otherwise unpalatable or even toxic plants(2,5)...
December 19, 2016: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960261/a-concise-history-of-mycotoxin-research
#19
REVIEW
John I Pitt, J David Miller
Toxigenic fungi and mycotoxins entered human food supplies about the time when mankind first began to cultivate crops and to store them from one season to the next, perhaps 10,000 years ago. The storage of cereals probably initiated the transition by mankind from hunter-gatherer to cultivator, at the same time providing a vast new ecological niche for fungi pathogenic on grain crops or saprophytic on harvested grain, many of which produced mycotoxins. Grains have always been the major source of mycotoxins in the diet of man and his domestic animals...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900469/holocene-changes-in-the-trophic-ecology-of-an-apex-marine-predator-in-the-south-atlantic-ocean
#20
Damián G Vales, Luis Cardona, Atilio F Zangrando, Florencia Borella, Fabiana Saporiti, R Natalie P Goodall, Larissa Rosa de Oliveira, Enrique A Crespo
Predators may modify their diets as a result of both anthropogenic and natural environmental changes. Stable isotope ratios of nitrogen and carbon in bone collagen have been used to reconstruct the foraging ecology of South American fur seals (Arctocephalus australis) in the southwestern South Atlantic Ocean since the Middle Holocene, a region inhabited by hunter-gatherers by millennia and modified by two centuries of whaling, sealing and fishing. Results suggest that the isotopic niche of fur seals from Patagonia has not changed over the last two millennia (average for the period: δ(13)C2200-0BP = -13...
February 2017: Oecologia
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