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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734459/the-roles-of-phasic-and-tonic-dopamine-in-tic%C3%A2-learning-and-expression
#1
REVIEW
Tiago V Maia, Vasco A Conceição
Tourette syndrome (TS) prominently involves dopaminergic disturbances, but the precise nature of those disturbances has remained elusive. A substantial body of empirical work and recent computational models have characterized the specific roles of phasic and tonic dopamine (DA) in action learning and selection, respectively. Using insights from this work and models, we suggest that TS involves increases in both phasic and tonic DA, which produce increased propensities for tic learning and expression, respectively...
June 8, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723227/extended-release-guanfacine-does-not-show-a-large-effect-on-tic-severity-in-children-with-chronic-tic-disorders
#2
Tanya K Murphy, Thomas V Fernandez, Barbara J Coffey, Omar Rahman, Allison Gavaletz, Camille E Hanks, Caitlin S Tillberg, Laura Ibanez Gomez, Denis G Sukhodolsky, Lily Katsovich, Lawrence Scahill
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the tolerability, safety, and preliminary efficacy of extended-release guanfacine in children with chronic tic disorders, including Tourette's disorder (collectively referred to as CTD). METHODS: This was a multisite, 8-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. The primary outcome measure was the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS) total score. Key secondary outcomes included the Improvement item of Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement (CGI-I) scale and the Tic Symptom Self-report (TSSR)...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722101/-gilles-de-la-tourette-syndrome-symptoms-causes-and-therapy
#3
Ewgeni Jakubovski, Kirsten R Müller-Vahl
Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is a chronic neuropsychiatric movement disease with combined motor tics and at least one vocal tic for a minimum period of 1 year. It typically begins in the childhood (under 18 years of age).Most of the patients with Tourette syndrome have comorbidities, which often impair their quality of life more than the tics themselves.There are reported abnormalities in the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical regions as well as in the neurotransmission of dopamine and other neurotransmission systems...
June 2017: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710940/procedural-learning-in-tourette-syndrome-adhd-and-comorbid-tourette-adhd-evidence-from-a-probabilistic-sequence-learning-task
#4
Ádám Takács, Yuval Shilon, Karolina Janacsek, Andrea Kóbor, Antoine Tremblay, Dezső Németh, Michael T Ullman
Procedural memory, which is rooted in the basal ganglia, plays an important role in the implicit learning of motor and cognitive skills. Few studies have examined procedural learning in either Tourette syndrome (TS) or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), despite basal ganglia abnormalities in both of these neurodevelopmental disorders. We aimed to assess procedural learning in children with TS (n=13), ADHD (n=22), and comorbid TS-ADHD (n=20), as well as in typically developing children (n=21). Procedural learning was measured with a well-studied implicit probabilistic sequence learning task, the alternating serial reaction time task...
July 12, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708864/abnormal-lateralization-of-fine-motor-actions-in-tourette-syndrome-persists-into-adulthood
#5
D Martino, C Delorme, E Pelosin, A Hartmann, Y Worbe, L Avanzino
Youth with Tourette syndrome (TS) exhibit, compared to healthy, abnormal ability to lateralize digital sequential tasks. It is unknown whether this trait is related to inter-hemispheric connections, and whether it is preserved or lost in patients with TS persisting through adult life. We studied 13 adult TS patients and 15 age-matched healthy volunteers. All participants undertook: 1) a finger opposition task, performed with the right hand (RH) only or with both hands, using a sensor-engineered glove in synchrony with a metronome at 2 Hz; we calculated a lateralization index [(single RH-bimanual RH)/single RH X 100) for percentage of correct movements (%CORR); 2) MRI-based diffusion tensor imaging and probabilistic tractography of inter-hemispheric corpus callosum (CC) connections between supplementary motor areas (SMA) and primary motor cortices (M1)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705751/single-port-laparoscopy-versus-conventional-laparoscopy-in-benign-adnexal-diseases-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
REVIEW
Andy Schmitt, Patrice Crochet, Sophie Knight, Claire Tourette, Anderson Loundou, Aubert Agostini
Single port laparoscopy (SPL) was developed approximately thirty years ago in minimally invasive surgery. Literature comparing SPL to conventional laparoscopy (CL) for adnexal surgery (cystectomy, adnexectomy) is inconsistent. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the advantage of SPL over CL for adnexal surgery. Pubmed, Embase and Medline were searched for publications in English and in French published between 1975 and November 2015 using the following key words: (((single port) or (single site) or (one port) or (single-port access laparoscopy) or (single-site laparoscopy) or (laparoscopic single site surgery)) and ((adnexal disease) or (ovarian cystectomy) or (ovariectomy) or (adnexectomy))) not (pregnancy)...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698486/creativity-assessment-in-subjects-with-tourette-syndrome-vs-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-a-preliminary-study
#7
Carlotta Zanaboni Dina, Mauro Porta, Christian Saleh, Domenico Servello
(1) Background: Literature suggests that high levels of dopamine are associated with creative thoughts. Tourette Syndrome (TS) patients have high dopamine levels, while Parkinson's Disease (PD) subjects have low dopamine levels. Consequently, TS individuals are supposed to have a major and PD patients less creative output. Moreover, dopamine medications may alter the level of creativity, and therefore Quality of Life, in both pathologies. (2) Methods: The aim of the study was to verify the hypothesis of TS patients having higher creative scores than PD patients...
July 9, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686474/randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial-demonstrates-the-efficacy-and-safety-of-oral-aripiprazole-for-the-treatment-of-tourette-s-disorder-in-children-and-adolescents
#8
Floyd Sallee, Eva Kohegyi, Joan Zhao, Robert McQuade, Kevin Cox, Raymond Sanchez, Alet van Beek, Margaretta Nyilas, William Carson, Roger Kurlan
OBJECTIVES: Aripiprazole modulates dopaminergic and serotonergic pathways that may play a role in the pathogenesis of Tourette's disorder (TD). This trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of oral aripiprazole in the suppression of tics in children and adolescents with TD. METHODS: This phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov , NCT01727700) recruited patients who were 7-17 years old with a diagnosis of TD from hospitals, private practices, and research clinics at 76 sites in the United States, Canada, Hungary, and Italy...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684794/altered-spontaneous-brain-activity-in-children-with-early-tourette-syndrome-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#9
Yue Liu, Jieqiong Wang, Jishui Zhang, Hongwei Wen, Yue Zhang, Huiying Kang, Xu Wang, Wenfeng Li, Huiguang He, Yun Peng
Tourette syndrome (TS) is a childhood-onset chronic disorder characterized by the presence of multiple motor and vocal tics. This study investigated the alterations of spontaneous brain activities in children with TS by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). We obtained rs-fMRI scans from 21 drug-naïve and pure TS children and 29 demographically matched healthy children. The amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF), fractional ALFF (fALFF) and regional homogeneity (ReHo) of rs-fMRI data were calculated to measure spontaneous brain activity...
July 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681514/behavioral-and-stereological-characterization-of-hdc-ko-mice-relation-to-tourette-syndrome
#10
Shamsiiat Abdurakhmanova, Karthik Chary, Mikko Kettunen, Alejandra Sierra, Pertti Panula
A premature termination codon in the human histidine decarboxylase (Hdc) gene has been identified in a family suffering from Guilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS). In the current study we investigated if mice lacking the histamine producing enzyme HDC share the morphological and cytological phenotype with GTS patients by using magnetic resonance (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), unbiased stereology and immunohistochemistry. Behavior of Hdc knock-out (Hdc KO) mice was assessed in an open field test. The results of stereological, volumetric and DTI analysis measurements showed no significant differences between control and Hdc KO mice...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678830/adverse-events-in-deep-brain-stimulation-a-retrospective-long-term-analysis-of-neurological-psychiatric-and-other-occurrences
#11
Carsten Buhmann, Torge Huckhagel, Katja Engel, Alessandro Gulberti, Ute Hidding, Monika Poetter-Nerger, Ines Goerendt, Peter Ludewig, Hanna Braass, Chi-Un Choe, Kara Krajewski, Christian Oehlwein, Katrin Mittmann, Andreas K Engel, Christian Gerloff, Manfred Westphal, Johannes A Köppen, Christian K E Moll, Wolfgang Hamel
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The extent to which deep brain stimulation (DBS) can improve quality of life may be perceived as a permanent trade-off between neurological improvements and complications of therapy, comorbidities, and disease progression. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively investigated 123 consecutive and non-preselected patients. Indications for DBS surgery were Parkinson's disease (82), dystonia (18), tremor of different etiology (21), Huntington's disease (1) and Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (1)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674485/the-pathophysiological-role-of-microglia-in-dynamic-surveillance-phagocytosis-and-structural-remodeling-of-the-developing-cns
#12
REVIEW
Cataldo Arcuri, Carmen Mecca, Roberta Bianchi, Ileana Giambanco, Rosario Donato
In vertebrates, during an early wave of hematopoiesis in the yolk sac between embryonic day E7.0 and E9.0, cells of mesodermal leaflet addressed to macrophage lineage enter in developing central nervous system (CNS) and originate the developing native microglial cells. Depending on the species, microglial cells represent 5-20% of glial cells resident in adult brain. Here, we briefly discuss some canonical functions of the microglia, i.e., cytokine secretion and functional transition from M1 to M2 phenotype...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663025/what-rodent-models-of-deep-brain-stimulation-can-teach-us-about-the-neural-circuit-regulation-of-prepulse-inhibition-in-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#13
REVIEW
Kerstin Schwabe, Joachim K Krauss
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is routinely used for treatment of movement disorders and it is also under investigation for neuropsychiatric disorders with deficient sensorimotor gating, such as schizophrenia, Tourette's syndrome and obsessive compulsive disorder. Electrical stimulation induces excitation and inhibition both at the stimulation site and at projection sites, thus modulating synchrony and oscillatory behavior of neuronal networks. We first provide background information on DBS in neuropsychiatric disorders accompanied by deficient sensorimotor gating...
June 26, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659777/deep-brain-stimulation-of-the-h-fields-of-forel-alleviates-tics-in-tourette-syndrome
#14
Clemens Neudorfer, Faycal El Majdoub, Stefan Hunsche, Klaus Richter, Volker Sturm, Mohammad Maarouf
The current rationale for target selection in Tourette syndrome revolves around the notion of cortico-basal ganglia circuit involvement in the pathophysiology of the disease. However, despite extensive research, the ideal target for deep brain stimulation (DBS) is still under debate, with many structures being neglected and underexplored. Based on clinical observations and taking into account the prevailing hypotheses of network processing in Tourette syndrome, we chose the fields of Forel, namely field H1, as a target for DBS...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659750/development-of-performance-and-erps-in-a-flanker-task-in-children-and-adolescents-with-tourette-syndrome-a-follow-up-study
#15
Heike Eichele, Tom Eichele, Lynn Marquardt, Steinunn Adolfsdottir, Kenneth Hugdahl, Lin Sørensen, Kerstin J Plessen
Background: Tourette Syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with childhood-onset, with a typical decline in tic severity, as well as an increasing ability to suppress tics in late childhood and adolescence. These processes develop in parallel with general improvement of self-regulatory abilities, and performance monitoring during this age-span. Hence, changes in performance monitoring over time might provide insight into the regulation of tics in children and adolescents with TS. Method: We measured reaction time, reaction time variability, accuracy, and event-related potentials (ERP) in 17 children with TS, including 10 children with comorbid Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), 24 children with ADHD, and 29 typically developing children, using a modified Eriksen Flanker task in two testing sessions administered on average 4...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651666/genetic-and-phenotypic-overlap-of-specific-obsessive-compulsive-and-attention-deficit-hyperactive-subtypes-with-tourette-syndrome
#16
M E Hirschtritt, S M Darrow, C Illmann, L Osiecki, M Grados, P Sandor, Y Dion, R A King, D Pauls, C L Budman, D C Cath, E Greenberg, G J Lyon, D Yu, L M McGrath, W M McMahon, P C Lee, K L Delucchi, J M Scharf, C A Mathews
BACKGROUND: The unique phenotypic and genetic aspects of obsessive-compulsive (OCD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among individuals with Tourette syndrome (TS) are not well characterized. Here, we examine symptom patterns and heritability of OCD and ADHD in TS families. METHOD: OCD and ADHD symptom patterns were examined in TS patients and their family members (N = 3494) using exploratory factor analyses (EFA) for OCD and ADHD symptoms separately, followed by latent class analyses (LCA) of the resulting OCD and ADHD factor sum scores jointly; heritability and clinical relevance of the resulting factors and classes were assessed...
June 27, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647013/autism-spectrum-symptoms-in-a-tourette-s-disorder-sample
#17
Sabrina M Darrow, Marco Grados, Paul Sandor, Matthew E Hirschtritt, Cornelia Illmann, Lisa Osiecki, Yves Dion, Robert King, David Pauls, Cathy L Budman, Danielle C Cath, Erica Greenberg, Gholson J Lyon, William M McMahon, Paul C Lee, Kevin L Delucchi, Jeremiah M Scharf, Carol A Mathews
OBJECTIVE: Tourette's disorder (TD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) share clinical features and possibly an overlapping etiology. The aims of this study were to examine ASD symptom rates in participants with TD, and to characterize the relationships between ASD symptom patterns and TD, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHOD: Participants with TD (n = 535) and their family members (n =234) recruited for genetic studies reported TD, OCD, and ADHD symptoms and completed the Social Responsiveness Scale Second Edition (SRS), which was used to characterize ASD symptoms...
July 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645854/deep-brain-stimulation-in-tourette-s-syndrome-new-insights
#18
David J Pedrosa, Lars Timmermann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 20, 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645853/anterior-pallidal-deep-brain-stimulation-for-tourette-s-syndrome-a-randomised-double-blind-controlled-trial
#19
Marie-Laure Welter, Jean-Luc Houeto, Stéphane Thobois, Benoit Bataille, Marc Guenot, Yulia Worbe, Andreas Hartmann, Virginie Czernecki, Eric Bardinet, Jerome Yelnik, Sophie Tezenas du Montcel, Yves Agid, Marie Vidailhet, Philippe Cornu, Audrey Tanguy, Solène Ansquer, Nematollah Jaafari, Emmanuel Poulet, Giulia Serra, Pierre Burbaud, Emmanuel Cuny, Bruno Aouizerate, Pierre Pollak, Stephan Chabardes, Mircea Polosan, Michel Borg, Denys Fontaine, Bruno Giordana, Sylvie Raoul, Tiphaine Rouaud, Anne Sauvaget, Isabelle Jalenques, Carine Karachi, Luc Mallet
BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been proposed to treat patients with severe Tourette's syndrome, and open-label trials and two small double-blind trials have tested DBS of the posterior and the anterior internal globus pallidus (aGPi). We aimed to specifically assess the efficacy of aGPi DBS for severe Tourette's syndrome. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, controlled trial, we recruited patients aged 18-60 years with severe and medically refractory Tourette's syndrome from eight hospitals specialised in movement disorders in France...
June 20, 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641109/rare-copy-number-variants-in-nrxn1-and-cntn6-increase-risk-for-tourette-syndrome
#20
Alden Y Huang, Dongmei Yu, Lea K Davis, Jae Hoon Sul, Fotis Tsetsos, Vasily Ramensky, Ivette Zelaya, Eliana Marisa Ramos, Lisa Osiecki, Jason A Chen, Lauren M McGrath, Cornelia Illmann, Paul Sandor, Cathy L Barr, Marco Grados, Harvey S Singer, Markus M Nöthen, Johannes Hebebrand, Robert A King, Yves Dion, Guy Rouleau, Cathy L Budman, Christel Depienne, Yulia Worbe, Andreas Hartmann, Kirsten R Müller-Vahl, Manfred Stuhrmann, Harald Aschauer, Mara Stamenkovic, Monika Schloegelhofer, Anastasios Konstantinidis, Gholson J Lyon, William M McMahon, Csaba Barta, Zsanett Tarnok, Peter Nagy, James R Batterson, Renata Rizzo, Danielle C Cath, Tomasz Wolanczyk, Cheston Berlin, Irene A Malaty, Michael S Okun, Douglas W Woods, Elliott Rees, Carlos N Pato, Michele T Pato, James A Knowles, Danielle Posthuma, David L Pauls, Nancy J Cox, Benjamin M Neale, Nelson B Freimer, Peristera Paschou, Carol A Mathews, Jeremiah M Scharf, Giovanni Coppola
Tourette syndrome (TS) is a model neuropsychiatric disorder thought to arise from abnormal development and/or maintenance of cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits. TS is highly heritable, but its underlying genetic causes are still elusive, and no genome-wide significant loci have been discovered to date. We analyzed a European ancestry sample of 2,434 TS cases and 4,093 ancestry-matched controls for rare (< 1% frequency) copy-number variants (CNVs) using SNP microarray data. We observed an enrichment of global CNV burden that was prominent for large (> 1 Mb), singleton events (OR = 2...
June 21, 2017: Neuron
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