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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915150/tics-and-tourette-a-clinical-pathophysiological-and-etiological-review
#1
Russell C Dale
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Describe developments in the etiological understanding of Tourette syndrome. RECENT FINDINGS: Tourette syndrome is a complex heterogenous clinical syndrome, which is not a unitary entity. Pathophysiological models describe gamma-aminobutyric acid-ergic-associated disinhibition of cortico-basal ganglia motor, sensory and limbic loops. MRI studies support basal ganglia volume loss, with additional white matter and cerebellar changes. Tourette syndrome cause likely involves multiple vulnerability genes and environmental factors...
September 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912160/dopamine-d2-receptors-modulate-pyramidal-neurons-in-mouse-medial-prefrontal-cortex-through-a-stimulatory-g-protein-pathway
#2
Sarah E Robinson, Vikaas S Sohal
Dopaminergic modulation of prefrontal cortex is believed to play key roles in many cognitive functions and to be disrupted in pathological conditions such as schizophrenia. We have previously described a phenomenon whereby dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) activation elicits afterdepolarizations (ADPs) in subcortically-projecting (SC) pyramidal neurons within L5 of the prefrontal cortex. These D2R-induced ADPs only occur following synaptic input which activates NMDA receptors (NMDARs) even when the delay between the synaptic input and afterdepolarizations is relatively long, e...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902066/latent-class-analysis-of-adhd-neurodevelopmental-and-mental-health-comorbidities
#3
Benjamin Zablotsky, Matthew D Bramlett, Susanna N Visser, Melissa L Danielson, Stephen J Blumberg
OBJECTIVE: Many children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience co-occurring neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders, and those who do often exhibit higher levels of impairment than children with ADHD alone. This study provides a latent class analysis (LCA) approach to categorizing children with ADHD into comorbidity groups, evaluating condition expression and treatment patterns in each group. METHODS: Parent-reported data from a large probability-based national sample of children diagnosed with ADHD (2014 National Survey of the Diagnosis and Treatment of ADHD and Tourette Syndrome) were used for an LCA to identify groups of children with similar groupings of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric comorbidities among children with current ADHD (n = 2495)...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894408/deep-brain-stimulation-dbs-for-movement-disorders-an-experience-in-hospital-universiti-sains-malaysia-husm-involving-12-patients
#4
Lim Liang Hooi, Diana Noma Fitzrol, Senthil Kumar Rajapathy, Tan Yew Chin, Sanihah Abdul Halim, Regunath Kandasamy, Wan Mohd Nazaruddin Wan Hassan, Badrisyah Idris, Abdul Rahman Izaini Ghani, Zamzuri Idris, John Tharakan, Sarun Nunta-Aree, Jafri Malin Abdullah
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) was first introduced in 1987 to the developed world. As a developing country Malaysia begun its movement disorder program by doing ablation therapy using the Radionics system. Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia a rural based teaching hospital had to take into consideration both health economics and outcomes in the area that it was providing neurosurgical care for when it initiated its Deep Brain Stimulation program. Most of the patients were from the low to medium social economic groups and could not afford payment for a DBS implant...
March 2017: Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences: MJMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894297/the-pnkd-gene-is-associated-with-tourette-disorder-or-tic-disorder-in-a-multiplex-family
#5
N Sun, C Nasello, L Deng, N Wang, Y Zhang, Z Xu, Z Song, K Kwan, R A King, Z P Pang, J Xing, G A Heiman, J A Tischfield
Tourette Disorder (TD) is a childhood-onset neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by the presence of both motor and vocal tics. The genetic architecture of TD is believed to be complex and heterogeneous. Nevertheless, DNA sequence variants co-segregating with TD phenotypes within multiplex families have been identified. This report examines whole exomes of affected and unaffected individuals in a multiplex TD family to discover genes involved in the TD etiology. We performed whole exome sequencing on six out of nine members in a three-generation TD multiplex family...
September 12, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888943/melanin-concentrating-hormone-modulates-oxytocin-mediated-marble-burying
#6
Nayna M Sanathara, Celia Garau, Amal Alachkar, Lien Wang, Zhiwei Wang, Katsuhiko Nishimori, Xiangmin Xu, Olivier Civelli
Repetitive and perseverative behaviors are common features of a number of neuropsychiatric diseases such as Angelman's syndrome, Tourette's syndrome, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and autism spectrum disorders. The oxytocin system has been linked to the regulation of repetitive behavior in both animal models and humans, but many of its downstream targets have still to be found. We report that the melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) system is a target of the oxytocin system in regulating one repetitive behavior, marble burying...
September 6, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887904/thirty-first-annual-symposium-on-etiology-pathogenesis-and-treatment-of-parkinson-disease-and-other-movement-disorders-presented-by-the-parkinson-study-group-huntington-study-group-dystonia-study-group-tourette-syndrome-study-group-cooperative-ataxia-group
#7
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878322/altered-topology-of-structural-brain-networks-in-patients-with-gilles-de-la-tourette-syndrome
#8
E Schlemm, B Cheng, F Fischer, C Hilgetag, C Gerloff, G Thomalla
Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by tics. Abnormal neuronal circuits in a wide-spread structural and functional network involved in planning, execution and control of motor functions are thought to represent the underlying pathology. We therefore studied changes of structural brain networks in 13 adult GTS patients reconstructed by diffusion tensor imaging and probabilistic tractography. Structural connectivity and network topology were characterized by graph theoretical measures and compared to 13 age-matched controls...
September 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863370/cognitive-flexibility-and-its-electrophysiological-correlates-in-gilles-de-la-tourette-syndrome
#9
Florian Lange, Caroline Seer, Kirsten Müller-Vahl, Bruno Kopp
Motor symptoms in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) have been related to changes in frontostriatal brain networks. These changes may also give rise to alterations in cognitive flexibility. However, conclusive evidence for altered cognitive flexibility in patients with GTS is still lacking. Here, we meta-analyzed data from 20 neuropsychological studies that investigated cognitive flexibility in GTS using the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Results revealed medium-sized GTS-related performance deficits, which were significantly modulated by age: Whilst being substantial in children and adolescents with GTS, WCST deficits seem to dissolve in adult patients with GTS...
August 18, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861008/case-of-secondary-tics-associated-with-olanzapine-in-an-adult
#10
Eric W Mills, Lindsay S Shaffer, Fernando S Goes, Akira Sawa, Frederick C Nucifora
Atypical antipsychotic medications, such as risperidone, aripiprazole, and olanzapine, have utility in treating motor tics, particularly in Tourette syndrome. In rare cases, atypical antipsychotic medications have been associated with adult-onset motor tics. Such adverse drug reactions have been documented in response to quetiapine, aripiprazole, and amisulpride. Here, we report, to our knowledge, the first case of adult-onset motor tics related to olanzapine administration.
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833746/a-tug-of-war-antagonistic-effective-connectivity-patterns-over-the-motor-cortex-and-the-severity-of-motor-symptoms-in-gilles-de-la-tourette-syndrome
#11
Laura Zapparoli, Marco Tettamanti, Mauro Porta, Alberto Zerbi, Domenico Servello, Giuseppe Banfi, Eraldo Paulesu
We tested the hypothesis that Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is characterized by perturbed connectivity within cortico-subcortical motor networks. To this end, we performed a dynamic causal modelling (DCM) analysis of fMRI data collected during a finger opposition task in 24 normal controls and 24 GTS patients. The DCM analysis allowed us to assess whether any GTS-specific patterns of brain activity were related to intrinsic and/or to task-dependent connectivity. While no abnormalities were found for task-dependent connectivity, intrinsic connectivity was abnormally increased in the premotor network, with stronger connections from the supplementary motor area (SMA), from the dorsolateral premotor cortex and from the putamen to the right superior frontal gyrus, an area where GTS showed over-activation in a previous univariate analysis...
August 22, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831377/centrality-of-prefrontal-and-motor-preparation-cortices-to-tourette-syndrome-revealed-by-meta-analysis-of-task-based-neuroimaging-studies
#12
Liliana Polyanska, Hugo D Critchley, Charlotte L Rae
Tourette Syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by chronic multiple tics, which are experienced as compulsive and 'unwilled'. Patients with TS can differ markedly in the frequency, severity, and bodily distribution of tics. Moreover, there are high comorbidity rates with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), anxiety disorders, and depression. This complex clinical profile may account for apparent variability of findings across neuroimaging studies that connect neural function to cognitive and motor behavior in TS...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830823/lack-of-association-between-slc5a7-polymorphisms-and-tourette-syndrome-in-a-chinese-han-population
#13
Wenmiao Liu, Shiyan Qiu, Chuanping Gao, Guiju Wang, Shiguo Liu, Hongzai Guan
Although Tourette syndrome (TS) is a chronic neuropsychiatric disorder whose pathogenesis remains unclear, genetic factors play an important role in the occurrence and development. A variety of studies have been shown that the candidate genes related to cholinergic neurons may be associated with the onset of TS. To investigate the association between the SLC5A7 polymorphisms and Tourette syndrome (TS) in the Chinese Han population, the SNP rs1013940, rs2433718, and rs4676169 were genotyped in 401 TS trios and 400 controls...
August 19, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820427/a-review-of-the-neuropsychological-dimensions-of-tourette-syndrome
#14
REVIEW
Simon Morand-Beaulieu, Julie B Leclerc, Philippe Valois, Marc E Lavoie, Kieron P O'Connor, Bruno Gauthier
Neurocognitive functioning in Tourette syndrome (TS) has been the subject of intensive research in the past 30 years. A variety of impairments, presumably related to frontal and frontostriatal dysfunctions, have been observed. These impairments were found in various domains, such as attention, memory, executive functions, language, motor and visuomotor functions, among others. In line with contemporary research, other neurocognitive domains have recently been explored in TS, bringing evidence of altered social reasoning, for instance...
August 18, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816926/feasibility-and-relevance-of-antipsychotic-safety-monitoring-in-children-with-tourette-syndrome-a-prospective-longitudinal-study
#15
Tamara Pringsheim, Josephine Ho, Justyna R Sarna, Tracy Hammer, Scott Patten
PURPOSE/BACKGROUND: Antipsychotics are efficacious for tics and are increasingly prescribed to children with behavioral disorders. Antipsychotics have important adverse effects, and systematic monitoring of drug safety is infrequently performed. The objectives of this study were to determine the feasibility of antipsychotic safety monitoring in children with Tourette Syndrome using a defined protocol and to evaluate the risk of adverse effects with chronic use. METHODS/PROCEDURES: A prospective longitudinal study of children prescribed antipsychotics was performed...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816835/acute-worsening-of-tics-on-varenicline
#16
Shivam Om Mittal, Bryan T Klassen, Anhar Hassan, James H Bower, Elizabeth A Coon
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to report worsening of Tourette syndrome (TS) in 2 patients treated with varenicline. BACKGROUND: Abnormal dopaminergic signaling is likely involved in the pathophysiology of TS. Varenicline is a partial α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine agonist that enhances dopamine release. Therefore, the use of varenicline may influence tics in patients with TS. METHOD: We analyzed and described 2 case studies on patients with significant worsening of tics after treatment with varenicline...
September 2017: Clinical Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815684/cognitive-psychophysiological-treatment-of-bodily-focused-repetitive-behaviors-in-adults-an-open-trial
#17
Kieron O'Connor, Marc Lavoie, Benoît Desaulniers, Jean-Sébastien Audet
BACKGROUND: Body-focused repetitive behaviors (BFRBs), such as hair pulling, skin picking, and nail biting, are repetitive, destructive, and nonfunctional habits that cause significant distress. Separate BFRBs form a cohesive group and could be assessed as part of the Tourette/tic spectrum or obsessive-compulsive spectrum of disorders. The treatment of choice is either antidepressant or behavioral treatment, both of which have shown effectiveness. The cognitive psychophysiological (CoPs) model focuses on the tension and emotional build up that triggers habits by addressing cognitive-behavioral, emotional and psychophysiological processes preceding onset rather than the habit itself...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815321/fixational-eye-movements-in-tourette-syndrome
#18
Aasef G Shaikh, Shlomit Ritz Finkelstein, Ronald Schuchard, Glen Ross, Jorge L Juncos
Studies of saccadic eye movements in subjects with Tourette syndrome (TS) have provided additional evidence that there is a link between TS symptoms and deficits in fronto-striato-thalamic networks. These studies revealed impaired timing and inhibition of saccades. We compared fixational eye movements, such as microsaccades and ocular drifts, in subjects with TS and healthy controls.We measured horizontal and vertical eye positions with video-oculography in 14 subjects with Tourette syndrome. We found reduced microsaccade amplitude but increased time between adjacent microsaccades (intersaccadic interval)...
August 16, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807495/the-colorful-spectrum-of-tourette-syndrome-and-its-medical-surgical-and-behavioral-therapies
#19
Jan Roth
Tourette syndrome (TS) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder, more common in males than females, with onset before age 18. TS is characterized by multiple motor tics and one or more vocal/phonic tics, persisting for more than a year. Tics are unvoluntary, abrupt, rapid, repetitive, but non-rhythmic movements or sounds (vocalizations). They are preceded by an inner urge. Tics can be temporarily suppressed, but this leads to a powerful re-emergence. The performance of tics results in immediate but transient relief...
August 10, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805580/tourette-syndrome-and-chronic-tic-disorders-the-clinical-spectrum-beyond-tics
#20
Davide Martino, Christos Ganos, Tamara M Pringsheim
The clinical surveillance and active management of Tourette syndrome (TS) and other primary chronic tic disorders cannot be limited to tics, as these patients manifest a spectrum of sensory-, behavioral-, cognitive-, and sleep-related problems that have a major impact on their functioning and quality of life, influencing enormously clinical decision making on a routine basis. The sensory phenomena of primary tic disorders consist of premonitory urges and heightened sensitivity to external somatosensory and interoceptive stimuli...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
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