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Bearing surfaces

Di Lu, Yang An, Simin Feng, Xiaodan Li, Aiping Fan, Zheng Wang, Yanjun Zhao
The complex design of multifunctional nanomedicine is beneficial to overcome the multiple biological barriers of drug delivery, but it also presents additional hurdles to clinical translation (e.g., scaling-up and quality control). To address this dilemma, we employed a simple imidazole-bearing polymer micelle for enhanced cellular uptake, facilitated endosomal escape, and on-demand release of a model drug, SN-38. The micelles were crosslinked by the reversible imidazole/Zn2+ coordination with a drug loading of ca...
June 18, 2018: AAPS PharmSciTech
Annie N Samraj, Kimberly A Bertrand, Robert Luben, Zahra Khedri, Hai Yu, Dzung Nguyen, Christopher J Gregg, Sandra L Diaz, Sherilyn Sawyer, Xi Chen, Heather Eliassen, Vered Padler-Karavani, Kana Wu, Kay-Tee Khaw, Walter Willett, Ajit Varki
BACKGROUND: N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) is a non-human red-meat-derived sialic acid immunogenic to humans. Neu5Gc can be metabolically incorporated into glycan chains on human endothelial and epithelial surfaces. This represents the first example of a "xeno-autoantigen", against which circulating human "xeno-autoantibodies" can react. The resulting inflammation ("xenosialitis") has been demonstrated in human-like Neu5Gc-deficient mice and contributed to carcinoma progression via antibody-mediated inflammation...
2018: PloS One
Jeffrey Lange, Amanda Wach, Chelsea N Koch, Robert H Hopper, Henry Ho, Charles A Engh, Timothy M Wright, Douglas E Padgett
BACKGROUND: Our understanding of fretting and corrosion at head-neck junctions in modular THAs in vivo is based largely on the analysis of retrieved implants removed for various diagnoses. Little is known about the condition of head-neck tapers in well-functioning THAs. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: Regarding a cohort of well-functioning autopsy-retrieved modular THAs, we asked: (1) Does trunnion geometry or femoral head material affect the pull-off force of the femoral head? (2) Is there a relationship between trunnion damage and length of implantation time, head diameter, and neck length? (3) Does visual damage scoring accurately determine the presence or absence of corrosion on cobalt-chrome trunnions? METHODS: Sixty-six femoral stems and engaged femoral heads were retrieved at autopsy from 53 patients at Anderson Orthopaedic Research Institute from 1998 to 2014...
June 13, 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Chase D Brownstein
Direct evidence of paleoecological processes is often rare when the fossil record is poor, as in the case of the Cretaceous of eastern North America. Here, I describe a femur and partial tibia shaft assignable to theropods from two Late Cretaceous sites in New Jersey. The former, identifiable as the femur of a large ornithomimosaur, bears several scores interpreted as shark feeding traces. The tibia shaft has punctures and flaked bone from the bites of mid-sized crocodyliforms, the first documented occurrence of crocodyliform traces on dinosaur bone from the Maastrichtian of the Atlantic Coastal Plain...
2018: PeerJ
Yan Qin, Brian S Garrison, Wenjiang Ma, Rui Wang, Aiping Jiang, Jing Li, Meeta Mistry, Roderick T Bronson, Daria Santoro, Charlotte Franco, Daisy A Robinton, Beth Stevens, Derrick J Rossi, Chafen Lu, Timothy A Springer
Extracellular proTGF-β is covalently linked to "milieu" molecules in the matrix or on cell surfaces and is latent until TGF-β is released by integrins. Here, we show that LRRC33 on the surface of microglia functions as a milieu molecule and enables highly localized, integrin-αVβ8-dependent TGF-β activation. Lrrc33-/- mice lack CNS vascular abnormalities associated with deficiency in TGF-β-activating integrins but have microglia with a reactive phenotype and after 2 months develop ascending paraparesis with loss of myelinated axons and death by 5 months...
June 12, 2018: Cell
Caroline Constant, Isabelle Masseau, Marie Babkine, Sylvain Nichols, David Francoz, Gilles Fecteau, Emma Marchionatti, Helene Larde, Andre Desrochers
OBJECTIVES:  (1) To develop an evaluation grid to provide a systematic interpretation of calves' articular radiographs, (2) to describe radiographic lesions of septic arthritis in dairy calves less than 6 months of age, (3) to investigate potential associations between demographic data or synovial bacteriological culture results and radiographic lesions (4) to determine whether an association is present between radiographic lesions, their severity and the long-term outcome. METHODS:  Medical records of 54 calves less than 180 days old treated for septic arthritis between 2009 and 2014 with radiographic images performed in the first 2 days after admission were reviewed...
June 16, 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology: V.C.O.T
J-B Coty, F Varenne, A Benmalek, O Garsaa, I Le Potier, M Taverna, C Smadja, C Vauthier
A faithful characterization of nanomedicine (NM) is needed for a better understanding of their in vivo outcomes. Size and surface charge are studied with well-established methods. However, other relevant parameters for the understanding of NM behavior in vivo remain largely inaccessible. For instance, the reactive surface of nanomedicines, which are often grafted with macromolecules to decrease their recognition by the immune system, is excluded from a systematic characterization. Yet, it is known that a subtle modification of NM's surface characteristics (grafting density, molecular architecture and conformation of macromolecules) is at the root of major changes in the presence of biological components...
June 13, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Yan Zhang, Chang Wei, Feng Lv, Tianjun Liu
Elucidation of the pathway of drug delivery and carrier degradation in vivo is essential for the fabrication of a feasible drug delivery system. Multispectral fluorescence imaging can track a drug delivery system simultaneously based on the separation of fluorescence at multiple wavelengths without interference. In this study, the Doxorubicin loaded genipin-crosslinked globin and PEI nanoparticles (Gb-G-PEI/Dox NPs) were designed as a dual fluorescent drug delivery system to track the drug release and carrier degradation process...
June 6, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Wujun Xu, Konstantin Tamarov, Li Fan, Sari Granroth, Jimi Rantanen, Tuomo Nissinen, Sirpa Peräniemi, Oskari Uski, Maija-Riitta Hirvonen, Vesa-Pekka Lehto
Porous silicon (PSi) has attracted wide interest as a potential material for various fields of nanomedicine. However, until now, the application of PSi in photothermal therapy has not been successful due to its low photothermal conversion efficiency. In the present study, biodegradable black PSi (BPSi) nanoparticles were designed and prepared via a high yield and simple reaction. The BPSi nanoparticles possessed a low bandgap of 1.34 eV, a high extinction coefficient of 13.2 L g-1 cm-1 at 808 nm, a high photothermal conversion efficiency of 33...
June 15, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Maryam A Shetab Boushehri, Mona M A Abdel-Mottaleb, Arnaud Béduneau, Yann Pellequer, Alf Lamprecht
This study sought to develop a simple nanoparticle-based approach to enhance the efficiency and tolerability of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a potent ligand of Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4), for immunotherapy in cancer. Despite holding promise within this context, the strong pro-inflammatory properties of LPS also account for its low tolerability given localized and systemic side effects, which restrict the administrable dosage. Herein, we investigated the effect of LPS decoration as a surface-active molecule on a polymeric matrix upon its efficiency and tolerability...
November 2018: Drug Delivery
C Scatigno, N Prieto-Taboada, M Preite Martinez, A M Conte, J M Madariaga
The study of both original and decaying compounds is relevant in understanding the chemistry behind the deterioration processes, above all in open museum contexts where environmental stressors affect the artefacts. In this sense, a combination of non-invasive spectroscopy techniques (Raman spectroscopy, μ-X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction) was applied on an ancient Roman building (130 CE), the "Casa di Diana" Mithraeum at Ostia Antica archaeological site. The aim is to study the raw materials, manufacturing and decaying products of the two observed types of Roman fired bricks (red and yellow) that compose the building...
June 7, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
De-Xiu Bu, Reshma Singh, Eugene E Choi, Marco Ruella, Selene Nunez-Cruz, Keith G Mansfield, Paul Bennett, Nathanial Barton, Qilong Wu, Jiquan Zhang, Yongqiang Wang, Lai Wei, Shawn Cogan, Tucker Ezell, Shree Joshi, Kellie J Latimer, Brian Granda, William R Tschantz, Regina M Young, Heather A Huet, Celeste J Richardson, Michael C Milone
Multiple myeloma has a continued need for more effective and durable therapies. B cell maturation antigen (BCMA), a plasma cell surface antigen and member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily, is an attractive target for immunotherapy of multiple myeloma due to its high prevalence on malignant plasma cells. The current work details the pre-clinical evaluation of BCMA expression and development of a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) targeting this antigen using a fully human single chain variable fragment (scFv)...
May 25, 2018: Oncotarget
Zhenbin Liu, Min Zhang, Bhesh Bhandari
This paper studied the rheological, microstructural and 3D printing characteristics of mashed potatoes (MP) with gums of xanthan (XG), guar (GG), k-carrageenan (KG) and k-carrageenan- xanthan gum blend (KG-XG). Addition of gums increased the viscosity, storage modulus (G'), and loss modulus (G″) of MP except XG. Creep results indicated that self-supporting performance followed decreasing order of KG > KG-XG > GG > contorl > XG. Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) results well explained the behavior by enhancing hydrogen bonding and constraining water molecules' mobility...
June 10, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Mohamad J Halawi, David Brigati, William Messner, Peter J Brooks
Background: Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is increasingly performed in younger patients. The purpose of this study is to report on the midterm outcomes of primary cementless THA in patients 55 years and younger; and specifically to examine the risk factors for aseptic failure, all-cause revision, and mortality in this patient population. Methods: Four hundred and twenty-six consecutive patients with minimum 5-year follow-up were retrospectively reviewed. Multivariate analyses were conducted to control for potential confounding factors identified by univariate analyses...
April 2018: Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma
Noura El-Ahmady El-Naggar, Mervat H Hussein, Asmaa Atallah El-Sawah
Phycoerythrin is the main phycobiliprotein that responsible for harvesting light for photosynthesis in cyanobacteria. In this research, phycoerythrin extracted from the cyanobacterium Nostoc carneum has been used to reduce silver nitrate for silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) biosynthesis. UV-visible spectrophotometry for measuring surface plasmon resonance showed a single absorption peak at 430 nm, which confirmed the presence of AgNPs. The face-centered central composite design was chosen to evaluate the interaction effects between four process variables and also to determine their optimal levels which influence the AgNPs biosynthesis using phycoerythrin...
June 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jeffrey J Neil, Christopher D Smyser
Over the past decade, a number of advanced magnetic resonance-based methods have been brought to bear on questions related to early development of the human cerebral cortex. Herein, we describe studies employing analysis of cortical surface folding (cortical cartography), cortical microstructure (diffusion anisotropy), and cortically-based functional networks (resting state-functional connectivity MRI). The fundamentals of each MR method are described, followed by a discussion of application of the method to developing cortex and potential clinical uses...
May 25, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
Hung-Yun Lin, Shaker A Mousa, Paul J Davis
Integrin αvβ3 is one of the 24 heterodimeric structural proteins of the plasma membrane of animal cells. The extracellular domain of αvβ3 comprises about 80% of its mass and is devoted largely to interactions with extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, such as vitronectin and fibronectin, and cell-cell interaction. The binding of specific ECM proteins is conveyed to the cell interior by signal transduction. In the past decade, integrin αvβ3 has been shown to bind small molecules, such as nonprotein hormones-thyroid hormone analogues and dihydrotestosterone-and the stilbene, resveratrol...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Ondřej Longin, Mohammed Hezwani, Helmus van de Langemheen, Rob M J Liskamp
Syntheses of novel semi-orthogonally protected CycloTriVeratrilene (CTV) analogues with enhanced water solubility, that is 3 and 4, derived from the previously described CTV scaffold derivative 2 are described here. These scaffolds 2-4 enabled a sequential introduction of three different complementarity determining region (CDR) mimics via Cu(i)-catalysed azide-alkyne cycloaddition towards medium-sized protein mimics denoted as "synthetic antibodies". The highly optimised sequential introduction enabled selective attachment of three different CDR mimics in a one-pot fashion...
June 12, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Yue Wang, Xiaokai Zhang, Liangliang Yang, Jinru Xue, Guangrui Hu
Myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC) play a pivotal role in tumor immune evasion and MDSC levels increased in patients with cancer. Studies confirmed the associations between MDSC and various cytokines in the peripheral blood. However, little is known about the association between parenchymal MDSC subsets and cytokines, or the mechanism drawing MDSC into tumor parenchyma. This study was to analyze the correlation between MDSC subsets and CCL2 level in lung cancer model. G-MDSC and M-MDSC from the blood and parenchyma were analyzed by flow cytometry and western blot in the lung tumor model...
June 2018: Journal of Bone Oncology
Shuang Wang, Kai Zhang
Inspired by the presence of diverse carbohydrates on the surface of biological systems, we present herein a method for the synthesis of sugar-bearing polymers derived from renewable cellulose. In this paper, novel glycosylated cellulose derivatives were successfully synthesized containing a series of subsequent reactions: (1) synthesis of cellulose derivatives with pendant hydroxyl groups via nucleophilic substitution; (2) further sequential reactions containing a novel TEMPO/[bis(acetoxy)iodo]benzene (BAIB)-mediated oxidation of pendant hydroxyl groups, Schiff base formation and reduction in one-pot reaction; and (3) thiol-ene click reaction as an efficient tool to generate cellulose derivatives with pendant glucosyl groups...
September 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
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