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neuronal migration

Antonella Sferra, Fabiana Fattori, Teresa Rizza, Elsabetta Flex, Emanuele Bellacchio, Alessandro Bruselles, Stefania Petrini, Serena Cecchetti, Massimo Teson, Fabrizia Restaldi, Andrea Ciolfi, Filippo M Santorelli, Ginevra Zanni, Sabina Barresi, Claudia Castiglioni, Marco Tartaglia, Enrico Bertini
Microtubules participate in fundamental cellular processes, including chromosomal segregation and cell division, migration, and intracellular trafficking. Their proper function is required for correct central nervous system development and operative preservation, and mutations in genes coding tubulins, the constituting units of microtubules, underlie a family of neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases, collectively known as "tubulinopathies", characterized by a wide range of neuronal defects resulting from defective proliferation, migration, and function...
March 14, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Jeffrey Zielich, Elena Tzima, Eva Ayla Schröder, Faten Jemel, Barbara Conradt, Eric J Lambie
P5B ATPases are present in the genomes of diverse unicellular and multicellular eukaryotes, indicating that they have an ancient origin, and that they are important for cellular fitness. Inactivation of ATP13A2, one of the four human P5B ATPases, leads to early-onset Parkinson's disease (Kufor-Rakeb Syndrome). The presence of an invariant PPALP motif within the putative substrate interaction pocket of transmembrane segment M4 suggests that all P5B ATPases might have similar transport specificity; however, the identity of the transport substrate(s) remains unknown...
2018: PloS One
Xin-Peng Dun, David B Parkinson
Injury to the peripheral nervous system triggers a series of well-defined events within both neurons and the Schwann cells to allow efficient axonal regeneration, remyelination, and functional repair. The study of these events has previously been done using sections of nerve material to analyze axonal regrowth, cell migration, and immune cell infiltration following injury. This approach, however, has the obvious disadvantage that it is not possible to follow, for instance, the path of regenerating axons in three dimensions within the nerve trunk or the nerve bridge...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Laura Fangmann, Steffen Teller, Pavel Stupakov, Helmut Friess, Güralp O Ceyhan, Ihsan Ekin Demir
In pancreatic cancer, neural invasion is one of the most common paths of cancer dissemination. Classically, cancer cells actively invade nerves and cause local recurrence and pain. Three-dimensional (3D) neural migration assay has become a standard tool for scientists to study neural invasion by confronting the involved cell types. This protocol introduces Schwann cells, i.e., the most prevalent cell type in peripheral nerves, in a novel heterotypic, glia-cancer-neuron, 3D migration assay for assessing their relevance in the early pathogenesis of neural invasion...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Oriane Blanquie, Frank Bradke
Recent years have seen cytoskeleton dynamics emerging as a key player in axon regeneration. The cytoskeleton, in particular microtubules and actin, ensures the growth of neuronal processes and maintains the singular, highly polarized shape of neurons. Following injury, adult central axons are tipped by a dystrophic structure, the retraction bulb, which prevents their regeneration. Abnormal cytoskeleton dynamics are responsible for the formation of this growth-incompetent structure but pharmacologically modulating cytoskeleton dynamics of injured axons can transform this structure into a growth-competent growth cone...
March 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Xin Xue, Xingxing Chen, Weili Fan, Guan Wang, Liang Zhang, Zongfeng Chen, Peng Liu, Mingyong Liu, Jianhua Zhao
High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) facilitates neural stem cells (NSCs) proliferation and differentiation into neuronal linage. However, the effect of HMGB1 on NSCs migration is still elusive. The present study is to investigate the corelation between HMGB1 and NSCs migration and the potential mechanism. The results indicated that 1 ng/ml HMGB1 promoted NSCs proliferation using CCK8 assays. Moreover, data showed that 1 ng/ml HMGB1 facilitated NSCs migration via filopodia formation using phase-contrast and transwell assays...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kedarlal Sharma, JuhiSingh, Emma E Frost, Prakash P Pillai
MethylCpG binding protein-2 (MeCP2) is an epigenetic regulator and essential for brain development.MeCP2 mutations are associated with a spectrum of neuro-developmental disorders that vary depending on the patient gender, most notably Rett Syndrome. MeCP2 is essential for normal neuronal maturation, and glial cell function in the brain. Besides, its role in neurodevelopmental disorders, MeCP2 is involved in many cancers such as breast, colorectal, lung, liver, and prostate cancer. Glioma is the most lethal form of brain cancer...
March 11, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Suijuan Zhong, Shu Zhang, Xiaoying Fan, Qian Wu, Liying Yan, Ji Dong, Haofeng Zhang, Long Li, Le Sun, Na Pan, Xiaohui Xu, Fuchou Tang, Jun Zhang, Jie Qiao, Xiaoqun Wang
The mammalian prefrontal cortex comprises a set of highly specialized brain areas containing billions of cells and serves as the centre of the highest-order cognitive functions, such as memory, cognitive ability, decision-making and social behaviour. Although neural circuits are formed in the late stages of human embryonic development and even after birth, diverse classes of functional cells are generated and migrate to the appropriate locations earlier in development. Dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex contributes to cognitive deficits and the majority of neurodevelopmental disorders; there is therefore a need for detailed knowledge of the development of the prefrontal cortex...
March 14, 2018: Nature
Dario Presutti, Manuela Ceccarelli, Laura Micheli, Giuliana Papoff, Simonetta Santini, Simone Samperna, Cristiana Lalli, Lorena Zentilin, Giovina Ruberti, Felice Tirone
Medulloblastoma (MB), the tumor of the cerebellum, is the most frequent brain cancer in childhood and a major cause of pediatric mortality. Based on gene profiling, four MB subgroups have been identified, i.e., Wnt or Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) types, and subgroup 3 or 4. The Shh-type MB has been shown to arise from the cerebellar precursors of granule neurons (GCPs), where a hyperactivation of the Shh pathway leads to their neoplastic transformation. We have previously shown that the gene Tis21 (PC3/Btg2) inhibits the proliferation and promotes the differentiation and migration of GCPs...
2018: PloS One
Philipp Abe, Hannah M Wüst, Sebastian J Arnold, Serge A van de Pavert, Ralf Stumm
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is implicated in learning and memory processing. It is tightly controlled at several levels including progenitor proliferation as well as migration, differentiation and integration of new neurons. Hippocampal progenitors and immature neurons reside in the subgranular zone (SGZ) and are equipped with the CXCL12-receptor CXCR4 which contributes to defining the SGZ as neurogenic niche. The atypical CXCL12-receptor CXCR7 functions primarily by sequestering extracellular CXCL12 but whether CXCR7 is involved in adult neurogenesis has not been assessed...
March 14, 2018: Glia
Menghon Cheah, Melissa R Andrews
Integrin activation is essential for creating functional transmembrane receptors capable of inducing downstream cellular effects such as cell migration, cell spreading, neurite outgrowth and axon regeneration. Integrins are bidirectional signalling molecules that mediate their effects by 'inside-out' and 'outside-in' signalling. This review will provide a detailed overview of integrin activation focusing on intracellular activation in neurons and discussing direct implications in the regulation of neurite outgrowth and axon regeneration...
March 10, 2018: Cells
E E Connor, Y Zhou, G E Liu
Olfactory receptors are G-protein coupled chemoreceptors expressed on millions of olfactory sensory neurons within the nasal cavity. These receptors detect environmental odorants and signal the brain regarding the location of feed, potential mates, and the presence of possible threats (e.g., predators or chemical toxins). Olfactory receptors also are present in organs outside of the nasal cavity where they bind to molecules such as nutrients and metabolites from the animal's internal environment to elicit physiological responses, including changes in gut motility, ventilation rate, and cellular migration...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Liu-Lin Xiong, Yu Zou, Yu Shi, Piao Zhang, Rong-Ping Zhang, Xie-Jie Dai, Bin Liu, Ting-Hua Wang
The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of implanted neural stem cells (NSCs) on the functional recovery of tree shrews (TSs) subjected to hemi‑sectioned spinal cord injury (hSCI), and to investigate the possible mechanism involved. NSCs (passage 2), derived from the hippocampus of TSs (embryonic day 20), were labeled with Hoechst 33342 and transplanted intraspinally into the hSC of TSs at thoracic level 10 in the acute (immediately after injury) and chronic (day 9 post‑injury) stages...
March 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
L R Galieva, Y O Mukhamedshina, E R Akhmetzyanova, Z E Gilazieva, S S Arkhipova, E E Garanina, A A Rizvanov
Spinal cord injury (SCI) unavoidably results in death of not only neurons but also glial cells. In particular, the death of oligodendrocytes leads to impaired nerve impulse conduction in intact axons. However, after SCI, the Schwann cells (SCs) are capable of migrating towards an area of injury and participating in the formation of functional myelin. In addition to SCI, cell-based therapy can influence the migration of SCs and the expression of their molecular determinants. In a number of cases, it can be explained by the ability of implanted cells to secrete neurotrophic factors (NTFs)...
2018: Stem Cells International
Sing-Hui Ong, Kai-Wey Goh, Cornelius Kwang-Lee Chieng, Yee-How Say
Background: Tumor-induced angiogenesis is an imperative event in pledging new vasculature for tumor metastasis. Since overexpression of neuronal proteins gamma-synuclein (γ-Syn) and cellular prion protein (PrPC ) is always detected in advanced stages of cancer diseases which involve metastasis, this study aimed to investigate whether γ-Syn or PrPC overexpression in colorectal adenocarcinoma, LS 174T cells affects angiogenesis of endothelial cells, EA.hy 926 (EA). Methods: EA cells were treated with conditioned media (CM) of LS 174T-γ-Syn or LS 174T-PrP, and their proliferation, invasion, migration, adhesion and ability to form angiogenic tubes were assessed using a range of biological assays...
2018: PeerJ
Hai-Qin Huo, Zhuang-Yin Qu, Fang Yuan, Lixiang Ma, Lin Yao, Min Xu, Yao Hu, Jing Ji, Anita Bhattacharyya, Su-Chun Zhang, Yan Liu
The brain of Down syndrome (DS) patients exhibits fewer interneurons in the cerebral cortex, but its underlying mechanism remains unknown. By morphometric analysis of cortical interneurons generated from DS and euploid induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), we found that DS GABA neurons are smaller and with fewer neuronal processes. The proportion of calretinin over calbindin GABA neurons is reduced, and the neuronal migration capacity is decreased. Such phenotypes were replicated following transplantation of the DS GABAergic progenitors into the mouse medial septum...
February 28, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
Yongping Chai, Zhiwen Zhu, Guangshuo Ou
During C. elegans larval development, the Q neuroblasts produce their lineage by three rounds of divisions along with continuous cell migrations. Their neuronal progeny is dispersed from the pharynx to the anus. This in vivo system to study cell migration is appealing for several reasons. The lineage development is stereotyped; functional analysis and genomic screens are rendered easy and powerful thanks to powerful tools; transgenic manipulations and genome engineering are efficient and can be conveniently combined with live-cell imaging...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Fu-Sheng Chou, Pei-Shan Wang
Neuronal migration during fetal brain development is a well-coordinated process between the migrating neurons and their substrates, the basal processes of the radial glial cells (RGCs). The progeny-progenitor relationship between the migrating neurons and the RGCs in the developing fetal brain may make interpretations of the results difficult, because the variable in question may affect both the RGCs and the migrating neurons in different ways. A transplantation assay combining migrating cells and the scaffolding tissue from two different sources may circumvent this issue...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
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March 8, 2018: Development
You Kure Wu, Hiroki Umeshima, Junko Kurisu, Mineko Kengaku
Nuclear migration of newly born neurons is essential for cortex formation in the brain. The nucleus is translocated by actin and microtubules, yet the actual force generated by the interplay of these cytoskeletons remains elusive. High-resolution time-lapse observation of migrating murine cerebellar granule cells revealed that the nucleus actively rotates along the direction of its translocation, independently of centrosome motion. Pharmacological and molecular perturbation indicated that spin torque is primarily generated by microtubule motors through the LINC complex in the absence of actomyosin contractility...
March 8, 2018: Development
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