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Child psychiatry in uk

Hiroshi Yamashita, Keiko Yoshida
AIM: The aim of our study was to develop and establish a training system in child and adolescent psychiatry in Japan, especially in light of the continuity and integration with general psychiatry. METHODS: The Japanese authors surveyed the situation of training in child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP training) through the literature and conducted collaborative and consensus meetings with the authors in the UK, with its long history of training system development...
2014: Seishin Shinkeigaku Zasshi, Psychiatria et Neurologia Japonica
Hasan Kandemir, Mehmet Emin Erdal, Salih Selek, Özlem İzci Ay, Ibrahim Fatih Karababa, Sultan Basmacı Kandemir, Mustafa Ertan Ay, Şenay Görücü Yılmaz, Hüseyin Bayazıt, Bahar Taşdelen
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent childhood disorders, although disorders etiology and pathogenesis remains unknown, several theories about ADHD development have been proposed and many researchers believe that it is caused by both genetic and environmental factors. In this study we evaluated miR18a-5p, miR22-3p, miR24-3p, miR106b-5p, miR107, miR125b-5p and miR155a-5p levels in child and adolescent ADHD patients. The research sample consisted a group of 52 ADHD patients, and 52 healthy volunteer controls...
September 19, 2014: Neuroscience Letters
J Michael Murphy, Alyssa E McCarthy, Lee Baer, Bonnie T Zima, Michael S Jellinek
The use of psychotropic medications for children and adolescents with attention and depression problems continues to generate both attention in the news media and controversy within the field. Given that the United Kingdom has recently issued guidelines for its national health service that differ substantially from those in the United States, the time is ripe to reexamine the evidence. The purpose of this article is to describe the UK's new "stepped care" guidelines for treating attention and depression problems in children and to compare them to the US guidelines issued by the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry...
May 2014: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
Cornelius Ani, Richard Reading, Richard Lynn, Simone Forlee, Elena Garralda
BACKGROUND: Little is known about conversion disorder in childhood. AIMS: To document clinical incidence, features, management and 12-month outcome of non-transient conversion disorder in under 16-year-olds in the U.K. and Ireland. METHOD: Surveillance through the British Paediatric Surveillance Unit and Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Surveillance System. RESULTS: In total, 204 cases (age range 7-15 years) were reported, giving a 12-month incidence of 1...
June 2013: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Paul Stallard, Rhiannon Buck
BACKGROUND: The limited reach and effectiveness of psychological treatments for adolescent depression have fuelled interest in alternative approaches designed to promote resilience. Schools offer a convenient location for the widespread delivery of depression prevention programmes, although little research has evaluated the feasibility of delivering interventions in this setting. AIMS: To investigate the feasibility of delivering and evaluating a universal school-based depression prevention programme for children aged 12-16 years...
January 2013: British Journal of Psychiatry. Supplement
Paul Stallard, Kapil Sayal, Rhiannon Phillips, John A Taylor, Melissa Spears, Rob Anderson, Ricardo Araya, Glyn Lewis, Abigail Millings, Alan A Montgomery
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of classroom based cognitive behavioural therapy with attention control and usual school provision for adolescents at high risk of depression. DESIGN: Three arm parallel cluster randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Eight UK secondary schools. PARTICIPANTS: Adolescents (n=5030) aged 12-16 years in school year groups 8-11. Year groups were randomly assigned on a 1:1:1 ratio to cognitive behavioural therapy, attention control, or usual school provision...
2012: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Christine Ecker, John Suckling, Sean C Deoni, Michael V Lombardo, Ed T Bullmore, Simon Baron-Cohen, Marco Catani, Peter Jezzard, Anna Barnes, Anthony J Bailey, Steven C Williams, Declan G M Murphy
CONTEXT: There is consensus that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is accompanied by differences in neuroanatomy. However, the neural substrates of ASD during adulthood, as well as how these relate to behavioral variation, remain poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To identify brain regions and systems associated with ASD in a large, well-characterized sample of adults. DESIGN: Multicenter case-control design using quantitative magnetic resonance imaging...
February 2012: Archives of General Psychiatry
Ingrid D C van Balkom, Michaeline Bresnahan, Marrit F Vogtländer, Daphne van Hoeken, Ruud B Minderaa, Ezra Susser, Hans W Hoek
To study autism outside of a narrow range of settings previously studied, and in a particularly distinctive setting in the Caribbean. The aim of the Aruba Autism Project was to determine the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in birth years 1990-1999 in Aruba. A record review study was conducted; cases were ascertained from children treated at the Child & Adolescent Psychiatry Clinic of Aruba, the first and only child psychiatry service on the island. In these 10 birth years we found a prevalence for autistic disorder (AD) of 1...
September 2009: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
Euan M Ross
The Kennedy report "Getting it Right for Children and Young People: overcoming cultural barriers in the National Health Service so as to meet their need" (2010) can be seen in the context of a long line of reforming reports that include Beveridge (1942), Sheldon (1967) and Court (1976). In the last 60 years perinatal and infant mortality has been greatly reduced and immunisation greatly expanded. Currently, however, despite many triumphs, statistics for the delivery of child health-based services in the UK are not as satisfactory as those in comparable European Union countries...
January 2011: Journal of Family Health Care
Nigel M Williams, Irina Zaharieva, Andrew Martin, Kate Langley, Kiran Mantripragada, Ragnheidur Fossdal, Hreinn Stefansson, Kari Stefansson, Pall Magnusson, Olafur O Gudmundsson, Omar Gustafsson, Peter Holmans, Michael J Owen, Michael O'Donovan, Anita Thapar
BACKGROUND: Large, rare chromosomal deletions and duplications known as copy number variants (CNVs) have been implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders similar to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We aimed to establish whether burden of CNVs was increased in ADHD, and to investigate whether identified CNVs were enriched for loci previously identified in autism and schizophrenia. METHODS: We undertook a genome-wide analysis of CNVs in 410 children with ADHD and 1156 unrelated ethnically matched controls from the 1958 British Birth Cohort...
October 23, 2010: Lancet
John Sweeney
Attitudes of Catholic religious orders towards children and adults with an intellectual disability in postcolonial Ireland The purpose of this paper is to examine the intersecting roles of Catholic religious orders and psychiatrists in the development of residential care for people with an intellectual disability in Ireland during the fifty-year period after political autonomy from the UK in 1922. The context is the postcolonial development of the country and the crucial role played by the Catholic Church through several of its religious orders in developing and staffing intellectual disability services...
June 2010: Nursing Inquiry
Elizabeth Rous, Andrew Clark
This review developed from a discussion with the late Professor Richard Harrington about interventions in Child and Adolescent Mental Health services (CAMHS) that lacked an evidence base. Our aim is to investigate the literature for signs that child psychoanalysis is a declining paradigm within the Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) in the United Kingdom (UK). We present the literature chronologically since the inception of the UK National Health Service. This study shows that there have been a number of threats to child psychoanalytic psychotherapy, but no significant consistent decline...
December 2009: History of Psychiatry
Angela Southall
Amidst considerable media focus on the stresses and strains on health services personnel who choose to leave the service, the author interviewed child mental health colleagues about how they coped with organizational stress in the UK National Health Service (NHS). The themes that emerged suggest that clinical staff feel senior managers have lost touch with what is described as the primary task - that of caring for the children and families that use the service. Practitioners feel undervalued and overwhelmed by nonclinical activities...
October 2009: Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry
L Taggart, R McMillan, A Lawson
AIM: There is a growing evidence of the physical and mental health inequalities in people with intellectual disability (ID) although less has been written concerning the mental health of women with ID (International Association for the Scientific Study of Intellectual Disabilities). This is compared with the substantive literature published within mainstream psychiatry on gender. The aim of this study was to explore a range of health and social care staffs' knowledge and perceptions of caring for women with ID who have mental health problems focusing upon risk and resilient/protective factors...
January 1, 2010: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
Kirsten Windfuhr, David While, Isabelle Hunt, Pauline Turnbull, Rebecca Lowe, Jimmy Burns, Nicola Swinson, Jenny Shaw, Louis Appleby, Navneet Kapur et al.
BACKGROUND: Suicide is a leading cause of death among youths. Comparatively few studies have studied recent trends over time, or examined rates and characteristics of service contact in well-defined national samples. METHODS: Data on general population suicides and mid-year population estimates were used to calculate suicide rates (per 100,000/year) among youths aged 10-19 years in the United Kingdom. We then determined the proportion of youths who had been in mental health service contact in the year prior to death...
November 2008: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Anna Goodman, Vikram Patel, David A Leon
BACKGROUND: Inter-ethnic differences have been reported for many mental health outcomes in the UK, but no systematic review on child mental health has been published. The aim of this review is to compare the population-based prevalence of child mental disorders between ethnic groups in Britain, and relate these findings to ethnic differences in mental health service use. METHODS: A systematic search of bibliographic databases for population-based and clinic-based studies of children aged 0-19, including all ethnic groups and the main child mental disorders...
2008: BMC Public Health
Jonathan Green, Brian Jacobs, Jennifer Beecham, Graham Dunn, Leo Kroll, Catherine Tobias, Jackie Briskman
BACKGROUND: Inpatient treatment is a complex intervention for the most serious mental health disorders in child and adolescent psychiatry. This is the first large-scale study into its effectiveness and costs. Previous studies have been criticised for methodological weaknesses. METHODS: A prospective cohort study, including economic evaluation, conducted in 8 UK units (total n = 150) with one year follow-up after discharge. Patients acted as their own controls. Outcome measurement was the clinician-rated Childhood Global Assessment Scale (CGAS); researcher-rated health needs assessment; parent- and teacher-rated symptomatology...
December 2007: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Helen C Wakeling
This study examined the reliability and validity of the Social Problem-Solving Inventory--Revised (SPSI-R; D'Zurilla, Nezu, & Maydeu-Olivares, 2002) with a population of incarcerated sexual offenders. An availability sample of 499 adult male sexual offenders was used. The SPSI-R had good reliability measured by internal consistency and test-retest reliability, and adequate validity. Construct validity was determined via factor analysis. An exploratory factor analysis extracted a two-factor model. This model was then tested against the theory-driven five-factor model using confirmatory factor analysis...
September 2007: Sexual Abuse: a Journal of Research and Treatment
Ahmed Darwish, Gill Salmon, Alka Ahuja, Liz Steed
The Community Intensive Therapy Team (CITT) has been operating since 1998. It was developed to cater for the needs of patients with complex difficulties referred to a specialist Child and Adolescent Health Service (CAMHS) in South Wales, UK. The patients served by the CITT are comparable with patients who might be referred for admission to an inpatient unit and include patients with eating disorders, psychosis, affective disorders, adjustment disorders or repetitive self-harm. The theoretical model used is based on a biopsychosocial model which aims to empower and support family members...
October 2006: Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry
P Smith, T P Berney
BACKGROUND: Inpatient beds for the psychiatric assessment and treatment of young people (under the age of 18 years) with intellectual disability have become scarce although there is pressure to redevelop them. In the UK, 63% of the NHS beds are at Prudhoe Hospital. This study examines their rôle and utility in relation to community services, both local and national. METHOD: A case note study of the 96 young people admitted over three years was supplemented by a standardised interview canvassing the opinion of the staff involved, both within the units and in the community...
August 2006: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
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