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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907839/influence-of-picolinic-acid-on-seizure-susceptibility-in-mice
#1
Anna Cioczek-Czuczwar, Piotr Czuczwar, Waldemar Andrzej Turski, Jolanta Parada-Turska
BACKGROUND: The mechanism of drug resistance in epilepsy remains unknown. Picolinic acid (PIC) is an endogenous metabolite of the kynurenine pathway and a chelating agent added to dietary supplements. Both inhibitory and excitatory properties of PIC were reported. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of exogenously applied PIC upon the electroconvulsive threshold and the activity of chemical convulsants in eight models of epilepsy in mice. METHODS: All experiments were performed on adult male Swiss albino mice...
October 12, 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899232/expression-of-muscarinic-acetylcholine-receptors-in-hepatocytes-from-rat-fibrotic-liver
#2
Lin Luo, Tingting Xu, Pengbo Wang, Liuliu Mao, Chenghao Xi, Jinhua Huang, Wei Zhang
The pathological changes of parasympathetic nerve are considered as an independent prognostic factor of the survival rate of patients with chronic liver disease. The non-selective muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAchR) agonists and antagonists can affect the proliferation of hepatocytes and hepatic stellate cells, but the subtypes of mAchR expressions in HCs are still uncertain. Here, we investigate the expression of mAchR in hepatic fibrosis on rats. 3ml/kg 40% carbon tetrachloride (CCL4) was given to induce hepatic fibrosis on rats and the hepatocytes were isolated...
November 26, 2016: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890728/the-role-of-alkyl-chain-length-of-monothiol-terminated-alkyl-carboxylic-acid-in-the-synthesis-characterization-and-application-of-gelatin-g-poly-n-isopropylacrylamide-carriers-for-antiglaucoma-drug-delivery
#3
Li-Jyuan Luo, Jui-Yang Lai
To improve ocular bioavailability and extend pharmacological response, this study aims to investigate the role of alkyl chain length of monothiol-terminated alkyl carboxylic acids in the synthesis, characterization, and application of gelatin-g-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (GN) biodegradable in situ gelling carriers for antiglaucoma drug delivery. In the presence of mercaptoacetic acid (MAA), mercaptopropionic acid (MPA), mercaptobutyric acid (MBA), or mercaptohexanoic acid (MHA) as a chain transfer agent, the carboxylic end-capped poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) samples were prepared by free radical polymerization technique...
November 24, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876882/nr4a1-knockdown-suppresses-seizure-activity-by-regulating-surface-expression-of-nr2b
#4
Yanke Zhang, Guojun Chen, Baobing Gao, Yunlin Li, Shuli Liang, Xiaofei Wang, Xuefeng Wang, Binglin Zhu
Nuclear receptor subfamily 4 group A member 1 (NR4A1), a downstream target of CREB that is a key regulator of epileptogenesis, has been implicated in a variety of biological processes and was previously identified as a seizure-associated molecule. However, the relationship between NR4A1 and epileptogenesis remains unclear. Here, we showed that NR4A1 protein was predominantly expressed in neurons and up-regulated in patients with epilepsy as well as pilocarpine-induced mouse epileptic models. NR4A1 knockdown by lentivirus transfection (lenti-shNR4A1) alleviated seizure severity and prolonged onset latency in mouse models...
November 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873133/altered-expression-of-cxcl13-and-cxcr5-in-intractable-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-patients-and-pilocarpine-induced-epileptic-rats
#5
Ruohan Li, Limin Ma, Hao Huang, Shu Ou, Jinxian Yuan, Tao Xu, Xinyuan Yu, Xi Liu, Juan Yang, Yangmei Chen, Xi Peng
The mechanisms that underlie the pathogenesis of epilepsy are still unclear. Recent studies have indicated that inflammatory processes occurring in the brain are involved in a common and crucial mechanism in epileptogenesis. C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 13 (CXCL13) and its only receptor, C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 5 (CXCR5), are highly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) and participate in inflammatory responses. The present study aimed to assess the expression of CXCL13 and CXCR5 in the brain tissues of both patients with intractable epilepsy (IE) and a rat model (lithium-pilocarpine) of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) to identify possible roles of the CXCL13-CXCR5 signaling pathway in epileptogenesis...
November 21, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858307/m3-cholinoreceptors-alter-electrical-activity-of-rat-left-atrium-via-suppression-of-l-type-ca-2-current-without-affecting-k-conductance
#6
Tatiana S Filatova, Nikolay Naumenko, Pavel A Galenko-Yaroshevsky, Denis V Abramochkin
Electrophysiological effects produced by selective activation of M3 cholinoreceptors were studied in isolated left atrium preparations from rat using the standard sharp glass microelectrode technique. The stimulation of M3 receptors was obtained by application of muscarinic agonist pilocarpine (10(-5) M) in the presence of selective M2 antagonist methoctramine (10(-7) M). Stimulation of M3 receptors induced marked reduction of action potential duration by 14.4 ± 2.4% and 16.1 ± 2.5% of control duration measured at 50 and 90% of repolarization, respectively...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822751/memantine-attenuates-cognitive-impairments-after-status-epilepticus-induced-in-a-lithium-pilocarpine-model
#7
S V Kalemenev, O E Zubareva, V V Sizov, V V Lavrent'eva, N Ya Lukomskaya, K Kh Kim, A V Zaitsev, L G Magazanik
The capability of memantine, a noncompetitive antagonist of the NMDA receptors, to prevent impairments of cognitive functions in rats was investigated in the lithium-pilocarpine model of epilepsy. After status epilepticus, rats exhibited impaired exploratory behavior and spatial memory, and a decline of extinction of orienting behavior. Memantine administration prevented these disturbances. Thus, the blockade of the NMDA receptors immediately after status epilepticus allowed prevention of the development of the possible cognitive impairments...
September 2016: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812552/functional-neuroimaging-of-post-mortem-tissue-lithium-pilocarpine-seized-rats-express-reduced-brain-mass-and-proportional-reductions-of-left-ventral-cerebral-theta-spectral-power
#8
Nicolas Rouleau, Brady S Reive, Michael A Persinger
Structural imaging tools can be used to identify neuropathology in post-mortem tissue whereas functional imaging tools including quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) are thought to be restricted for use in living subjects. We are not aware of any study which has used electrophysiological methods decades after death to infer pathology. We therefore attempted to discriminate between chemically preserved brains which had incurred electrical seizures and those that did not using functional imaging. Our data indicate that modified QEEG technology involving needle electrodes embedded within chemically fixed neural tissue can be used to discriminate pathology...
October 2016: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798182/ablation-of-newly-generated-hippocampal-granule-cells-has-disease-modifying-effects-in-epilepsy
#9
Bethany E Hosford, John P Liska, Steve C Danzer
: Hippocampal granule cells generated in the weeks before and after an epileptogenic brain injury can integrate abnormally into the dentate gyrus, potentially mediating temporal lobe epileptogenesis. Previous studies have demonstrated that inhibiting granule cell production before an epileptogenic brain insult can mitigate epileptogenesis. Here, we extend upon these findings by ablating newly generated cells after the epileptogenic insult using a conditional, inducible diphtheria-toxin receptor expression strategy in mice...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793438/time-course-of-the-effect-of-status-epilepticus-induced-in-the-developing-rat-on-%C3%AE-amino-butyric-acid-and-glutamate-cerebellar-concentration
#10
D Hernández-Martínez, L Rocha, J Martínez-Quiroz, C Morgado-Valle, J Manzo, M L López-Meraz
INTRODUCTION: Status epilepticus (SE) is an epileptic condition that can cause cerebellar atrophy and loss of Purkinje cells in both humans and research animals. Cerebellum is a region rich in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate, and some studies have shown that their concentrations may be altered after convulsions. However, there are no studies showing the effect of seizures on different cerebellar regions in developing rats. Time course of the effect of status epilepticus induced in the developing rat on γ-amino butyric acid and glutamate cerebellar concentration...
October 25, 2016: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789373/design-of-hydrogels-of-5-hydroxymethyl-tolterodine-and-their-studies-on-pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics-and-transdermal-mechanism
#11
Wenhua Liu, Lirong Teng, Kongtong Yu, Xiangshi Sun, Chunyu Fan, Chaoxing Long, Na Liu, Shuang Li, Bing Wu, Qingji Xu, Fengying Sun, Youxin Li
development, single-factor experiments were employed to evaluate the effect of adding different matrix, enhancers, 5-HMT, ethanol and glycerol on drug skin development, single-factor experiments were employed to evaluate the effect of adding different matrix, enhancers, 5-HMT, ethanol and glycerol on drug skin permeation. Finally, Carbopol 940 was selected as the gel matrix with N-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP) chosen as the enhancer. The relationship between time and the steady accumulative percutaneous amount (Q, μgcm(-2)) of optimized 5-HMT hydrogels was Q4-12h=1290...
October 24, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776299/effects-of-different-physical-exercise-programs-on-susceptibility-to-pilocarpine-induced-seizures-in-female-rats
#12
Diego Vannucci Campos, Glauber Menezes Lopim, Vanessa Santos de Almeida, Débora Amado, Ricardo Mario Arida
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 21, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771379/novel-highly-potent-and-in%C3%A2-vivo-active-inhibitor-of-gaba-transporter-subtype-1-with-anticonvulsant-anxiolytic-antidepressant-and-antinociceptive-properties
#13
Kinga Sałat, Adrian Podkowa, Natalia Malikowska, Felix Kern, Jörg Pabel, Ewelina Wojcieszak, Katarzyna Kulig, Klaus T Wanner, Beata Strach, Elżbieta Wyska
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Since GABAergic dysfunction underlies a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders, numerous strategies leading to the augmentation of GABAergic neurotransmission have been introduced. One of them is the inhibition of GABA reuptake from the synaptic cleft mediated by four plasma membrane GABA transporters (GAT1-4). GAT1 which is exclusively expressed in the brain is an interesting target for centrally acting drugs. In this research, pharmacological properties of a novel, highly potent and selective inhibitor of GAT1, the guvacine derivative named DDPM-2571, were assessed in vivo...
October 19, 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767109/parasympathomimetic-drugs-for-dry-mouth-due-to-radiotherapy
#14
Sylvia Spivakovsky, Yael Spivakovsky
Data sourcesCochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, Embase and CINAHL databases. Reference lists of identified articles were checked and experts in the field and relevant pharmaceutical companies were contacted.Study selectionRandomised controlled trials, including parallel and crossover, carried out in any setting on any patient population with radiation-induced salivary dysfunction using parasympathomimetics drugs.Data extraction and synthesisThe two authors independently assessed for inclusion, established the risk of bias and abstracted data...
September 2016: Evidence-based Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765578/late-treatment-with-choline-alfoscerate-l-alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine-%C3%AE-gpc-increases-hippocampal-neurogenesis-and-provides-protection-against-seizure-induced-neuronal-death-and-cognitive-impairment
#15
Song Hee Lee, Bo Young Choi, Jin Hee Kim, A Ra Kho, Min Sohn, Hong Ki Song, Hui Chul Choi, Sang Won Suh
Choline alfoscerate (α-GPC) is a common choline compound and acetylcholine precursor in the brain, which has been shown to be effective in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and dementia. α-GPC has been shown to enhance memory and cognitive function in stroke and Alzheimer's patients but currently remains untested in patients suffering from epilepsy. This study aimed to evaluate whether α-GPC treatment after seizure can ameliorate seizure-induced cognitive impairment and neuronal injury. The potential therapeutic effects of α-GPC on seizure-induced cognitive impairment were tested in an animal model of pilocarpine-induced seizure...
October 17, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759804/autonomic-thermoregulatory-dysfunction-in-neurofibromatosis-type-1
#16
Luciana G Madeira, Renata Lf Passos, Juliana F de Souza, Nilton A Rezende, Luiz O C Rodrigues
Objective: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) causes neural and cutaneous disorders and reduced exercise capacity. Exercise/heat exposure increasing internal temperature must be compensated by eccrine sweat function and warmed skin vasodilation. We suspected NF1 could adversely affect eccrine sweat function and/or vascular thermoregulatory responses (VTR). Methods: The eccrine sweat function and VTR of 25 NF1 volunteers (14 males, 11 females; 16-57 years old) were compared with 23 non-NF1 controls matched by sex, age, height and weight (CG)...
October 2016: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752802/protective-effects-of-thymoquinone-against-convulsant-activity-induced-by-lithium-pilocarpine-in-a-model-of-status-epilepticus
#17
Yiye Shao, Yonghao Feng, Yangmei Xie, Qiong Luo, Long Chen, Bing Li, Yinghui Chen
Inflammation plays a pivotal role in status epilepticus (SE). Thymoquinone (TQ) is a bioactive monomer extracted from black seed (Nigella sativa) oil, which has anti-inflammatory properties in the context of various diseases. This study explored the protective effects of TQ in SE and used a lithium-pilocarpine model of SE to investigate the underlying mechanism, which was related to inflammation mediated by the NF-κB signaling pathway. In the present study, latency to SE increased in the TQ-pretreated group compared with the SE group, and the incidence of SE was significantly reduced...
December 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751226/-effect-of-a-microrna-132-antagonist-on-pilocarpine-induced-status-epilepticus-in-young-rats
#18
Tian-Hui Wu, Fei Yin, Jing Peng, Hui-Min Kong, Lin-Hong Li
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of a microRNA-132 antagonist on lithium-pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) in young Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. METHODS: Forty-five 3-week-old SD rats were randomly and equally divided into epilepticus model group, microRNA-132 antagonist group, and microRNA-132 antagonist negative control group. The young SD rat model of SE was established using lithium-pilocarpine. For the microRNA-132 antagonist group and the negative control group, pretreatment was performed 24 hours before the model establishment...
October 2016: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27745527/association-between-mossy-fiber-sprouting-and-expression-of-semaphorin-3f-protein-in-dentate-gyrus-of-hippocampus-in-lithium-pilocarpine-induced-status-epilepticus-mouse-model
#19
Xiaodong Cai, Ling Long, Libai Yang, Ziyi Chen, Guanzhong Ni, Jiaming Qin, Jueqian Zhou, Liemin Zhou
OBJECTIVES: Mossy fiber sprouting is involved in the pathogenesis of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. But the exact mechanism of formation of mossy fiber sprouting is still unclear. Semaphorin-3f protein could inhibit the growth of neuron axons. The aim of this research is to evaluate the association between semaphorin-3f expression and mossy fiber sprouting. METHODS: We established pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (PISE) models firstly. Then, mossy fiber sprouting in the hippocampus of PISE models was examined by Timm staining...
October 17, 2016: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743843/limitations-of-the-anticholinergic-activity-assay-and-assay-based-anticholinergic-drug-scales
#20
Tanja Mayer, Jürgen Kopitz, Konstanze Plaschke, Johanna Weiss, Hanna M Seidling, Walter E Haefeli
OBJECTIVE: The anticholinergic activity (AA) assay is a common method to determine a patient's anticholinergic load. Several limitations, however, are expected when applying the AA assay to patients or using drug scales to estimate anticholinergic burden based on AA levels. This study aims to demonstrate common pitfalls in an experimental setting and outline their clinical consequences. METHODS: The AA was analyzed for five drugs with reported interaction with muscarinic receptors...
August 4, 2016: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
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