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Frank Tacke, Daniela C Kroy, Ana Paula Barreiros, Ulf P Neumann
Liver transplantation (LT) is a well-accepted procedure for end-stage liver disease in Germany. In 2015, 1489 patients were admitted to the waiting list (including 1308 new admissions), with the leading etiologies being fibrosis and cirrhosis (n = 349), alcoholic liver disease (n = 302), and hepatobiliary malignancies (n = 220). Organ allocation in Germany is regulated within the Eurotransplant system based on urgency as expressed by the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score. In 2015, only 894 LTs (n = 48 from living donors) were performed at 23 German transplant centers, reflecting a shortage of organs...
August 2016: Liver Transplantation
Zhiqiang Tao, Yingying Lin, Maotong Hu, Shenghong Ding, Jianwei Li, Yongming Qiu
Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is still a mysterious disease. Though great success has been has achieved by neuro-surgery treatment, the origin and development of CSDH remains unknown. Tremendous clinical observations have found the correlation of subdural effusion (SDE) and CSDH. However, systematic elucidation of CSDH's origin and progression is lacking while almost all the current hypothesis only explained partial phenomenon. This hypothesis proposes Interleukin (IL)-8 inducing neutrophil respiratory burst is the crucial impact when SDE evolves into CSDH...
January 2016: Medical Hypotheses
Saoussen Trabelsi, Nadia Mama, Maroua Chourabi, Maroua Haddaji Mastouri, Mohamed Ladib, Sergey Popov, Anna Burford, Moncef Mokni, Kalthoum Tlili, Hedi Krifa, Chris Jones, Mohamed Tahar Yacoubi, Ali Saad, Dorra H'mida-Ben Brahim
BACKGROUND: The meningeal hemangiopericytoma (MHPC) is a vascular tumor arising from pericytes. Most intracranial MHPCs resemble meningiomas (MNGs) in their clinical presentation and histological features and may therefore be misdiagnosed, despite important differences in prognosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We report 8 cases of MHPC and 5 cases of MNG collected from 2007 to 2011 from the Neuro-Surgery and Histopathology departments. All 13 samples were re reviewed by two independent pathologists and investigated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) using mesenchymal, epithelial and neuro-glial markers...
2015: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Amir Shahram Yousefi Kashi, Afshin Rakhsha, Mohammad Houshyari
BACKGROUND: Low-grade gliomas (LGGs) are the second most prevalent type of primary brain tumors in adults. The prognosis for LGGs can differ according to the clinical-pathological prognostic factors determined during diagnosis and treatment. The purpose of this study was to identify 10-year, disease-free survival (DFS), 10-year overall survival (OS), and related clinical-pathological prognostic factors of adult patients with supratentorial, low-grade gliomas who were treated with or without surgery and radiation therapy...
July 2015: Electronic Physician
A Özgür, E Dursun, Ö Ç Erdivanli, Z Ö Coşkun, S Terzi, G Emiroğlu, M Demirci
OBJECTIVES: The use of endoscopic techniques is becoming more widespread in otological and neuro-otological surgery. One such procedure, endoscopic tympanoplasty, is used in chronic otitis media treatment. This study aimed to analyse the results of endoscopic transcanal cartilage tympanoplasty. METHODS: Data of tubotympanic chronic otitis media patients who underwent transcanal endoscopic type I cartilage tympanoplasty between June 2012 and May 2013 were analysed...
November 2015: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
Vered Shkalim-Zemer, Shifra Ash, Helen Toledano, Yehuda Kollender, Josephine Issakov, Isaac Yaniv, Ian J Cohen
PURPOSE: Aggressive chemotherapy protocols for non-metastatic limb osteosarcoma have improved histological response without affecting prognosis. This study evaluated the toxicity and outcome of a dose-intensive, high-dose 3- to 5-drug pilot protocol, SCOS 89. METHODS: The cohort included 26 patients (14 male; ages 6.5-22 years) with non-metastatic limb osteosarcoma treated at a tertiary pediatric medical center between 1989 and 2013. Preoperatively, patients received two courses of once-weekly pulses of high-dose methotrexate (12-30 g/m(2)) for 2 weeks; doxorubicin (90 mg/m(2)) with dexrazoxane, combined with cisplatin (200 mg/m(2)), was added in week 3...
November 2015: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
Alvaro Lassaletta, Eric Bouffet, Donald Mabbott, Abhaya V Kulkarni
Tumors of the posterior fossa (PF) account for up to 60 % of all childhood intracranial tumors. Over the last decades, the mortality rate of children with posterior fossa tumors has gradually decreased. While survival has been the primary objective in most reports, quality of survival increasingly appears to be an important indicator of a successful outcome. Children with a PF tumor can sustain damage to the cerebellum and other brain structures from the tumor itself, concomitant hydrocephalus, the consequences of treatment (surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy), or a combination of these factors...
October 2015: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
S Mrabet, F Ellouze, S Ellini, M F Mrad
Biermer disease or pernicious anemia is an autoimmune atrophic gastritis characterized by the lack of secretion of gastric intrinsic factor. This leads to an insufficient absorption of vitamin B12 in the ileum. Clinical manifestations are mainly hematologic. Neuropsychiatric manifestations are known but are less frequent especially early in the disease. Inaugural neuropsychiatric arrays are rare and various thus making diagnosis difficult. In this article, we report through two clinical cases different neuropsychiatric manifestations revealing pernicious anemia...
December 2015: L'Encéphale
J C Espinós, R Turró, G Moragas, A Bronstone, J N Buchwald, F Mearin, A Mata, H Uchima, J Turró, S Delgado-Aros
BACKGROUND: Primary Obesity Surgery Endolumenal (POSE) is a novel bariatric endoscopic procedure that has been shown to reduce weight safely through 12 months. The study investigated potential mechanisms of weight loss following POSE. METHODS: Patients with class I-II obesity received transmural plications in the gastric fundus and distal gastric body. Patients were evaluated at baseline and at 2- and 6-month follow-up with gastric-emptying (GE) scintigraphy, a validated test of intake capacity (kcal) and plasma glucose homeostasis hormones/gastrointestinal peptides...
May 2016: Obesity Surgery
Esperanza Bas, Stefania Goncalves, Michelle Adams, Christine T Dinh, Jose M Bas, Thomas R Van De Water, Adrien A Eshraghi
Conservation of a patient's residual hearing and prevention of fibrous tissue/new bone formation around an electrode array are some of the major challenges in cochlear implant (CI) surgery. Although it is well-known that fibrotic tissue formation around the electrode array can interfere with hearing performance in implanted patients, and that associated intracochlear inflammation can initiate loss of residual hearing, little is known about the molecular and cellular mechanisms that promote this response in the cochlea...
2015: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Davide Bottari, Nikolaus F Troje, Pia Ley, Marlene Hense, Ramesh Kekunnaya, Brigitte Röder
Naturally occurring sensory deprivation in humans provides a unique opportunity to identify sensitive phases for the development of neuro-cognitive functions. Patients who had experienced a transient period of congenital visual deprivation due to bilateral dense cataracts (congenital cataract, cc) have shown, after visual re-afferentation, deficits in a number of higher visual functions including global motion and face processing. By contrast, biological motion (BM) perception seemed to be spared. The present study investigated the neural correlates of BM processing in a sample of 12 congenital cataract-reversal individuals who had underwent visual restoration surgery at the age of a few months up to several years...
October 2015: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
O Gallego
Standard treatment for glioblastoma multiforme is surgery followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy, generally with temozolomide. However, disease recurs in almost all patients. Diagnosis of progression is complex given the possibility of pseudoprogression. The Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology criteria increase the sensitivity for detecting progression. Most patients will not be candidates for new surgery or re-irradiation, and anticancer drugs are the most common approach for second-line treatment, if the patient's condition allows...
August 2015: Current Oncology
Tej D Azad, Ram Kumar Shrestha, Silvia Vaca, Ali Niyaf, Amit Pradhananga, Gopal Sedain, Mohan R Sharma, Sushil K Shilpakar, Gerald A Grant
BACKGROUND: Central nervous system (CNS) tumors are the most common cause of cancer-related death in children. Little is known about the demographics and treatment of pediatric brain tumors in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of all pediatric patients who presented to the neurosurgical service at Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal from 2009-2014 and collected information on patients <18 years old who received a diagnosis of a CNS tumor...
December 2015: World Neurosurgery
Nabeel Alshafai, Olesya Falenchuk, Michael D Cusimano
BACKGROUND: The publication of the International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial rapidly changed the management of patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. The present and perceived future trends of aneurysm management have significant implications for patients and how we educate future cerebrovascular specialists. OBJECTIVE: To determine present perceived competencies of final-year neurosurgical residents who have just finished their residencies and to relate those to what practitioners from a variety of continents expect of these persons...
September 2015: Acta Neurochirurgica
Anthony Boyer, Jérémy Deverdun, Hugues Duffau, Emmanuelle Le Bars, François Molino, Nicolas Menjot de Champfleur, François Bonnetblanc
Hypometabolism has been observed in the contralesional cerebellar hemisphere after various supratentorial cortical lesions. It is unknown whether the consequences of the dee- and deafferentation subsequent to wide-awake surgery for brain diffuse low-grade glioma can be assessed within remote and unresected subcortical structures such as the cerebellum or thalamus. To answer this question, we have conducted several regional analyses. More specifically, we have performed amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (neuronal activity magnitude) and regional homogeneity (local temporal correlations) analyses on resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data and at different time points, before and after surgery...
August 2016: Cerebellum
Nobuhito Morota, Satoshi Ihara, Hideki Ogiwara
A paradigm shift is currently ongoing in the treatment of spasticity in childhood in Japan. Functional posterior rhizotomy (FPR), which was first introduced to Japan in 1996, is best indicated for children with spastic cerebral palsy, regardless of the clinical severity of spasticity. Surgery is generally carried out in the cauda equina, where the posterior root is separated from the anterior one, and neurophysiological procedures are used to judge which nerve root/rootlet should be cut. The outcome of FPR is favorable for reducing spasticity in the long-term follow-up...
2015: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
Clara L Afonso, Aley Talans, Mário Luiz Ribeiro Monteiro
PURPOSE: To investigate the frequency of visual loss (VL), possible predictive factors of VL, and improvement in patients with pseudotumor cerebri (PTC) syndrome. METHODS: We reviewed 50 PTC patients (43 females, seven males) who underwent neuro-ophthalmic examination at the time of diagnosis and after treatment. Demographic data, body mass index (BMI), time from symptom onset to diagnosis (TD), maximum intracranial pressure (MIP), occurrence of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT), and treatment modalities were reviewed...
May 2015: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia
M Nue Møller, S Kirkeby, J Vikeså, F Cilius Nielsen, P Caye-Thomasen
The human endolymphatic sac (ES) is situated in a duplicature of the dura in the posterior cranial fossa and constitutes a part of the inner ear. The sac possesses immunological capacities and is responsible for a major part of the trans-epithelial ion transport occurring within the inner ear, via molecular mechanisms similar to that of the kidney collecting duct epithelia. Dysfunction of the trans-epithelial ion transport has been hypothesized as the reason for the endolymphatic hydrops occurring in Menieres diseases...
July 2016: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Masad Barhoum, Samuel Tobias, Moshe Elron, Aviram Sharon, Tariq Heija, Jean F Soustiel
BACKGROUND: As an expected consequence of the civil war in Syria, emergent neurosurgical care for battlefield trauma has been provided for severely head-injured Syrians transferred to Northern Israel. METHODS: Sixty-six patients suffering from brain injury were brought to the border and then referred to the institution after initial resuscitation. Both the time and type of injury were recorded based on paramedic testimony, forensic material or on details provided by patients...
2015: Brain Injury: [BI]
Yong-Hyun Chai, Tae-Young Jung, Kyung-Hwa Lee, Seul-Kee Kim
BACKGROUND: We report a case of progressive multiple cavernous angiomas. PATIENT AND METHOD: A 16-year-old boy presented with a 2-month history of headache and dizziness. Six years earlier, he underwent surgery for cerebellar medulloblastoma and subsequent chemoradiotherapy according to the M-051 protocol of the Korean Society of Pediatric Neuro-Oncology. Follow-up brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a tiny hemorrhage on the cerebellum 3 months after 23...
2015: Pediatric Neurosurgery
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