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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342451/decadal-changes-in-the-edible-supply-of-seafood-and-methylmercury-exposure-in-the-united-states
#1
Elsie M Sunderland, Miling Li, Kurt Bullard
BACKGROUND: Methylmercury (MeHg) exposure is associated with adverse effects on neurodevelopment and cardiovascular health. Previous work indicates most MeHg is from marine fish sold in the commercial market, but does not fully resolve supply regions globally. This information is critical for linking changes in environmental MeHg levels to human exposure in the U.S. population. OBJECTIVES: We used available data to estimate the geographic origins of seafood consumed in the United States (major ocean basins, coastal fisheries, aquaculture, freshwater) and how shifts in edible supply affected MeHg exposures between 2000-2002 and 2010-2012...
January 16, 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342447/design-synthesis-and-anticancer-studies-of-novel-aminobenzazolyl-pyrimidines-as-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors
#2
Rupesh Chikhale, Sonali Thorat, Rajan Kumar Choudhary, Nikhil Gadewal, Pramod Khedekar
Abnormal signalling from the Protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) like receptor tyrosine kinases and intracellular tyrosine kinases can lead to diseases such as cancer especially non-small cell lung cancer, chronic myeloid leukaemia and gastrointestinal stromal tumours. Various Protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors are available but face poor bioavailability, severe toxicities and recent cases of drug-resistant cancers prompts for development of better drug molecules. In this study we report the design and development of a novel Protein Tyrosine Kinase (PTK) inhibitor on the basis of pharmacophore modelling...
January 4, 2018: Bioorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342444/scarlet-fever-epidemic-in-china-caused-by-streptococcus-pyogenes-serotype-m12-epidemiologic-and-molecular-analysis
#3
Yuanhai You, Mark R Davies, Melinda Protani, Liam McIntyre, Mark J Walker, Jianzhong Zhang
From 2011, Hong Kong and mainland China have witnessed a sharp increase in reported cases, with subsequent reports of epidemic scarlet fever in North Asia and the United Kingdom. Here we examine epidemiological data and investigate the genomic context of the predominantly serotype M12 Streptococcus pyogenes scarlet fever isolates from mainland China. Incident case data was obtained from the Chinese Nationwide Notifiable Infectious Diseases Reporting Information System. The relative risk of scarlet fever in recent outbreak years 2011-2016 was calculated using the median age-standardised incidence rate, compared to years 2003-2010 prior this outbreak...
January 11, 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342443/test-retest-reliability-of-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-eeg-evoked-potentials
#4
Lewis J Kerwin, Corey J Keller, Wei Wu, Manjari Narayan, Amit Etkin
BACKGROUND: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-evoked potentials (TEPs), recorded using electroencephalography (TMS-EEG), offer a powerful tool for measuring causal interactions in the human brain. However, the test-retest reliability of TEPs, critical to their use in clinical biomarker and interventional studies, remains poorly understood. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: We quantified TEP reliability to: (i) determine the minimal TEP amplitude change which significantly exceeds that associated with simply re-testing, (ii) locate the most reliable scalp regions of interest (ROIs) and TEP peaks, and (iii) determine the minimal number of TEP pulses for achieving reliability...
December 29, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342405/human-laryngeal-infection-by-clinostomum-complanatum
#5
Hyun Beom Song, Min-Ho Choi, Eun-Jae Chung
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342397/imaging-the-spatiotemporal-dynamics-of-cognitive-processes-at-high-temporal-resolution
#6
I Tal, M Abeles
This letter presents a noninvasive imaging technique that captures the exact timing and locations of cortical activity sequences that are specific to a cognitive process. These precise spatiotemporal sequences can be detected in the human brain as specific time-position pattern associated with a cognitive specific time-position pattern associated with a cognitive task. They are consistent with direct measurements of population activity recorded in nonhuman primates, thus suggesting that specific time-position patterns associated with a cognitive task can be identified...
January 17, 2018: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342350/real-time-monitoring-of-chemical-changes-in-three-kinds-of-fermented-milk-products-during-fermentation-using-quantitative-difference-nmr-spectroscopy
#7
Yi Lu, Hiroto Ishikawa, Yeondae Kwon, Fangyu Hu, Takuya Miyakawa, Masaru Tanokura
Fermented milk products are rising in popularity throughout the world because of their health benefits, including improving digestion, normalizing the function of the immune system, and aiding in weight management. This study applies an in situ quantitative NMR method to monitor chemical changes in three kinds of fermented milk products, Bulgarian yogurt, Caspian Sea yogurt and kefir, during fermentation. As a result, the concentration changes in nine organic compounds, α/β-lactose, α/β-galactose, lactic acid, citrate, ethanol, lecithin, and creatine, were monitored in real time...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342349/membrane-allostery-and-unique-hydrophobic-sites-promote-enzyme-substrate-specificity
#8
Varnavas D Mouchlis, Yuan Chen, J Andrew McCammon, Edward A Dennis
We demonstrate that lipidomics coupled with molecular dynamics reveals unique phospholipase A2 specificity toward membrane phospholipid substrates. We discovered unexpected head-group and acyl-chain specificity for three-major human phospholipases A2. These differences between each enzyme's specificity coupled with molecular dynamicsbased structural and binding studies revealed unique active site and interfacial surface binding moieties for each enzyme that explains the observed specificity at a hitherto inaccessible structural level...
January 17, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342318/optical-structural-analysis-of-individual-%C3%AE-synuclein-oligomers
#9
Juan Alberto Varela, Margarida Rodrigues, Suman De, Patrick Flagmeier, Sonia Gandhi, Christopher M Dobson, David Klenerman, Steven Lee
Small aggregates of misfolded proteins play a key role in neurodegenerative disorders. Such species are difficult to study due to the lack of methods capable of resolving these heterogeneous aggregates, which are smaller than the optical diffraction limit. We demonstrate here an all-optical fluorescence microscopy method to characterise the structure of individual protein-aggregates based on the fluorescence anisotropy of dyes such as thioflavin-T, and show that this technology is capable of studying oligomers in human biofluids such as cerebrospinal fluid...
January 17, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342289/recent-advances-in-kidney-transplantation-a-viewpoint-from-the-descartes-advisory-board
#10
Daniel Abramowicz, Rainer Oberbauer, Uwe Heemann, Ondrej Viklicky, Licia Peruzzi, Christophe Mariat, Marta Crespo, Klemens Budde, Gabriel C Oniscu
Transplantation medicine is a rapidly evolving field. Keeping afloat of the published literature to offer the best clinical care to our patients is a daunting task. As part of its educational mission, the Descartes advisory board identified seven topics in kidney transplantation where there has been substantial progresses over the last years: kidney allocation within Eurotransplant; kidney exchange strategies; kidney machine perfusion strategies; the changing landscape of anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies; the new immunosuppressive drugs in the pipeline; strategies for immunosuppression minimization; and the continuous enigma of focal segmental glomerular sclerosis recurrence after transplantation...
January 12, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342283/non-typhoidal-salmonella-serovars-associated-with-invasive-and-non-invasive-disease-in-the-lao-people-s-democratic-republic
#11
Tu Le Thi Phuong, Sayaphet Rattanavong, Manivanh Vongsouvath, Viengmon Davong, Nguyen Phu Huong Lan, James I Campbell, Thomas C Darton, Guy E Thwaites, Paul N Newton, David A B Dance, Stephen Baker
Background: Invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease is a well-described cause of mortality in children and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults in sub-Saharan Africa. Additionally, there is an ill-defined burden of iNTS disease in Southeast Asia. Methods: Aiming to investigate the causative serovars of non-invasive and iNTS disease and their associated antimicrobial susceptibility profiles in the Lao People's Democratic Republic, we performed multilocus sequence typing and antimicrobial susceptibility profiling on 168 NTS (63 blood and 105 faecal) organisms isolated in Lao between 2000 and 2012...
January 12, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342268/reduced-expression-of-mismatch-repair-genes-msh6-msh2-directly-promotes-pituitary-tumor-growth-via-the-atr-chk1-pathway
#12
Shinsuke Uraki, Hiroyuki Ariyasu, Asako Doi, Shintaro Kawai, Ken Takeshima, Shuhei Morita, Junya Fukai, Koji Fujita, Hiroto Furuta, Masahiro Nishi, Kokichi Sugano, Naoko Inoshita, Naoyuki Nakao, Shozo Yamada, Takashi Akamizu
Context: The mechanisms of pituitary adenoma (PA) pathogenesis and proliferation remain largely unknown. Objectives: To evaluate the direct association between PA proliferation and expression of mismatch repair (MMR) genes and proteins, and to clarify the role of MMR genes in the molecular mechanism of PA proliferation. Experimental Design: We performed quantitative analyses by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry to detect MMR gene and protein expression in human PAs (n = 47)...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342260/interaction-between-staphylococcus-aureus-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-is-beneficial-for-colonisation-and-pathogenicity-in-a-mixed-biofilm
#13
Patrícia M Alves, Eide Al-Badi, Cathryn Withycombe, Paul M Jones, Kevin J Purdy, Sarah E Maddocks
Debate regarding the co-existence of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in wounds remains contentious, with the dominant hypothesis describing a situation akin to niche partitioning, whereby both microorganisms are present but occupy distinct regions of the wound without interacting. In contrast, we hypothesised that these microorganisms do interact during early co-colonisation in a manner beneficial to both bacteria. We assessed competitive interaction between S. aureus and P. aeruginosa in biofilm cultured for 24-72 h and bacterial aggregates analogous to those observed in early ( < 24h) biofilm formation, and interaction with human keratinocytes...
January 12, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342258/insulin-and-estrogen-independently-and-differentially-reduce-macronutrient-intake-in-healthy-men
#14
Rosemarie Krug, Linda Mohwinkel, Bernhard Drotleff, Jan Born, Manfred Hallschmid
Context: Insulin administration to the central nervous system inhibits food intake, but this effect has been found to be less pronounced in female compared to male organisms. This sex-specific pattern has been suggested to arise from a modulating influence of estrogen signaling on the insulin effect. Objective: We assessed in healthy young men whether pre-treatment with transdermal estradiol interacts with the hypophagic effect of central nervous insulin administration via the intranasal pathway...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342248/clinical-considerations-of-the-role-of-palbociclib-in-the-management-of-advanced-breast-cancer-patients-with-and-without-visceral-metastases
#15
N C Turner, R S Finn, M Martin, S-A Im, A DeMichele, J Ettl, V Diéras, S Moulder, O Lipatov, M Colleoni, M Cristofanilli, D R Lu, A Mori, C Giorgetti, S Iyer, C Huang Bartlett, K A Gelmon
Background: This report assesses the efficacy and safety of palbociclib plus endocrine therapy (ET) in women with hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative advanced breast cancer (ABC) with or without visceral metastases. Patients and methods: Pre- and postmenopausal women with disease progression following prior ET (PALOMA-3; N=521) and postmenopausal women untreated for ABC (PALOMA-2; N=666) were randomized 2:1 to ET (fulvestrant or letrozole, respectively) plus palbociclib or placebo...
January 11, 2018: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342244/gli2-rescues-delays-in-brain-development-induced-by-kif3a-dysfunction
#16
Jia-Long Chen, Chia-Hsiang Chang, Jin-Wu Tsai
The primary cilium in neural stem cells plays distinct roles in different stages during cortical development. Ciliary dysfunctions in human (i.e., ciliopathy) cause developmental defects in multiple organs, including brain developmental delays, which lead to intellectual disabilities and cognitive deficits. However, effective treatment to this devastating developmental disorder is still lacking. Here, we first investigated the effects of ciliopathy on neural stem cells by knocking down Kif3a, a kinesin II motor required for ciliogenesis, in the neurogenic stage of cortical development by in utero electroporation of mouse embryos...
January 12, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342242/meiotic-spindle-formation-in-mammalian-oocytes-implications-for-human-infertility
#17
Suk Namgoong, Nam-Hyung Kim
In the final stage of oogenesis, mammalian oocytes generate a meiotic spindle and undergo chromosome segregation to yield an egg that is ready for fertilization. Herein, we describe the recent advances in understanding the mechanisms controlling formation of the meiotic spindle in metaphase I (MI) and metaphase II (MII) in mammalian oocytes, and focus on the differences between mouse and human oocytes. Unlike mitotic cells, mammalian oocytes lack typical centrosomes that consist of two centrioles and the surrounding pericentriolar matrix proteins (PCM), which serve as microtubule-organizing centers (MTOCs) in most somatic cells...
January 12, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342241/ipat-intelligent-prediction-and-association-tool-for-genomic-research
#18
Chunpeng James Chen, Zhiwu Zhang
Summary: The ultimate goal of genomic research is to effectively predict phenotypes from genotypes so that medical management can improve human health and molecular breeding can increase agricultural production. Genomic prediction or selection (GS) plays a complementary role to genome-wide association studies (GWAS), which is the primary method to identify genes underlying phenotypes. Unfortunately, most computing tools cannot perform data analyses for both GWAS and GS. Furthermore, the majority of these tools are executed through a command-line interface (CLI), which requires programming skills...
January 11, 2018: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342239/hplc-estimation-ex-vivo-everted-sac-permeability-and-in-vivo-pharmacokinetic-studies-of-darunavir
#19
Vasanti M Suvarna, Preeti C Sangave
Darunavir ethanolate (DRV) is an efficient protease inhibitor (PI) used in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type-1 patients. An isocratic reversed-phase HPLC method was developed to monitor concentration of darunavir in in vitro intestinal fluid samples in everted sac absorption model in the presence of bioenhancers, viz., piperine, quercetin, naringenin. The method was validated and successfully applied to everted sac and pharmacokinetic studies in rats. The absorption profiles of DRV and apparent permeability coefficients were determined...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Chromatographic Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342237/the-roles-of-subdivisions-of-human-insula-in-emotion-perception-and-auditory-processing
#20
Yang Zhang, Wenjing Zhou, Siyu Wang, Qin Zhou, Haixiang Wang, Bingqing Zhang, Juan Huang, Bo Hong, Xiaoqin Wang
Previous studies have shown insular activations involving sensory, motor, and affective processing. However, the functional roles of subdivisions within the human insula are still not well understood. In the present study, we used intracranial electroencephalography and electrical cortical stimulation to investigate the causal roles of subdivisions of the insula in auditory emotion perception in epilepsy patients implanted with depth electrodes in this brain region. The posterior and the anterior subdivisions of the human insula, identified based on structural and functional analyses, showed distinct response properties to auditory emotional stimuli...
January 12, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
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