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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732155/relating-redox-properties-of-polyvinylamine-g-tempo-laccase-hydrogel-complexes-to-cellulose-oxidation
#1
Qiang Fu, Alexander Sutherland, Emil Gustafsson, Md Monsur Ali, Leyla Soleymani, Robert H Pelton
The structure and electrochemical properties of adsorbed complexes based on mixtures of polyvinylamine-g-TEMPO (PVAm-T) and laccase were related to the ability of the adsorbed complexes to oxidize cellulose. PVAm-T10 with 10% of the amines bearing TEMPO moieties (i.e. DS= 10%), adsorbed onto gold-sulfonate EQCM-D sensor surfaces giving a hydrogel film, 7 nm thick, 89% water and encasing laccase (200 mM) and TEMPO moieties (33 mM). For DS values >10% all of the TEMPOs in the hydrogel film were redox-active, in that they could be oxidized by the electrode...
July 21, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731817/infrared-spectrometer-for-exomars-a-mast-mounted-instrument-for-the-rover
#2
Oleg I Korablev, Yurii Dobrolensky, Nadezhda Evdokimova, Anna A Fedorova, Ruslan O Kuzmin, Sergei N Mantsevich, Edward A Cloutis, John Carter, Francois Poulet, Jessica Flahaut, Andrew Griffiths, Matthew Gunn, Nicole Schmitz, Javier Martín-Torres, Maria-Paz Zorzano, Daniil S Rodionov, Jorge L Vago, Alexander V Stepanov, Andrei Yu Titov, Nikita A Vyazovetsky, Alexander Yu Trokhimovskiy, Alexander G Sapgir, Yurii K Kalinnikov, Yurii S Ivanov, Alexei A Shapkin, Andrei Yu Ivanov
ISEM (Infrared Spectrometer for ExoMars) is a pencil-beam infrared spectrometer that will measure reflected solar radiation in the near infrared range for context assessment of the surface mineralogy in the vicinity of the ExoMars rover. The instrument will be accommodated on the mast of the rover and will be operated together with the panoramic camera (PanCam), high-resolution camera (HRC). ISEM will study the mineralogical and petrographic composition of the martian surface in the vicinity of the rover, and in combination with the other remote sensing instruments, it will aid in the selection of potential targets for close-up investigations and drilling sites...
June 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730439/design-and-preparation-of-aptamer-sirna-chimeras-asics-for-targeted-cancer-therapy
#3
Sven Kruspe, Paloma H Giangrande
Conjugation of cell-internalizing DNA or RNA aptamers to tumor-suppressing siRNAs represents a novel promising approach for cancer therapy. Here we describe how to employ RNA aptamers that bind to cell surface receptors as carriers for cell-targeted siRNA (or miRNA) delivery. This protocol was optimized to improve the efficiency of the aptamer-siRNA/miRNA conjugates and facilitate its implementation in most molecular biology labs. The single working steps include (1) outlining the optimal sequences of the RNA strands bearing the aptamer and siRNA sequence, for which further (2) a dsDNA template is synthesized and then (3) transcribed into an RNA that will be (4) folded and annealed to a chemically synthesized siRNA complementary strand...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729643/superhydrophobic-drag-reduction-spherical-bearing-fabricated-by-laser-ablation-and-pei-regulated-zno-nanowire-growth
#4
Rui Weng, Haifeng Zhang, Yanjing Tuo, Yang Wang, Xiaowei Liu
The resistance of the bearing is a significant factor affecting the performance of the ball-disk rotor gyroscope. The micro and nano combined surface with low surface energy material modifications can be hydrophobic. This can reduce the drag when the bearing is lubricated by deionized water. Laser ablation method is utilized to form micron-scaled structures on the surface of the stainless steel rotor ball. And the nanostructures are formed by PEI (Polyetherimide) regulated ZnO nanowires growth. After low surface energy material modification, the water contact angle of processed surface was 163° and the sliding angle was less than 4°...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729375/rainforest-initiated-wet-season-onset-over-the-southern-amazon
#5
Jonathon S Wright, Rong Fu, John R Worden, Sudip Chakraborty, Nicholas E Clinton, Camille Risi, Ying Sun, Lei Yin
Although it is well established that transpiration contributes much of the water for rainfall over Amazonia, it remains unclear whether transpiration helps to drive or merely responds to the seasonal cycle of rainfall. Here, we use multiple independent satellite datasets to show that rainforest transpiration enables an increase of shallow convection that moistens and destabilizes the atmosphere during the initial stages of the dry-to-wet season transition. This shallow convection moisture pump (SCMP) preconditions the atmosphere at the regional scale for a rapid increase in rain-bearing deep convection, which in turn drives moisture convergence and wet season onset 2-3 mo before the arrival of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ)...
July 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726003/chitooligosaccharides-modified-reduction-sensitive-liposomes-enhanced-cytoplasmic-drug-delivery-and-osteosarcomas-tumor-inhibition-in-animal-models
#6
Xuelei Yin, Yingying Chi, Chuanyou Guo, Shuaishuai Feng, Jinhu Liu, Kaoxiang Sun, Zimei Wu
PURPOSE: To investigate the potential of a reduction-sensitive and fusogenic liposomes, enabled by surface-coating with chotooligosaccharides (COS) via a disulfide linker, for tumor-targeted cytoplasmic drug delivery. METHODS: COS (MW2000-5000) were chemically tethered onto the liposomes through a disulfide linker (-SS-) to cholesterol (Chol). Doxorubicin (DOX) was actively loaded in the liposomes. Their reduction-sensitivities, cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, pharmacokinetics and antitumor efficacy were investigated...
July 19, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723548/the-fc-domain-of-immunoglobulin-is-sufficient-to-bridge-nk-cells-with-virally-infected-cells
#7
Hong-Sheng Dai, Nathaniel Griffin, Chelsea Bolyard, Hsiaoyin Charlene Mao, Jianying Zhang, Timothy P Cripe, Tadahiro Suenaga, Hisashi Arase, Ichiro Nakano, E A Chiocca, Balveen Kaur, Jianhua Yu, Michael A Caligiuri
Clearance of pathogens or tumor cells by antibodies traditionally requires both Fab and Fc domains of IgG. Here, we show the Fc domain of IgG alone mediates recognition and clearance of herpes simplex virus (HSV1)-infected cells. The human natural killer (NK) cell surface is naturally coated with IgG bound by its Fc domain to the Fcγ receptor CD16a. NK cells utilize the Fc domain of bound IgG to recognize gE, an HSV1-encoded glycoprotein that also binds the Fc domain of IgG but at a site distinct from CD16a...
July 18, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721661/sebaceous-differentiation-in-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-larynx-and-adjacent-pharynx-case-report-with-review-and-discussion-of-the-literature
#8
Antonio Cardesa, Alfons Nadal, Llucia Alos, Josep Lloreta-Trull, Alfio Ferlito
Among the variants of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the head and neck arising in mucosal surfaces, examples with sebaceous differentiation are exceedingly rare. We present a new case of SCC with sebaceous differentiation, developing in the larynx of a 64 year-old male, cigarette smoker and alcohol drinker. The tumor extended transglottically, metastasized to cervical lymph nodes, and killed the patient after 12 months. Comparing this case with four previously reported cases of SCC with sebaceous differentiation, two arising in the larynx and the other two in the adjacent pharynx, all five patients mostly shared the following features: appearance of the tumor in the seventh decade of life, heavy tobacco smoking, alcohol intake in three, surgery as mainstay treatment, tumor size between 2 and 4...
July 18, 2017: Head and Neck Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719961/artyfechinostomum-malayanum-metacercariae-encysted-in-pila-sp-snails-purchased-from-phnom-penh-cambodia
#9
Woon-Mok Sohn, Tai-Soon Yong, Keeseon S Eom, Muth Sinuon, Hoo-Gn Jeoung, Jong-Yil Chai
The metacercariae of Artyfechinostomum malayanum (Leiper, 1911) Mendheim, 1943 were discovered in Pila sp. snails purchased from a market in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. They were isolated from the snails using the artificial digestion technique and were orally fed to 2 hamsters, 1 rat, and 2 mice to obtain the adult flukes. The metacercariae were round, 145-165 μm in diameter, having a cyst wall of 6-10 μm in thickness, a head collar and collar spines, and characteristic features of excretory granules. Adult flukes were recovered in the small intestines of the animals at days 14 and 32 post infection and were morphologically observed using a light microscope and a scanning electron microscope...
June 2017: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719576/laser-induced-plasmonic-colours-on-metals
#10
Jean-Michel Guay, Antonino Calà Lesina, Guillaume Côté, Martin Charron, Daniel Poitras, Lora Ramunno, Pierre Berini, Arnaud Weck
Plasmonic resonances in metallic nanoparticles have been used since antiquity to colour glasses. The use of metal nanostructures for surface colourization has attracted considerable interest following recent developments in plasmonics. However, current top-down colourization methods are not ideally suited to large-scale industrial applications. Here we use a bottom-up approach where picosecond laser pulses can produce a full palette of non-iridescent colours on silver, gold, copper and aluminium. We demonstrate the process on silver coins weighing up to 5 kg and bearing large topographic variations (∼1...
July 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719022/engineering-the-surface-of-smart-nanocarriers-using-a-ph-thermal-gsh-responsive-polymer-zipper-for-precise-tumor-targeting-therapy-in-vivo
#11
Penghui Zhang, Yan Wang, Jing Lian, Qi Shen, Chen Wang, Bohan Ma, Yuchao Zhang, Tingting Xu, Jianxin Li, Yongping Shao, Feng Xu, Jun-Jie Zhu
Nanocarrier surface chemistry plays a vital role in mediating cell internalization and enhancing delivery efficiency during in vivo chemotherapy. Inspired by the ability of proteins to alter their conformation to mediate functions, a pH-/thermal-/glutathione-responsive polymer zipper consisting of cell-penetrating poly(disulfide)s and thermosensitive polymers bearing guanidinium/phosphate (Gu(+) /pY(-) ) motifs to spatiotemporally tune the surface composition of nanocarriers for precise tumor targeting and efficient drug delivery is developed...
July 18, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717212/a-clinicopathological-analysis-of-153-acral-melanomas-and-the-relevance-of-mechanical-stress
#12
Yi-Shuan Sheen, Yi-Hua Liao, Ming-Hsien Lin, Jau-Shiuh Chen, Jau-Yu Liau, Yu-Ju Tseng, Chih-Hung Lee, Yih-Leong Chang, Chia-Yu Chu
The pathogenesis of melanomas emerging in plantar surfaces remains unclear; however, mechanical stress has been reported to increase the formation of melanomas. In this study, we conducted a multicenter retrospective analysis of 153 acral melanomas diagnosed between 2000 and 2015 in Taiwan. The male-to-female ratio of the patients in question was 1:1.28, and the mean age at diagnosis was 68 years. We examined whether melanomas which developed in different areas of the patients' soles differed in their associations with various clinicopathological characteristics and survival...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714757/comparative-effects-of-four-single-leg-squat-exercises-in-subjects-with-gluteus-medius-weakness
#13
Hae-Rim Han, Chung-Hwi Yi, Sung-Hyun You, Heon-Seock Cynn, One-Bin Lim, Jae-Ik Son
CONTEXT: Of the weight bearing exercises, single leg squat (SLS) represents one of the most commonly used hip strengthening exercises that require more gluteus medius (GMED) activity. To date, no studies have investigated how the four SLS exercises affects muscle imbalance of GMED, tensor fasciae latae (TFL), and adductor longus (AL), and kinematics of hip. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the hip muscle activities, onset time, and kinematics during four different SLS exercises (unilateral squat, unilateral wall-squat, lateral step-down, and front step-down) in subjects with GMED weakness...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714307/biscysteine-bearing-peptide-probes-to-reveal-extracellular-thiol-disulfide-exchange-reactions-promoting-cellular-uptake
#14
Tao Li, Wei Gao, Jingjing Liang, Mirao Zha, Yaqi Chen, Yibing Zhao, Chuanliu Wu
In recent years delivery systems based on the incorporation of thiols/disulfides have been extensively explored to promote the intracellular delivery of biological cargoes. However, it remains unclear about the detailed processes of thiol-disulfide exchanges taking place on the cell surface and how the exchange reactions promote the cellular uptake of cargoes bearing thiols or disulfide bonds. In this work, we report the rational design of biscysteine motif-containing peptide probes with substantially different ring-closing property, and how these peptide probes were employed to explore the thiol-disulfide exchanges on the cell surface...
July 17, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713858/life-stage-specific-cargo-receptors-facilitate-glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored-surface-coat-protein-transport-in-trypanosoma-brucei
#15
Emilia K Kruzel, George P Zimmett, James D Bangs
The critical virulence factor of bloodstream-form Trypanosoma brucei is the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored variant surface glycoprotein (VSG). Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) exit of VSG is GPI dependent and relies on a discrete subset of COPII machinery (TbSec23.2/TbSec24.1). In other systems, p24 transmembrane adaptor proteins selectively recruit GPI-anchored cargo into nascent COPII vesicles. Trypanosomes have eight putative p24s (TbERP1 to TbERP8) that are constitutively expressed at the mRNA level...
July 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712850/ex-vivo-instability-of-glycated-albumin-a-role-for-autoxidative-glycation
#16
Joshua W Jeffs, Shadi Ferdosi, Hussein N Yassine, Chad R Borges
Ex vivo protein modifications occur within plasma and serum (P/S) samples due to prolonged exposure to the thawed state-which includes temperatures above -30 °C. Herein, the ex vivo glycation of human serum albumin from healthy and diabetic subjects was monitored in P/S samples stored for hours to months at -80 °C, -20 °C, and room temperature, as well as in samples subjected to multiple freeze-thaw cycles, incubated at different surface area-to-volume ratios or under different atmospheric compositions...
July 13, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712489/plant-made-virus-like-particles-bearing-influenza-hemagglutinin-ha-recapitulate-early-interactions-of-native-influenza-virions-with-human-monocytes-macrophages
#17
Alexander I Makarkov, Sabrina Chierzi, Stéphane Pillet, Keith K Murai, Nathalie Landry, Brian J Ward
INTRODUCTION: Plant-made virus-like particles (VLP) bearing influenza virus hemagglutinins (HA) are novel vaccine candidates that induce cross-reactive humoral and poly-functional T cell responses. To better understand the mechanisms that underlie this broad immunogenicity we studied early interactions of VLPs bearing either H1 (A/California/07/2009 (H1N1)) or H5 (A/Indonesia/05/2005 (H5N1)) with a human monocytoid cell line (U-937 cells) and human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) as model antigen-presenting cells (APC)...
July 13, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712078/effects-based-spatial-assessment-of-contaminated-estuarine-sediments-from-bear-creek-baltimore-harbor-md-usa
#18
Sharon E Hartzell, Michael A Unger, Beth L McGee, Lance T Yonkos
Estuarine sediments in regions with prolonged histories of industrial activity are often laden to significant depths with complex contaminant mixtures, including trace metals and persistent organic pollutants. Given the complexity of assessing risks from multi-contaminant exposures, the direct measurement of impacts to biological receptors is central to characterizing contaminated sediment sites. Though biological consequences are less commonly assessed at depth, laboratory-based toxicity testing of subsurface sediments can be used to delineate the scope of contamination at impacted sites...
July 15, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709104/biological-attenuation-of-arsenic-and-iron-in-a-continuous-flow-bioreactor-treating-acid-mine-drainage-amd
#19
L Fernandez-Rojo, M Héry, P Le Pape, C Braungardt, A Desoeuvre, E Torres, V Tardy, E Resongles, E Laroche, S Delpoux, C Joulian, F Battaglia-Brunet, J Boisson, G Grapin, G Morin, C Casiot
Passive water treatments based on biological attenuation can be effective for arsenic-rich acid mine drainage (AMD). However, the key factors driving the biological processes involved in this attenuation are not well-known. Here, the efficiency of arsenic (As) removal was investigated in a bench-scale continuous flow channel bioreactor treating As-rich AMD (∼30-40 mg L(-1)). In this bioreactor, As removal proceeds via the formation of biogenic precipitates consisting of iron- and arsenic-rich mineral phases encrusting a microbial biofilm...
June 22, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707662/-c-terminal-lysosome-targeting-domain-of-cd63-modifies-cellular-localization-of-rabies-virus-glycoprotein
#20
E S Starodubova, Y V Kuzmenko, A A Latanova, O V Preobrazhenskaya, V L Karpov
The glycoprotein of rabies virus is the central antigen elicited the immune response to infection; therefore, the majority of developing anti-rabies vaccines are based on this protein. In order to increase the efficacy of DNA immunogen encoding rabies virus glycoprotein, the construction of chimeric protein with the CD63 domain has been proposed. The CD63 is a transmembrane protein localized on the cell surface and in lysosomes. The lysosome targeting motif GYEVM is located at its C-terminus. We used the domain that bears this motif (c-CD63) to generate chimeric glycoprotein in order to relocalize it into lysosomes...
May 2017: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
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