Read by QxMD icon Read

question formulation

Saskia Reibe, Marit Hjorth, Mark A Febbraio, Martin Whitham
Exercise stimulates a wide array of biological processes, but the mechanisms involved are incompletely understood. Many previous studies have adopted transcriptomic analyses of skeletal muscle to address particular research questions, a process that ultimately results in the collection of large amounts of publicly available data that has not been fully integrated or interrogated. To maximize the use of these available transcriptomic exercise data sets, we have downloaded and re-analyzed them and formulated the data into a searchable online tool, geneXX...
March 16, 2018: Physiological Genomics
Sonia Maria Gutiérrez Sanfeliciano, John M Schaus
The ability to rapidly assess the preferred conformation of key fragments in a structure "by visual inspection" is a very useful starting point in the process of drug design. With the ability to do so, one could address questions like: "How could we avoid planarity in a molecule?", "Will a molecule change its conformational preference if we make it more or less basic?" or "How does this electronic repulsion affect the conformational preference in the system?" in timely fashion...
2018: PloS One
M Joseph John, Amrith Mathew, Sunil Bhat, Anushree Prabhakaran, Biju George, Jacob John
BACKGROUND: Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients are more susceptible to infections from vaccine preventable diseases (VPDs) than the general population. Indian stem cell transplant registry (ISCTR) post-BMT vaccination guidelines were formulated in 2015. The objective of the survey was to assess the compliance to these guidelines among transplant physicians in India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a cross-sectional survey executed as the quantitative research strategy to explore the various aspects of vaccination practices among transplant physicians in India...
March 9, 2018: Vaccine
Anvita Bhargava, Xavier Lahaye, Nicolas Manel
The nuclear envelope is a physical barrier that isolates the cellular DNA from the rest of the cell, thereby limiting pathogen invasion. The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) has a remarkable ability to enter the nucleus of non-dividing target cells such as lymphocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells. While this step is critical for replication of the virus, it remains one of the less understood aspects of HIV infection. Here, we review the viral and host factors that favor or inhibit HIV entry into the nucleus, including the viral capsid, integrase, the central viral DNA flap, and the host proteins CPSF6, TNPO3, Nucleoporins, SUN1, SUN2, Cyclophilin A and MX2...
February 27, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Sadie Geraghty, Kim Oliver
AIMS: The aims of this study were to gain an understanding of the experiences of nurses and midwives enrolled in a PhD, explore any barriers that PhD students encounter whilst completing the degree, and develop recommendations for consideration in formulating support strategies to encourage completion for nurses and midwives enrolled on a PhD degree. BACKGROUND: It is important to understand what is happening at doctoral level education for nurses and midwives, and how those enrolled on PhD courses can successfully complete their studies, transition learning, and acquire the ability to undertake research into the clinical environments...
February 21, 2018: Nurse Education Today
Ian Blumer, Jeremy H Pettus, Tricia Santos Cavaiola
Many individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) will eventually require insulin therapy to help achieve and maintain adequate glycemic control. However, the use of insulin can be associated with adverse effects such as hypoglycemia and weight gain, and in some patients the addition of insulin to treatment regimens is often still insufficient to achieve target glycemic control. Combining basal insulin with a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA) for the treatment of patients with T2D has been demonstrated to be effective and well tolerated, while mitigating many of the adverse events associated with giving either of these drug classes alone...
March 9, 2018: Postgraduate Medicine
Olga Smoliak, Amanda Le Couteur, Christopher Quinn-Nilas
Tom Andersen is considered one of the key contributors to the development of postmodern practice. Little is known, however, about the ways in which his ideas and practices are routinely carried out in situ. We used Conversation Analysis (CA) to investigate a session of couple therapy facilitated by Andersen. We show how Andersen and client participants oriented to and addressed problems of understanding that occurred between them. The source of this trouble was Andersen's use of unusual question formulations...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Marital and Family Therapy
Cosby A Stone, Cindy T McEvoy, Judy L Aschner, Ashudee Kirk, Christian Rosas-Salazar, Joan M Cook-Mills, Paul E Moore, William F Walsh, Tina V Hartert
Vitamin E is obtained only through the diet and has a number of important biological activities, including functioning as an antioxidant. Evidence that free radicals may contribute to pathological processes such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), a disease of prematurity associated with increased lung injury, inflammation and oxidative stress, led to trials of the antioxidant vitamin E (α-tocopherol) to prevent BPD with variable results. These trials were all conducted at supraphysiologic doses and 2 of these trials utilized a formulation containing a potentially harmful excipient...
March 7, 2018: Neonatology
Amin Salem Milani, Mohammad Froughreyhani, Saeed Rahimi, Vahid Zand, Mohammad Asghari Jafarabadi
The aim of this study was to provide an evidence-based answer to the question: "Is 3.6-mL volume of an anesthetic agent more effective than 1.8-mL volume in providing anesthesia for mandibular molars?" Following formulation of research question and keyword selection, a comprehensive search of the following databases was conducted: Cochrane library, PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, ProQuest, and Three-phase eligibility appraisal and quality assessment of the studies were carried out by 2 independent reviewers...
2018: Anesthesia Progress
Floortje B Moes, Eddy S Houwaart, Diana M J Delnoij, Klasien Horstman
RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: This paper examines a remarkable dispute between Dutch insurers, hospitals, doctors, and patients about a set of quality indicators. In 2013, private insurers planned to drastically reform Dutch emergency care using quality indicators they had formulated drawing from clinical guidelines, RCTs, and systematic reviews. Insurers' plans caused much debate in the field of emergency care. As quality indicators have come to play a more central role in health care governance, the questions what constitutes good evidence for them, how they ought to be used, and who controls them have become politically and morally charged...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
Mauro Oddo, Daniele Poole, Raimund Helbok, Geert Meyfroidt, Nino Stocchetti, Pierre Bouzat, Maurizio Cecconi, Thomas Geeraerts, Ignacio Martin-Loeches, Hervé Quintard, Fabio Silvio Taccone, Romergryko G Geocadin, Claude Hemphill, Carole Ichai, David Menon, Jean-François Payen, Anders Perner, Martin Smith, José Suarez, Walter Videtta, Elisa R Zanier, Giuseppe Citerio
OBJECTIVE: To report the ESICM consensus and clinical practice recommendations on fluid therapy in neurointensive care patients. DESIGN: A consensus committee comprising 22 international experts met in October 2016 during ESICM LIVES2016. Teleconferences and electronic-based discussions between the members of the committee subsequently served to discuss and develop the consensus process. METHODS: Population, intervention, comparison, and outcomes (PICO) questions were reviewed and updated as needed, and evidence profiles generated...
March 2, 2018: Intensive Care Medicine
Pascal Borry, Timothy Caulfield, Xavier Estivill, Sigmund Loland, Michael McNamee, Bartha Maria Knoppers
Through the widespread availability of location-identifying devices, geolocalisation could potentially be used to place athletes during out-of-competition testing. In light of this debate, the WADA Ethics Panel formulated the following questions: (1) should WADA and/or other sponsors consider funding such geolocalisation research projects?, (2) if successful, could they be proposed to athletes as a complementary device to Anti-Doping Administration and Management System to help geolocalisation and reduce the risk of missed tests? and (3) should such devices be offered on a voluntary basis, or is it conceivable that they would be made mandatory for all athletes in registered testing pools? In this position paper, the WADA Ethics Panel concludes that the use of geolocalisation could be useful in a research setting with the goal of understanding associations between genotype, phenotype and environment; however, it recognises that the use of geolocalisation as part of or as replacement of whereabouts rules is replete with ethical concerns...
March 2, 2018: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Walter Tarantino, Bernardo S Mendoza, Pina Romaniello, J A Berger, Lucia Reining
Many-body perturbation theory is often formulated in terms of an expansion in the dressed instead of the bare Green's function, and in the screened instead of the bare Coulomb interaction. However, screening can be calculated on different levels of approximation, and it is important to define what is the most appropriate choice. We explore this question by studying a zero-dimensional model (so called 'one-point model') that retains the structure of the full equations. We study both linear and non-linear response approximations to the screening...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Erik I Svensson
Recent calls for a revision of standard evolutionary theory (SET) are based partly on arguments about the reciprocal causation. Reciprocal causation means that cause-effect relationships are bi-directional, as a cause could later become an effect and vice versa. Such dynamic cause-effect relationships raise questions about the distinction between proximate and ultimate causes, as originally formulated by Ernst Mayr. They have also motivated some biologists and philosophers to argue for an Extended Evolutionary Synthesis (EES)...
2018: Evolutionary Biology
Patricia Healy, Sandra Galvin, Paula R Williamson, Shaun Treweek, Caroline Whiting, Beccy Maeso, Christopher Bray, Peter Brocklehurst, Mary Clarke Moloney, Abdel Douiri, Carrol Gamble, Heidi R Gardner, Derick Mitchell, Derek Stewart, Joan Jordan, Martin O'Donnell, Mike Clarke, Sue H Pavitt, Eleanor Woodford Guegan, Amanda Blatch-Jones, Valerie Smith, Hannah Reay, Declan Devane
BACKGROUND: Despite the problem of inadequate recruitment to randomised trials, there is little evidence to guide researchers on decisions about how people are effectively recruited to take part in trials. The PRioRiTy study aimed to identify and prioritise important unanswered trial recruitment questions for research. The PRioRiTy study - Priority Setting Partnership (PSP) included members of the public approached to take part in a randomised trial or who have represented participants on randomised trial steering committees, health professionals and research staff with experience of recruiting to randomised trials, people who have designed, conducted, analysed or reported on randomised trials and people with experience of randomised trials methodology...
March 1, 2018: Trials
D Schopohl, C Bidlingmaier, D Herzig, R Klamroth, K Kurnik, D Rublee, W Schramm, L Schwarzkopf, K Berger
INTRODUCTION AND AIM: Open questions in haemophilia, such as effectiveness of innovative therapies, clinical and patient-reported outcomes (PROs), epidemiology and cost, await answers. The aim was to identify data attributes required and investigate the availability, appropriateness and accessibility of real-world data (RWD) from German registries and secondary databases to answer the aforementioned questions. METHODS: Systematic searches were conducted in BIOSIS, EMBASE and MEDLINE to identify non-commercial secondary healthcare databases and registries of patients with haemophilia (PWH)...
February 28, 2018: Haemophilia: the Official Journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia
Melissa Horlait, Simon Van Belle, Mark Leys
BACKGROUND: Multidisciplinary team meetings (MDTMs) have become standard practice in oncology and gained the status of the key decision-making forum for cancer patient management. The current literature provides evidence that MDTMs are achieving their intended objectives but there are also indications to question the positive impact of MDTMs in oncology settings. For cancer management to be patient-centered, it is crucial that medical information as well as psychosocial aspects-such as the patients' living situation, possible family problems, patients' mental state, and patients' perceptions and values or preferences towards treatment or care-are considered and discussed during MDTMs...
February 26, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
E Alonso-Lebrero, L Bento, A Martorell-Aragonés, L Ribeiro
BACKGROUND: The present study explores the professional opinion of a wide range of experts from the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal) and their degree of consensus about CMPA's prevention, diagnosis, treatment and progression. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A 57-item survey divided in four blocks: Prevention (14 items), Diagnosis (10 items), Treatment (19 items) and Progression (14 items) was completed by 160 panellists, experts in CPMA management (116 Spain, 44 Portugal)...
February 21, 2018: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
Philip W Boyd, Sinead Collins, Sam Dupont, Katharina Fabricius, Jean-Pierre Gattuso, Jonathan Havenhand, David A Hutchins, Ulf Riebesell, Max S Rintoul, Marcello Vichi, Haimanti Biswas, Aurea Ciotti, Kunshan Gao, Marion Gehlen, Catriona L Hurd, Haruko Kurihara, Christina M McGraw, Jorge Navarro, Göran E Nilsson, Uta Passow, Hans-Otto Pörtner
Marine life is controlled by multiple physical and chemical drivers and by diverse ecological processes. Many of these oceanic properties are being altered by climate change and other anthropogenic pressures. Hence identifying the influences of multi-faceted ocean change, from local to global scales, is a complex task. To guide policy-making and make projections of the future of the marine biosphere, it is essential to understand biological responses at physiological, evolutionary and ecological levels. Here, we contrast and compare different approaches to multiple driver experiments that aim to elucidate biological responses to a complex matrix of ocean global change...
February 24, 2018: Global Change Biology
Cheryl H Silver, Andreana Benitez, Kira Armstrong, Chriscelyn M Tussey
OBJECTIVE: Inspired by panel discussions at various neuropsychology conferences, the aim of this paper is to share wisdom that women in neuropsychology acquired from their leadership experiences. METHOD: We identified 46 women leaders in governance and academic research through reviews of organizational websites and journal editorial boards, and requested their response to brief questions via email. Twenty-one leaders provided responses to three questions formulated by the authors...
February 2018: Clinical Neuropsychologist
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"