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pilocarpine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349290/a-novel-neuroprotective-mechanism-for-lithium-that-prevents-association-of-the-p75ntr-sortilin-receptor-complex-and-attenuates-prongf-induced-neuronal-death-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#1
Shayri G Greenwood, Laura Montroull, Marta Volosin, Helen E Scharfman, Kenneth K Teng, Matthew Light, Risa Torkin, Fredrick Maxfield, Barbara L Hempstead, Wilma J Friedman
Neurotrophins play critical roles in the survival, maintenance and death of neurons. In particular, proneurotrophins have been shown to mediate cell death following brain injury induced by status epilepticus (SE) in rats. Previous studies have shown that pilocarpine-induced seizures lead to increased levels of proNGF, which binds to the p75NTR-sortilin receptor complex to elicit apoptosis. A screen to identify compounds that block proNGF binding and uptake into cells expressing p75 and sortilin identified lithium citrate as a potential inhibitor of proNGF and p75NTR-mediated cell death...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336266/design-synthesis-evaluation-and-computational-studies-of-nipecotic-acid-acetonaphthone-hybrids-as-potential-antiepileptic-agents
#2
Ankit Seth, Piyoosh A Sharma, Avanish Tripathi, Priyanka K Choubey, Pavan Srivastava, Prabhash N Tripathi, Sushant Kumar Shrivastava
BACKGROUND: Nipecotic acid is considered to be one of the most potent inhibitors of neuronal and glial γ- aminobutyric acid (GABA) uptake in vitro. However nipecotic acid does not readily cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) following peripheral administration, owing to its hydrophilic nature. OBJECTIVE: A series of substituted acetonaphthones tethered nipecotic acid derivatives were designed and synthesized with an aim to improve the lipophilicity and the blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeation...
January 15, 2018: Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321959/daily-voluntary-exercise-enhances-pilocarpine-induced-saliva-secretion-and-aquaporin-1-expression-in-rat-submandibular-glands
#3
Kentaro Matsuzaki, Naotoshi Sugimoto, Masanori Katakura, Eri Sumiyoshi, Toshiko Hara, Michio Hashimoto, Osamu Shido
Saliva-a water-based fluid containing electrolytes, immunoglobulins, and enzymes-has many functions, including the protection and hydration of mucosal structures within the oral cavity and the initiation of digestion. Aquaporins (AQPs) are proteins that act as water channels through membranes. We have previously reported upregulation of the expression levels of AQP 1 and 5 in the submandibular glands (SMGs) in heat-acclimated rats. In this study, we investigated pilocarpine-induced saliva secretion and AQP expression in rats after voluntary exercise...
January 2018: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318025/feline-dry-eye-syndrome-of-presumed-neurogenic-origin-a-case-report
#4
Lionel Sebbag, Patricia A Pesavento, Sebastian E Carrasco, Christopher M Reilly, David J Maggs
Case summary: A 14-year-old female spayed Abyssinian cat, which about 1 year previously underwent thoracic limb amputation, radiotherapy and chemotherapy for an incompletely excised vaccine-related fibrosarcoma, was presented for evaluation of corneal opacity in the left eye (OS). The ocular surface of both eyes (OU) had a lackluster appearance and there was a stromal corneal ulcer OS. Results of corneal aesthesiometry, Schirmer tear test-1 (STT-1) and tear film breakup time revealed corneal hypoesthesia, and quantitative and qualitative tear film deficiency OU...
January 2018: JFMS Open Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316696/protective-effects-of-protocatechuic-acid-on-seizure-induced-neuronal-death
#5
Song Hee Lee, Bo Young Choi, A Ra Kho, Jeong Hyun Jeong, Dae Ki Hong, Sang Hwon Lee, Sang Yup Lee, Min Woo Lee, Hong Ki Song, Hui Chul Choi, Sang Won Suh
Protocatechuic acid (PCA) is a type of phenolic acid found in green tea and has been shown to have potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the effect of PCA on pilocarpine seizure-induced neuronal death in the hippocampus has not been evaluated. In the present study, we investigated the potential therapeutic effects of PCA on seizure-induced brain injury. Epileptic seizure was induced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of pilocarpine (25 mg/kg) in adult male rats, and PCA (30 mg/kg) was injected into the intraperitoneal space for three consecutive days after the seizure...
January 8, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296617/flupirtine-and-diazepam-combination-terminates-established-status-epilepticus-results-in-three-rodent-models
#6
Terry Zhang, Marko S Todorovic, John Williamson, Jaideep Kapur
Objective: Status epilepticus (SE) is a neurological emergency requiring rapid termination of seizures. New treatment choices are needed for benzodiazepine-refractory SE or established SE (ESE). Previous studies have demonstrated that the potassium-channel opener flupirtine terminates seizures in neonatal animals. However, its effectiveness in adult ESE has not been tested. We tested whether flupirtine alone or in combination with the benzodiazepine diazepam would terminate ESE in three animal models...
December 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287786/leptin-treatment-prevents-long-term-abnormalities-in-cognition-seizure-threshold-hippocampal-mossy-fiber-sprouting-and-znt3-cb-d28k-expression-in-a-rat-developmental-twist-seizure-model
#7
Hong Ni, Su-Hong Chen, Li-Li Li, Mei-Fang Jin
The mechanism of linking neonatal seizures with long-term brain damage is unclear, and there is no effective drug to block this long-term pathological process. Recently, the fat-derived hormone leptin has been appreciated for its neuroprotective function in neurodegenerative processes, although less is known about the effects of leptin on neonatal seizure-induced brain damage. Here, we developed a "twist" seizure model by coupling pilocarpine-induced neonatal status epilepticus (SE) with later exposure to penicillin to test whether leptin treatment immediately after neonatal SE would exert neuroprotective effects on cognition, seizure threshold and hippocampal mossy fiber sprouting, as well if leptin had any influence on the expression of zinc transporter 3 (ZnT3) and calcium homeostasis-related CB-D28k in the hippocampus...
December 26, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275045/does-the-administration-of-pilocarpine-prior-to-venom-milking-influence-the-composition-of-micrurus-corallinus-venom
#8
Karen de Morais-Zani, Caroline Serino-Silva, Nathália da Costa Galizio, Lídia Jorge Tasima, Josias Falararo Pagotto, Marisa Maria Teixeira da Rocha, José Roberto Marcelino, Sávio Stefanini Sant'Anna, Alexandre Keiji Tashima, Anita Mitico Tanaka-Azevedo, Kathleen Fernandes Grego
Considering that the scarcity of venom represents a huge challenge for biochemical and functional studies of Micrurus species (coral snakes), in this report we describe for the first time the influence of pilocarpine administration prior to venom milking on the yield and protein composition of Micrurus corallinus venom. The administration of pilocarpine resulted in an increase of about 127% in the volume of venom milked, with similar protein content. Venoms showed similar protein bands distribution and intensity by SDS-PAGE and equivalents RP-HPLC profiles...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274439/visualization-of-arc-promoter-driven-neuronal-activity-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#9
Qi Wu, Kenji Ono, Hiromi Suzuki, Megumi Eguchi, Shun Yamaguchi, Makoto Sawada
Visualization of direct neuronal activity to understand brain function is one of the most important challenges in neuroscience. We have previously demonstrated that in vivo and in vitro gene expression of the ferritin reporter system could be detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In addition, increased neuronal activity induces Arc, an immediate early gene, and insertion of a destabilized fluorescent reporter dVenus under Arc promoter control has been used for monitoring neuronal activities in the brain by optical imaging...
December 20, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260071/transient-anisocoria-in-a-patient-treated-with-nebulized-ipratropium-bromide
#10
Renato Pejic, Branka Klaric
Purpose: We present a case report of a 44-year old female patient with complicated pneumonia who developed anisocoria after treatment with inhaled ipratropium bromide. Discontinuation of ipratropium bromide treatment led to complete resolution of anisocoria. Observation: A 44-year old female patient was admitted to the Department of Pulmonology due to high body temperature (40.0 °C), coughing and general weakness. After a general examination and tests the patient was diagnosed with right-sided pneumonia...
September 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237529/-changes-in-the-expression-of-epha5-ephrina5-in-the-ca3-region-of-the-hippocampus-in-rats-with-epilepsy-and-their-role-in-the-pathogenesis-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#11
Tian-Tian Liu, Bo Xiao, Shu-Yu Li, Guo-Liang Li, Xiao-Qin Lu, Wei-Ping Liu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the changes in the expression of EphA5 and its ligand ephrinA5 in the hippocampus of rats with epilepsy and their role in the pathogenesis of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). METHODS: A total of 240 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control group and TLE group, with 120 rats in each group. A rat model of lithium-pilocarpine TLE was established, and then the rats were divided into subgroups at 12 and 24 hours and 7, 15, 30, and 60 days after epilepsy was induced...
December 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224956/bidirectional-shift-of-group-iii-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-mediated-synaptic-depression-in-the-epileptic-hippocampus
#12
Fabian Dammann, Timo Kirschstein, Xiati Guli, Steffen Müller, Katrin Porath, Marco Rohde, Tursonjan Tokay, Rüdiger Köhling
A common function of group III metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) located at the presynaptic site of a glutamatergic synapse is synaptic depression. Here, we studied synaptic depression mediated by group III mGluR activation at Schaffer collateral-CA1 (SC-CA1) synapses and associational-commissural-CA3 (AC-CA3) synapses by recording field excitatory postsynaptic potentials in the in vitro brain slice preparation. In order to gauge the impact of synaptic depression in chronically epileptic tissue, we compared rats after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (post-SE) with control animals...
December 7, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222946/triheptanoin-protects-against-status-epilepticus-induced-hippocampal-mitochondrial-dysfunctions-oxidative-stress-and-neuronal-degeneration
#13
Kah Ni Tan, David Simmons, Catalina Carrasco-Pozo, Karin Borges
Triheptanoin, the triglyceride of heptanoate, is anaplerotic (refills deficient tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates) via the propionyl-CoA carboxylase (PCC) pathway. It has been shown to be neuroprotective and anticonvulsant in several models of neurological disorders. Here, we investigated the effects of triheptanoin against changes of hippocampal mitochondrial functions, oxidative stress and cell death induced by pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) in mice. Ten days of triheptanoin pre-treatment did not protect against SE, but it preserved hippocampal mitochondrial functions including state 2, state 3 ADP, state 3 uncoupled respiration, respiration linked to ATP synthesis along with the activities of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex 24 h post-SE...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217817/acetazolamide-suppresses-multi-drug-resistance-related-protein-1-and-p-glycoprotein-expression-by-inhibiting-aquaporins-expression-in-a-mesial-temporal-epilepsy-rat-model
#14
Lei Duan, Qing Di
BACKGROUND Mesial temporal epilepsy (MTLE) is the most common type of focal epilepsy in adults, and is often drug-resistant. This study investigated the effects of aquaporins (AQP) inhibitor on multi-drug-resistant protein expression in an MTLE rat model. MATERIAL AND METHODS The MTLE rat model was established by injecting pilocarpine into rats. The MTLE rats were divided into an MTLE-6 h group, an MTLE-12 h group, and an MTLE-24 h group, together with a normal saline group (NS), to examine the AQP4 expression by using Western blot assay and immunohistochemistry assay...
December 8, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203398/metyrapone-prevents-acute-glucose-hypermetabolism-and-short-term-brain-damage-induced-by-intrahippocampal-administration-of-4-aminopyridine-in-rats
#15
Luis García-García, Rubén Fernández de la Rosa, Mercedes Delgado, Ágata Silván, Pablo Bascuñana, Jens P Bankstahl, Francisca Gomez, Miguel A Pozo
Intracerebral administration of the potassium channel blocker 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) triggers neuronal depolarization and intense acute seizure activity followed by neuronal damage. We have recently shown that, in the lithium-pilocarpine rat model of status epilepticus, a single administration of metyrapone, an inhibitor of the 11β-hydroxylase enzyme, had protective properties of preventive nature against signs of brain damage and neuroinflammation. Herein, our aim was to investigate to which extent, pretreatment with metyrapone (150 mg/kg, i...
December 1, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200970/systematic-review-of-randomized-controlled-trials-in-the-treatment-of-dry-eye-disease-in-sjogren-syndrome
#16
REVIEW
Kendrick Co Shih, Christie Nicole Lun, Vishal Jhanji, Bernard Yu-Hor Thong, Louis Tong
Primary Sjögren's syndrome is an autoimmune disease characterized by dry eye and dry mouth. We systematically reviewed all the randomized controlled clinical trials published in the last 15 years that included ocular outcomes. We found 22 trials involving 9 topical, 10 oral, 2 intravenous and 1 subcutaneous modalities of treatment. Fluoromethalone eye drops over 8 weeks were more effective than topical cyclosporine in the treatment of dry eye symptoms and signs; similarly, indomethacin eye drops over 1 month were more efficacious than diclofenac eye drops...
2017: Journal of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196034/adie-pupil-pilocarpine-test
#17
Dannys Rivero Rodríguez, Claudio Scherle Matamoros, Yanelis Pernas Sánchez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 28, 2017: Medicina Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194389/variation-in-cyp2a6-activity-and-personalized-medicine
#18
REVIEW
Julie-Anne Tanner, Rachel F Tyndale
The cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6) enzyme metabolizes several clinically relevant substrates, including nicotine-the primary psychoactive component in cigarette smoke. The gene that encodes the CYP2A6 enzyme is highly polymorphic, resulting in extensive interindividual variation in CYP2A6 enzyme activity and the rate of metabolism of nicotine and other CYP2A6 substrates including cotinine, tegafur, letrozole, efavirenz, valproic acid, pilocarpine, artemisinin, artesunate, SM-12502, caffeine, and tyrosol. CYP2A6 expression and activity are also impacted by non-genetic factors, including induction or inhibition by pharmacological, endogenous, and dietary substances, as well as age-related changes, or interactions with other hepatic enzymes, co-enzymes, and co-factors...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Personalized Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191771/silencing-rno-mir-155-5p-in-rat-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-model-reduces-pathophysiological-features-and-cell-apoptosis-by-activating-sestrin-3
#19
Li-Gang Huang, Jing Zou, Qin-Chi Lu
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a chronic neurological disease characterized by recurrent spontaneous seizures. MicroRNAs are dysregulated in various pathological conditions including epilepsy. Therefore, we hypothesized that the dysregulation of these microRNAs might also be associated with the pathogenesis of TLE. In this study, we found that a microRNA, hsa-miR-155-5p, was upregulated in patients with TLE post-surgery, and hence associated with clinical and pathological manifestations and seizure outcomes...
November 27, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188487/sodium-metabisulfite-effects-on-ionic-currents-and-excitotoxicity
#20
Ming-Chi Lai, Te-Yu Hung, Kao-Min Lin, Pi-Shan Sung, Shyh-Jong Wu, Chih-Sheng Yang, Yi-Jen Wu, Jing-Jane Tsai, Sheng-Nan Wu, Chin-Wei Huang
How sodium metabisulfite (SMB; Na2S2O5), a popular food preservative and antioxidant, interacts with excitable membrane and induces excitotoxicity is incompletely understood. In this study, the patch-clamp technique was used to investigate and record the electrophysiological effect of SMB on electrically excitable HL-1 cardiomyocytes and NSC-34 neurons, as well as its relationship to pilocarpine-induced seizures and neuronal excitotoxicity in rats. We used Western blotting, to analyze sodium channel expression on hippocampi after chronic SMB treatment...
November 29, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
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