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Bearing surfaces

Danielle Nogueira de Assis, Raquel Silva Araújo, Leonardo Lima Fuscaldi, Simone Odília Antunes Fernandes, Vanessa Carla Furtado Mosqueira, Valbert Nascimento Cardoso
BACKGROUND: Candida spp is an etiologic agent of fungal infections in hospitals and resistance to treatment with antifungals has been extensively reported. Thus, it is very important to develop formulations that increase effectiveness with low toxicity. In this sense, nanocarriers have been investigated, once they modify drug biodistribution profile. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the biodistribution of free and encapsulated 99m Tc-fluconazole into nanocapsules (NCs) in an experimental immunosuppressed murine model of Candida albicans infection...
March 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Yan Liu, Yawen Xu, Xiangshuai Geng, Yingying Huo, Dexin Chen, Kang Sun, Guangdong Zhou, Biqiong Chen, Ke Tao
Locating nanotherapeutics at the active sites, especially in the subcellular scale, is of great importance for nanoparticle-based photodynamic therapy (PDT) and other nanotherapies. However, subcellular targeting agents are generally nonspecific, despite the fact that the accumulation of a nanoformulation at active organelles leads to better therapeutic efficacy. A PDT nanoformulation is herein designed by using graphene oxide quantum dots (GOQDs) with rich functional groups as both the supporter for dual targeting modification and the photosensitizer for generating reactive oxygen species, and upconversion nanoparticles (UCNs) as the transducer of excitation light...
April 17, 2018: Small
Lina Zhang, Baoliang Chen, Abdul Ghaffar, Xiaoying Zhu
Synthetic membranes often suffer ubiquitous fouling as well as a trade-off between permeability and selectivity. However, emerging materials which are able to mitigate membrane fouling and break the permeability and selectivity trade-off are urgently needed. A novel additive, GO-PEI, bearing a positive charge and hydrophilic nature was prepared by the covalent grafting of polyethylenimine (PEI) molecules with graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets, which later was blended with bulk polyethersulfone (PES) to fabricate the graphene containing nanocomposite membranes (NCMs)...
April 17, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Jeffrey A Harvey, Daphne van den Berg, Jacintha Ellers, Remko Kampen, Thomas W Crowther, Peter Roessingh, Bart Verheggen, Rascha J M Nuijten, Eric Post, Stephan Lewandowsky, Ian Stirling, Meena Balgopal, Steven C Amstrup, Michael E Mann
Increasing surface temperatures, Arctic sea-ice loss, and other evidence of anthropogenic global warming (AGW) are acknowledged by every major scientific organization in the world. However, there is a wide gap between this broad scientific consensus and public opinion. Internet blogs have strongly contributed to this consensus gap by fomenting misunderstandings of AGW causes and consequences. Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) have become a "poster species" for AGW, making them a target of those denying AGW evidence...
April 1, 2018: Bioscience
Lester Andrews, Han-Gook Cho, Zongtang Fang, Monica Vasiliu, David A Dixon
Laser ablation of tungsten metal provides W atoms which react with phosphine and arsine during condensation in excess argon and neon, leading to major new infrared (IR) absorptions. Annealing, UV irradiation, and deuterium substitution experiments coupled with electronic structure calculations at the density functional theory level led to the assignment of the observed IR absorptions to the E≡WH3 and HE═WH2 molecules for E = P and As. The potential energy surfaces for hydrogen transfer from PH3 to the W were calculated at the coupled-cluster CCSD(T)/complete basis set level...
April 16, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Damien P Debecker, Solène Le Bras, Cédric Boissière, Alexandra Chaumonnot, Clément Sanchez
Aerosol processing is long known and implemented industrially to obtain various types of divided materials and nanomaterials. The atomisation of a liquid solution or suspension produces a mist of aerosol droplets which can then be transformed via a diversity of processes including spray-drying, spray pyrolysis, flame spray pyrolysis, thermal decomposition, micronisation, gas atomisation, etc. The attractive technical features of these aerosol processes make them highly interesting for the continuous, large scale, and tailored production of heterogeneous catalysts...
April 16, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Matthew L Goodwin, William Ryan Spiker, Darrel S Brodke, Brandon D Lawrence
The aim of this study was to report on 2 patients in whom metal-on-metal (MOM) facet replacements failed, with subsequent positive findings on allergy testing. Motion-preserving devices have been used with limited success when instrumentation is indicated in the mobile spine. MOM-bearing surfaces in orthopedics were developed to increase implant longevity, yet have been associated with numerous adverse outcomes, including local tissue reactions, pseudotumors, metallosis, and the need for revision surgery. Five patients with spinal stenosis and low-grade spondylolisthesis were randomized to undergo facet replacement surgery with the ACADIA facet replacement system at the authors' institution...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
Anbang Zhao, Xuejie Bi, Juan Hui, Caigao Zeng, Lin Ma
This paper mainly studies and verifies the target number category-resolution method in multi-target cases and the target depth-resolution method of aerial targets. Firstly, target depth resolution is performed by using the sign distribution of the reactive component of the vertical complex acoustic intensity; the target category and the number resolution in multi-target cases is realized with a combination of the bearing-time recording information; and the corresponding simulation verification is carried out...
April 12, 2018: Sensors
Long Le-Quang, Rajaa Ghassan Farran, Youssef Lattach, Hugues Bonnet, Helene Jamet, Liliane Guerente, Emmanuel Maisonhaute, Jérôme Chauvin
We propose in this work a stepwise approach to construct photoelectrodes. This takes advantage of the self-assembly interactions between thiol with a gold surface and terpyridine ligands with first row transition metals. Here, a [Ru(bpy)3]2+ photosensitive center bearing a free terpyridine group has been used to construct two linear dyads on gold (Au/[ZnII-RuII]4+ and Au/[CoIII-RuII]5+). The stepwise construction was characterized by electrochemistry, quartz crystal microbalance and AFM imaging. The results show that the dyads behave as rigid layers and are inhomogeneously distributed on the surface...
April 12, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Zhuo A Wang, Lucy X Li, Tamara L Doering
Fungal pathogens cause devastating infections in millions of individuals each year, representing a huge but underappreciated burden on human health. One of these, the opportunistic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans, kills hundreds of thousands of patients annually, disproportionately affecting people in resource-limited areas. This yeast is distinguished from other pathogenic fungi by a polysaccharide capsule that is displayed on the cell surface. The capsule consists of two complex polysaccharide polymers: a mannan substituted with xylose and glucuronic acid, and a galactan with galactomannan side chains that bear variable amounts of glucuronic acid and xylose...
April 10, 2018: Glycobiology
Preston W Grieco, Scott Pascal, Jared M Newman, Neil V Shah, Sarah G Stroud, Neil P Sheth, Aditya V Maheshwari
As indications for total hip arthroplasty (THA) have expanded, the incidence of THA has increased among younger patients, who live longer and tend to place more strain on implants via higher activity levels. This demographical shift accentuates the importance of advancing innovation to ensure implant longevity for younger and more active patients. Future innovation, as it pertains to THA components, is likely to focus on modifying implant designs and tribology in conjunction with identification and application of newer biomaterials...
January 2018: Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma
Radim Šumbera, Jarmila Krásová, Leonid A Lavrenchenko, Sewnet Mengistu, Afework Bekele, Ondřej Mikula, Josef Bryja
Root-rats of the genus Tachyoryctes (Spalacidae) are subterranean herbivores occupying open humid habitats in the highlands of Eastern Africa. There is strong disagreement about species diversity of the genus, because some authors accept two species, while others more than ten. Species with relatively high surface activity, the giant root-rat Tachyoryctes macrocephalus, which is by far largest member of the genus, and the more fossorial African root-rat Tachyoryctes splendens, which eventually has been divided up to 12-13 species, represent two major morphological forms within the genus...
April 4, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Sheng Jin, Hao Gu, Xianshuang Chen, Xiaoli Liu, Wenjun Zhan, Ting Wei, Xuebo Sun, Chuanlu Ren, Hong Chen
Clot and thrombus formation on surfaces that come into contact with blood is still the most serious problem for blood contacting devices. Despite many years of continuous efforts in developing hemocompatible materials, it is still of great interest to develop multifunctional materials to enable vascular cell selectivity (to favor rapid endothelialization while inhibiting smooth muscle cell proliferation) and improve hemocompatibility. In addition, biomaterial-associated infections also cause the failure of biomedical implants and devices...
March 28, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Rika Nakahashi-Ouchida, Yoshikazu Yuki, Hiroshi Kiyono
The mucosal surfaces of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts are continuously exposed to countless beneficial and pathologic antigens. These mucosal surfaces are thus equipped with an immune system that is unique from those elsewhere in the body; this unique system provides the first line of immune surveillance and defense against pathogen invasion. The sophisticated immune induction machinery in the aero-digestive tract involves mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues, including nasopharyngeal- and gut-associated lymphoid tissues, for the generation of antigen-specific humoral and cellular immune responses...
April 6, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Marion Donnier-Maréchal, Jean Septavaux, Emeric Jeamet, Alexandre Héloin, Florent Perret, Elise Dumont, Jean-Christophe Rossi, Fabio Ziarelli, Julien Leclaire, Laurent Vial
The extension of the family of dyn[ n]arenes toward a three-membered macrocycle is reported. Through a templated approach, a single diastereoisomer of a dyn[3]arene that bears six carboxyl groups could be isolated by precipitation in 59-63% yield and excellent purity (≥95%). A combination of experimental and computational experiments in water at physiological pH revealed that the macrocycle could bind parent biogenic polyamines with a unique diversity of surface-binding modes. Whereas no binding event could be accurately measured with 1,3-diaminopropane, spermidine formed a classical stoichiometric complex with the dyn[3]arene in the millimolar concentration range...
April 6, 2018: Organic Letters
M Ángeles Farrán, M Ángels Bonet, Rosa M Claramunt, M Carmen Torralba, Ibon Alkorta, José Elguero
J147 [N-(2,4-dimethylphenyl)-2,2,2-trifluoro-N'-(3-methoxybenzylidene)acetohydrazide] has recently been reported as a promising new drug for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. The X-ray structures of seven new 1,4-diaryl-5-trifluoromethyl-1H-1,2,3-triazoles, namely 1-(3,4-dimethylphenyl)-4-phenyl-5-trifluoromethyl-1H-1,2,3-triazole (C17 H14 F3 N3 , 1), 1-(3,4-dimethylphenyl)-4-(3-methoxyphenyl)-5-trifluoromethyl-1H-1,2,3-triazole (C18 H16 F3 N3 O, 2), 1-(3,4-dimethylphenyl)-4-(4-methoxyphenyl)-5-trifluoromethyl-1H-1,2,3-triazole (C18 H16 F3 N3 O, 3), 1-(2,4-dimethylphenyl)-4-(4-methoxyphenyl)-5-trifluoromethyl-1H-1,2,3-triazole (C18 H16 F3 N3 O, 4), 1-[2,4-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-4-(3-methoxyphenyl)-5-trifluoromethyl-1H-1,2,3-triazole (C18 H10 F9 N3 O, 5), 1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-4-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-5-trifluoromethyl-1H-1,2,3-triazole (C19 H18 F3 N3 O4 , 6) and 3-[4-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-5-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl]phenol (C17 H14 F3 N3 O3 , 7), have been determined and compared to that of J147...
April 1, 2018: Acta Crystallographica. Section C, Structural Chemistry
William S Y Wong, Antonio Tricoli
Despite the rapid advent of superomniphobic materials, there is a lack of methodologies to accurately investigate the ultra-low energy interactions taking place on these interfaces. For instance, universally-employed models such as the pendant droplet often fail to provide representative information of the wetting properties of superomniphobic surfaces. The delicate balance between the forces acting at the droplet-surface and droplet-needle interfaces can easily result in heavily distorted droplet profiles...
April 4, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Huai Yao, Jiu-Ba Wen, Yi Xiong, Yan Lu, Marko Huttula
Being a biocompatible metal with similar mechanical properties as bones, magnesium bears both biodegradability suitable for bone substitution and chemical reactivity detrimental in bio-ambiences. To benefit its biomaterial applications, we developed Mg-2.0Zn-0.5Zr-3.0Gd (wt%) alloy through hot extrusion and tailored its biodegradability by just varying the extrusion temperatures during alloy preparations. The as-cast alloy is composed of the α-Mg matrix, a network of the fish-bone shaped and ellipsoidal (Mg, Zn)3 Gd phase, and a lamellar long period stacking ordered phase...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Dominik L Feinendegen, Mathias Tremp, J Camilo Roldán
Background: Skin incision is considered to be placed at 90° in reference to the skin to get perfect wound edge adaptation. The incision on hair-bearing tissues, as the scalp, is considered to be bevelled at 45° to promote hair growth through the scar. There is no consensus about the preferred incision angle on the brow. The aim of this article was to demonstrate the feasibility of the "flat incision technique" for brow repositioning, where brow deformation results after forehead reconstruction...
February 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
T Tian, T Zhang, Y Lin, X Cai
Craniofacial bones, separate from the appendicular skeleton, bear a significant amount of strain and stress generated from mastication-related muscles. Current research on the regeneration of craniofacial bone focuses on the reestablishment of an elaborate vascular network. In this review, current challenges and efforts particularly in advances of scaffold properties and techniques for vascularization remodeling in craniofacial bone tissue engineering will be discussed. A microenvironment of ischemia and hypoxia in the biomaterial core drives propagation and reorganization of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) to assemble into a primitive microvascular framework...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
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