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S Zaami, A Di Luca, N M Di Luca, G Montanari Vergallo
This review illustrates some brief considerations of the medical use of cannabis recently issued in Italy. History and uses of cannabis throughout centuries and different countries are illustrated together with a description of botany and active phytocannabinoids. Then, medical use of cannabis anti-pain treatment for patients resistant to conventional therapies is described in case of chronic neuropathic pain, spasticity, for anticinetosic and antiemetic effect in nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy, for appetite stimulating effect in cachexia, anorexia, loss of appetite in cancer patients or patients with AIDS and in anorexia nervosa, hypotensive effect in glaucoma resistant to conventional therapies and for reduction of involuntary body and facial movements in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome...
February 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Christos Ganos, John Rothwell, Patrick Haggard
Inhibitory control is crucial for normal adaptive motor behavior. In hyperkinesias, such as tics, disinhibition within the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical loops is thought to underlie the presence of involuntary movements. Paradoxically, tics are also subject to voluntary inhibitory control. This puzzling clinical observation questions the traditional definition of tics as purely involuntary motor behaviors. Importantly, it suggests novel insights into tic pathophysiology. In this review, we first define voluntary inhibitory tic control and compare it with other notions of tic control from the literature...
March 6, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
L Bournez, L Cavalerie, C Sailleau, E Bréard, G Zanella, R Servan de Almeida, A Pedarrieu, E Garin, I Tourette, F Dion, P Hendrikx, D Calavas
BACKGROUND: From 2006 to 2010, France experienced two bluetongue epidemics caused by serotype 1 (BTV-1) and 8 (BTV-8) which were controlled by mass vaccination campaigns. After five years without any detected cases, a sick ram was confirmed in August 2015 to be infected by a BTV-8 strain almost identical to that circulating during the previous outbreak. By then, part of the French cattle population was expected to be still protected, since bluetongue antibodies are known to last for many years after natural infection or vaccination...
March 2, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Hentati Salma, Sellami Rim, Abida Imen, Masmoudi Jaweher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Delphine Duteil, Yves Tourette, Adrien Eberlin, Dominica Willmann, Dharmeshkumar Patel, Nikolaus Friedrichs, Judith M Müller, Roland Schüle
Nir/ Noc2l is an inhibitor of histone acetyl-transferases (INHAT). In addition to its function on histone acetylation, Nir binds to p53 and TAp63 to regulate their activity. Here, we show that epidermis-specific ablation of Nir impairs epidermal stratification and barrier function, thereby causing perinatal lethality. Nir-deficient epidermis lacks appendages and remains single layered during embryogenesis. Cell proliferation is inhibited, whereas apoptosis and p53 acetylation is increased, indicating that Nir is controlling cell proliferation by limiting p53 acetylation...
February 28, 2018: Development
Francesca Rizzo, Ester Nespoli, Alireza Abaei, Izhar Bar-Gad, Dinesh K Deelchand, Jörg Fegert, Volker Rasche, Bastian Hengerer, Tobias M Boeckers
Tourette's syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized primarily by motor and vocal tics. Comorbidities such as attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are observed in over 50% of TS patients. We applied aripiprazole in a juvenile rat model that displays motor tics and hyperactivity. We additionally assessed the amount of ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) as an indicator for the presence of vocal tics and evaluated the changes in the striatal neurometabolism using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) at 11...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Nicki Niemann, Joseph Jankovic
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) encompasses the spectrum of iatrogenic hyperkinetic movement disorders following exposure to dopamine receptor-blocking agents (DRBAs). Despite the advent of atypical or second- and third-generation antipsychotics with a presumably lower risk of complications, TD remains a persistent and challenging problem. Prevention is the first step in mitigating the risk of TD, but early recognition, gradual withdrawal of offending medications, and appropriate treatment are also critical. As TD is often a persistent and troublesome disorder, specific antidyskinetic therapies are often needed for symptomatic relief...
February 26, 2018: Drugs
Kylie B O'Brien, Anjail Z Sharrief, Eric J Nordstrom, Anthony J Travanty, Mailee Huynh, Megan P Romero, Katie C Bittner, Michael T Bowser, Frank H Burton
Tics and compulsions in comorbid Tourette's syndrome (TS) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are associated with chronic hyperactivity of parallel cortico/amygdalo-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) loop circuits. Comorbid TS- & OCD-like behaviors have likewise been observed in D1CT-7 mice, in which an artificial neuropotentiating transgene encoding the cAMP-elevating intracellular subunit of cholera toxin (CT) is chronically expressed selectively in somatosensory cortical & amygdalar dopamine (DA) D1 receptor-expressing neurons that activate cortico/amygdalo-striatal glutamate (GLU) output...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Yasaman Safarpour, Bahman Jabbari
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are now among the most widely used therapeutic agents in clinical medicine with indications applied to the fields of movement disorders, pain disorders, and autonomic dysfunction. In this literature review, the efficacy and utility of BoNTs in the field of movement disorders are assessed using the criteria of the Guideline Development Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. The literature supports a level A efficacy (established) for BoNT therapy in cervical dystonia and a level B efficacy (probably effective) for blepharospasm, hemifacial spasm, laryngeal dystonia (spasmodic dysphonia), task-specific dystonias, essential tremor, and Parkinson rest tremor...
February 24, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Kenneth E McCarson, Michelle K Winter, Dale R Abrahamson, Nancy E Berman, Peter G Smith
Behavioral phenotyping is a crucial step in validating animal models of human disease. Most traditional behavioral analyses rely on investigator observation of animal subjects, which can be confounded by inter-observer variability, scoring consistency, and the ability to observe extremely rapid, small, or repetitive movements. Force-Plate Actimeter (FPA)-based assessments can quantify locomotor activity and detailed motor activity with an incredibly rich data stream that can reveal details of movement unobservable by the naked eye...
February 21, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Hana Weisman, Shula Parush, Alan Apter, Silvana Fennig, Noa Benaroya-Milshtein, Tamar Steinberg
Disrupted somatosensory processing characterized by over- or under- responsiveness to environmental stimuli plays an important, yet often overlooked, role in typical development and is aberrant in various neurodevelopmental disorders. These dysfunctional somatosensory processes have been conceptualized as an entity termed somatosensory dysregulation (SMD). Since Tourette syndrome (TS) is a prototypical example of developmental psychopathological disorder, we hypothesised that SMD would be a feature found in children suffering from the disorder...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Michael O Ogundele, Hani F Ayyash
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurodevelopmental disorder in children and adolescents, with prevalence ranging between 5% and 12% in the developed countries. Tic disorders (TD) are common co-morbidities in paediatric ADHD patients with or without pharmacotherapy treatment. There has been conflicting evidence of the role of psychostimulants in either precipitating or exacerbating TDs in ADHD patients. We carried out a literature review relating to the management of TDs in children and adolescents with ADHD through a comprehensive search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and Cochrane databases...
February 8, 2018: World Journal of Clinical Pediatrics
Karen Frei, Daniel D Truong, Stanley Fahn, Joseph Jankovic, Robert A Hauser
Since the original description of side effects of neuroleptics, different terminologies and definitions for tardive dyskinesia (TD) and tardive syndrome (TS) have been used by different authors, and often these two terms have been used interchangeably. This paper proposes a nosology designed to define and clarify various terms and phenomenologies within the TS spectrum. We propose to use the term tardive dyskinesia to refer to the original description of repetitive and complex oral-buccal-lingual (OBL) movements, as well as to the analogous repetitive movements that can appear in the limbs, trunk, or pelvis...
February 6, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Angelika H Claussen, Rebecca H Bitsko, Joseph R Holbrook, Jeanette Bloomfield, Kathy Giordano
OBJECTIVE: Children with Tourette syndrome (TS) are at risk for a variety of co-occurring conditions and learning and school problems. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of TS and co-occurring conditions on school measures. METHODS: Parent-reported data from the 2007-2008 and 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health were combined (n = 129,353 children aged 6-17 yrs). Parent report of health care provider diagnosis of TS; co-occurring mental, emotional, and behavioral conditions; learning and language conditions; and school measures were assessed...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
Sung Woo Joo, Hyo-Won Kim
We aimed to assess the effectiveness and safety of clonidine extended release (ER) treatment in Korean youth with ADHD and/or Tourette's disorder. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 29 children and adolescents treated with clonidine ER. The effectiveness were retrospectively measured at baseline and after 4 and 12 weeks based on the Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) and Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I) scores. Safety was evaluated at each visit based on spontaneous reports from the subjects or from their parents/guardians...
January 2018: Psychiatry Investigation
Susanna W Chang, Joseph F McGuire, John T Walkup, Douglas W Woods, Lawrence Scahill, Sabine Wilhelm, Alan L Peterson, James Dziura, John Piacentini
This paper examined neurocognitive functioning and its relationship to behavior treatment response among youth with Tourette's Disorder (TD) in a large randomized controlled trial. Participants diagnosed with TD completed a brief neurocognitive battery assessing inhibitory functions, working memory, and habit learning pre- and post-treatment with behavior therapy (CBIT, Comprehensive Behavioral Intervention for Tics) or psychoeducation plus supportive therapy (PST). At baseline, youth with tics and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) exhibited some evidence of impaired working memory and simple motor inhibition relative to youth with tics without ADHD...
March 2018: Psychiatry Research
Emily J Ricketts, Joseph F McGuire, Susanna Chang, Deepika Bose, Madeline M Rasch, Douglas W Woods, Matthew W Specht, John T Walkup, Lawrence Scahill, Sabine Wilhelm, Alan L Peterson, John Piacentini
This study assessed the psychometric properties of a parent-reported tic severity measure, the Parent Tic Questionnaire (PTQ), and used the scale to establish guidelines for delineating clinically significant tic treatment response. Participants were 126 children ages 9 to 17 who participated in a randomized controlled trial of Comprehensive Behavioral Intervention for Tics (CBIT). Tic severity was assessed using the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS), Hopkins Motor/Vocal Tic Scale (HMVTS) and PTQ; positive treatment response was defined by a score of 1 (very much improved) or 2 (much improved) on the Clinical Global Impressions - Improvement (CGI-I) scale...
January 2018: Behavior Therapy
Daria Riva, Matilde Taddei, Sara Bulgheroni
Basal ganglia are subcortical structures specialized at very early age, functionally different according to the right or left side. They are part of complex distributed network composed by parallel segregated loops where specific information are processed and open loops where different information are integrated. These loops are connected to specialized cortical areas thus entering into distributed processing of higher order cognitive functions and behaviours. Lesion or malfunction of basal ganglia nuclei cause deficits in different neuropsychological functions and neurobehavioural diseases, such Autism Spectrum Disorder, Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Tourette syndrome, etc...
January 12, 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Isabelle Jalenques, Candy Guiguet-Auclair, Philippe Derost, Pauline Joubert, Louis Foures, Andreas Hartmann, Julia Muellner, Fabien Rondepierre
INTRODUCTION: The Motor tic, Obsessions and compulsions, Vocal tic Evaluation Survey (MOVES) is a self-report scale suggested as a severity scale for tics and related sensory phenomena observed in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) and recommended as a screening instrument by the Committee on Rating Scale Development of the International Parkinson's Disease and Movement Disorder Society. OBJECTIVES: To cross-culturally adapt a French version of the MOVES and to evaluate its psychometric properties...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Sarah E P Munce, Kristen B Pitzul, Sara J T Guilcher, Tarik Bereket, Mae Kwan, James Conklin, Joan Versnel, Tanya Packer, Molly Verrier, Connie Marras, Richard Riopelle, Susan B Jaglal
BACKGROUND: The current study involves a national survey of healthcare providers who offer services for individuals with a variety of neurological conditions. It aims to describe the provision of health and community-based services as well as the admission criteria, waitlist practices, and referral sources of these services. METHODS: An online survey was directed at administrators/managers from publicly funded hospital programs, long-term care homes, and community-based healthcare provider agencies that were believed to be providing information and/or services to patients with a variety of neurological conditions...
November 2017: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
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