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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904068/empagliflozin-and-clinical-outcomes-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-established-cardiovascular-disease-and-chronic-kidney-disease
#1
Christoph Wanner, John M Lachin, Silvio E Inzucchi, David Fitchett, Michaela Mattheus, Jyothis T George, Hans-Juergen Woerle, Uli C Broedl, Maximilian von Eynatten, Bernard Zinman
Background -Empagliflozin, a sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor, reduced cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes and established cardiovascular disease in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME(®) trial. Urinary glucose excretion with empagliflozin decreases with declining renal function, resulting in less potency for glucose lowering in patients with kidney disease. We investigated the effects of empagliflozin on clinical outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes, established cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease...
September 13, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879170/helicobacter-pylori-caga-is-associated-with-milder-duodenal-histological-changes-in-chilean-celiac-patients
#2
Yalda Lucero, Amaya Oyarzún, Miguel O'Ryan, Rodrigo Quera, Nelly Espinosa, Romina Valenzuela, Daniela Simian, Elisa Alcalde, Claudio Arce, Mauricio J Farfán, Alejandra F Vergara, Iván Gajardo, Jocelyn Mendez, Jorge Carrasco, Germán Errázuriz, Mónica Gonzalez, Juan C Ossa, Eduardo Maiza, Francisco Perez-Bravo, Magdalena Castro, Magdalena Araya
HIGHLIGHTS What is already known about this subject?Celiac disease (CD) has a high clinical and histological diversity and the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain elusive.H. pylori is a bacterium that chronically infect gastric and duodenal mucosa activating both a Th1/Th17 and T-reg pathways.The role of H. pylori (and the effect of their virulence factors) in CD have not yet completely elucidated.What are the new findings?cagA+ H. pylori strains are associated to milder histological damage in infected CD patients...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839507/comparison-of-immune-responses-in-pigs-infected-with-chinese-highly-pathogenic-prrs-virus-strain-hv-and-north-american-strain-nadc-20
#3
X Li, A Galliher-Beckley, L Wang, J Nietfeld, W Feng, J Shi
INTRODUCTION: Chinese HP-PRRSV characterized by high morbidity and mortality of all ages of pigs emerged since 2006 in China. The immune response of HP-PRRSV was never compared with conventional low pathogenic PRRSV strain. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we compared the immune responses elicited by a Chinese HP-PRRSV strain HV and a North American RRSV strain NADC20 infections. RESULT: Pigs infected with NADC-20 showed significantly higher Ab titers than HV-PRRSV infected pigs at 9 DPI...
2017: Open Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836359/the-potential-role-and-rationale-for-treatment-of-heart-failure-with-sodium-glucose-co-transporter-2-inhibitors
#4
REVIEW
Javed Butler, Carine E Hamo, Gerasimos Filippatos, Stuart J Pocock, Richard A Bernstein, Martina Brueckmann, Alfred K Cheung, Jyothis T George, Jennifer B Green, James L Januzzi, Sanjay Kaul, Carolyn S P Lam, Gregory Y H Lip, Nikolaus Marx, Peter A McCullough, Cyrus R Mehta, Piotr Ponikowski, Julio Rosenstock, Naveed Sattar, Afshin Salsali, Benjamin M Scirica, Sanjiv J Shah, Hiroyuki Tsutsui, Subodh Verma, Christoph Wanner, Hans-Juergan Woerle, Faiez Zannad, Stefan D Anker
Heart failure (HF) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are both growing public health concerns contributing to major medical and economic burdens to society. T2DM increases the risk of HF, frequently occurs concomitantly with HF, and worsens the prognosis of HF. Several anti-hyperglycaemic medications have been associated with a concern for worse HF outcomes. More recently, the results of the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial showed that the sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor empagliflozin was associated with a pronounced and precocious 38% reduction in cardiovascular mortality in subjects with T2DM and established cardiovascular disease [Correction added on 8 September 2017, after first online publication: "32%" in the previous sentence was corrected to "38%"]...
August 24, 2017: European Journal of Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830910/redefining-thymus-medulla-specialization-for-central-tolerance
#5
Emilie J Cosway, Beth Lucas, Kieran D James, Sonia M Parnell, Manuela Carvalho-Gaspar, Andrea J White, Alexei V Tumanov, William E Jenkinson, Graham Anderson
During αβT cell development, the thymus medulla represents an essential microenvironment for T cell tolerance. This functional specialization is attributed to its typical organized topology consisting of a branching structure that contains medullary thymic epithelial cell (mTEC) networks to support negative selection and Foxp3(+) T-regulatory cell (T-reg) development. Here, by performing TEC-specific deletion of the thymus medulla regulator lymphotoxin β receptor (LTβR), we show that thymic tolerance mechanisms operate independently of LTβR-mediated mTEC development and organization...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807036/t-time-a-data-repository-of-t-cell-and-calcium-release-activated-calcium-channel-activation-imagery
#6
Cody Arbuckle, Milton Greenberg, Adrienne Bergh, Rene German, Nick Sirago, Erik Linstead
BACKGROUND: A fundamental understanding of live-cell dynamics is necessary in order to advance scientific techniques and personalized medicine. For this understanding to be possible, image processing techniques, probes, tracking algorithms and many other methodologies must be improved. Currently there are no large open-source datasets containing live-cell imaging to act as a standard for the community. As a result, researchers cannot evaluate their methodologies on an independent benchmark or leverage such a dataset to formulate scientific questions...
August 15, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765071/ficz-generates-human-tdcs-that-induce-cd4-cd25-high-foxp3-treg-like-cell-differentiation
#7
Brenda B Jurado-Manzano, Daniel Zavala-Reyes, Edgar A Turrubiartes-Martínez, Diana P Portales-Pérez, Roberto González-Amaro, Esther Layseca-Espinosa
Dendritic cells (DCs) play a central role in the maintenance of immune homeostasis, their participation as professional antigen presenting cells is essential to the initiation of the adaptive immune response as well as to the induction of tolerance. The recently described role of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in the immune system, particularly in the modulation of the adaptive immune response has attracted the attention as a potential player in the induction of immune tolerance. However, the effects of AhR activation through endogenous ligands on human DCs have been poorly evaluated...
July 29, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762907/-subpopulation-composition-of-cd4-t-lymphocytes-as-factor-contributing-to-the-progression-of-atherosclerosis-of-carotid-arteries
#8
A Yu Filatova, E A Pylaeva, A V Potekhina, A K Osokina, O A Pogorelova, M I Tripoten, T V Balakhonova, S I Provatorov, E A Noeva, E A Klesareva, O I Afanasieva, T I Arefieva
AIM: to assess prognostic significance of blood content of regulatory and effector T-lymphocytes for progression of atherosclerosis (AS) of carotid arteries. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We enrolled in this study 33 men with various severity of carotid AS. Carotid artery duplex scan was done at admission and in 1 year after enrollment. AS progression was defined as appearance of novel stenosis in common or internal carotid artery or more or equal 5% increase of preexisting stenosis...
April 2017: Kardiologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720146/analysis-of-long-term-cd4-cd25highcd127-t-reg-cells-kinetics-in-peripheral-blood-of-lung-transplant-recipients
#9
Davide Piloni, Monica Morosini, Sara Magni, Alice Balderacchi, Luigia Scudeller, Emanuela Cova, Tiberio Oggionni, Giulia Stella, Carmine Tinelli, Filippo Antonacci, Andrea Maria D'Armini, Federica Meloni
BACKGROUND: The role of CD4(+)CD25(high)CD127(-) T-reg cells in solid-organ Transplant (Tx) acceptance has been extensively studied. In previous studies on kidney and liver recipients, peripheral T-reg cell counts were associated to graft survival, while in lung Tx, there is limited evidence for similar findings. This study aims to analyze long term peripheral kinetics of T-reg-cells in a cohort of lung recipients and tests its association to several clinical variables. METHODS: From jan 2009 to dec 2014, 137 lung Tx recipients were submitted to an immunological follow up (median: 105...
July 18, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670318/cigarette-smoke-increases-cd8%C3%AE-dendritic-cells-in-an-ovalbumin-induced-airway-inflammation
#10
Thayse Regina Brüggemann, Paula Fernandes, Luana de Mendonça Oliveira, Maria Notomi Sato, Mílton de Arruda Martins, Fernanda Magalhães Arantes-Costa
Asthma is an allergic lung disease and, when associated to cigarette smoke exposition, some patients show controversial signs about lung function and other inflammatory mediators. Epidemiologic and experimental studies have shown both increasing and decreasing inflammation in lungs of subjects with asthma and exposed to cigarette smoke. Therefore, in this study, we analyzed how cigarette smoke affects pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediators in a murine model of allergic pulmonary inflammation. We sensitized Balb/c mice to ovalbumin (OVA) with two intraperitoneal injections...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655574/cisplatin-along-with-herbal-drug-treatment-reduces-the-percentage-of-regulatory-t-cells-and-decreased-the-severity-of-experimental-visceral-leishmaniasis
#11
Heena Sachdeva, Sukhbir Kaur
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis is the most alarming and devastating amongst the various forms of leishmaniases. It is caused by Leishmania donovani, an obligate intracellular parasite of macrophages that survives through immunosuppression. Absence of T regulatory cells provides complete clearance of the parasite. A few immunoprophylactics have been sought to battle instinctive leishmaniasis, with fluctuating achievement. Our previous studies have shown that treatment of L. donovani infected mice with cisplatin along with herbal drugs resulted in decreased parasite load with heightened delayed type hypersensitivity responses (DTH), increased levels of IgG2a, IFN-γ, IL-2, CD4+ cells, NK 1...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648851/the-influence-of-mild-acidity-on-lysyl-phosphatidylglycerol-biosynthesis-and-lipid-membrane-physico-chemical-properties-in-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#12
Reg P Rehal, Helene Marbach, Alasdair T M Hubbard, Anam A Sacranie, Federica Sebastiani, Giovanna Fragneto, Richard D Harvey
The increased biosynthesis of lysyl-phosphatidylglycerol in Staphylococcus aureus when cultured under conditions of mild acidity and the resultant increased proportion of this lipid in the plasma membrane of the bacterium, alters the physico-chemical properties of lipid bilayers in a manner which is itself dependent upon environmental pH. Clinically relevant strains of S. aureus, both methicillin susceptible and resistant, all exhibited increased lysyl-phosphatidylglycerol biosynthesis in response to mild environmental acidity, albeit to differing degrees, from ∼30% to ∼55% total phospholipid...
August 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599462/detection-of-tax-specific-ctls-in-lymph-nodes-of-adult-t-cell-leukemia-lymphoma-patients-and-its-association-with-foxp3-positivity-of-regulatory-t-cell-function
#13
Ayako Ichikawa, Hiroaki Miyoshi, Fumiko Arakawa, Junichi Kiyasu, Kensaku Sato, Daisuke Niino, Yoshizo Kimura, Maki Yoshida, Riko Kawano, Hiroko Muta, Yasuo Sugita, Koichi Ohshima
Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type (HTLV)-1 Tax is a viral protein that has been reported to be important in the proliferation of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) cells and to be a target of HTLV-1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). However, it is not clear how Tax-specific CTLs behave in lymph nodes of ATLL patients. The present study analyzed the immunostaining of Tax-specific CTLs. Furthermore, ATLL tumor cells are known to be positive for forkhead box P3 (Foxp3)and to have a regulatory T (Treg)-cell-like function...
June 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594573/activation-of-integrated-stress-response-and-metabolic-dysfunction-in-a-murine-model-of-sleep-apnea
#14
Abdelnaby Khalyfa, Zhuanhong Qiao, Alex Gileles-Hillel, Ahamed A Khalyfa, Mahzad Akbarpour, Brian Popko, David Gozal
BACKGROUND: Intermittent hypoxia (IH) induces activation of the integrated stress response (ISR), but its role in IH-induced visceral white adipose tissue (vWAT) insulin resistance in unknown. CHOP is activated by chronic ISR, while GADD34 dephosphorylates the subunit of translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2α), leading to termination of ISR. We hypothesized that CHOP/Gadd34 null mice would not manifest evidence of insulin resistance following IH exposures. METHODS: 8-week-old CHOP/GADD34-/- (DM) and wild type (WT) littermates were randomly assigned to IH or RA exposures for 6 weeks...
June 8, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590550/osi-027-modulates-acute-graft-versus-host-disease-after-liver-transplantation-in-a-rat-model
#15
Xiao Zhi, Fei Xue, Wei Chen, Chao Liang, Hao Liu, Tao Ma, Xuefeng Xia, Liqiang Hu, Xueli Bai, Tingbo Liang
Despite its rarity (1%-2%), acute graft-versus-host disease after liver transplantation (LT-aGVHD) has a high mortality rate (85%). A gradual decrease in regulatory T cells (Tregs) correlates with disease progression in a rat LT-GVHD model, and treatments which increase Tregs exert therapeutic effects on LT-aGVHD. In this study, LT-aGVHD model rats were treated with rapamycin (RAPA), OSI-027, or an equal quantity of vehicle. Rats treated with OSI-027 survived longer (>100 days) than those in the RAPA (70 ± 8 days) or control (24 ± 3 days) groups...
September 2017: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588755/role-of-pro-and-anti-inflammatory-phenomena-in-the-physiopathology-of-type-2-diabetes-and-obesity
#16
REVIEW
Luciano Pirola, José Candido Ferraz
In obesity, persistent low-grade inflammation is considered as a major contributor towards the progression to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes while in lean subjects the immune environment is non-inflammatory. Massive adipose tissue (AT) infiltration by pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages and several T cell subsets as obesity develops leads to the accumulation - both in the AT and systemically - of numerous pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor α, IL-17 and IL-6 which are strongly associated with the progression of the obese phenotype towards the metabolic syndrome...
May 26, 2017: World Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571991/short-communication-use-of-fecal-starch-concentration-as-an-indicator-of-dry-feed-digestion-in-preweaned-dairy-calves
#17
T S Dennis, W Hu, F X Suarez-Mena, T M Hill, J D Quigley, R L Schlotterbeck
Fecal starch (FS) has been used as a tool to evaluate starch and diet digestibility in lactating dairy cows and feedlot steers. Some on-farm advisors also use FS to evaluate calf starter digestibility in preweaned dairy calves. Our objective was to evaluate the influence of starter intake (SI), starch and organic matter digestibility, milk replacer (MR) feeding rate, and age on FS concentrations in preweaned dairy calves. Male Holstein calves (43 ± 2.9 kg of body weight; n = 35) from a single farm were fed different amounts of MR ranging from 0...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524239/oral-contraceptive-pills-risky-or-protective-in-case-of-trichinella-spiralis-infection
#18
M A Hasby Saad, D A Radi, E A Hasby
The aim of this study was to investigate how Trichinella spiralis infection can be affected by contraceptive pills in vivo. Methods included six groups of female Wistar rats; healthy, Trichinella infected, receiving combined contraceptive pills (COCPs), receiving progestin only pills (POPs), infected receiving COCPs and infected receiving POPs. Parasite burden was measured; adult worm counts, gravidity, larvae and reproductive capacity index). Histopathological examination, immunohistochemical detection of C-kit+ mast cells and Foxp3+ T-reg...
May 19, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507062/interleukin-4-promotes-the-development-of-ex-foxp3-th2-cells-during-immunity-to-intestinal-helminths
#19
Victoria S Pelly, Stephanie M Coomes, Yashaswini Kannan, Manolis Gialitakis, Lewis J Entwistle, Jimena Perez-Lloret, Stephanie Czieso, Isobel S Okoye, Dominik Rückerl, Judith E Allen, Frank Brombacher, Mark S Wilson
Immunity to intestinal helminth infections requires the rapid activation of T helper 2 cells (Th2 cells). However, simultaneous expansion of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (T reg cells) impedes protective responses, resulting in chronic infections. The ratio between T reg and effector T cells can therefore determine the outcome of infection. The redifferentiation of T reg cells into Th cells has been identified in hyperinflammatory diseases. In this study, we asked whether ex-T reg Th2 cells develop and contribute to type-2 immunity...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502136/cd4-cd25-cd127low-regulatory-t-cells-as-indicator-of-rheumatoid-arthritis-disease-activity
#20
Sahar S Khattab, Amany M El-Saied, Rehab A Mohammed, Eman E Mohamed
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by disturbed immune regulation, inducing a progressive cartilage and bone destruction. Despite enrichment of T regulatory cell (T-regs) in synovial fluid, conflicting results are reported concerning T-regs in peripheral blood (PB) of RA patients. To determine possible correlation between the frequency of PB CD4+ CD25+CD127low (T-regs) with RA disease activity. Forty females with RA, classified according to the Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS-28), as highly active, mild-moderate or low disease activity; and 20 age and sex matched healthy controls, were enrolled to study CD4+ CD25+ CD127low T- regs in PB by flow cytometry...
June 2016: Egyptian Journal of Immunology
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