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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440279/the-geometric-phase-of-zn-and-t-symmetric-nanomagnets-as-a-classification-toolkit
#1
M Prada
We derive the general form of the non-trivial geometric phase resulting from the unique combination of point group and time reversal symmetries. This phase arises e.g. when a magnetic adatom is adsorbed on a non-magnetic Cn crystal surface, where n denotes the fold of the principal axis. The energetic ordering and the relevant quantum numbers of the eigenstates are entirely determined by this quantity. Moreover, this phase allows to conveniently predict the protection mechanism of any prepared state, shedding light onto a large number of experiments and allowing a classification scheme...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439541/potential-energy-driven-spin-manipulation-via-a-controllable-hydrogen-ligand
#2
Peter Jacobson, Matthias Muenks, Gennadii Laskin, Oleg Brovko, Valeri Stepanyuk, Markus Ternes, Klaus Kern
Spin-bearing molecules can be stabilized on surfaces and in junctions with desirable properties, such as a net spin that can be adjusted by external stimuli. Using scanning probes, initial and final spin states can be deduced from topographic or spectroscopic data, but how the system transitions between these states is largely unknown. We address this question by manipulating the total spin of magnetic cobalt hydride complexes on a corrugated boron nitride surface with a hydrogen-functionalized scanning probe tip by simultaneously tracking force and conductance...
April 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437468/role-of-cleavage-at-the-core-e1-junction-of-hepatitis-c-virus-polyprotein-in-viral-morphogenesis
#3
Véronique Pène, Matthieu Lemasson, Francis Harper, Gérard Pierron, Arielle R Rosenberg
In hepatitis C virus (HCV) polyprotein sequence, core protein terminates with E1 envelope signal peptide. Cleavage by signal peptidase (SP) separates E1 from the complete form of core protein, anchored in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane by the signal peptide. Subsequent cleavage of the signal peptide by signal-peptide peptidase (SPP) releases the mature form of core protein, which preferentially relocates to lipid droplets. Both of these cleavages are required for the HCV infectious cycle, supporting the idea that HCV assembly begins at the surface of lipid droplets, yet SPP-catalyzed cleavage is dispensable for initiation of budding in the ER...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435471/nucleolin-targeted-extracellular-vesicles-as-a-versatile-platform-for-biologics-delivery-to-breast-cancer
#4
Yayu Wang, Xiaojia Chen, Baoqing Tian, Jiafan Liu, Li Yang, Lilan Zeng, Tianfen Chen, An Hong, Xiaogang Wang
Small interfering RNAs (siRNA)/microRNAs (miRNA) have promising therapeutic potential, yet their clinical application has been hampered by the lack of appropriate delivery systems. Herein, we employed extracellular vesicles (EVs) as a targeted delivery system for small RNAs. EVs are cell-derived small vesicles that participate in cell-to-cell communication for protein and RNA delivery. We used the aptamer AS1411-modified EVs for targeted delivery of siRNA/microRNA to breast cancer tissues. Tumor targeting was facilitated via AS1411 binding to nucleolin, which is highly expressed on the surface membrane of breast cancer cells...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433391/mechanisms-of-anterior-posterior-stability-of-the-knee-joint-under-load-bearing
#5
Ryan J Reynolds, Peter S Walker, John Buza
The anterior-posterior (AP) stability of the knee is an important aspect of functional performance. Studies have shown that the stability increases when compressive loads are applied, as indicated by reduced laxity, but the mechanism has not been fully explained. A test rig was designed which applied combinations of AP shear and compressive forces, and measured the AP displacements relative to the neutral position. Five knees were evaluated at compressive loads of 0, 250, 500, and 750N, with the knee at 15° flexion...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431962/structural-basis-chemical-driving-forces-and-biological-implications-of-flavones-as-cu-ii-ionophores
#6
Fang Dai, Wen-Jing Yan, Yu-Ting Du, Xia-Zhen Bao, Xiu-Zhuang Li, Bo Zhou
A main biochemical property of cancer cells, compared with normal cells, is altered redox status including increased levels of copper to maintain their malignant phenotypes. Thus, increasing copper accumulation, by using ionophores, to disrupt abnormal redox homeostasis of cancer cells may be an important anticancer strategy. Naturally occurring molecules with extraordinarily diverse chemical scaffolds are an important source of inspiration for developing copper ionophores. Dietary flavonoids are well-characterized copper chelators and show cancer chemopreventive potential, but their ionophoric role for redox-active copper and the related biological implications have remained unknown...
April 18, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427964/scanning-electron-microscopic-studies-on-antenna-of-hemipyrellia-ligurriens-wiedemann-1830-diptera-calliphoridae-a-blow-fly-species-of-forensic-importance
#7
Garima Hore, Aniruddha Maity, Atanu Naskar, Waliza Ansar, Shyamasree Ghosh, Goutam Kumar Saha, Dhriti Banerjee
Blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are one of the foremost organisms amongst forensic insects to colonize corpses shortly after death, thus are of immense importance in the domain of forensic entomology. The blow fly Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) is considered as a forensically important fly species globally and is also known for its medical and veterinary importance. In the present study, we report for the first time scanning electron microscopic studies on the morphology of sensilla of antenna of adult male and female of H...
April 17, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423990/self-assembled-nanogel-of-cholesterol-bearing-xyloglucan-as-a-drug-delivery-nanocarrier
#8
Shin-Ichi Sawada, Hiroko Yukawa, Shigeo Takeda, Yoshihiro Sasaki, Kazunari Akiyoshi
Xyloglucan (XG) is a multibranched polysaccharide consisting of a main chain β-1,4-glucan with xylose and galactose side chains. In this study, cholesterol-bearing XG (CHXG) was synthesized by the reaction of XG with cholesteryl N- (6-isocyanatohexyl) carbamate. The CHXG molecules self-assembled in water to form nanogels consisting of about 100 molecules of XG, and were characterized using differential light scattering and transmission electron microscopy. The number of cholesteryl groups per physical cross-linking site was estimated using a fluorescence quenching method...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422559/the-influence-of-ambulatory-aid-on-lower-extremity-muscle-activation-during-gait
#9
Michael Sanders, Anton E Bowden, Spencer Baker, Ryan Jensen, McKenzie Nichols
CONTEXT: Foot and ankle injuries are common, and often require a non-weight bearing period of immobilization for the involved leg. This non-weight bearing period usually results in muscle atrophy for the involved leg. There is a dearth of objective data describing muscle activation for different ambulatory aids that are used during the aforementioned non-weight bearing period. OBJECTIVE: To compare activation amplitudes for four leg muscles during (1) able-bodied gait and (2) ambulation involving three different ambulatory aids that can be used during the acute phase of foot and ankle injury care...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422164/on-the-role-of-the-electrical-field-in-spark-plasma-sintering-of-uo2-x
#10
Vaclav Tyrpekl, Mohamed Naji, Michael Holzhäuser, Daniel Freis, Damien Prieur, Philippe Martin, Bert Cremer, Mairead Murray-Farthing, Marco Cologna
The electric field has a large effect on the stoichiometry and grain growth of UO2+x during Spark Plasma Sintering. UO2+x is gradually reduced to UO2.00 as a function of sintering temperature and time. A gradient in the oxidation state within the pellets is observed in intermediate conditions. The shape of the gradient depends unequivocally on the direction of the electrical field. The positive surface of the pellet shows a higher oxidation state compared to the negative one. An area with larger grain size is found close to the positive electrode, but not in contact with it...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420152/measurement-of-pressure-fluctuations-inside-a-model-thrust-bearing-using-pvdf-sensors
#11
Andrew Youssef, David Matthews, Andrew Guzzomi, Jie Pan
Thrust bearings play a vital role in propulsion systems. They rely on a thin layer of oil being trapped between rotating surfaces to produce a low friction interface. The "quality" of this bearing affects many things from noise transmission to the ultimate catastrophic failure of the bearing itself. As a result, the direct measure of the forces and vibrations within the oil filled interface would be very desirable and would give an indication of the condition of the bearing in situ. The thickness of the oil film is, however, very small and conventional vibration sensors are too cumbersome to use in this confined space...
April 16, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420082/can-early-rehabilitation-prevent-posttraumatic-osteoarthritis-in-the-patellofemoral-joint-after-anterior-cruciate-ligament-rupture-understanding-the-pathological-features
#12
Nai-Jen Chang, Ming-You Shie, Kuan-Wei Lee, Pei-Hsi Chou, Chih-Chan Lin, Chih-Jou Chu
Knee instability resulting from anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture is a high-risk factor for posttraumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) in the patellofemoral joint (PFJ). However, whether non-weight-bearing and weight-bearing treatments have chondroprotective effects remains unclear. Twenty-four adult New Zealand White male rabbits were employed in this study. All animals received ACL transection in the right knee and sham surgery in the left knee. The rabbits were randomly assigned to the following groups: (I) In the sedentary (SED) group, the rabbits (n = 6) were simply kept in their cage; (II) In the continuous passive motion (CPM) group, the rabbits (n = 6) performed CPM exercise for 7 days, starting from the first postoperative day; (III) In the active treadmill exercise (TRE) group, the rabbits (n = 6) performed TRE for 2 weeks; (IV) In the CPM + TRE group, the rabbits (n = 6) executed CPM exercise, followed by TRE...
April 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418704/false-negatives-for-remote-life-detection-on-ocean-bearing-planets-lessons-from-the-early-earth
#13
Christopher T Reinhard, Stephanie L Olson, Edward W Schwieterman, Timothy W Lyons
Ocean-atmosphere chemistry on Earth has undergone dramatic evolutionary changes throughout its long history, with potentially significant ramifications for the emergence and long-term stability of atmospheric biosignatures. Though a great deal of work has centered on refining our understanding of false positives for remote life detection, much less attention has been paid to the possibility of false negatives, that is, cryptic biospheres that are widespread and active on a planet's surface but are ultimately undetectable or difficult to detect in the composition of a planet's atmosphere...
April 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415528/improved-biotribological-properties-of-peek-by-photo-induced-graft-polymerization-of-acrylic-acid
#14
Xiaoduo Zhao, Dangsheng Xiong, Kun Wang, Nan Wang
The keys of biomaterials application in artificial joints are good hydrophilicity and wear resistance. One kind of the potential bio-implant materials is polyetheretherketone (PEEK), which has some excellent properties such as non-toxic and good biocompatibility. However, its bioinert surface and inherent chemical inertness hinder its application. In this study, we reported an efficient method for improving the surface wettability and wear resistance for PEEK, a layer of acrylic acid (AA) polymer brushes on PEEK surface was prepared by UV-initiated graft polymerization...
June 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415374/explicit-calculation-of-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-relaxation-rates-in-small-pores-to-elucidate-molecular-scale-fluid-dynamics
#15
D A Faux, P J McDonald
Nuclear-magnetic-resonance (NMR) spin-lattice (T_{1}^{-1}) and spin-spin (T_{2}^{-1}) relaxation rate measurements can act as effective nondestructive probes of the nanoscale dynamics of ^{1}H spins in porous media. In particular, fast-field-cycling T_{1}^{-1} dispersion measurements contain information on the dynamics of diffusing spins over time scales spanning many orders of magnitude. Previously published experimental T_{1}^{-1} dispersions from a plaster paste, synthetic saponite, mortar, and oil-bearing shale are reanalyzed using a model and associated theory which describe the relaxation rate contributions due to the interaction between spin ensembles in quasi-two-dimensional pores...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415296/nuclear-magnetic-resonance-relaxation-due-to-the-translational-diffusion-of-fluid-confined-to-quasi-two-dimensional-pores
#16
D A Faux, P J McDonald, N C Howlett
Nuclear-magnetic-resonance (NMR) relaxation experimentation is an effective technique for nondestructively probing the dynamics of proton-bearing fluids in porous media. The frequency-dependent relaxation rate T_{1}^{-1} can yield a wealth of information on the fluid dynamics within the pore provided data can be fit to a suitable spin diffusion model. A spin diffusion model yields the dipolar correlation function G(t) describing the relative translational motion of pairs of ^{1}H spins which then can be Fourier transformed to yield T_{1}^{-1}...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414201/intrinsic-radiolabeling-of-titanium-45-using-mesoporous-silica-nanoparticles
#17
Feng Chen, Hector F Valdovinos, Reinier Hernandez, Shreya Goel, Todd E Barnhart, Weibo Cai
Titanium-45 ((45)Ti) with a three-hour half-life (t1/2=3.08 h), low maximum positron energy and high positron emission branching ratio, is a suitable positron emission tomography (PET) isotope whose potential has not yet been fully explored. Complicated radiochemistry and rapid hydrolysis continue to be major challenges to the development of (45)Ti compounds based on a traditional chelator-based radiolabeling strategy. In this study we introduced an intrinsic (or chelator-free) radiolabeling technique for the successful labeling of (45)Ti using mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN)...
April 17, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413758/de-novo-modular-development-of-a-foldameric-protein-protein-interaction-inhibitor-for-separate-hot-spots-a-dynamic-covalent-assembly-approach
#18
Éva Bartus, Zsófia Hegedüs, Edit Wéber, Brigitta Csipak, Gerda Szakonyi, Tamás A Martinek
Protein-protein interactions stabilized by multiple separate hot spots are highly challenging targets for synthetic scaffolds. Surface-mimetic foldamers bearing multiple recognition segments are promising candidate inhibitors. In this work, a modular bottom-up approach is implemented by identifying short foldameric recognition segments that interact with the independent hot spots, and connecting them through dynamic covalent library (DCL) optimization. The independent hot spots of a model target (calmodulin) are mapped with hexameric β-peptide helices using a pull-down assay...
April 2017: ChemistryOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412637/photoimmobilization-of-zwitterionic-polymers-on-surfaces-to-reduce-cell-adhesion
#19
Patrik Sobolčiak, Anton Popelka, Matej Mičušík, Monika Sláviková, Igor Krupa, Jaroslav Mosnáček, Ján Tkáč, Igor Lacík, Peter Kasák
Simple and robust methods for modifying hydrophobic polymer surfaces with zwitterionic polymers using UV irradiation were developed. Two random zwitterionic copolymers consisting of either carboxybetaine or sulfobetaine methacrylamide monomers and monomers bearing a photolabile azidophenyl group were directly photoimmobilized on polymeric surfaces (polyester, polyethylene and polystyrene) via covalent interactions in a spatially controlled manner. These copolymers were also electrospun to form self-standing mats...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412450/pegylated-doxorubicin-nanoparticles-mediated-by-hn-1-peptide-for-targeted-treatment-of-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#20
Yue Wang, Guoyun Wan, Zhiyuan Li, Shurui Shi, Bowei Chen, Chunyu Li, Lianyun Zhang, Yinsong Wang
HN-1, a 12-amino acid peptide, has been reported to possess strong capabilities for targeting and penetrating head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Here, we designed a simple but effective nanoparticle system for the delivery of doxorubicin (DOX) targeting oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) through the mediation of HN-1. PEGylated DOX (PD) was firstly synthesized by the conjugation of DOX with bis-amino-terminated poly(ethylene glycol) via succinyl linkage, and then PD nanoparticles were prepared by a modified nanoprecipitation method...
April 12, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
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