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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147767/mechanism-of-accommodation-assessed-by-change-in-precisely-registered-ocular-images-associated-with-concurrent-change-in-auto-refraction
#1
Andrzej Grzybowski, Ronald A Schachar, Magdalena Gaca-Wysocka, Ira H Schachar, Farhad Kamangar, Barbara K Pierscionek
PURPOSE: Our purpose was to determine the changes in anterior chamber depth (ACD) and central lens thickness (CLT) during pharmacologically induced accommodation. METHODS: Following pupillary dilation with phenylephrine 10%, baseline auto-refractions and swept-source optical coherence tomographic biometric images (Zeiss IOLMaster 700) were obtained from the right eyes of 25 subjects aged 19 to 24 years. Pilocarpine 4% and phenylephrine 10% were then instilled into these right eyes...
November 16, 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145442/downregulation-of-kcnmb4-expression-and-changes-in-bk-channel-subtype-in-hippocampal-granule-neurons-following-seizure-activity
#2
Luke E Whitmire, Ling Ling, Vladslav Bugay, Chase M Carver, Santosh Timilsina, Hui-Hsiu Chuang, David B Jaffe, Mark S Shapiro, Jose E Cavazos, Robert Brenner
A major challenge is to understand maladaptive changes in ion channels that sets neurons on a course towards epilepsy development. Voltage- and calcium-activated K+ (BK) channels contribute to early spike timing in neurons, and studies indicate that the BK channel plays a pathological role in increasing excitability early after a seizure. Here, we have investigated changes in BK channels and their accessory β4 subunit (KCNMB4) in dentate gyrus (DG) granule neurons of the hippocampus, key neurons that regulate excitability of the hippocampus circuit...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144992/intracerebroventricular-injection-of-mir-146a-relieves-seizures-in-an-immature-rat-model-of-lithium-pilocarpine-induced-status-epilepticus
#3
Xiaole Wang, Fei Yin, Linhong Li, Huimin Kong, Baiyang You, Weixi Zhang, Shuyuan Chen, Jing Peng
OBJECTIVE: Status epilepticus (SE) is a common, life-threatening neurological emergency that confers a high degree of morbidity and mortality. Increasing evidence indicates that neuroinflammation plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of SE. MicroRNA-146a (miR-146a) has been reported to be an important posttranscriptional inflammation-associated microRNA. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of miR-146a in SE and the mechanism by which it operates. METHODS: To study the effect of miR-146a in SE, we chose intracerebroventricular injection for rat at 21-28days old, and made a lithium-pilocarpine-induced SE rat model...
November 4, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138358/epileptic-pilocarpine-treated-rats-exhibit-aberrant-hippocampal-epsp-spike-potentiation-but-retain-long-term-potentiation
#4
Ezekiel Carpenter-Hyland, Edyta K Bichler, Mathew Smith, Robert S Sloviter, Morris Benveniste
Hippocampal neuron plasticity is strongly associated with learning, memory, and cognition. In addition to modification of synaptic function and connectivity, the capacity of hippocampal neurons to undergo plasticity involves the ability to change nonsynaptic excitability. This includes altering the probability that EPSPs will generate action potentials (E-S plasticity). Epilepsy is a prevalent neurological disorder commonly associated with neuronal hyperexcitability and cognitive dysfunction. We examined E-S plasticity in chronically epileptic Sprague-Dawley rats 3-10 weeks after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus CA1 neurons in hippocampal slices were assayed by whole-cell current clamp to measure EPSPs evoked by Schaffer collateral stimulation...
November 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131416/characterization-of-sweat-induced-with-pilocarpine-physical-exercise-and-collected-passively-by-metabolomic-analysis
#5
S L Souza, G Graça, A Oliva
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The elimination of the pain associated with needle picking is a strong motivation for the development of clinical non-invasive diagnostic methods. Sweat has been described as an alternative biological sample that may have a direct relation to the plasma composition. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, analysis of sweat of human volunteers obtained by induction with pilocarpine is compared with sweat samples obtained by physical exercise and by passive collection along 7 hours...
November 12, 2017: Skin Research and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128467/volumetric-response-of-the-adult-brain-to-seizures-depends-on-the-developmental-stage-when-systemic-inflammation-was-induced
#6
Krzysztof Janeczko, Emilia Kosonowska, Artur Kiepura, Wladyslaw Weglarz, Zuzanna Setkowicz
Inflammation has detrimental influences on the developing brain including triggering the epileptogenesis. On the other hand, seizure episodes may induce inflammatory processes and further increase of brain excitability. The present study focuses on the problem whether transitory systemic inflammation during developmental period may have critical importance to functional and/or structural features of the adult brain. An inflammatory status was induced with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in 6- or 30-day-old rats. Two-month-old rats which experienced the inflammation and untreated controls received injections of pilocarpine, and the intensity of their seizure behavior was rated during a 6-hour period...
November 8, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128285/prolonged-and-localized-sweat-stimulation-by-iontophoretic-delivery-of-the-slowly-metabolized-cholinergic-agent-carbachol
#7
Phillip Simmers, S Kevin Li, Gerald Kasting, Jason Heikenfeld
BACKGROUND: Continuous non-invasive sampling and sensing of multiple classes of analytes could revolutionize medical diagnostics and wearable technologies, but also remains highly elusive because of the many confounding factors for candidate biofluids such as interstitial fluid, tears, saliva, and sweat. Eccrine sweat biosensing has seen a recent surge in demonstrations of wearable sampling and sensing devices. However, for subjects at rest, access to eccrine sweat is highly limited and unpredictable compared to saliva and tears...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118839/acute-angle-closure-glaucoma-a-potential-blind-spot-in-critical-care
#8
Anna Petsas, George Chapman, Richard Stewart
We report a case of a 69-year-old gentleman who developed an acutely painful eye with loss of visual acuity whilst on the critical care unit. He was admitted three days previously with an infective exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease requiring invasive mechanical ventilation. In addition, he received intravenous antibiotics, steroids, nebulised bronchodilators and intravenous aminophylline, together with noradrenaline for blood pressure support. On development of visual symptoms, an emergency ophthalmology review diagnosed acute angle closure glaucoma...
August 2017: J Intensive Care Soc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115470/dimethylation-of-histone-3-lysine-9-is-sensitive-to-the-epileptic-activity-and-affects-the-transcriptional-regulation-of-the-potassium-channel-kcnj10-gene-in-epileptic-rats
#9
Shao-Ping Zhang, Man Zhang, Hong Tao, Yan Luo, Tao He, Chun-Hui Wang, Xiao-Cheng Li, Ling Chen, Lin-Na Zhang, Tao Sun, Qi-Kuan Hu
Potassium channels can be affected by epileptic seizures and serve a crucial role in the pathophysiology of epilepsy. Dimethylation of histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9me2) and its enzyme euchromatic histone‑lysine N‑methyltransferase 2 (G9a) are the major epigenetic modulators and are associated with gene silencing. Insight into whether H3K9me2 and G9a can respond to epileptic seizures and regulate expression of genes encoding potassium channels is the main purpose of the present study. A total of 16 subtypes of potassium channel genes in pilocarpine‑modelled epileptic rats were screened by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and it was determined that the expression ATP‑sensitive inward rectifier potassium channel 10 (Kcnj10) increased in hippocampus and insular cortex, while the expression of most of the other subtypes decreased...
November 3, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108398/blockade-of-p75-neurotrophin-receptor-reverses-irritability-and-anxiety-related-behaviors-in-a-rat-model-of-status-epilepticus
#10
Soraya Mehrabi, Mahyar Janahamdi, Mohammad Taghi Joghataie, Mahmood Barati, Mohsen Marzban, Mahmoudreza Hadjighassem, Maryam Farahmandfar
Background: Many recent epidemiological studies have shown that epileptic patients are more likely suffer from depression, anxiety, and irritability. However, the cellular mechanisms of epilepsy-induced psychotic behaviors are not fully elucidated. Neurotrophin receptors have been suggested to be involved in epilepsy and also in psychiatric disorders. Up-regulation of p75NTR expression and activation of p75NTR signalling cascades after the seizure have been shown, but the role of the p75 receptor in epilepsy-induced psychotic behaviors has not been documented so far...
November 7, 2017: Iranian Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107831/behavioral-changes-in-models-of-chemoconvulsant-induced-epilepsy-a-review
#11
REVIEW
B Minjarez, H O Camarena, J Haramati, Y Rodríguez-Yañez, S Mena-Munguía, J Buriticá, O García-Leal
Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders in the general population and affects over 50 million people worldwide. Epilepsy is characterized by the presence of spontaneous recurrent seizures as a result of sudden and abnormal electrical activity in specific areas of the cerebral cortex. However, this condition encompasses much more than simply the presence of seizures. Cognitive problems and behavioral impairments are also frequent actors, as well as mood disorders. These must be precisely described in order to develop more successful pharmacological, or even behavioral, treatments...
October 28, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104261/neurochemical-changes-and-c-fos-mapping-in-the-brain-after-carisbamate-treatment-of-rats-subjected-to-lithium-pilocarpine-induced-status-epilepticus
#12
José Eduardo Marques-Carneiro, Astrid Nehlig, Jean-Christophe Cassel, Eduardo Ferreira Castro-Neto, Julia Julie Litzahn, Anne Pereira de Vasconcelos, Maria da Graça Naffah-Mazacoratti, Maria José da Silva Fernandes
The administration of lithium-pilocarpine (LiPilo) in adult rats is a validated model reproducing the main clinical and neuropathological features of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Previous studies have shown that carisbamate (CRS) has the property of modifying epileptogenesis in this model. When treated with CRS, about 50% of rats undergoing LiPilo status epilepticus (SE) develop non-convulsive seizures (NCS) instead of convulsive ones (commonly observed in TLE). The goal of this work was to determine some of the early changes that occur after CRS administration, as they could be involved in the insult- and epileptogenesis-modifying effects of CRS...
November 1, 2017: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099058/diverse-effects-of-an-acetylcholinesterase-inhibitor-donepezil-on-hippocampal-neuronal-death-after-pilocarpine-induced-seizure
#13
Jeong Hyun Jeong, Bo Young Choi, A Ra Kho, Song Hee Lee, Dae Ki Hong, Sang Hwon Lee, Sang Yup Lee, Hong Ki Song, Hui Chul Choi, Sang Won Suh
Epileptic seizures are short episodes of abnormal brain electrical activity. Many survivors of severe epilepsy display delayed neuronal death and permanent cognitive impairment. Donepezil is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and is an effective treatment agent for Alzheimer's disease. However, the role of donepezil in seizure-induced hippocampal injury remains untested. Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) was induced by intraperitoneal injection of pilocarpine (25 mg/kg). Donepezil (2.5 mg/kg/day) was administered by gavage in three different settings: (1) pretreatment for three days before the seizure; (2) for one week immediately after the seizure; and (3) for three weeks from three weeks after the seizure...
November 2, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098710/physical-exercise-alters-the-activation-of-downstream-proteins-related-to-bdnf-trkb-signaling-in-male-wistar-rats-with-epilepsy
#14
Alexandre Aparecido de Almeida, Sérgio Gomes da Silva, Glauber Menezes Lopim, Diego Vannucci Campos, Jansen Fernandes, Francisco Romero Cabral, Ricardo Mario Arida
There are a considerable number of studies concerning the behavioral effects of physical exercise on the epileptic brain; however, the intracellular signaling mechanisms involved remain unclear. We investigated the effects of aerobic exercise on hippocampal levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), expression of its receptor tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB), and activation of intracellular proteins related to BDNF-TrkB signaling in male Wistar rats with pilocarpine-induced epilepsy. Thirty days after the first spontaneous seizure, rats from the exercise group undertook a 30-day physical exercise program on the treadmill...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098091/functional-metaplasticity-of-hippocampal-schaffer-collateral-ca1-synapses-is-reversed-in-chronically-epileptic-rats
#15
Mirko Rehberg, Timo Kirschstein, Xiati Guli, Steffen Müller, Marco Rohde, Denise Franz, Tursonjan Tokay, Rüdiger Köhling
Spatial learning and associating spatial information with individual experience are crucial for rodents and higher mammals. Hence, studying the cellular and molecular cascades involved in the key mechanism of information storage in the brain, synaptic plasticity, has led to enormous knowledge in this field. A major open question applies to the interdependence between synaptic plasticity and its behavioral correlates. In this context, it has become clear that behavioral aspects may impact subsequent synaptic plasticity, a phenomenon termed behavioral metaplasticity...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097780/in-vivo-monitoring-for-regional-changes-of-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-subtype-1-mglur1-in-pilocarpine-induced-epileptic-rat-brain-by-small-animal-pet
#16
Tomoteru Yamasaki, Masayuki Fujinaga, Wakana Mori, Yiding Zhang, Hidekatsu Wakizaka, Nobuki Nengaki, Lin Xie, Akiko Hatori, Ming-Rong Zhang
Metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 1 (mGluR1) is a crucial pharmacological target for several central nervous system disorders. In this study, we aimed to monitor in vivo regional changes of mGluR1 related to neuroinflammation in the brains of rats after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (PISE) using longitudinal positron emission tomography (PET). PISE was induced in rats by administering lithium chloride, followed by repeated pilocarpine hydrochloride treatments. PET assessments were conducted using N-[4-[6-(isopropylamino)-pyrimidin-4-yl]-1,3-thiazol-2-yl]-N-methyl-4-[(11)C]methylbenzamide ([(11)C]ITDM), a selective radioligand for mGluR1, and N-benzyl-N-[(11)C]methyl-2-(7-methyl-8-oxo-2-phenyl-7,8-dihydro-9H-purin-9-yl)acetamide ([(11)C]DAC), a selective translocator protein PET ligand for neuroinflammation monitoring...
November 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096134/modification-of-the-natural-progression-of-epileptogenesis-by-means-of-biperiden-in-the-pilocarpine-model-of-epilepsy
#17
Simone Bittencourt, Enéas Ferrazoli, Maria Fernanda Valente, Simone Romariz, Nilma R L L Janisset, Carlos Eduardo Macedo, Bruno de Brito Antonio, Vanessa Barros, Mayara Mundim, Marimélia Porcionatto, Mayra Consuelo Aarão, Maísa Ferreira Miranda, Antônio Márcio Rodrigues, Antônio-Carlos Guimarães de Almeida, Beatriz M Longo, Luiz E Mello
Brain injuries are often associated with the later development of epilepsy. Evidence suggests that morphological and functional changes occur in the remaining neural tissue during a silent (or latent) period in which no seizures are expressed. It is believed that this silent (reorganization) period may provide a therapeutic window for modifying the natural history of disease progression. Here we provide evidence that biperiden, a muscarinic anticholinergic agent, is able to alter disease progression in an animal model of epilepsy...
October 29, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095857/laminin-111-derived-peptide-conjugated-fibrin-hydrogel-restores-salivary-gland-function
#18
Kihoon Nam, Christina L Maruyama, Ching-Shuen Wang, Bryan G Trump, Pedro Lei, Stelios T Andreadis, Olga J Baker
Hyposalivation reduces the patient quality of life, as saliva is important for maintaining oral health. Current treatments for hyposalivation are limited to medications such as the muscarinic receptor agonists, pilocarpine and cevimeline. However, these therapies only provide temporary relief. Therefore, alternative therapies are essential to restore salivary gland function. An option is to use bioengineered scaffolds to promote functional salivary gland regeneration. Previous studies demonstrated that the laminin-111 protein is critical for intact salivary gland cell cluster formation and organization...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093646/normative-data-on-regional-sweat-sodium-concentrations-of-professional-male-team-sport-athletes
#19
Mayur K Ranchordas, Nicholas B Tiller, Girish Ramchandani, Raj Jutley, Andrew Blow, Jonny Tye, Ben Drury
Background: The purpose of this paper was to report normative data on regional sweat sweat-sodium concentrations of various professional male team-sport athletes, and to compare sweat-sodium concentrations among sports. Data to this effect would inform our understanding of athlete sodium requirements, thus allowing for the individualisation of sodium replacement strategies. Accordingly, data from 696 athletes (Soccer, n = 270; Rugby, n = 181; Baseball, n = 133; American Football, n = 60; Basketball, n = 52) were compiled for a retrospective analysis...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093637/structural-and-functional-alterations-at-pre-epileptic-stage-are-closely-associated-with-epileptogenesis-in-pilocarpine-induced-epilepsy-model
#20
Hani Kim, Yunsook Choi, Hye-Young Joung, Yun Seo Choi, Hyeon Jin Kim, Yohan Joo, Jin-Hwan Oh, Hoo Jae Hann, Zang-Hee Cho, Hyang Woon Lee
Pilocarpine-induced rat epilepsy model is an established animal model that mimics medial temporal lobe epilepsy in humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate neuroimaging abnormalities in various stages of epileptogenesis and to correlate them with seizure severity in pilocarpine-induced rat epilepsy model. Fifty male Sprague-Dawley rats were subject to continuous video and electroencephalographic monitoring after inducing status epilepticus (SE) and seizure severity was estimated by frequency and total durations of class 3 to 5 spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS) by modified Racine's classification...
October 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
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