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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626246/the-complexity-of-divisibility
#1
Johannes Bausch, Toby Cubitt
We address two sets of long-standing open questions in linear algebra and probability theory, from a computational complexity perspective: stochastic matrix divisibility, and divisibility and decomposability of probability distributions. We prove that finite divisibility of stochastic matrices is an NP-complete problem, and extend this result to nonnegative matrices, and completely-positive trace-preserving maps, i.e. the quantum analogue of stochastic matrices. We further prove a complexity hierarchy for the divisibility and decomposability of probability distributions, showing that finite distribution divisibility is in P, but decomposability is NP-hard...
September 1, 2016: Linear Algebra and its Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625286/no-345-primary-dysmenorrhea-consensus-guideline
#2
Margaret Burnett, Madeleine Lemyre
OBJECTIVE: This guideline reviews the investigation and treatment of primary dysmenorrhea. INTENDED USERS: Health care providers. TARGET POPULATION: Women and adolescents experiencing menstrual pain for which no underlying cause has been identified. EVIDENCE: Published clinical trials, population studies, and review articles cited in PubMed or the Cochrane database from January 2005 to March 2016. VALIDATION METHODS: Seven clinical questions were generated by the authors and reviewed by the SOGC Clinical Practice-Gynaecology Committee...
July 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622614/desirable-difficulties-during-the-development-of-active-inquiry-skills
#3
George Kachergis, Marjorie Rhodes, Todd Gureckis
This study explores developmental changes in the ability to ask informative questions, hypothesizing a link between the ability to update beliefs in light of evidence and the ability to ask informative questions. Five- to ten-year-old children played an iPad game asking them to identify a hidden insect. Learners could either ask about individual insects, or make a series of feature queries (e.g., "Does the hidden insect have antenna?") that could more efficiently narrow the hypothesis space. Critically, the task display either helped children integrate evidence with the hypothesis space or required them to perform this operation themselves...
June 13, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622408/creation-of-the-quebrada-arriba-community-and-academic-partnership-an-effective-coalition-for-addressing-health-disparities-in-older-puerto-ricans
#4
Elsa M Orellano-Colón, Yolanda González-Laboy, Amarelis De Jesús-Rosario
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this project was to develop a community-academic coalition partnership to conduct community-based participatory research (CBPR) to address health disparities in older adults with chronic conditions living in the Quebrada Arriba community. METHODS: We used the 'Developing and Sustaining CPPR Partnerships: A Skill-Building Curriculum', to create the Quebrada Arriba Community-Academic Partnership (QACAP). We assessed the meetings effectiveness and the CBPR experiences of the coalition members in the community-academic partnership...
June 2017: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621971/universality-of-the-turbulent-velocity-profile
#5
Paolo Luchini
For nearly a century, the universal logarithmic law of the mean velocity profile has been a mainstay of turbulent fluid mechanics and its teaching. Yet many experiments and numerical simulations are not fit exceedingly well by it, and the question whether the logarithmic law is indeed universal keeps turning up in discussion and in writing. Large experiments have been set up in various parts of the world to confirm or deny the logarithmic law and accurately estimate von Kármán's constant, the coefficient that governs it...
June 2, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620860/currently-used-organophosphate-and-brominated-flame-retardants-in-the-environment-of-china-and-other-developing-countries-2000-2016
#6
Nadeem Ali, Khurram Shahzad, Muhammad Imtiaz Rashid, Heqing Shen, Iqbal Mohammad Ibrahim Ismail, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah Eqani
This review summarizes the environmental occurrence of new brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) and organophosphate compounds (OPs) in the environment of developing countries since 2000. The ban on the production and use of commercial formulations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have paved the way for the high use of NBFRs and OPs in consumer products to fulfill the fire safety regulations. Recent studies have shown that the ever increasing production volumes and extensive use of these chemicals as additive FRs and plasticizers have resulted into their ubiquitous occurrence in all environmental compartments...
June 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619123/chd-and-respiratory-syncytial-virus-global-expert-exchange-recommendations
#7
Robert M R Tulloh, Constancio Medrano-Lopez, Paul A Checchia, Claudia Stapper, Naokata Sumitomo, Matthias Gorenflo, Eun Jung Bae, Antonio Juanico, Juan M Gil-Jaurena, Mei-Hwan Wu, Talal Farha, Ali Dodge-Khatami, Rocky Tsang, Gerard Notario, Colleen Wegzyn
BACKGROUND: Palivizumab is the standard immunoprophylaxis against serious disease due to respiratory syncytial virus infection. Current evidence-based prophylaxis guidelines may not address certain children with CHD within specific high-risk groups or clinical/management settings. METHODS: An international steering committee of clinicians with expertise in paediatric heart disease identified key questions concerning palivizumab administration; in collaboration with an additional international expert faculty, evidence-based recommendations were formulated using a quasi-Delphi consensus methodology...
June 16, 2017: Cardiology in the Young
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617191/operator-models-for-delivering-municipal-solid-waste-management-services-in-developing-countries-part-b-decision-support
#8
Reka Soós, Andrew D Whiteman, David C Wilson, Cosmin Briciu, Sofia Nürnberger, Barbara Oelz, Ellen Gunsilius, Ekkehard Schwehn
This is the second of two papers reporting the results of a major study considering 'operator models' for municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in emerging and developing countries. Part A documents the evidence base, while Part B presents a four-step decision support system for selecting an appropriate operator model in a particular local situation. Step 1 focuses on understanding local problems and framework conditions; Step 2 on formulating and prioritising local objectives; and Step 3 on assessing capacities and conditions, and thus identifying strengths and weaknesses, which underpin selection of the operator model...
June 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606870/a-deep-learning-approach-for-predicting-the-quality-of-online-health-expert-question-answering-services
#9
Ze Hu, Zhan Zhang, Haiqin Yang, Qing Chen, Decheng Zuo
Recently, online health expert question-answering (HQA) services (systems) have attracted more and more health consumers to ask health-related questions everywhere at any time due to the convenience and effectiveness. However, the quality of answers in existing HQA systems varies in different situations. It is significant to provide effective tools to automatically determine the quality of the answers. Two main characteristics in HQA systems raise the difficulties of classification: 1) physicians' answers in an HQA system are usually written in short text, which yields the data sparsity issue; 2) HQA systems apply the quality control mechanism, which shield the wisdom of crowd...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605295/an-adjuvant-modulated-vaccine-response-in-human-whole-blood
#10
Jalil Hakimi, Ali Azizi, Salvador F Ausar, Stephen M Todryk, Nausheen Rahman, Roger H Brookes
The restimulation of an immune memory response by in vitro culture of blood cells with a specific antigen has been used as a way to gauge immunity to vaccines for decades. In this commentary we discuss a less appreciated application to support vaccine process development. We report that human whole blood from pre-primed subjects can generate a profound adjuvant-modulated, antigen-specific response to several different vaccine formulations. The response is able to differentiate subtle changes in the quality of an immune memory response to vaccine formulations and can be used to select optimal conditions relating to a particular manufacture process step...
June 12, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604995/improving-healthcare-in-pediatric-oncology-development-and-testing-of-multiple-indicators-to-evaluate-a-hub-and-spoke-model
#11
Giulia Zucchetti, Nicoletta Bertorello, Angela Angelastro, Paola Gianino, Gianni Bona, Affif Barbara, Luigi Besenzon, Adalberto Brach Del Prever, Fernando Pesce, Marco Nangeroni, Franca Fagioli
PURPOSE: The hub-and-spoke is a new innovation model in healthcare that has been adopted in some countries to manage rare pathologies. We developed a set of indicators to assess current quality practices of the hub-and-spoke model adopted in the Interregional Pediatric Oncology Network in Northwest Italy and to promote patient, family, and professional healthcare empowerment. METHODS: Literature and evidence-based clinical guidelines were reviewed and multiprofessional team workshops were carried out to highlight some important issues on healthcare in pediatric oncology and to translate them into a set of multiple indicators...
June 6, 2017: Tumori
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604517/espghan-guidelines-for-the-evaluation-and-treatment-of-gastrointestinal-and-nutritional-complications-in-children-with-neurological-impairment
#12
Claudio Romano, Myriam van Wynckel, Jessie Hulst, Ilse Broekaert, Jiri Bronsky, Luigi Dall'Oglio, Nataša Fidler Mis, Iva Hojsak, Rok Orel, Alexandra Papadopoulou, Michela Schaeppi, Nikhil Thapar, Michael Wilschanski, Peter Sullivan, Frédéric Gottrand
OBJECTIVES: Feeding difficulties are frequent in children with neurological impairments and can be associated with undernutrition, growth failure, micronutrients deficiencies, osteopenia and nutritional comorbidites. Gastrointestinal problems including gastroesophageal reflux disease, constipation and dysphagia are also very frequent in this population and impact quality of life and nutritional status. There is currently a lack of a systematic approach to the care of these patients. With this report, ESPGHAN aims to develop uniform guidelines for the management of the gastroenterological and nutritional problems in neurologically impaired chidren...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604327/effects-of-exogenous-human-insulin-dose-adjustment-on-body-mass-index-in-adult-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-at-kalafong-hospital-pretoria-south-africa-2009-2014
#13
Tohlang Solomon A Sehloho, Danie G Van Zyl
BACKGROUND: To maintain fasting blood glucose levels within near to the normal range in type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM), frequent insulin dose adjustments may be required with short-, intermediate- and long-acting insulin formulations. Patients on human insulin generally experience weight gain over time, regardless of the level of glycaemic control achieved. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of human insulin, adjusted quarterly to achieve glycaemic control, on body mass index (BMI), and establish dose regimens that achieve optimal glycaemic control without increasing BMI in patients with type 1 DM at the Kalafong Diabetes Clinic in Pretoria, South Africa...
May 24, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602651/a-bhlh-code-for-sexually-dimorphic-form-and-function-of-the-c-%C3%A2-elegans-somatic-gonad
#14
Maria D Sallee, Hana E Littleford, Iva Greenwald
How sexually dimorphic gonads are generated is a fundamental question at the interface of developmental and evolutionary biology [1-3]. In C. elegans, sexual dimorphism in gonad form and function largely originates in different apportionment of roles to three regulatory cells of the somatic gonad primordium in young larvae. Their essential roles include leading gonad arm outgrowth, serving as the germline niche, connecting to epithelial openings, and organizing reproductive organ development. The development and function of the regulatory cells in both sexes requires the basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor HLH-2, the sole ortholog of the E proteins mammalian E2A and Drosophila Daughterless [4-8], yet how they adopt different fates to execute their different roles has been unknown...
June 19, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597939/precision-oncology-based-on-omics-data-the-nct-heidelberg-experience
#15
Peter Horak, Barbara Klink, Christoph Heining, Stefan Gröschel, Barbara Hutter, Martina Fröhlich, Sebastian Uhrig, Daniel Hübschmann, Matthias Schlesner, Roland Eils, Daniela Richter, Katrin Pfütze, Christina Geörg, Bettina Meißburger, Stephan Wolf, Angela Schulz, Roland Penzel, Esther Herpel, Martina Kirchner, Amelie Lier, Volker Endris, Stephan Singer, Peter Schirmacher, Wilko Weichert, Albrecht Stenzinger, Richard F Schlenk, Evelin Schröck, Benedikt Brors, Christof von Kalle, Hanno Glimm, Stefan Fröhling
Precision oncology implies the ability to predict which patients will likely respond to specific cancer therapies based on increasingly accurate, high-resolution molecular diagnostics as well as the functional and mechanistic understanding of individual tumors. While molecular stratification of patients can be achieved through different means, a promising approach is next-generation sequencing of tumor DNA and RNA, which can reveal genomic alterations that have immediate clinical implications. Furthermore, certain genetic alterations are shared across multiple histologic entities, raising the fundamental question of whether tumors should be treated by molecular profile and not tissue of origin...
June 9, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597297/intrinsic-protein-disorder-in-oncogenic-kras-signaling
#16
REVIEW
Ruth Nussinov, Hyunbum Jang, Chung-Jung Tsai, Tsung-Jen Liao, Shuai Li, David Fushman, Jian Zhang
How Ras, and in particular its most abundant oncogenic isoform K-Ras4B, is activated and signals in proliferating cells, poses some of the most challenging questions in cancer cell biology. In this paper, we ask how intrinsically disordered regions in K-Ras4B and its effectors help promote proliferative signaling. Conformational disorder allows spanning long distances, supports hinge motions, promotes anchoring in membranes, permits segments to fulfil multiple roles, and broadly is crucial for activation mechanisms and intensified oncogenic signaling...
June 8, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595826/-what-happens-behind-the-curtains-an-exploration-of-icu-nurses-experiences-of-post-mortem-care-on-patients-who-have-died-in-intensive-care
#17
Carien de Swardt, Nicola Fouché
THE AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of intensive care nurses performing post mortem care on patients who had died in an intensive care unit at a private hospital in Cape Town. The study further sets out to identify educational needs and to offer recommendations that may address these needs for this sample of nurses. METHODOLOGY AND SETTING: A qualitative research design using a descriptive method was used to explore the experiences of a purposive heterogeneous sample of six nurses who were working in an intensive care unit in a private hospital in Cape Town...
June 5, 2017: Intensive & Critical Care Nursing: the Official Journal of the British Association of Critical Care Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593692/it-s-worth-the-wait-optimizing-questioning-methods-for-effective-intraoperative-teaching
#18
Meredith Barrett, Christopher P Magas, Larry D Gruppen, Priya H Dedhia, Gurjit Sandhu
BACKGROUND: The use of questioning to engage learners is critical to furthering resident education intraoperatively. Previous studies have demonstrated that higher level questioning and optimal wait times (>3 s) result in learner responses reflective of higher cognition and retention. Given the importance of intraoperative learning, we investigated question delivery in the operating room. METHODS: A total of 12 laparoscopic cholecystectomies were observed and recorded...
June 7, 2017: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590363/ethanol-interactions-with-dexmethylphenidate-and-dl-methylphenidate-spheroidal-oral-drug-absorption-systems-in-healthy-volunteers
#19
Hao-Jie Zhu, Kennerly S Patrick, Arthur B Straughn, Owen T Reeves, Hilary Bernstein, Jian Shi, Heather J Johnson, Joshua M Knight, Aaron T Smith, Robert J Malcolm, John S Markowitz
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Ethanol coadministered with immediate-release dl-methylphenidate (dl-MPH) or dexmethylphenidate (d-MPH) significantly increases the geomean maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of d-MPH 22% and 15%, respectively, and elevates overall drug exposure and psychostimulant effects. We asked the question: Are these ethanol-MPH interactions based more fundamentally on (1) inhibition of postabsorption d-MPH metabolism or (2) acceleration of MPH formulation gastric dissolution by ethanol in the stomach? This was investigated using the pulsatile, distinctly biphasic, spheroidal oral drug absorption systems of dl-MPH and d-MPH...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583125/considerations-and-guidance-in-designing-equity-relevant-clinical-trials
#20
EDITORIAL
Lawrence Mbuagbaw, Theresa Aves, Beverley Shea, Janet Jull, Vivian Welch, Monica Taljaard, Manosila Yoganathan, Regina Greer-Smith, George Wells, Peter Tugwell
Health research has documented disparities in health and health outcomes within and between populations. When these disparities are unfair and avoidable they may be referred to as health inequities. Few trials attend to factors related to health inequities, and there is limited understanding about how to build consideration of health inequities into trials. Due consideration of health inequities is important to inform the design, conduct and reporting of trials so that research can build evidence to more effectively address health inequities and importantly, ensure that inequities are not aggravated...
June 5, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
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