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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917831/-grade-evidence-to-decision-etd-frameworks-a-systematic-and-transparent-approach-to-making-well-informed-healthcare-choices-2-clinical-practice-guidelines
#1
Pablo Alonso-Coello, Andrew D Oxman, Jenny Moberg, Romina Brignardello-Petersen, Elie A Akl, Marina Davoli, Shaun Treweek, Reem A Mustafa, Per O Vandvik, Joerg Meerpohl, Gordon H Guyatt, Holger J Schünemann
Clinicians do not have the time or resources to consider the underlying evidence for the myriad decisions they must make each day and, as a consequence, rely on recommendations from clinical practice guidelines. Guideline panels should consider all the relevant factors (criteria) that influence a decision or recommendation in a structured, explicit, and transparent way and provide clinicians with clear and actionable recommendations. In this article, we will describe the EtD frameworks for clinical practice recommendations...
September 13, 2017: Gaceta Sanitaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917594/key-steps-in-conducting-systematic-reviews-for-underpinning-clinical-practice-guidelines-methodology-of-the-european-association-of-urology
#2
Thomas Knoll, Muhammad Imran Omar, Steven Maclennan, Virginia Hernández, Steven Canfield, Yuhong Yuan, Max Bruins, Lorenzo Marconi, Hein Van Poppel, James N'Dow, Richard Sylvester
CONTEXT: The findings of systematic reviews (SRs) and meta-analyses (MAs) are used for clinical decision making. The European Association of Urology has committed increasing resources into the development of high quality clinical guidelines based on such SRs and MAs. OBJECTIVE: In this paper, we have summarised the process of conducting SRs for underpinning clinical practice guidelines under the auspices of the European Association of Urology Guidelines Office. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: The process involves explicit methods and the findings should be reproducible...
September 13, 2017: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911061/international-cancer-seminars-a-focus-on-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#3
G Murphy, V McCormack, B Abedi-Ardekani, M Arnold, M C Camargo, N A Dar, S M Dawsey, A Etemadi, R C Fitzgerald, D E Fleischer, N D Freedman, A M Goldstein, S Gopal, M Hashemian, N Hu, P L Hyland, B Kaimila, F Kamangar, R Malekzadeh, C G Mathew, D Menya, G Mulima, M M Mwachiro, A Mwasamwaja, N Pritchett, Y-L Qiao, L F Ribeiro-Pinto, M Ricciardone, J Schüz, F Sitas, P R Taylor, K Van Loon, S-M Wang, W-Q Wei, C P Wild, C Wu, C C Abnet, S J Chanock, P Brennan
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the US National Cancer Institute (NCI) have initiated a series of cancer-focused seminars [Scelo G, Hofmann JN, Banks RE et al. International cancer seminars: a focus on kidney cancer. Ann Oncol 2016; 27(8): 1382-1385]. In this, the second seminar, IARC and NCI convened a workshop in order to examine the state of the current science on esophageal squamous cell carcinoma etiology, genetics, early detection, treatment, and palliation, was reviewed to identify the most critical open research questions...
September 1, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901625/systemic-challenges-in-bipolar-disorder-management-a-patient-centered-approach
#4
Anastasiya Nestsiarovich, Nathaniel G Hurwitz, Stuart J Nelson, Annette S Crisanti, Berit Kerner, Matt J Kuntz, Alicia N Smith, Emma Volesky, Quentin L Schroeter, Jason L DeShaw, S Stanley Young, Robert L Obenchain, Ronald L Krall, Kimmie Jordan, Jan Fawcett, Mauricio Tohen, Douglas J Perkins, Christophe G Lambert
OBJECTIVES: As part of a series of Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute-funded large-scale retrospective observational studies on bipolar disorder (BD) treatments and outcomes, we sought the input of patients with BD and their family members to develop research questions. We aimed to identify systemic root causes of patient-reported challenges with BD management in order to guide subsequent studies and initiatives. METHODS: Three focus groups were conducted where patients and their family members (total n = 34) formulated questions around the central theme, "What do you wish you had known in advance or over the course of treatment for BD?" In an affinity mapping exercise, participants clustered their questions and ranked the resulting categories by importance...
September 13, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889810/simple-diagnostic-signs-in-those-with-cognitive-impairment-anything-to-improve-detection-of-cognitive-disorders
#5
Michael C Woodward
With now over 50 million people worldwide with dementia (Prince et al., 2013), there are almost certainly well over 100 million people with cognitive concerns and many of these will attend their health professional keen to know what is going on. We need those without intensive training in this field to be more confident and correct in their diagnosis when such a concerned person turns up. Many simple diagnostic tests have been proposed and some assessed - these include the walk and talk (divided attention) test (those who stop when asked a question while walking may be cognitively impaired) (Lamoth et al...
September 11, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889106/prevention-of-copd-exacerbations-a-european-respiratory-society-american-thoracic-society-guideline
#6
Jadwiga A Wedzicha, Peter M A Calverley, Richard K Albert, Antonio Anzueto, Gerard J Criner, John R Hurst, Marc Miravitlles, Alberto Papi, Klaus F Rabe, David Rigau, Pawel Sliwinski, Thomy Tonia, Jørgen Vestbo, Kevin C Wilson, Jerry A Krishnan
This document provides clinical recommendations for the prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations. It represents a collaborative effort between the European Respiratory Society and the American Thoracic Society.Comprehensive evidence syntheses were performed to summarise all available evidence relevant to the Task Force's questions. The evidence was appraised using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach and the results were summarised in evidence profiles...
September 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887144/sheaf-theoretic-formulation-for-consciousness-and-qualia-and-relationship-to-the-idealism-of-non-dual-philosophies
#7
REVIEW
Menas Kafatos, Goro C Kato
Questions about the nature of reality, whether Consciousness is the fundamental reality in the universe, and what is Consciousness itself, have no answer in systems that assume an external reality independent of Consciousness. Ultimately, the ontological foundation of such systems is the absolute division of subject and object. We advocate instead what we consider to be an approach that is in agreement with the foundation of quantum reality, which is based on Rāmānuja's version of Vedanta philosophy and non-dual Kashmir Śaivism...
September 5, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886107/self-rated-health-in-senegal-a-comparison-between-urban-and-rural-areas
#8
Priscilla Duboz, Gilles Boëtsch, Lamine Gueye, Enguerran Macia
INTRODUCTION: Although the relationship between mortality and self-rated health has been demonstrated in sub-Saharan Africa, information in this area is rudimentary. In Senegal, no study has been undertaken comparing self-rated health between urban and rural areas. The objective of this study is therefore to compare self-rated health and its main predictors in Dakar and in a rural isolated area, Tessekere municipality, taking into account socio-demographic and economic factors, social relations, as well as measures of physical and mental health...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883200/optimizing-a-query-by-transformation-and-expansion
#9
Katrin Glocker, Alexander Knurr, Julia Dieter, Friederike Dominick, Melanie Forche, Christian Koch, Analie Pascoe Pérez, Benjamin Roth, Frank Ückert
In the biomedical sector not only the amount of information produced and uploaded into the web is enormous, but also the number of sources where these data can be found. Clinicians and researchers spend huge amounts of time on trying to access this information and to filter the most important answers to a given question. As the formulation of these queries is crucial, automated query expansion is an effective tool to optimize a query and receive the best possible results. In this paper we introduce the concept of a workflow for an optimization of queries in the medical and biological sector by using a series of tools for expansion and transformation of the query...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880182/pondering-the-concept-of-abstraction-in-illustrative-visualization
#10
Ivan Viola, Tobias Isenberg
We explore the concept of abstraction as it is used in visualization, with the ultimate goal of understanding and formally defining it. Researchers so far have used the concept of abstraction largely by intuition without a precise meaning. This lack of specificity left questions on the characteristics of abstraction, its variants, its control, or its ultimate potential for visualization and, in particular, illustrative visualization mostly unanswered. In this paper we thus provide a first formalization of the abstraction concept and discuss how this formalization affects the application of abstraction in a variety of visualization scenarios...
September 4, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879313/developmental-procedures-for-the-clinical-practice-guidelines-for-conscious-sedation-in-dentistry-for-the-korean-academy-of-dental-sciences
#11
So-Youn An, Kwang-Suk Seo, Seungoh Kim, Jongbin Kim, Deok-Won Lee, Kyung-Gyun Hwang, Hyun Jeong Kim
BACKGROUND: Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) are defined as "statements that are scientifically reviewed about evidence and systematically developed to assist in the doctors' and patients' decision making in certain clinical situations." This recommendation aims to promote good clinical practice for the provision of safe and effective practices of conscious sedation in dentistry. METHODS: The development of this clinical practice guideline was conducted by performing a systematic search of the literature for evidence-based CPGs...
December 2016: J Dent Anesth Pain Med
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872457/feature-clustering-of-intracranial-pressure-time-series-for-an-alarm-function-estimation-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#12
Michal Teplan, Ivan Bajla, Roman Rosipal, Martin Rusnák
The guidelines for the management of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) recommend that IntraCranial Presure (ICP) should be monitored in all salvageable patients with severe TBI, albeit this quantity cannot identify the specific mechanisms of pressure elevation. The conventional application of ICP monitoring consists merely in acquisition of ICP values in discrete time and their comparison to the established ICP threshold. The excess of this threshold triggers the special emergency treatment protocol...
September 5, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872315/universal-equations-for-the-coalescence-probability-and-long-term-size-stability-of-phospholipid-coated-monodisperse-microbubbles-formed-by-flow-focusing
#13
Tim Segers, Detlef Lohse, Michel Versluis, Peter Frinking
Resonantly driven monodisperse phospholipid-coated microbubbles are expected to substantially increase the sensitivity and efficiency in contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging and therapy. They can be produced in a microfluidic flow-focusing device but questions remain as to the role of the device geometry, the liquid and gas flow, and the phospholipid formulation on bubble stability. Here, we develop a model based on simple continuum mechanics equations that reveals the scaling of the coalescence probability with the key physical parameters...
September 5, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866648/consensus-based-recommendations-for-the-use-of-biosimilars-to-treat-rheumatological-diseases
#14
Jonathan Kay, Monika M Schoels, Thomas Dörner, Paul Emery, Tore K Kvien, Josef S Smolen, Ferdinand C Breedveld
The study aimed to develop evidence-based recommendations regarding the evaluation and use of biosimilars to treat rheumatological diseases. The task force comprised an expert group of specialists in rheumatology, dermatology and gastroenterology, and pharmacologists, patients and a regulator from ten countries. Four key topics regarding biosimilars were identified through a process of discussion and consensus. Using a Delphi process, specific questions were then formulated to guide a systematic literature review...
September 2, 2017: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863553/removal-of-incoherent-noise-from-an-averaged-cross-spectral-matrix
#15
Jørgen Hald
Measured cross-spectral matrices (CSMs) from a microphone array will in some cases be contaminated by severe incoherent noise signals in the individual channels. A typical example is flow noise generated in the individual microphones when measuring in a wind tunnel. Assuming stationary signals and performing long-time averaging, the contamination will be concentrated on the CSM diagonal. When the CSM is used for traditional frequency-domain beamforming, diagonal removal (DR) will avoid use of the diagonal. DR is effective at suppressing the contamination effects, but it also has some side effects...
August 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863306/the-study-of-flavonolignan-association-patterns-in-fruits-of-diverging-silybum-marianum-l-gaertn-chemotypes-provides-new-insights-into-the-silymarin-biosynthetic-pathway
#16
Tommaso Martinelli, Anne Whittaker, Stefano Benedettelli, Andrea Carboni, Jadwiga Andrzejewska
Silymarin is the phytochemical with medicinal properties extracted from Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. fruits. Yet, little information is available about silymarin biosynthesis. Moreover, the generally accepted pathway, formulated thus far, is not in agreement with actual experimental measurements on flavonolignan contents. The present work analyses flavonolignan and taxifolin content in 201 S. marianum samples taking into consideration a wide phenotypic variability. Two stable chemotypes were identified: one characterized by both high silychristin and silybin content (chemotype A) and another by a high silydianin content (chemotype B)...
August 29, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851340/observable-phenomena-that-reveal-medical-students-clinical-reasoning-ability-during-expert-assessment-of-their-history-taking-a-qualitative-study
#17
Catharina M Haring, Bernadette M Cools, Petra J M van Gurp, Jos W M van der Meer, Cornelis T Postma
BACKGROUND: During their clerkships, medical students are meant to expand their clinical reasoning skills during their patient encounters. Observation of these encounters could reveal important information on the students' clinical reasoning abilities, especially during history taking. METHODS: A grounded theory approach was used to analyze what expert physicians apply as indicators in their assessment of medical students' diagnostic reasoning abilities during history taking...
August 29, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843780/epidemiology-of-estrogen-and-dementia-in-women-with-down-syndrome
#18
REVIEW
Nicole Schupf, Joseph H Lee, Deborah Pang, Warren B Zigman, Benjamin Tycko, Sharon Krinsky-McHale, Wayne Silverman
Several lines of investigation have shown a protective role for estrogen in Alzheimer's disease through a number of biological actions. This review examines studies of the role of estrogen-related factors in age at onset and risk for Alzheimer's disease in women with Down syndrome, a population at high risk for early onset of dementia. The studies are consistent in showing that early age at menopause and that low levels of endogenous bioavailable estradiol in postmenopausal women with Down syndrome are associated with earlier age at onset and overall risk for dementia...
August 31, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839524/a-comparative-review-of-haute-autorit%C3%A3-de-sant%C3%A3-and-national-institute-for-health-and-care-excellence-health-technology-assessments-of-ikervis%C3%A2-to-treat-severe-keratitis-in-adult-patients-with-dry-eye-disease-which-has-not-improved-despite-treatment-with-tear
#19
REVIEW
Yasmina Iffet Eroglu
Background: In 2015, Ikervis® became the only EMA-approved cyclosporine A (CsA) eye-drop for the treatment of severe keratitis in adult patients with dry eye disease, which has not improved despite treatment with tear substitutes. Since the 1980s, CsA has been used empirically for ocular conditions in veterinary medicine then in humans. However, its extremely low aqueous solubility led to its administration in vegetable oils, which is characterized by low ocular availability, poor intraocular penetration, poor tolerability and short shelf-life...
2017: Journal of Market Access & Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836040/two-gut-associated-yeasts-in-a-tephritid-fruit-fly-have-contrasting-effects-on-adult-attraction-and-larval-survival
#20
Alexander M Piper, Kevin Farnier, Tomas Linder, Robert Speight, John Paul Cunningham
Yeast-insect interactions have been well characterized in drosophilid flies, but not in tephritid fruit flies, which include many highly polyphagous pest species that attack ripening fruits. Using the Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni) as our model tephritid species, we identified yeast species present in the gut of wild-collected larvae and found two genera, Hanseniaspora and Pichia, were the dominant isolates. In behavioural trials using adult female B. tryoni, a fruit-agar substrate inoculated with Pichia kluyveri resulted in odour emissions that increased the attraction of flies, whereas inoculation with Hanseniaspora uvarum, produced odours that strongly deterred flies, and both yeasts led to decreased oviposition...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
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