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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315308/target-specific-alterations-in-the-vip-inhibitory-drive-to-hippocampal-gabaergic-cells-after-status-epilepticus
#1
Linda Suzanne David, Lisa Topolnik
Status epilepticus (SE) is associated with complex reorganization of hippocampal circuits involving a significant loss of specific subtypes of GABAergic interneurons. While adaptive circuit plasticity may increase the chances for recruitment of surviving interneurons, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. We studied the alterations in the inhibitory tone received by the hippocampal CA1 oriens/alveus (O/A) interneurons from the vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)- and calretinin (CR)-expressing interneurons using the pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) model of epilepsy...
March 15, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303258/alterations-in-cytosolic-and-mitochondrial-u-13-c-glucose-metabolism-in-a-chronic-epilepsy-mouse-model
#2
Tanya S McDonald, Catalina Carrasco-Pozo, Mark P Hodson, Karin Borges
Temporal lobe epilepsy is a common form of adult epilepsy and shows high resistance to treatment. Increasing evidence has suggested that metabolic dysfunction contributes to the development of seizures, with previous studies indicating impairments in brain glucose metabolism. Here we aim to elucidate which pathways involved in glucose metabolism are impaired, by tracing the hippocampal metabolism of injected [U-(13)C]glucose (i.p.) during the chronic stage of the pilocarpine-status epilepticus mouse model of epilepsy...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300854/randomized-placebo-and-active-controlled-crossover-study-of-the-safety-and-efficacy-of-thvd-102-a-fixed-dose-combination-of-oxybutynin-and-pilocarpine-in-subjects-with-primary-focal-hyperhidrosis
#3
David M Pariser, Janakan Krishnaraja, Thomas M Tremblay, R Michael Rubison, Ted W Love, Benjamin F McGraw
BACKGROUND: While muscarinic antagonists (anticholinergics) have shown efficacy in treating primary focal hyperhidrosis (PFH), side effects - most commonly dry mouth - are intolerable for most patients. THVD-102, a fixed-dose combination product has been developed combining oxybutynin, a muscarinic antagonist, and pilocarpine, a muscarinic agonist. The pilocarpine is at a dose level and release profile optimized to correct salivary flow impaired by oxybutynin yet not interfere with the therapeutic muscarinic antagonist effect of oxybutynin upon the sweat glands...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268645/effect-of-temperature-on-sleep-regulation-in-an-animal-epilepsy-model
#4
Asmaa Ajwad, Farid Yaghouby, Dillon Huffman, Bruce O'Hara, Sridhar Sunderam
Besides recurring seizures, disordered sleep is common in individuals with epilepsy and may present as reduced sleep depth, altered proportions of different stages of sleep, intermittent arousal, and other phenomena. Sleep loss can in turn precipitate seizures, thus sustaining a vicious cycle. It is well known that changes in ambient temperature elicit thermoregulatory responses that alter the dynamics of sleep. As a first step toward therapeutic sleep modulation for epilepsy, we assessed the effect of elevated ambient temperature on sleep dynamics and seizure yield in the chronic pilocarpine mouse model of temporal lobe epilepsy...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267625/diffusion-tensor-mri-shows-progressive-changes-in-the-hippocampus-and-dentate-gyrus-after-status-epilepticus-in-rat-histological-validation-with-fourier-based-analysis
#5
Raimo A Salo, Tuukka Miettinen, Teemu Laitinen, Olli Gröhn, Alejandra Sierra
Imaging markers for monitoring disease progression, recovery, and treatment efficacy are a major unmet need for many neurological diseases, including epilepsy. Recent evidence suggests that diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) provides high microstructural contrast even outside major white matter tracts. We hypothesized that in vivo DTI could detect progressive microstructural changes in the dentate gyrus and the hippocampal CA3bc in the rat brain after status epilepticus (SE). To test this hypothesis, we induced SE with systemic kainic acid or pilocarpine in adult male Wistar rats and subsequently scanned them using in vivo DTI at five time-points: prior to SE, and 10, 20, 34, and 79 days post SE...
March 4, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250018/genome-wide-analysis-of-differential-rna-editing-in-epilepsy
#6
Prashant Kumar Srivastava, Marta Bagnati, Andree Delahaye-Duriez, Jeong-Hun Ko, Maxime Rotival, Sarah R Langley, Kirill Shkura, Manuela Mazzuferi, Bénédicte Danis, Jonathan van Eyll, Patrik Foerch, Jacques Behmoaras, Rafal M Kaminski, Enrico Petretto, Michael R Johnson
The recoding of genetic information through RNA editing contributes to proteomic diversity, but the extent and significance of RNA editing in disease is poorly understood. In particular, few studies have investigated the relationship between RNA editing and disease at a genome-wide level. Here, we developed a framework for the genome-wide detection of RNA sites that are differentially edited in disease. Using RNA-sequencing data from 100 hippocampi from mice with epilepsy (pilocarpine-temporal lobe epilepsy model) and 100 healthy control hippocampi, we identified 256 RNA sites (overlapping with 87 genes) that were significantly differentially edited between epileptic cases and controls...
March 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249650/interventions-for-the-management-of-radiotherapy-induced-xerostomia-and-hyposalivation-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
REVIEW
Valeria Mercadante, Arwa Al Hamad, Giovanni Lodi, Stephen Porter, Stefano Fedele
INTRODUCTION: Salivary gland hypofunction is a common and permanent adverse effect of radiotherapy to the head and neck. Randomised trials of available treatment modalities have produced unclear results and offer little reliable guidance for clinicians to inform evidence-based therapy. We have undertaken this systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the effectiveness of available interventions for radiotherapy-induced xerostomia and hyposalivation. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Central, EMBASE, AMED, and CINAHL database through July 2016 for randomised controlled trials comparing any topical or systemic intervention to active and/or non-active controls for the treatment of radiotherapy-induced xerostomia...
March 2017: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243741/biological-variation-of-chloride-and-sodium-in-sweat-obtained-by-pilocarpine-iontophoresis-in-adults-how-sure-are-you-about-sweat-test-results
#8
Philippe Willems, Steven Weekx, Anissa Meskal, Sofie Schouwers
INTRODUCTION: The measurement of chloride and sodium concentrations in sweat is an important test for the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF). The aim of this study was to assess the analytical variation (CVA) and within-subject (CVI) and between-subject (CVG) biological variation of chloride and sodium concentrations in sweat, collected by pilocarpine iontophoresis and to determine their effect on the clinical interpretation of sweat test results. METHODS: Twelve Caucasian adults (six male and six female) without symptoms suggestive for CF and with a mean age of 41 years (range 28-59) were included in the study...
February 27, 2017: Lung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242958/intranasal-delivery-of-mir-146a-mimics-delayed-seizure-onset-in-the-lithium-pilocarpine-mouse-model
#9
Hua Tao, Jianghao Zhao, Tingting Liu, Yujie Cai, Xu Zhou, Huaijie Xing, Yan Wang, Mingkang Yin, Wangtao Zhong, Zhou Liu, Keshen Li, Bin Zhao, Haihong Zhou, Lili Cui
Unveiling the key mechanism of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) for the development of novel treatments is of increasing interest, and anti-inflammatory miR-146a is now considered a promising molecular target for TLE. In the current study, a C57BL/6 TLE mouse model was established using the lithium-pilocarpine protocol. The seizure degree was evaluated according to the Racine scale, and level 5 was considered the threshold for generalized convulsions. Animals were sacrificed to analyze the hippocampus at three time points (2 h and 4 and 8 weeks after pilocarpine administration to evaluate the acute, latent, and chronic phases, resp...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240705/skin-tattoos-alter-sweat-rate-and-na-concentration
#10
Maurie Joe Luetkemeier, Joseph Michael Hanisko, Kyle Mathiew Aho
The popularity of tattoos has increased tremendously in the last 10-years particularly among athletes and military personnel. The tattooing process involves permanently depositing ink under the skin at a similar depth as eccrine sweat glands (3-5 mm). PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare the sweat rate and sweat Na concentration of tattooed vs. non-tattooed skin. METHODS: The participants were 10 healthy males (age = 21 ± 1 yr) all with a unilateral tattoo covering a circular area at least 5...
February 25, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239767/down-regulation-of-pin1-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-patients-and-mouse-model
#11
Lan Tang, Yanke Zhang, Guojun Chen, Yan Xiong, Xuefeng Wang, Binglin Zhu
Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase NIMA-interacting 1 (Pin1) is a unique PPIase belonging to the parvulin family, and it isomerizes peptide bond between phospho-(Ser/Thr) and Pro. Pin1 has been linked to the pathogenesis of various human diseases; however, its exact biological functions remain unclear. The aim of the present study is to explore the expression pattern of Pin1 in patients with refractory epilepsy and in a chronic pilocarpine-induced epileptic mouse model. Using Western blot, immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation analysis, we found that Pin1 protein was mainly distributed in neurons, demonstrated by colocalization with the dendritic marker, MAP2...
February 27, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237317/a-calpain-inhibitor-ameliorates-seizure-burden-in-an-experimental-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#12
Philip M Lam, Jessica Carlsen, Marco I González
In this study, we used the pilocarpine model of epilepsy to evaluate the involvement of calpain dysregulation on epileptogenesis. Detection of spectrin breakdown products (SBDPs, a hallmark of calpain activation) after induction of pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) and before appearance of spontaneous seizure suggested the existence of sustained calpain activation during epileptogenesis. Acute treatment with a cell permeable inhibitor of calpain, MDL-28170, resulted in a partial but significant reduction on seizure burden...
February 22, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28232134/which-component-of-treatment-is-important-for-changes-of-cortical-epileptic-afterdischarges-after-status-epilepticus-in-immature-rats
#13
Grygoriy Tsenov, Hana Kubová, Pavel Mareš
Role of lithium chloride and paraldehyde in acute changes after lithium-pilocarpine status epilepticus (SE) induced at postnatal day 12 was studied in 15-day-old rats. In addition to SE group four other groups were formed: naïve animals without any injection, lithium chloride group, paraldehyde group and lithium-paraldehyde group. Cortical epileptic afterdischarges (CxADs) induced by increasing intensities of stimulation current were used as a measure of excitability. SE animals did not exhibit any change in duration of CxADs with increasing stimulation intensity in contrast to naïve control with a progressive prolongation of CxAD...
February 21, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231380/perioperative-medications-for-preventing-temporarily-increased-intraocular-pressure-after-laser-trabeculoplasty
#14
REVIEW
Linda Zhang, Jennifer S Weizer, David C Musch
BACKGROUND: Glaucoma is the international leading cause of irreversible blindness. Intraocular pressure (IOP) is the only currently known modifiable risk factor; it can be reduced by medications, incisional surgery, or laser trabeculoplasty (LTP). LTP reduces IOP by 25% to 30% from baseline, but early acute IOP elevation after LTP is a common adverse effect. Most of these IOP elevations are transient, but temporarily elevated IOP may cause further optic nerve damage, worsening of glaucoma requiring additional therapy, and permanent vision loss...
February 23, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226825/effect-of-temperature-on-sleep-regulation-in-an-animal-epilepsy-model
#15
Asmaa Ajwad, Farid Yaghouby, Dillon Huffman, Bruce O'Hara, Sridhar Sunderam, Asmaa Ajwad, Farid Yaghouby, Dillon Huffman, Bruce O'Hara, Sridhar Sunderam, Dillon Huffman, Farid Yaghouby, Asmaa Ajwad, Bruce O'Hara, Sridhar Sunderam
Besides recurring seizures, disordered sleep is common in individuals with epilepsy and may present as reduced sleep depth, altered proportions of different stages of sleep, intermittent arousal, and other phenomena. Sleep loss can in turn precipitate seizures, thus sustaining a vicious cycle. It is well known that changes in ambient temperature elicit thermoregulatory responses that alter the dynamics of sleep. As a first step toward therapeutic sleep modulation for epilepsy, we assessed the effect of elevated ambient temperature on sleep dynamics and seizure yield in the chronic pilocarpine mouse model of temporal lobe epilepsy...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225153/the-effects-of-c5ar1-on-leukocyte-infiltration-following-pilocarpine-induced-status-epilepticus
#16
Melissa J Benson, Silvia Manzanero, Karin Borges
This study aimed to determine the role C5aR1 plays in mediating immune responses acutely after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE), specifically those of brain-infiltrating leukocytes. Three days following pilocarpine SE, we determined by flow cytometry the brain immune cell phenotypes and measured key proinflammatory and antiinflammatory cytokine expression by infiltrating leukocytes and microglia in C5aR1-deficient and wild-type mice. Absence of C5aR1 reduced by 47% the numbers of Ly6G(+) neutrophils in the brains of No-SE mice and decreased neutrophil entry after SE to levels found in wild-type brains that did not undergo SE (No-SE)...
February 22, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222338/effect-of-synaptic-adhesion-like-molecule-3-on-epileptic-seizures-evidence-from-animal-models
#17
Jie Li, Ling Chen, Na Wang, Guohui Jiang, Yuqing Wu, Yi Zhang
Axonal sprouting and synaptic reorganization are the primary pathophysiological characteristics of epilepsy. Recent studies demonstrated that synaptic adhesion-like molecule 3 (SALM3) is highly expressed in the central nervous system and plays important roles in neurite outgrowth, branching, and axon guidance, mechanisms that are also observed in epilepsy. However, the expression of SALM3 in the epileptic brain and the effect of SALM3 in the pathogenesis of epilepsy remain unclear. The aims of this study were to investigate SALM3 expression in rat models of epilepsy and to explore the functional significance of SALM3 in epilepsy...
February 17, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214985/melatonin-alleviates-the-epilepsy-associated-impairments-in-hippocampal-ltp-and-spatial-learning-through-rescue-of-surface-glur2-expression-at-hippocampal-ca1-synapses
#18
Yue Ma, Xiaolong Sun, Juan Li, Ruihua Jia, Fang Yuan, Dong Wei, Wen Jiang
Epilepsy-associated cognitive impairment is common, and negatively impacts patients' quality of life. However, most antiepileptic drugs focus on the suppression of seizures, and fewer emphasize treatment of cognitive dysfunction. Melatonin, an indolamine synthesized primarily in the pineal grand, is reported to be neuroprotective against several central nervous system disorders. In this study, we investigated whether melatonin could reverse cognitive dysfunction in lithium-pilocarpine treated rats. Chronic treatment with melatonin (8 mg/kg daily for 15 days) after induction of status epilepticus significantly alleviated seizure severity, reduced neuronal death in the CA1 region of the hippocampus, improved spatial learning (as measured by the Morris water maze test), and reversed LTP impairments, compared to vehicle treatment...
February 18, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212985/nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-in-clinical-and-experimental-epilepsy
#19
REVIEW
Beatrice Mihaela Radu, Florin Bogdan Epureanu, Mihai Radu, Paolo Francesco Fabene, Giuseppe Bertini
Current antiepileptic drugs have limited efficacy and provide little or no benefits in 30% of the patients. Given that a role for brain inflammation in epilepsy has been repeatedly reported in recent years, the potential of anti-inflammatory drugs should be explored in depth, as they may provide new therapeutical approaches in preventing or reducing epileptogenesis. Here, we review preclinical (both in vivo and in vitro) and clinical epilepsy studies in which nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), i...
February 9, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208841/assessment-of-correlation-between-sweat-chloride-levels-and-clinical-features-of-cystic-fibrosis-patients
#20
Manzoor A Raina, Mosin S Khan, Showkat A Malik, Ab Hameed Raina, Mudassir J Makhdoomi, Javed I Bhat, Syed Mudassar
INTRODUCTION: Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disorder and the incidence of this disease is undermined in Northern India. The distinguishable salty character of the sweat belonging to individuals suffering from CF makes sweat chloride estimation essential for diagnosis of CF disease. AIM: The aim of this prospective study was to elucidate the relationship of sweat chloride levels with clinical features and pattern of CF. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 182 patients, with clinical features of CF were included in this study for quantitative measurement of sweat chloride...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
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