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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088683/effects-of-protease-activated-receptor-1-inhibition-on-anxiety-and-fear-following-status-epilepticus
#1
Mihail Fedoriuk, Dmytro Isaev, Oleg Krishtal, Gregory L Holmes, Elena Isaeva
Protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) is an important contributor to the pathogenesis of a variety of brain disorders associated with a risk of epilepsy development. Using the lithium-pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), we recently showed that inhibition of this receptor during the first ten days after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) results in substantial anti-epileptogenic and neuroprotective effects. As PAR1 is expressed in the central nervous system regions of importance for processing emotional reactions, including amygdala and hippocampus, and TLE is frequently associated with a chronic alteration of the functions of these regions, we tested the hypothesis that PAR1 inhibition could modulate emotionally driven behavioral responses of rats experiencing SE...
January 12, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088634/chitosan-g-poly-n-isopropylacrylamide-copolymers-as-delivery-carriers-for-intracameral-pilocarpine-administration
#2
Jui-Yang Lai, Li-Jyuan Luo
This study reports, for the first time, the development of a chitosan-g-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (Chi-PN) biodegradable in situ gelling delivery system for ocular pilocarpine administration through intracameral injection. The number of thermo-responsive polymer segments grafted onto the chitosan via carbodiimide-mediated formation of amide linkages was greatly affected by varying the feeding amount of carboxyl-terminated poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) in the synthesis, thereby determining the phase transition temperature and enzymatic degradability of Chi-PN materials...
January 11, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088383/evaluating-the-role-of-astrocytes-on-%C3%AE-estradiol-effect-on-seizures-of-pilocarpine-epileptic-model
#3
Masoumeh Sarfi, Mahmoud Elahdadi Salmani, Iran Goudarzi, Taghi Lashkar Boluki, Kataneh Abrari
Epilepsy with periodic and unpredictable seizures is associated with hippocampal glutamate toxicity and tissue reorganization. Astrocytes play an important role in mediating the neuroprotective effects of estradiol and reducing seizure severity. Accordingly, the protective effects of low and high doses of estradiol on behavioral, astrocytic involvement and neuronal survival aspects of Pilocarpine-induced epilepsy were investigated. Lithium- Pilocarpine (30mg/kg) model was used to provoke epilepsy. Βeta-estradiol (2,40μg/ µl) was injected subcutaneously from 48 before to 48h after seizure induction...
January 11, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074934/disease-modifying-effect-of-intravenous-immunoglobulin-in-an-experimental-model-of-epilepsy
#4
Min Chen, Thiruma V Arumugam, Gayeshika Leanage, Quang M Tieng, Ashwin Yadav, Jeremy F P Ullmann, David T She, Vy Truong, Marc J Ruitenberg, David C Reutens
Novel therapies that prevent or modify the development of epilepsy following an initiating brain insult could significantly reduce the burden of this disease. In light of evidence that immune mechanisms play an important role in generating and maintaining the epileptic condition, we evaluated the effect of a well-established immunomodulatory treatment, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg), on the development of epilepsy in an experimental model of epileptogenesis. In separate experiments, IVIg was administered either before (pre-treatment) or after (post-treatment) the onset of pilocarpine status epilepticus (SE)...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074534/depolarizing-gaba-contributes-to-glutamatergic-network-rewiring-in-epilepsy
#5
Nazim Kourdougli, Christophe Pellegrino, Juho-Matti Renko, Stanislav Khirug, Geneviève Chazal, Tiina-Kaisa Kukko-Lukjanov, Sari E Lauri, Jean-Luc Gaiarsa, Liang Zhou, Angélique Peret, Eero Castrén, Raimo Kalevi Tuominen, Valérie Crépel, Claudio Rivera
OBJECTIVE: Rewiring of excitatory glutamatergic neuronal circuits is a major abnormality in epilepsy. Besides the rewiring of excitatory circuit, an abnormal depolarizing GABAergic drive has been hypothesized to participate in the epileptogenic processes. However, a remaining clinically relevant question is whether early post Status Epilepticus (SE) evoked chloride dysregulation is important for the remodeling of aberrant glutamatergic neuronal circuit. METHODS: Osmotic mini-pumps were used to infuse intracerebrally a specific inhibitor of depolarizing GABAergic transmission as well as a functionally blocking antibody towards the pan-neurotrophin receptor p75 (p75(NTR) )...
January 11, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069460/epilepsy-and-exercise-an-experimental-study-in-female-rats
#6
Diego Vannucci Campos, Glauber Menezes Lopim, Daiana Aparecida da Silva, Alexandre Aparecido de Almeida, Debora Amado, Ricardo Mario Arida
OBJECTIVE: Epilepsy is the most common neurological chronic condition worldwide, affecting about 2% of world population. Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) reaches 40% of all cases of this condition, and it is highly refractory to pharmacological treatment. Physical activity has been suggested as complementary therapy for epilepsy. However, there is no consistent information whether all these effects are plenty applicable to females, since clinical and experimental studies concerning physical exercise and epilepsy are largely performed in males...
January 6, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066149/neuroprotective-effect-of-lithium-after-pilocarpine-induced-status-epilepticus-in-mice
#7
Namgue Hong, Yun-Sik Choi, Seong Yun Kim, Hee Jung Kim
Status epilepticus is the most common serious neurological condition triggered by abnormal electrical activity, leading to severe and widespread cell loss in the brain. Lithium has been one of the main drugs used for the treatment of bipolar disorder for decades, and its anticonvulsant and neuroprotective properties have been described in several neurological disease models. However, the therapeutic mechanisms underlying lithium's actions remain poorly understood. The muscarinic receptor agonist pilocarpine is used to induce status epilepticus, which is followed by hippocampal damage...
January 2017: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060294/manipulation-of-epileptiform-electrocorticograms-ecogs-and-sleep-in-rats-and-mice-by-acupuncture
#8
Pei-Lu Yi, Shuo-Bin Jou, Yi-Jou Wu, Fang-Chia Chang
Ancient Chinese literature has documented that acupuncture possesses efficient therapeutic effects on epilepsy and insomnia. There is, however, little research to reveal the possible mechanisms behind these effects. To investigate the effect of acupuncture on epilepsy and sleep, several issues need to be addressed. The first is to identify the acupoints, which correspond between humans, rats, and mice. Furthermore, the depth of insertion of the acupuncture needle, the degree of needle twist in manual needle acupuncture, and the stimulation parameters for electroacupuncture (EA) need to be determined...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044440/ethylatropine-bromide-as-a-peripherally-restricted-muscarinic-antagonist
#9
Asheebo Rojas, Thota Ganesh, Alec Walker, Raymond Dingledine
Quaternary ammonium analogues of atropine that are unable to cross the blood-brain barrier are used to alleviate peripheral muscarinic toxicity in animal models of epilepsy produced by systemic administration of pilocarpine or diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP). Currently, methylatropine is the most popular and potent of these quaternary derivatives; however, it is expensive and produced in limited quantity. Here, we propose the use of ethylatropine bromide as an alternative to methylatropine. The synthesis of ethylatropine bromide is simple, inexpensive and has low environmental impact...
January 6, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042145/hippocampal-expression-of-connexin36-and-connexin43-during-epileptogenesis-in-pilocarpine-model-of-epilepsy
#10
Sahel Motaghi, Mohammad Sayyah, Vahab Babapour, Reza Mahdian
BACKGROUND: Gap junctions (GJs) provide direct intercellular communications that are formed by hexameric protein subunits, called connexin (Cx). The role of Cxs in epileptogenesis has not received sufficient attention. Hippocampus with critical function in epileptogenesis has a wide network of GJs. We examined the protein expression levels of hippocampal Cx36 (the prominent Cx present between GABAergic interneurons) and Cx43 (the main Cx expressed by astrocytes) during epileptogenesis in the pilocarpine model of epilepsy...
January 2, 2017: Iranian Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042096/different-response-to-antiepileptic-drugs-according-to-the-type-of-epileptic-events-in-a-neonatal-ischemia-reperfusion-model
#11
Luc Morin, Julie Enderlin, Pierre-Louis Leger, Gaëtan Perrotte, Philippe Bonnin, Nina Dupuis, Olivier Baud, Christiane Charriaut-Marlangue, Stéphane Auvin
Perinatal arterial stroke is the most frequent form of cerebral infarction in children. Neonatal seizures are the most frequent symptom during the neonatal period. The current management of perinatal stroke is based on supportive care. It is currently unknown if treatment of the seizures modifies the outcome, and no clinical studies have focused on seizures during neonatal stroke. We studied the effect of phenobarbital and levetiracetam on an ischemic-reperfusion stroke model in P7 rats using prolonged electroencephalographic recordings and a histologic analysis of the brain (24h after injury)...
December 30, 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035691/smad-anchor-for-receptor-activation-contributes-to-seizures-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#12
Weihua Yu, Yingshi Du, Yan Zou, Xuefeng Wang, Ulrich Stephani, Yang Lü
PURPOSE: Smad anchor for receptor activation (SARA) is an important regulator of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling by recruiting Smad2/3 to TGF-β receptors. Although TGF-β signaling is critically involved in epileptogenesis, whether SARA activation is sufficient to facilitate TGF-β pathway to regulate epilepsy remains unknown. METHODS: The expression of SARA and downstream Phospho-Smad3 (p-Smad3) was examined in rats with pilocarpine induced epilepsy...
December 30, 2016: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013000/galanin-contributes-to-monoaminergic-dysfunction-and-to-dependent-neurobehavioral-comorbidities-of-epilepsy
#13
Jesus-Servando Medel-Matus, Don Shin, Raman Sankar, Andrey Mazarati
Status epilepticus (SE) in rats, along with chronic epilepsy, leads to the development of behavioral impairments resembling depressive disorder and/or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), thus reflecting respective comorbidities in epilepsy patients. Suppressed neurotransmitter tone in the raphe nucleus (RN)-prefrontal cortex (PFC) serotonergic pathway and in the locus coeruleus (LC)-PFC noradrenergic pathway underlies depressive- and impulsive-like behavioral deficits respectively. We examined possible mechanisms leading to the monoamine dysfunction in brainstem efferents, namely modulatory effects of the neuropeptide galanin on serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) signaling...
December 22, 2016: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012173/trpc3-channels-play-a-critical-role-in-the-theta-component-of-pilocarpine-induced-status-epilepticus-in-mice
#14
Kevin D Phelan, U Thaung Shwe, Michael A Cozart, Hong Wu, Matthew M Mock, Joel Abramowitz, Lutz Birnbaumer, Fang Zheng
OBJECTIVE: Canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) channels constitute a family of cation channels that exhibit a regional and cell-specific expression pattern throughout the brain. It has been reported previously that TRPC3 channels are effectors of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)/trkB signaling pathway. Given the long postulated role of BDNF in epileptogenesis, TRPC3 channels may be a critical component in the underlying pathophysiology of seizure and epilepsy. In this study, we investigated the precise role of TRPC3 channels in pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE)...
December 24, 2016: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992867/dronedarone-modulates-m1-and-m3-muscarinic-receptors-with-subtype-selectivity-functional-selectivity-and-probe-dependence
#15
Gihan M Jayasuriya, Gwendolynne Elmslie, Ethan S Burstein, John Ellis
We have previously reported that amiodarone interacts with a novel allosteric site on muscarinic receptors. Amiodarone's most striking effect is to enhance the maximal response elicited by muscarinic agonists at the M1, M3, and M5 receptors. Furthermore, the quaternary analog N-ethylamiodarone (NEA) is inhibitory at these receptors and appears to compete with amiodarone at that allosteric site. In the present studies, we show that dronedarone also modulates Gq-mediated responses at M1 and M3, although in a more discriminating manner...
December 20, 2016: Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965624/ru486-mitigates-hippocampal-pathology-following-status-epilepticus
#16
Aynara C Wulsin, James P Herman, Steve C Danzer
Status epilepticus (SE) induces rapid hyper-activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis. HPA axis hyperactivity results in excess exposure to high levels of circulating glucocorticoids, which are associated with neurotoxicity and depression-like behavior. These observations have led to the hypothesis that HPA axis dysfunction may exacerbate SE-induced brain injury. To test this hypothesis, we used the mouse pilocarpine model of epilepsy to determine whether use of the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU486 can attenuate hippocampal pathology following SE...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965619/dynamic-changes-in-spectral-and-spatial-signatures-of-high-frequency-oscillations-in-rat-hippocampi-during-epileptogenesis-in-acute-and-chronic-stages
#17
Pan-Pan Song, Jing Xiang, Li Jiang, Heng-Sheng Chen, Ben-Ke Liu, Yue Hu
OBJECTIVE: To analyze spectral and spatial signatures of high frequency oscillations (HFOs), which include ripples and fast ripples (FRs, >200 Hz) by quantitatively assessing average and peak spectral power in a rat model of different stages of epileptogenesis. METHODS: The lithium-pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy was used. The acute phase of epilepsy was assessed by recording intracranial electroencephalography (EEG) activity for 1 day after status epilepticus (SE)...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959424/epha4-may-contribute-to-microvessel-remodeling-in-the-hippocampal-ca1-and-ca3-areas-in-a-mouse-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#18
Li Feng, Yi Shu, Qian Wu, Tiantian Liu, Hongyu Long, Huan Yang, Yi Li, Bo Xiao
Unclustered and pre-clustered ephrin-A5-Fc have identical anti-epileptic effects in the dentate gyrus of hippocampus in a mouse model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), and act through alleviating ephrin receptor A4 (EphA4)‑mediated neurogenesis and angiogenesis. However, the effects of ephrin‑A5‑Fcs on EphA4 and angiogenesis in Cornu Ammonis (CA)1 and CA3 areas remain unclear. In the present study, male C57BL/6 mice underwent pilocarpine‑induced TLE. The expression of EphA4 and ephrin‑A5 proteins was analyzed by immunohistochemistry, and the mean density and diameter of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule‑1‑labeled microvessels in CA1 and CA3 were calculated in the absence or presence of two types of ephrin‑A5‑Fc intrahippocampal infusion...
January 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956120/intraperitoneal-injection-of-il-4-ifn-%C3%AE-modulates-the-proportions-of-microglial-phenotypes-and-improves-epilepsy-outcomes-in-a-pilocarpine-model-of-acquired-epilepsy
#19
Tianyi Li, Xuan Zhai, Jinqiu Jiang, Xiaojie Song, Wei Han, Jiannan Ma, Lingling Xie, Li Cheng, Hengsheng Chen, Li Jiang
Recent studies have reported microglia that are activated in the central nervous system (CNS) in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and animal models of epilepsy. However, limited data are available on the dynamic changes of the proportions of various phenotypes of microglia throughout epileptogenesis and whether IL-4/IFN-γ administration can modulate the proportions of microglial phenotypes to affect the outcome of epilepsy. The current study examined this issue using a mouse model of pilocarpine-induced epilepsy...
December 9, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932305/scavenging-of-highly-reactive-gamma-ketoaldehydes-attenuates-cognitive-dysfunction-associated-with-epileptogenesis
#20
Jennifer N Pearson, Eric Warren, Li-Ping Liang, L Jackson Roberts, Manisha Patel
Cognitive dysfunction is a major comorbidity of the epilepsies; however, treatments targeting seizure-associated cognitive dysfunction, particularly deficits in learning and memory are not available. Isoketals and neuroketals, collectively known as gamma-ketoaldehydes are formed via the non-enzymatic, free radical catalyzed oxidation of arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, respectively. They are attractive candidates for oxidative protein damage and resultant cognitive dysfunction due to their formation within the plasma membrane and their high proclivity to form cytotoxic adducts on protein lysine residues...
February 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
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