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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245171/effects-of-atorvastatin-on-autophagy-in-skeletal-muscles-of-diabetic-rats
#1
Bingquan Yang, Jie Sun, Yang Yuan, Zilin Sun
AIMS/INTRODUCTION: Atorvastatin is usually used to decrease the amount of fatty substances in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, it can cause side effects, such as breakdown of skeletal muscle tissue. This study focuses on the effects of atorvastatin on autophagy of the skeletal muscles in diabetic rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Diabetes in rats in the diabetic (D) and atorvastatin (T) groups was induced using streptozotocin (65 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection)...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245078/analysis-of-nras-gain-in-657-patients-with-melanoma-and-evaluation-of-its-sensitivity-to-a-mek-inhibitor
#2
Junya Yan, Xiaowen Wu, Jiayi Yu, Huan Yu, Tianxiao Xu, Kevin M Brown, Xue Bai, Jie Dai, Meng Ma, Huan Tang, Lu Si, Zhihong Chi, Xinan Sheng, Chuanliang Cui, Yan Kong, Jun Guo
BACKGROUND: Neuroblastoma rat-sarcoma (NRAS) mutations have been described in Chinese patients with melanoma. However, the status and the clinical significance of NRAS gain have not been investigated on a large scale. METHODS: A total of 657 melanoma samples were included in the study. NRAS copy number was examined using the QuantiGene Plex DNA assay. The sensitivities of cell lines and patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models containing NRAS gain to a MAP/ERK kinase (MEK) inhibitor (binimetinib) were also evaluated...
December 11, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245065/diclofenac-induced-renal-toxicity-in-female-wistar-albino-rats-is-protected-by-the-pre-treatment-of-aqueous-leaves-extract-of-madhuca-longifolia-through-suppression-of-inflammation-oxidative-stress-and-cytokine-formation
#3
Jerine Peter S, Sabina Evan Prince
CONTEXT: Kidney has a vital role in renal clearance, maintenance of blood pressure, elimination of toxic products and formation of prostaglandins. Certain medications are known to cause renal injury on its frequent usage and high dosage. Diclofenac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug which is used in the treatment of pain and arthritis. Madhuca longifolia is a deciduous tree which is known to the have anti-microbial, anti-ulcer, hepatoprotective, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity...
December 12, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245051/magnesium-phosphate-ceramics-incorporating-a-novel-indene-compound-promote-osteoblast-differentiation-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-bone-regeneration-in%C3%A2-vivo
#4
Ju Ang Kim, Hui-Suk Yun, Young-Ae Choi, Jung-Eun Kim, So-Young Choi, Tae-Geon Kwon, Young Kyung Kim, Tae-Yub Kwon, Myung Ae Bae, Nak Jeong Kim, Yong Chul Bae, Hong-In Shin, Eui Kyun Park
Incorporating bioactive molecules into synthetic ceramic scaffolds is challenging. In this study, to enhance bone regeneration, a magnesium phosphate (MgP) ceramic scaffold was incorporated with a novel indene compound, KR-34893. KR-34893 induced the deposition of minerals and expression of osteoblast marker genes in primary human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and a mouse osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cell line. Analysis of the mode of action showed that KR-34893 induced the phosphorylation of MAPK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and subsequently the expression of bone morphogenetic protein 7, accompanied by SMAD1/5/8 phosphorylation...
December 7, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244961/time-dependent-therapeutic-roles-of-nitazoxanide-on-high-fat-diet-streptozotocin-induced-diabetes-in-rats-effects-on-hepatic-ppar-%C3%AE-receptors
#5
Samah Mohamed Elaidy, Mona A Hussain, Mohamed K El-Kherbetawy
Targeting Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ) is an approved strategy in facing insulin resistance (IR) for the diabetes mellitus (DM)-type 2. The PPAR-γ modulators display improvements in the insulin sensitizing and adverse effects of the traditional thiazolidinediones (TZDs). Nitazoxanide (NTZ) is proposed as a PPAR-γ receptor ligand, with agonistic post-transcriptional effects. Currently, NTZ-antidiabetic activities versus pioglitazone (PIO) in a high-fat diet/streptozotocin (HFD/STZ) rat model of type-2 diabetes was explored...
December 15, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244904/pharmacokinetics-of-the-cannabinoid-receptor-ligand-18-f-mk-9470-in-the-rat-brain-evaluation-of-models-using-micropet
#6
Isabelle Miederer, Hans-Georg Buchholz, Andrea Kronfeld, Stephan Maus, Veronika Weyer-Elberich, Philipp Mildenberger, Beat Lutz, Mathias Schreckenberger
PURPOSE: The positron emission tomography ligand [18 F]MK-9470 is an inverse agonist that binds reversibly and with high affinity to the cannabinoid type 1 receptor. Due to its slow brain kinetics, care is required in the definition of its dissociation rates from the receptor. The goal of this study was to investigate pharmacokinetic analysis methods using an arterial input function. METHODS: Five Sprague-Dawley rats received injections of 13 to 25 MBq of [18 F]MK-9470 and were scanned over a period of 90 min...
December 15, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244883/effects-of-mechanical-repetitive-load-on-bone-quality-around-implants-in-rat-maxillae
#7
Yusuke Uto, Shinichiro Kuroshima, Takayoshi Nakano, Takuya Ishimoto, Nao Inaba, Yusuke Uchida, Takashi Sawase
Greater understanding and acceptance of the new concept "bone quality", which was proposed by the National Institutes of Health and is based on bone cells and collagen fibers, are required. The novel protein Semaphorin3A (Sema3A) is associated with osteoprotection by regulating bone cells. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of mechanical loads on Sema3A production and bone quality based on bone cells and collagen fibers around implants in rat maxillae. Grade IV-titanium threaded implants were placed at 4 weeks post-extraction in maxillary first molars...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244866/molecular-dynamics-simulations-of-the-glucocorticoid-receptor-dna-binding-domain-suggest-a-role-of-the-lever-arm-mobility-in-transcriptional-output
#8
Lautaro Damián Álvarez, Diego Martín Presman, Adalí Pecci
One of the first and essential steps in gene expression regulation involves the recruitment of transcription factors (TFs) to specific response elements located at enhancers and/or promoters of targeted genes. These DNA elements have a certain variability in both sequence and length, which may affect the final transcriptional output. The molecular mechanisms in which TFs integrate the subtle differences within specific recognition sequences to offer different transcriptional responses is still largely unknown...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244820/probiotics-reduce-repeated-water-avoidance-stress-induced-colonic-microinflammation-in-wistar-rats-in-a-sex-specific-manner
#9
Ju Yup Lee, Nayoung Kim, Ryoung Hee Nam, Sung Hwa Sohn, Sun Min Lee, Daeun Choi, Hyuk Yoon, Yong Sung Kim, Hye Seung Lee, Dong Ho Lee
The colonic response to stress is greater in female rats than in male rats. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of probiotics in the repeated water avoidance stress (rWAS)-induced colonic microinflammation model of Wistar rats in a sex-specific manner. The three groups (no-stress, WAS, and WAS with probiotics) were exposed to r-WAS for 1 h daily for 10 days, and Lactobacillus farciminis was administered by oral gavage for 10 days to animals in the probiotics group. The visceromotor response (VMR) to colorectal distension (CRD) was assessed using a barostat and noninvasive manometry before and after WAS exposure...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244818/postural-control-during-quiet-bipedal-standing-in-rats
#10
Tetsuro Funato, Yota Sato, Soichiro Fujiki, Yamato Sato, Shinya Aoi, Kazuo Tsuchiya, Dai Yanagihara
The control of bipedal posture in humans is subject to non-ideal conditions such as delayed sensation and heartbeat noise. However, the controller achieves a high level of functionality by utilizing body dynamics dexterously. In order to elucidate the neural mechanism responsible for postural control, the present study made use of an experimental setup involving rats because they have more accessible neural structures. The experimental design requires rats to stand bipedally in order to obtain a water reward placed in a water supplier above them...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244816/treatment-with-albumin-hydroxyoleic-acid-complex-restores-sensorimotor-function-in-rats-with-spinal-cord-injury-efficacy-and-gene-expression-regulation
#11
Gerardo Avila-Martin, Manuel Mata-Roig, Iriana Galán-Arriero, Julian S Taylor, Xavier Busquets, Pablo V Escribá
Sensorimotor dysfunction following incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) is often characterized by paralysis, spasticity and pain. Previously, we showed that intrathecal (i.t.) administration of the albumin-oleic acid (A-OA) complex in rats with SCI produced partial improvement of these symptoms and that oral 2-hydroxyoleic acid (HOA, a non-hydrolyzable OA analogue), was efficacious in the modulation and treatment of nociception and pain-related anxiety, respectively. Here we observed that intrathecal treatment with the complex albumin-HOA (A-HOA) every 3 days following T9 spinal contusion injury improved locomotor function assessed with the Rotarod and inhibited TA noxious reflex activity in Wistar rats...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244790/lentivirus-mediated-silencing-of-the-ptc1-and-ptc2-genes-promotes-recovery-from-spinal-cord-injury-by-activating-the-hedgehog-signaling-pathway-in-a-rat-model
#12
Ya-Dong Zhang, Zhong-Sheng Zhu, Dong Zhang, Zhen Zhang, Bin Ma, Shi-Chang Zhao, Feng Xue
This study aimed to investigate the effect of Patched-1 (PTC1) and PTC2 silencing in a rat model, on Hedgehog (Hh) pathway-mediated recovery from spinal cord injury (SCI). An analytical emphasis on the relationship between the sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway and nerve regeneration was explored. A total of 126 rats were divided into normal, sham, SCI, negative control (NC), PTC1-RNAi, PTC2-RNAi and PTC1/PTC2-RNAi groups. The Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) scale was employed to assess hind limb motor function...
December 15, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244751/spirulina-extract-enhanced-a-protective-effect-in-type-1-diabetes-by-anti-apoptosis-and-anti-ros-production
#13
Jiyeong Lee, Arum Park, Mi Jeong Kim, Hee-Joung Lim, Young-Ah Rha, Hee-Gyoo Kang
Interest in the nutritional value and pharmacological activities of blue-green algae has gradually increased. Spirulina extracts show protective effects against apoptosis and inflammatory damage in various cell types. Here, we investigated the protective effects of extracts from Spirulina maxima in a cytokine-mediated type 1 diabetes model in vitro and in streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats in vivo. Interleukin-1β and interferon-gamma induced substantial cytotoxicity to RINm5F rat insulinoma cells, increasing nitric oxide (NO) production, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activity, the expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress genes, and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and key genes related apoptosis...
December 15, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244747/ophthalmic-formulation-containing-nilvadipine-nanoparticles-prevents-retinal-dysfunction-in-rats-injected-with-streptozotocin
#14
Saori Deguchi, Hiroko Otake, Yosuke Nakazawa, Noriko Hiramatsu, Naoki Yamamoto, Noriaki Nagai
Retinopathy leads to irreparable vision loss via capillary closure and areas of nonperfusion. However, the current instillation systems do not allow a sufficient amount of drug required to treat retinopathy to reach the posterior segment (retina); therefore, a new formulation targeting the posterior segment is expected as therapy for retinopathy. We prepared ophthalmic formulations containing nilvadipine nanoparticles (NILnano), and demonstrated whether the instillation of NILnano can prevent retinal dysfunction in rats injected with excessive streptozotocin (STZ rats) in this study...
December 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244623/attachment-figure-s-regulation-of-infant-brain-and-behavior
#15
Regina M Sullivan
Altricial infants (i.e., requiring parental care for survival), such as humans and rats, form an attachment to their caregiver and receive the nurturing and protections needed for survival. Learning has a strong role in attachment, as is illustrated by strong attachment formed to non-biological caregivers of either sex. Here we summarize and integrate results from animal and human infant attachment research that highlights the important role of social buffering (social presence) of the stress response by the attachment figure and its effect on infant processing of threat and fear through modulation of the amygdala...
2017: Psychodynamic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244254/effect-of-deconditioning-on-cortical-and-cancellous-bone-growth-in-the-exercise-trained-young-rats
#16
Jun Iwamoto, James K Yeh, John F Aloia
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244245/substance-p-in-dorsal-root-ganglion-neurons-in-young-and-adult-rats-after-nociceptive-stimulation-during-the-neonatal-period
#17
Ana Leda Bertoncini Simões, Greice Anne Rodrigues Silva, Carolina Giorgetto, Elisabete de Cassia do Carmo-Campos, Fernando José Dias, Valéria Paula Sassoli Fazan
The nervous system is highly plastic during the neonatal period, being sensitive to noxious stimuli, which may cause short- and long-term pain responsivity changes. Understanding plasticity in peripheral pain pathways is crucial, particularly when the nervous system is still under development and remodeling process. Substance P (SP) is widely used as a marker for peripheral neurons with unmyelinated and small myelinated fibers. We investigated the number of SP immunoreactive neurons in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of male and female Wistar rats, 15 and 180 days after nociceptive stimulation during the neonatal period...
December 15, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244234/mechanisms-of-caspr2-antibodies-in-autoimmune-encephalitis-and-neuromyotonia
#18
Kristina R Patterson, Josep Dalmau, Eric Lancaster
OBJECTIVE: To determine the pathogenic mechanisms of autoantibodies to the cell adhesion molecule Caspr2 in acquired neuromyotonia and autoimmune encephalitis. METHODS: Caspr2 positive samples were confirmed using a cell-based assay, and their IgG subtypes were determined by ELISA and cell-based assay. A solid phase binding assay quantified the binding of Caspr2 to contactin-2 in the presence of Caspr2 autoantibodies. Living cultures of primary rat hippocampal neurons were incubated with Caspr2-positive or control sera and the distribution of Caspr2-positive immunofluorescent puncta and total surface Caspr2 were quantified...
December 15, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244228/high-resolution-hyperpolarized-metabolic-imaging-of-the-rat-heart-using-k-t-pca-and-k-t-sparse
#19
Patrick Wespi, Jonas Steinhauser, Grzegorz Kwiatkowski, Sebastian Kozerke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 15, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244216/relationship-between-glenoid-deformity-and-gait-characteristics-in-a-rat-model-of-neonatal-brachial-plexus-injury
#20
Kelsey Hennen, Dustin L Crouch, Ian D Hutchinson, Zhongyu Li, Katherine Saul
Neonatal brachial plexus injury (NBPI) results in substantial postural and functional impairments associated with underlying muscular and osseous deformities. We examined the relationship between glenoid deformity severity and gait in a rat model of NBPI, an established model for studying the in vivo pathomechanics of NBPI. At 8 weeks post-operatively, we monitored the gait of twenty-four rat pups who exhibited varying degrees of glenoid deformity following unilateral brachial plexus neurectomy and chemodenervation interventions administered 5 days postnatal...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
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