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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741253/dissociations-of-the-number-and-precision-of-visual-short-term-memory-representations-in-change-detection
#1
Weizhen Xie, Weiwei Zhang
The present study dissociated the number (i.e., quantity) and precision (i.e., quality) of visual short-term memory (STM) representations in change detection using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and experimental manipulations. Across three experiments, participants performed both recognition and recall tests of visual STM using the change-detection task and the continuous color-wheel recall task, respectively. Experiment 1 demonstrated that the estimates of the number and precision of visual STM representations based on the ROC model of change-detection performance were robustly correlated with the corresponding estimates based on the mixture model of continuous-recall performance...
July 24, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737583/callosal-injury-induced-working-memory-impairment-a-computational-network-modeling-study
#2
Jianxia Cui, Laurel J Ng, Vladislav Volman
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) often results in working memory (WM) impairment, but the mechanistic relationship between the two remains elusive. We used a computational model of two cortical neuronal networks linked by myelinated callosal axons with distance-dependent conduction delays to simulate callosal dysfunction in mTBI and quantify its impact on WM. WM maintenance and termination in the model network depended on short-term synaptic plasticity. In injured networks, WM duration depended on the extent of callosal injury, consistent with clinical data...
July 21, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737111/habit-in-personality-and-social-psychology
#3
Wendy Wood
Habits are largely absent from modern social and personality psychology. This is due to outdated perspectives that placed habits in conflict with goals. In modern theorizing, habits are represented in memory as implicit context-response associations, and they guide responding in conjunction with goals. Habits thus have important implications for our field. Emerging research shows that habits are an important mechanism by which people self-regulate and achieve long-term goals. Also, habits change through specific interventions, such as changes in context cues...
July 1, 2017: Personality and Social Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735651/the-effect-of-artesunate-on-short-term-memory-in-lyme-borreliosis
#4
B K Puri, J S Hakkarainen-Smith, J A Monro
Lyme borreliosis is associated with memory deficits. While this may be related to cerebral infection by Borrelia bacteria, it may also be caused by concomitant co-infection by Babesia protozoa. The anti-malarial artemisinin-derivative artesunate has been shown to be effective against a number of Babesia species and to have efficacy against human cerebral malaria. We hypothesised that concomitant administration of artesunate in Lyme borreliosis patients would help alleviate the severity of self-reported short-term memory impairment...
August 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735367/short-term-and-long-term-effects-of-diazepam-on-the-memory-for-discrimination-and-generalization-of-scopolamine
#5
C Casasola-Castro, L Weissmann-Sánchez, E Calixto-González, A Aguayo-Del Castillo, D N Velázquez-Martínez
Benzodiazepines are among the most widely prescribed and misused psychopharmaceutical drugs. Although they are well-tolerated, they are also capable of producing amnestic effects similar to those observed after pharmacological or organic cholinergic dysfunction. To date, the effect of benzodiazepine diazepam on the memory for discrimination of anticholinergic drugs has not been reported. The aim of the present study was to analyze the immediate and long-term effects of diazepam on a drug discrimination task with scopolamine...
July 22, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734078/associations-between-adolescent-cannabis-use-and-neuropsychological-decline-a-longitudinal-co-twin-control-study
#6
Madeline H Meier, Avshalom Caspi, Andrea Danese, Helen L Fisher, Renate Houts, Louise Arseneault, Terrie E Moffitt
AIMS: This study tested whether adolescents who used cannabis or met criteria for cannabis dependence showed neuropsychological impairment prior to cannabis initiation and neuropsychological decline from before to after cannabis initiation. DESIGN: A longitudinal co-twin control study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Participants were 1,989 twins from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally representative birth cohort of twins born in England and Wales from 1994-1995...
July 22, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732282/proficient-use-of-low-spatial-frequencies-facilitates-face-memory-but-shows-protracted-maturation-throughout-adolescence
#7
Judith C Peters, Chantal Kemner
Face perception is characterized by configural processing, which depends on visual information in the low spatial frequency (LSF) ranges. However, it is unclear whether LSF content is equally important for face memory. The present study investigated how face information in the low and high SF range plays a role in the configural encoding of faces for short-term and long-term recall. Moreover, we examined how SF-dependent face memorization develops in female adolescence, by comparing children (9-10-year-olds), adolescents (12-13-year-olds and 15-16-year-olds), and young adults (21-32-year-olds)...
July 18, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730861/comparative-outcomes-in-children-and-adults-with-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-anti-nmda-receptor-encephalitis
#8
Eliza Gordon-Lipkin, Anusha K Yeshokumar, Deanna Saylor, Ana Arenivas, John C Probasco
This study compared neurologic disability and adaptive function in children and adults >1 year following anti- N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis diagnosis. Retrospective record review identified 12 patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis. At last follow-up, all surviving patients had "good" modified Rankin Score (0-2). Four children, 6 adults, and their families participated in a telephone interview. Median duration since diagnosis was similar for children (2.42 years, interquartile range 2...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729161/the-neural-basis-of-precise-visual-short-term-memory-for-complex-recognisable-objects
#9
Michele Veldsman, Daniel J Mitchell, Rhodri Cusack
Recent evidence suggests that visual short-term memory (VSTM) capacity estimated using simple objects, such as colours and oriented bars, may not generalise well to more naturalistic stimuli. More visual detail can be stored in VSTM when complex, recognisable objects are maintained compared to simple objects. It is not yet known if it is recognisability that enhances memory precision, nor whether maintenance of recognisable objects is achieved with the same network of brain regions supporting maintenance of simple objects...
July 17, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725022/action-video-games-improve-reading-abilities-and-visual-to-auditory-attentional-shifting-in-english-speaking-children-with-dyslexia
#10
Sandro Franceschini, Piergiorgio Trevisan, Luca Ronconi, Sara Bertoni, Susan Colmar, Kit Double, Andrea Facoetti, Simone Gori
Dyslexia is characterized by difficulties in learning to read and there is some evidence that action video games (AVG), without any direct phonological or orthographic stimulation, improve reading efficiency in Italian children with dyslexia. However, the cognitive mechanism underlying this improvement and the extent to which the benefits of AVG training would generalize to deep English orthography, remain two critical questions. During reading acquisition, children have to integrate written letters with speech sounds, rapidly shifting their attention from visual to auditory modality...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723570/dynamic-control-of-dendritic-mrna-expression-by-cnot7-regulates-synaptic-efficacy-and-higher-cognitive-function
#11
Rhonda L McFleder, Fernanda Mansur, Joel D Richter
Translation of mRNAs in dendrites mediates synaptic plasticity, the probable cellular basis of learning and memory. Coordination of translational inhibitory and stimulatory mechanisms, as well as dendritic transport of mRNA, is necessary to ensure proper control of this local translation. Here, we find that the deadenylase CNOT7 dynamically regulates dendritic mRNA translation and transport, as well as synaptic plasticity and higher cognitive function. In cultured hippocampal neurons, synaptic stimulation induces a rapid decrease in CNOT7, which, in the short-term, results in poly(A) tail lengthening of target mRNAs...
July 18, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720486/loss-of-synaptic-zinc-transport-in-progranulin-deficient-mice-may-contribute-to-progranulin-associated-psychopathology-and-chronic-pain
#12
Stefanie Hardt, Juliana Heidler, Boris Albuquerque, Lucie Valek, Christine Altmann, Annett Wilken-Schmitz, Michael K E Schäfer, Ilka Wittig, Irmgard Tegeder
Affective and cognitive processing of nociception contributes to the development of chronic pain and vice versa, pain may precipitate psychopathologic symptoms. We hypothesized a higher risk for the latter with immanent neurologic diseases and studied this potential interrelationship in progranulin-deficient mice, which are a model for frontotemporal dementia, a disease dominated by behavioral abnormalities in humans. Young naïve progranulin deficient mice behaved normal in tests of short-term memory, anxiety, depression and nociception, but after peripheral nerve injury, they showed attention-deficit and depression-like behavior, over-activity, loss of shelter-seeking, reduced impulse control and compulsive feeding behavior, which did not occur in equally injured controls...
July 15, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720388/strain-specific-effects-of-low-level-lead-exposure-on-associative-learning-and-memory-in-rats
#13
Megha Verma, J S Schneider
Exposure to lead (Pb) remains a significant public health concern. Lead exposure in early life impairs the normal development of numerous cognitive and neurobehavioral processes. Previous work has shown that the effects of developmental Pb exposure on gene expression patterns in the brain are modulated by various factors including the developmental timing of the exposure, level of exposure, sex, and genetic background. Using gene microarray profiling, we previously reported a significant strain-specific effect of Pb exposure on the hippocampal transcriptome, with the greatest number of differentially expressed transcripts in Long Evans (LE) rats and the fewest in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats...
July 16, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720169/characteristics-of-healthy-older-adults-that-influence-self-rated-cognitive-function
#14
Bryce P Mulligan, Colette M Smart, Sidney J Segalowitz, Stuart W S MacDonald
OBJECTIVES: We sought to clarify the nature of self-reported cognitive function among healthy older adults by considering the short-term, within-person association (coupling) of subjective cognitive function with objective cognitive performance. We expected this within-person coupling to differ between persons as a function of self-perceived global cognitive decline and depression, anxiety, or neuroticism. METHODS: This was an intensive measurement (short-term longitudinal) study of 29 older adult volunteers between the ages of 65 and 80 years without an existing diagnosis of dementia or mild cognitive impairment...
July 19, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720165/bdnf-val66met-in-preclinical-alzheimer-s-disease-is-associated-with-short-term-changes-in-episodic-memory-and-hippocampal-volume-but-not-serum-mbdnf
#15
Yen Ying Lim, Stephanie Rainey-Smith, Yoon Lim, Simon M Laws, Veer Gupta, Tenielle Porter, Pierrick Bourgeat, David Ames, Christopher Fowler, Olivier Salvado, Victor L Villemagne, Christopher C Rowe, Colin L Masters, Xin Fu Zhou, Ralph N Martins, Paul Maruff
BACKGROUND: The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism Met allele exacerbates amyloid (Aβ) related decline in episodic memory (EM) and hippocampal volume (HV) over 36-54 months in preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the extent to which Aβ+ and BDNF Val66Met is related to circulating markers of BDNF (e.g. serum) is unknown. We aimed to determine the effect of Aβ and the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism on levels of serum mBDNF, EM, and HV at baseline and over 18-months...
July 19, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719855/high-fat-diet-and-aging-interact-to-produce-neuroinflammation-and-impair-hippocampal-and-amygdalar-dependent-memory
#16
Sarah J Spencer, Heather D'Angelo, Alita Soch, Linda R Watkins, Steven F Maier, Ruth M Barrientos
More Americans are consuming diets higher in saturated fats and refined sugars than ever before, and based on increasing obesity rates, this is a growing trend among older adults as well. While high saturated fat diet (HFD) consumption has been shown to sensitize the inflammatory response to a subsequent immune challenge in young adult rats, the inflammatory effect of HFD in the already-vulnerable aging brain has not yet been assessed. Here, we explored whether short-term (3 days) consumption of HFD would serve as a neuroinflammatory trigger in aging animals, leading to cognitive deficits...
June 24, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718878/deep-brain-and-cortical-stimulation-for-epilepsy
#17
REVIEW
Mathieu Sprengers, Kristl Vonck, Evelien Carrette, Anthony G Marson, Paul Boon
BACKGROUND: Despite optimal medical treatment, including epilepsy surgery, many epilepsy patients have uncontrolled seizures. Since the 1970s interest has grown in invasive intracranial neurostimulation as a treatment for these patients. Intracranial stimulation includes both deep brain stimulation (DBS) (stimulation through depth electrodes) and cortical stimulation (subdural electrodes). This is an updated version of a previous Cochrane review published in 2014. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy, safety and tolerability of DBS and cortical stimulation for refractory epilepsy based on randomized controlled trials (RCTs)...
July 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715642/reduced-brain-volume-and-impaired-memory-in-betaine-homocysteine-s-methyltransferase-knockout-mice
#18
Emily A K Prieur, Eneda Pjetri, Steven H Zeisel, Nafisa M Jadavji
Using a mouse model, this study examined the impact of lack of betaine homocysteine S-methyltransferase (BHMT) on neurological function. Bhmt-/- mice maintained on a control diet had elevated concentrations of homocysteine, reduced total brain MRI volume, as well as impaired reference and short- term memories. The results of this study indicate that the absence of BHMT may play a role in neurological function.
July 17, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713461/the-effects-of-maximal-intensity-exercise-on-cognitive-performance-in-children
#19
Roy David Samuel, Ofir Zavdy, Miriam Levav, Ronen Reuveny, Uriel Katz, Gal Dubnov-Raz
High intensity physical exercise has previously been found to lead to a decline in cognitive performance of adults. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of maximal intensity exercise on cognitive performance of children. Using a repeated-measures design, 20 children and adolescents aged 8-17 years completed a battery of tests measuring memory and attention. Forward and Backward Digit Span tests, the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) and the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST) were performed at baseline, immediately after, and one hour after a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test...
June 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713278/the-neuroanatomical-neurophysiological-and-psychological-basis-of-memory-current-models-and-their-origins
#20
REVIEW
Eduardo Camina, Francisco Güell
This review aims to classify and clarify, from a neuroanatomical, neurophysiological, and psychological perspective, different memory models that are currently widespread in the literature as well as to describe their origins. We believe it is important to consider previous developments without which one cannot adequately understand the kinds of models that are now current in the scientific literature. This article intends to provide a comprehensive and rigorous overview for understanding and ordering the latest scientific advances related to this subject...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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