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Short term memory

Sven Ohl, Martin Rolfs
Visual short-term memory (VSTM) is a crucial repository of information when events unfold rapidly before our eyes, yet it maintains only a fraction of the sensory information encoded by the visual system. Here, we tested the hypothesis that saccadic eye movements provide a natural bottleneck for the transition of fragile content in sensory memory to VSTM. In 4 experiments, we show that saccades, planned and executed after the disappearance of a memory array, markedly bias visual memory performance. First, items that had appeared at the saccade target were more readily remembered than items that had appeared elsewhere, even though the saccade was irrelevant to the memory task (Experiment 1)...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Hillary C Schiff, Joshua P Johansen, Mian Hou, David Ea Bush, Emily K Smith, JoAnna E Klein, Joseph E LeDoux, Robert M Sears
Memory formation requires the temporal coordination of molecular events and cellular processes following a learned event. During Pavlovian threat (fear) conditioning (PTC), sensory and neuromodulatory inputs converge on post-synaptic neurons within the lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA). By activating an intracellular cascade of signaling molecules, these G-protein-coupled neuromodulatory receptors are capable of recruiting a diverse profile of plasticity-related proteins. Here we report that norepinephrine, through its actions on β-adrenergic receptors (βARs), modulates aversive memory formation following PTC through two molecularly and temporally distinct signaling mechanisms...
October 20, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Rebecca A Gilbert, Graham J Hitch, Tom Hartley
The capacity of serially ordered auditory-verbal short-term memory (AVSTM) is sensitive to the timing of the material to be stored, and both temporal processing and AVSTM capacity are implicated in the development of language. We developed a novel "rehearsal-probe" task to investigate the relationship between temporal precision and the capacity to remember serial order. Participants listened to a sub-span sequence of spoken digits and silently rehearsed the items and their timing during an unfilled retention interval...
October 19, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Salma Jamal, Sukriti Goyal, Asheesh Shanker, Abhinav Grover
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex progressive neurodegenerative disorder commonly characterized by short term memory loss. Presently no effective therapeutic treatments exist that can completely cure this disease. The cause of Alzheimer's is still unclear, however one of the other major factors involved in AD pathogenesis are the genetic factors and around 70 % risk of the disease is assumed to be due to the large number of genes involved. Although genetic association studies have revealed a number of potential AD susceptibility genes, there still exists a need for identification of unidentified AD-associated genes and therapeutic targets to have better understanding of the disease-causing mechanisms of Alzheimer's towards development of effective AD therapeutics...
October 18, 2016: BMC Genomics
Yuda Turana
Observational studies have conveyed the connection between hypertension and cognitive impairment. Several forms of dementia are more frequent in hypertensive subjects or those with previous history of hypertension compared to subjects with normal blood pressure.In many studies, hypertension occuring in mid-life is a risk factor of dementia occuring in later age. Long-standing hypertension will induce structural damages in the brain. It is also widely known that hypertension attributes to small vessel diseases causing lacunar infarcts and white matter lesions associated with cognitive decline...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Usha Goswami, Lisa Barnes, Natasha Mead, Alan James Power, Victoria Leong
Children with developmental dyslexia are characterized by phonological difficulties across languages. Classically, this 'phonological deficit' in dyslexia has been investigated with tasks using single-syllable words. Recently, however, several studies have demonstrated difficulties in prosodic awareness in dyslexia. Potential prosodic effects in short-term memory have not yet been investigated. Here we create a new instrument based on three-syllable words that vary in stress patterns, to investigate whether prosodic similarity (the same prosodic pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables) exerts systematic effects on short-term memory...
October 17, 2016: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
Yanan Cao, Xiangyi Cao, Zhenzhu Yue, Ling Wang
Behavioral and recent neuroimaging findings have shown reversal of interference effects due to manipulating proportion congruency (PC), which suggests that task-irrelevant stimulus-response (S-R) associations are strengthened and applied to predict responses. However, it is unclear how the strengthened S-R associations are represented and applied in the brain. We investigated with a between-subjects PC paradigm of the Hedge and Marsh task using electroencephalography (EEG). The behavioral results showed the reversal of the conflict effects, suggesting that task-irrelevant S-R associations were strengthened and used to prepare responses...
October 17, 2016: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Steve Majerus, Nelson Cowan
Verbal short-term memory (STM) impairment is one of the most consistent associated deficits observed in developmental reading disorders such as dyslexia. Few studies have addressed the nature of this STM impairment, especially as regards the ability to temporarily store serial order information. This question is important as studies in typically developing children have shown that serial order STM abilities are predictors of oral and written language development. Associated serial order STM deficits in dyslexia may therefore further increase the learning difficulties in these populations...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Nicolas Fraize, Julien Carponcy, Mickaël Antoine Joseph, Jean-Christophe Comte, Pierre-Hervé Luppi, Paul-Antoine Libourel, Paul-Antoine Salin, Gaël Malleret, Régis Parmentier
STUDY OBJECTIVES: It is commonly accepted that sleep is beneficial to memory processes, but it is still unclear if this benefit originates from improved memory consolidation or enhanced information processing. It has thus been proposed that sleep may also promote forgetting of undesirable and non-essential memories, a process required for optimization of cognitive resources. We tested the hypothesis that non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) promotes forgetting of irrelevant information, more specifically when processing information in working memory (WM), while REM sleep (REMS) facilitates the consolidation of important information...
October 10, 2016: Sleep
Harini C Krishnan, Catherine E Gandour, Joshua L Ramos, Mariah C Wrinkle, Joseph J Sanchez-Pacheco, Lisa C Lyons
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Insufficient sleep in individuals appears increasingly common due to the demands of modern work schedules and technology use. Consequently, there is a growing need to understand the interactions between sleep deprivation and memory. The current study determined the effects of acute sleep deprivation on short- and long-term associative memory using the marine mollusk Aplysia californica, a relatively simple model system well known for studies of learning and memory. DESIGN: Aplysia were sleep deprived for 9 h using context changes and tactile stimulation prior to or after training using the operant learning paradigm, learning that food is inedible (LFI)...
October 10, 2016: Sleep
Ola Ozernov-Palchik, Elizabeth S Norton, Georgios Sideridis, Sara D Beach, Maryanne Wolf, John D E Gabrieli, Nadine Gaab
Research suggests that early identification of developmental dyslexia is important for mitigating the negative effects of dyslexia, including reduced educational attainment and increased socioemotional difficulties. The strongest pre-literacy predictors of dyslexia are rapid automatized naming (RAN), phonological awareness (PA), letter knowledge, and verbal short-term memory. The relationship among these constructs has been debated, and several theories have emerged to explain the unique role of each in reading ability/disability...
October 17, 2016: Developmental Science
Jeffrey Livezey, Thomas Oliver, Louis Cantilena
A 32-year-old male developed neuropsychiatric symptoms 2 weeks after starting mefloquine 250 mg/week for malaria prophylaxis. He continued to take the medication for the next 4 months. Initial symptoms included vivid dreams and anxiety, as well as balance problems. These symptoms persisted and progressed over the next 4 years to include vertigo, emotional lability, and poor short-term memory, which have greatly affected his personal and professional life. An extensive evaluation revealed objective evidence supporting a central vestibulopathy...
December 2016: Drug Saf Case Rep
Mahua Chatterjee, Fernando Perez de Los Cobos Pallares, Alex Loebel, Michael Lukas, Veronica Egger
During odor sensing the activity of principal neurons of the mammalian olfactory bulb, the mitral and tufted cells (MTCs), occurs in repetitive bursts that are synchronized to respiration, reminiscent of hippocampal theta-gamma coupling. Axonless granule cells (GCs) mediate self- and lateral inhibitory interactions between the excitatory MTCs via reciprocal dendrodendritic synapses. We have explored long-term plasticity at this synapse by using a theta burst stimulation (TBS) protocol and variations thereof...
2016: Neural Plasticity
Stefan Elmer
Until now, several branches of research have fundamentally contributed to a better understanding of the ramifications of bilingualism, multilingualism, and language expertise on psycholinguistic-, cognitive-, and neural implications. In this context, it is noteworthy to mention that from a cognitive perspective, there is a strong convergence of data pointing to an influence of multilingual speech competence on a variety of cognitive functions, including attention, short-term- and working memory, set shifting, switching, and inhibition...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Teemu Aitta-Aho, Elpiniki Pappa, Denis Burdakov, John Apergis-Schoute
The hypothalamic hypocretin/orexin (HO) system holds a central role in the regulation of several physiological functions critical for food-seeking behavior including mnemonic processes for effective foraging behavior. It is unclear however whether physiological increases in HO neuronal activity can support such processes. Using a designer rM3Ds receptor activation approach increasing HO neuronal activity resulted in improved short-term memory for novel locations. When tested on a non-spatial novelty object recognition task no significant difference was detected between groups indicating that hypothalamic HO neuronal activation can selectively facilitate short-term spatial memory for potentially supporting memory for locations during active exploration...
October 13, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Valérie Camos, Prune Lagner, Vanessa M Loaiza
Although verbal recall of item and order information is well-researched in short-term memory paradigms, there is relatively little research concerning item and order recall from working memory. The following study examined whether manipulating the opportunity for attentional refreshing and articulatory rehearsal in a complex span task differently affected the recall of item- and order-specific information of the memoranda. Five experiments varied the opportunity for articulatory rehearsal and attentional refreshing in a complex span task, but the type of recall was manipulated between experiments (item and order, order only, and item only recall)...
October 17, 2016: Memory
Dakota R B Lindsey, Claus Bundesen, Søren Kyllingsbæk, Anders Petersen, Gordon D Logan
In the partial-report task, subjects are asked to report only a portion of the items presented. Selective attention chooses which objects to represent in short-term memory (STM) on the basis of their relevance. Because STM is limited in capacity, one must sometimes choose which objects are removed from memory in light of new relevant information. We tested the hypothesis that the choices among newly presented information and old information in STM involve the same process-that both are acts of selective attention...
October 14, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Yixiu Wang, Bin Wang, Xiaofeng Wu, Liming Zhang
The estimation of gaze shift has been an important research area in saliency modeling. Gaze movement is a dynamic progress, yet existing estimation methods are limited to estimating scanpaths within only one saliency map, providing results with unsatisfactory accuracy. A bio-inspired method for gaze shift prediction is thus proposed. We take the effect of foveation into account in the proposed model, which plays an important role in the search for dynamic salient regions. The saccadic bias of gaze shifts and the mechanism of inhibition of return in short-term memory are also considered...
October 14, 2016: Cognitive Processing
Eric M Janezic, Swetha Uppalapati, Stephanie Nagl, Marco Contreras, Edward D French, Jean-Marc Fellous
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is in part due to a deficit in memory consolidation and extinction. Oxytocin (OXT) has anxiolytic effects and promotes prosocial behaviors in both rodents and humans, and evidence suggests that it plays a role in memory consolidation. We studied the effects of administered OXT and social co-housing in a rodent model of PTSD. Acute OXT yielded a short-term increase in the recall of the traumatic memory if administered immediately after trauma. Low doses of OXT delivered chronically had a cumulating anxiolytic effect that became apparent after 4 days and persisted...
October 12, 2016: Behavioural Pharmacology
Bandhan Mukherjee, Qi Yuan
The interactions of L-type calcium channels (LTCCs) and NMDA receptors (NMDARs) in memories are poorly understood. Here we investigated the specific roles of anterior piriform cortex (aPC) LTCCs and NMDARs in early odor preference memory in mice. Using calcium imaging in aPC slices, LTCC activation was shown to be dependent on NMDAR activation. Either D-APV (NMDAR antagonist) or nifedipine (LTCC antagonist) reduced somatic calcium transients in pyramidal cells evoked by lateral olfactory tract stimulation. However, nifedipine did not further reduce calcium in the presence of D-APV...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
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