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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924220/towards-addressing-the-body-electrolyte-environment-via-sweat-analysis-pilocarpine-iontophoresis-supports-assessment-of-plasma-potassium-concentration
#1
Donato Vairo, Laurie Bruzzese, Marion Marlinge, Lea Fuster, Nabil Adjriou, Nathalie Kipson, Philippe Brunet, Jennifer Cautela, Yves Jammes, Giovanna Mottola, Stephane Burtey, Jean Ruf, Regis Guieu, Emmanuel Fenouillet
Electrolyte concentration in sweat depends on environmental context and physical condition but also on the pathophysiological status. Sweat analyzers may be therefore the future way for biological survey although how sweat electrolyte composition can reflect plasma composition remains unclear. We recruited 10 healthy subjects and 6 patients to have a broad range of plasma electrolyte concentrations (chloride, potassium and sodium) and pH. These variables were compared to those found in sweat produced following cycling exercise or pilocarpine iontophoresis, a condition compatible with operating a wearable device...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912687/alterations-in-properties-of-glutamatergic-transmission-in-the-temporal-cortex-and-hippocampus-following-pilocarpine-induced-acute-seizures-in-wistar-rats
#2
Dmitry V Amakhin, Sergey L Malkin, Julia L Ergina, Kirill A Kryukov, Ekaterina A Veniaminova, Olga E Zubareva, Aleksey V Zaitsev
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common type of focal epilepsy in humans, and is often developed after an initial precipitating brain injury. This form of epilepsy is frequently resistant to pharmacological treatment; therefore, the prevention of TLE is the prospective approach to TLE therapy. The lithium-pilocarpine model in rats replicates some of the main features of TLE in human, including the pathogenic mechanisms of cell damage and epileptogenesis after a primary brain injury. In the present study, we investigated changes in the properties of glutamatergic transmission during the first 3 days after pilocarpine-induced acute seizures in Wistar rats (PILO-rats)...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912503/systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-differentially-expressed-mirnas-in-experimental-and-human-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#3
A Korotkov, J D Mills, J A Gorter, E A van Vliet, E Aronica
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a common chronic neurological disease in humans. A number of studies have demonstrated differential expression of miRNAs in the hippocampus of humans with TLE and in animal models of experimental epilepsy. However, the dissimilarities in experimental design have led to largely discordant results across these studies. Thus, a comprehensive comparison is required in order to better characterize miRNA profiles obtained in various post-status epilepticus (SE) models. We therefore created a database and performed a meta-analysis of differentially expressed miRNAs across 3 post-SE models of epileptogenesis (electrical stimulation, pilocarpine and kainic acid) and human TLE with hippocampal sclerosis (TLE-HS)...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899505/an-alkaloid-extract-obtained-from-phlegmariurus-saururus-induces-neuroprotection-after-status-epilepticus
#4
Víctor Danelon, Laura Montroull, Mariana Vallejo, José Cabrera, Alicia Agnese, María Gabriela Ortega, Daniel Mascó
BACKGROUND: The brain is exposed to many excitotoxic insults that can lead to neuronal damage. Among these, Epilepsy is a neurological disease that affects a large percentage of world population and is commonly associated with cognitive disorders and excitotoxic neuronal death. Most experimental strategies are focused on preventing Status Epilepticus (SE), but once it has already occurred, the key question is whether it is possible to save neurons. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine if a purified alkaloid extract (AE) obtained from Phlegmariurus saururus, a genus of Lycophyte plants (sometimes known as firmossesor fir club mosses) could induce neuroprotection following SE...
October 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893976/teaching-an-old-drug-new-tricks-agonism-antagonism-and-biased-signaling-of-pilocarpine-through-m3-muscarinic-acetylcholine-receptor
#5
Alexey Pronin, Qiang Wang, Vladlen Z Slepak
Pilocarpine is a prototypical drug used to treat glaucoma and dry mouth and classified as either a full or partial muscarinic agonist. Here, we report several unexpected results pertaining to its interaction with muscarinic M3 receptor (M3R). We found that pilocarpine was 1,000 times less potent in stimulating mouse eye pupil constriction than muscarinic agonists oxotremorin-M (Oxo-M) or carbachol (CCh), even though all three ligands have similar Kd values for M3R. In contrast to CCh or Oxo-M, pilocarpine does not induce Ca2+ mobilization via endogenous M3R in HEK293T or mouse insulinoma MIN6 cells...
September 11, 2017: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892741/effect-of-diet-with-omega-3-in-basal-brain-electrical-activity-and-during-status-epilepticus-in-rats
#6
Daniella Tavares Pessoa, Eva Luana Almeida da Silva, Edbhergue Ventura Lola Costa, Romildo Albuquerque Nogueira
Western diets are high in saturated fat and low in omega-3. Certain animals cannot produce omega-3 from their own lipids, making it necessary for it to be acquired from the diet. However, omega-3s are important components of the plasma membrane, and altering their proportions can promote physical and chemical alterations in the membranes, which may modify neuronal excitability. These alterations occur in healthy individuals, as well as in patients with epilepsy who are more sensitive to changes in brain electrical activity...
September 1, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870089/mitogen-and-stress-activated-protein-kinase-1-regulates-status-epilepticus-evoked-cell-death-in-the-hippocampus
#7
Yun-Sik Choi, Paul Horning, Sydney Aten, Kate Karelina, Diego Alzate-Correa, J Simon C Arthur, Kari R Hoyt, Karl Obrietan
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling has been implicated in a wide range of neuronal processes, including development, plasticity, and viability. One of the principal downstream targets of both the extracellular signal-regulated kinase/MAPK pathway and the p38 MAPK pathway is Mitogen- and Stress-activated protein Kinase 1 (MSK1). Here, we sought to understand the role that MSK1 plays in neuroprotection against excitotoxic stimulation in the hippocampus. To this end, we utilized immunohistochemical labeling, a MSK1 null mouse line, cell viability assays, and array-based profiling approaches...
September 2017: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867645/5-fluorouracil-induces-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress-in-the-major-salivary-glands-affecting-salivary-flow-and-saliva-composition
#8
Luana E Bomfin, Cíntia M Braga, Thais A Oliveira, Conceição S Martins, Danielle A Foschetti, Ana A Q A Santos, Deiziane V S Costa, Renata F C Leitão, Gerly A C Brito
This study aimed to elucidate the effect of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) on the histological aspects of the major salivary glands, salivary flow and saliva composition using an established oral mucositis model in hamsters. Oral mucositis was induced by two intraperitoneal administrations of 5-FU in two consecutive days (60 and 40mg/kg), followed by cheek pouch mucosa scratch, on day 4. The Pilocarpine-stimulated salivary flow was measured 4 and 10days after the first 5-FU injection. Salivary glands were harvested for histopathological analysis, measurement of inflammatory cells, quantification of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β), investigation of cell death and cell proliferation...
September 1, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865825/long-term-use-of-the-sialogogue-medications-pilocarpine-and-cevimeline-can-reduce-xerostomia-symptoms-and-increase-salivary-flow-in-head-and-neck-cancer-survivors-after-radiotherapy
#9
Anna Greta Barbe
ARTICLE TITLE AND BIBLIOGRAPHIC INFORMATION: Interventions for the management of radiotherapy-induced xerostomia and hyposalivation: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Mercadante V, Hamad AA, Lodi G, Porter S, Fedele S. Oral Oncol 2017;66:64-74. SOURCE OF FUNDING: The authors reported that no external funding sources directly supported this study TYPE OF STUDY/DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis.
September 2017: Journal of Evidence-based Dental Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863321/the-role-of-necroptosis-in-status-epilepticus-induced-brain-injury-in-juvenile-rats
#10
Qianyun Cai, Jing Gan, Rong Luo, Yi Qu, Shiping Li, Chaomin Wan, Dezhi Mu
PURPOSE: To study the role of necroptosis in status epilepticus (SE)-induced injury in the developing brain and the possible associations of necroptosis with epileptogenesis and cognitive dysfunction. METHODS: The lithium-pilocarpine epilepsy model was reproduced in male rats at postnatal day 25. Propidium iodide (PI) staining was used to detect cell death after SE. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was performed to observe morphological changes in injured neurons...
August 29, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860984/early-seizure-detection-by-applying-frequency-based-algorithm-derived-from-the-principal-component-analysis
#11
Jiseon Lee, Junhee Park, Sejung Yang, Hani Kim, Yun Seo Choi, Hyeon Jin Kim, Hyang Woon Lee, Byung-Uk Lee
The use of automatic electrical stimulation in response to early seizure detection has been introduced as a new treatment for intractable epilepsy. For the effective application of this method as a successful treatment, improving the accuracy of the early seizure detection is crucial. In this paper, we proposed the application of a frequency-based algorithm derived from principal component analysis (PCA), and demonstrated improved efficacy for early seizure detection in a pilocarpine-induced epilepsy rat model...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852705/the-sweat-metabolome-of-screen-positive-cystic-fibrosis-infants-revealing-mechanisms-beyond-impaired-chloride-transport
#12
Adriana N Macedo, Stellena Mathiaparanam, Lauren Brick, Katherine Keenan, Tanja Gonska, Linda Pedder, Stephen Hill, Philip Britz-McKibbin
The sweat chloride test remains the gold standard for confirmatory diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF) in support of universal newborn screening programs. However, it provides ambiguous results for intermediate sweat chloride cases while not reflecting disease progression when classifying the complex CF disease spectrum given the pleiotropic effects of gene modifiers and environment. Herein we report the first characterization of the sweat metabolome from screen-positive CF infants and identify metabolites associated with disease status that complement sweat chloride testing...
August 23, 2017: ACS Central Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852438/effect-of-eugenol-on-lithium-pilocarpine-model-of-epilepsy-behavioral-histological-and-molecular-changes
#13
Sara Joushi, Mahmoud Elahdadi Salmani
OBJECTIVES: Epilepsy establishment gives rise to biochemical and morphological changes in the hippocampus. Oxidative stress, morphological changes, and mossy fiber sprouting (MFS) in the hippocampus underpin the epilepsy establishment. Eugenol is the main component of the essential oil extracted from cloves with the potential to modulate neuronal excitability. Therefore, we investigated the effect of eugenol on convulsive behavior, oxidative stress, and histological changes of the hippocampus in lithium-pilocarpine model of epilepsy...
July 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28848439/antagomirs-targeting-mirorna-134-attenuates-epilepsy-in-rats-through-regulation-of-oxidative-stress-mitochondrial-functions-and-autophagy
#14
Jiahang Sun, Xiaoying Gao, Dawei Meng, Yang Xu, Xichun Wang, Xin Gu, Mian Guo, Xiaodong Shao, Hongwen Yan, Chuanlu Jiang, Yongri Zheng
The effects of the existing anti-epileptic drugs are unsatisfactory to almost one third of epileptic patients. MiR-134 antagomirs prevent pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. In this study, a lithium chloride-pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus model was established and treated with intracerebroventricular injection of antagomirs targeting miR-134 (Ant-134). The Ant-134 treatment significantly improved the performance of rats in Morris water maze tests, inhibited mossy fiber sprouting in the dentate gyrus, and increased the survival neurons in the hippocampal CA1 region...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841161/disease-modifying-effects-of-the-spider-toxin-parawixin2-in-the-experimental-epilepsy-model
#15
Lívea Dornela Godoy, José Luiz Liberato, Marcus Vinícius Batista Celani, Leonardo Gobbo-Neto, Norberto Peporine Lopes, Wagner Ferreira Dos Santos
(1) Background: Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common type of epilepsy in adults. It is also the one with the highest percentage of drug-resistance to the current available anti-epileptic drugs (AED). Additionaly, most antiepileptic drugs are only able to control seizures in epileptogenesis, but do not decrease the hippocampal neurodegenerative process. TLE patients have a reduced population of interneuronal cells, which express Parvalbumin (PV) proteins. This reduction is directly linked to seizure frequency and severity in the chronic period of epilepsy...
August 25, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833459/persistent-seizure-control-in-epileptic-mice-transplanted-with-gaba-progenitors
#16
Mariana L Casalia, MacKenzie A Howard, Scott C Baraban
Objective A significant proportion of the more than 50 million people world-wide currently suffering with epilepsy are resistant to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). As an alternative to AEDs, novel therapies based on cell transplantation offer an opportunity for long-lasting modification of epileptic circuits. To develop such a treatment requires careful preclinical studies in a chronic epilepsy model featuring unprovoked seizures, hippocampal histopathology, and behavioral comorbidities. Methods Transplantation of progenitor cells from embryonic medial or caudal ganglionic eminence (MGE, CGE) were made in a well-characterized mouse model of status epilepticus-induced epilepsy (systemic pilocarpine)...
August 18, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825921/pure-glaucoma-drugs-are-toxic-to-immortalized-human-corneal-epithelial-cells-but-they-do-not-destabilize-lipid-membranes
#17
Alexandra Robciuc, Joanna Witos, Suvi-Katriina Ruokonen, Antti H Rantamäki, Pierre-Jean Pisella, Susanne K Wiedmer, Juha M Holopainen
PURPOSE: Most pure glaucoma drugs (pGDs) are hydrophobic substances intended to reduce elevated intraocular pressure. The aims of our study were to determine the toxicity of pGDs (brimonidine tartrate, brinzolamide, latanoprost, timolol maleate, and pilocarpine hydrochloride) on ocular surface cells and to establish whether their toxicity is subsequent to cellular membrane destabilization. METHODS: The toxicity of clinically efficient doses of pGDs was measured at different time points in a cell culture of human corneal epithelial cells using a redox indicator...
October 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822838/scavenging-reactive-oxygen-species-inhibits-status-epilepticus-induced-neuroinflammation
#18
Pallavi B McElroy, Li-Ping Liang, Brian J Day, Manisha Patel
Inflammation has been identified as an important mediator of seizures and epileptogenesis. Understanding the mechanisms underlying seizure-induced neuroinflammation could lead to the development of novel therapies for the epilepsies. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are recognized as mediators of seizure-induced neuronal damage and are known to increase in models of epilepsies. ROS are also known to contribute to inflammation in several disease states. We hypothesized that ROS are key modulators of neuroinflammation i...
August 16, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821839/circadian-clock-dependent-increase-in-salivary-iga-secretion-modulated-by-sympathetic-receptor-activation-in-mice
#19
Misaki Wada, Kanami Orihara, Mayo Kamagata, Koki Hama, Hiroyuki Sasaki, Atsushi Haraguchi, Hiroki Miyakawa, Atsuhito Nakao, Shigenobu Shibata
The salivary gland is rhythmically controlled by sympathetic nerve activation from the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), which functions as the main oscillator of circadian rhythms. In humans, salivary IgA concentrations reflect circadian rhythmicity, which peak during sleep. However, the mechanisms controlling this rhythmicity are not well understood. Therefore, we examined whether the timing of parasympathetic (pilocarpine) or sympathetic (norepinephrine; NE) activation affects IgA secretion in the saliva. The concentrations of saliva IgA modulated by pilocarpine activation or by a combination of pilocarpine and NE activation were the highest in the middle of the light period, independent of saliva flow rate...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796813/a-novel-organotypic-3d-sweat-gland-model-with-physiological-functionality
#20
Patricia Klaka, Sabine Grüdl, Bernhard Banowski, Melanie Giesen, Andrea Sättler, Peter Proksch, Thomas Welss, Thomas Förster
Dysregulated human eccrine sweat glands can negatively impact the quality-of-life of people suffering from disorders like hyperhidrosis. Inability of sweating can even result in serious health effects in humans affected by anhidrosis. The underlying mechanisms must be elucidated and a reliable in vitro test system for drug screening must be developed. Here we describe a novel organotypic three-dimensional (3D) sweat gland model made of primary human eccrine sweat gland cells. Initial experiments revealed that eccrine sweat gland cells in a two-dimensional (2D) culture lose typical physiological markers...
2017: PloS One
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