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Immunodepression

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919843/non-adherence-to-antiretroviral-therapy-in-patients-infected-with-hiv-and-cryptococcal-meningitis-two-cases-at-the-lambar%C3%A3-n%C3%A3-hospital-center-in-gabon
#1
U D Kombila, J Iba Ba, G Tsoumbou-Bakana, J-B Moussavou Kombila
Cryptococcal meningitis is a serious infection occurring mainly in immunodepressed patients, especially those with AIDS. Its incidence is growing among people living with HIV/AIDS who interrupt their antiretroviral treatment. We report two cases that occurred in this situation and had lethal outcomes in the short term. Testing for cryptococcal antigen in serum (serum CRAG test) enables a reliable and early diagnosis, and its use should be promoted in rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa.
December 5, 2016: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909225/recovery-of-the-immune-system-after-exercise
#2
Jonathan M Peake, Oliver Neubauer, Neil P Walsh, Richard J Simpson
The notion that prolonged, intense exercise causes an 'open window' of immunodepression during recovery after exercise is well accepted. Repeated exercise bouts or intensified training without sufficient recovery may increase the risk of illness. However, except for salivary IgA, clear and consistent markers of this immunodepression remain elusive. Exercise increases circulating neutrophil and monocyte counts, and reduces circulating lymphocyte count during recovery. This lymphopenia results from preferential egress of lymphocyte subtypes with potent effector functions (e...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868139/clinical-genetic-and-innate-immunity-characteristics-of-melanoma-in-organ-transplant-recipients
#3
Anabelle Brocard, Anne-Chantal Knol, Céline Bossard, Marc G Denis, Gaëlle Quéreux, Mélanie Saint-Jean, Lucie Peuvrel, Amir Khammari, Gilles Blancho, Jacques Dantal, Brigitte Dréno
The aims of this study were to determine the clinical and histological characteristics of melanoma in transplant recipients, the mutation profile (BRAF, NRAS and c-KIT genes), and the immune tolerance of the tumour microenvironment by immunohistochemical study of the expression of IDO, PD1, PD-L1, CD8 and FoxP3. The study population comprised patients who had undergone a renal transplant in Nantes University Hospital who developed post-transplantation melanoma. Twenty cases of melanoma out of 4,663 transplant recipients were studied...
November 10, 2016: Acta Dermato-venereologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742582/neuroanatomical-correlates-of-stroke-associated-infection-and-stroke-induced-immunodepression
#4
Xabier Urra, Carlos Laredo, Yashu Zhao, Sergio Amaro, Salvatore Rudilosso, Arturo Renú, Alberto Prats-Galino, Anna M Planas, Laura Oleaga, Ángel Chamorro
BACKGROUND: Infections represent the most frequent medical complications in stroke patients. Their main determinants are dysphagia and a transient state of immunodepression. We analyzed whether distinct anatomical brain regions were associated with the occurrence of stroke-associated infections or immunodepression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 106 patients with acute ischemic stroke, we evaluated the incidence of pneumonia, urinary tract infection, or other infections together with the characterization of biomarkers of immunodepression...
October 11, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733675/stroke-induced-immunodepression-and-dysphagia-independently-predict-stroke-associated-pneumonia-the-predict-study
#5
Sarah Hoffmann, Hendrik Harms, Lena Ulm, Darius G Nabavi, Bruno-Marcel Mackert, Ingo Schmehl, Gerhard J Jungehulsing, Joan Montaner, Alejandro Bustamante, Marcella Hermans, Frank Hamilton, Jos Göhler, Uwe Malzahn, Carolin Malsch, Peter U Heuschmann, Christian Meisel, Andreas Meisel
Stroke-associated pneumonia is a frequent complication after stroke associated with poor outcome. Dysphagia is a known risk factor for stroke-associated pneumonia but accumulating evidence suggests that stroke induces an immunodepressive state increasing susceptibility for stroke-associated pneumonia. We aimed to confirm that stroke-induced immunodepression syndrome is associated with stroke-associated pneumonia independently from dysphagia by investigating the predictive properties of monocytic HLA-DR expression as a marker of immunodepression as well as biomarkers for inflammation (interleukin-6) and infection (lipopolysaccharide-binding protein)...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692802/molecular-characteristics-and-antimicrobial-resistance-in-invasive-and-noninvasive-group-b-streptococcus-between-2008-and-2015-in-china
#6
Binghuai Lu, Xingchun Chen, Junrui Wang, Duochun Wang, Ji Zeng, Yi Li, Dong Li, Fengxia Zhu, Yanchao Cui, Lei Huang
Group B streptococcus (GBS) is an increasing pathogen threat to newborns and adults with immunodepressive diseases. Here, a total of 193 GBS, including 51 invasive and 142 noninvasive isolates, were collected from the patients with infections in 7 tertiary hospitals from 5 cities in China during the year 2008 to 2015. The strains of GBS were characterized by classical and molecular techniques for capsular polysaccharide serotyping, genes for pilus island (PI) and α-like protein (alp), and antibiotic resistance profiling...
August 28, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681270/cryptosporidium-spp-infection-in-solid-organ-transplantation-the-nationwide-transcrypto-study
#7
Fanny Lanternier, Karima Amazzough, Loic Favennec, Marie-France Mamzer-Bruneel, Hendy Abdoul, Jérome Touret, Stéphane Decramer, Julien Zuber, Anne Scemla, Christophe Legendre, Olivier Lortholary, Marie-Elisabeth Bougnoux
BACKGROUND: Diarrhea is a frequent complication of solid organ transplantation. Cryptosporidiosis is classically reported in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and emerged as a cause of persistent diarrhea in solid organ transplant (SOT) patients. METHODS: Through the ANOFEL Cryptosporidium National Network and the French Transplantation Society, we collected all cryptosporidiosis cases identified in solid organ transplanted patients between 2006 and 2010 in France...
September 27, 2016: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678356/spontaneous-fungal-peritonitis-epidemiology-current-evidence-and-future-prospective
#8
REVIEW
Marco Fiore, Sebastiano Leone
Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is a complication of ascitic patients with end-stage liver disease (ESLD); spontaneous fungal peritonitis (SFP) is a complication of ESLD less known and described. ESLD is associated to immunodepression and the resulting increased susceptibility to infections. Recent perspectives of the management of the critically ill patient with ESLD do not specify the rate of isolation of fungi in critically ill patients, not even the antifungals used for the prophylaxis, neither optimal treatment...
September 14, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677126/inhibition-of-big-conductance-ca2-activated-k-channels-in-vascular-myocytes-is-a-key-novel-mechanism-for-immunodepressant-induced-hypertension
#9
Y Wang, Y Zheng
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27622980/-when-to-worry-about-before-a-vascular-chronic-leg-ulcer
#10
I Lazareth
Leg ulcers are a chronic condition. Healing can be long for venous ulcers and the risk of complications is significant. Infection is the most severe complication and can occur in the form of easily diagnosed acute bacterial dermohypodermitis that generally responds well to antibiotic treatment if given at an appropriate dose or in the form of localized infection that is more difficult to diagnosis. Indeed, no consensus has been reached in the literature on the clinical criteria to retain for the diagnosis of localized infection...
September 2016: Journal des Maladies Vasculaires
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27593784/the-impact-of-initial-systemic-inflammatory-response-after-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#11
Zhong Weiying, Zhang Zhiyong, Zhao Peng, Shen Jie, Li Xueen, Wang Donghai, Li Gang, Su Wandong
AIM: To assess the association between inflammatory response and early brain injury (EBI), and the association between inflammatory response and the following pneumonia after aneurysmal SAH Material and Methods: 89 patients with spontaneous SAH and 12 patients with un-ruptured aneurysm were included in this prospective study. The systemic inflammatory biomarkers such as CRP, IL-1β, IL-2,IL-6,IL-8, IL10 and T leukocyte subsets were measured within 24 hours after admission. Their clinical features, laboratory findings were clearly reviewed, univariate analysis were used to find the main predictors...
November 13, 2015: Turkish Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27583077/-multifocal-tuberculosis-in-immunocompetent-patients
#12
Amel Rezgui, Fatma Ben Fredj, Anis Mzabi, Monia Karmani, Chadia Laouani
Multifocal tuberculosis is defined as the presence of lesions affecting at least two extrapulmonary sites, with or without pulmonary involvement. This retrospective study of 10 cases aims to investigate the clinical and evolutionary characteristics of multifocal tuberculosis. It included 41 cases with tuberculosis collected between 1999 and 2013. Ten patients had multifocal tuberculosis (24%): 9 women and 1 man, the average age was 50 years (30-68 years). Our patients were correctly BCG vaccinated. The evaluation of immunodepression was negative in all patients...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27538605/stroke-induces-specific-alteration-of-t-memory-compartment-controlling-auto-reactive-cns-antigen-specific-t-cell-responses
#13
Juliane Klehmet, Sarah Hoffmann, Gerrit Walter, Christian Meisel, Andreas Meisel
Whether and when auto-reactivity after stroke occurs is still a matter of debate. By using overlapping 15mer peptide pools consisting of myelin basic protein (MBP) and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) we show increased frequencies of immunodominant MOG- and MBP T cell responses in acute ischemic stroke which were associated with reduced frequencies of naïve T cells as well as CD8+ TEMRA cells. Auto-reactive CNS antigen-specific T cells responses as well as alterations of T cell subpopulations normalized in long-term follow up after stroke...
September 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27514673/antigen-presentation-after-stroke
#14
REVIEW
Francesc Miró-Mur, Xabier Urra, Mattia Gallizioli, Angel Chamorro, Anna M Planas
Stroke induces a local inflammatory reaction and a plethora of innate immune responses in the brain where antigen-presenting cells become prominent. However, to date, it is still unclear whether antigen presentation is relevant to the neuropathological and functional outcome of stroke. Stroke does not trigger overt autoimmune reactions, but neural antigens have been found in lymphoid tissues of patient with stroke and it is unknown whether they promote tolerance or immune reactions that under certain conditions might contribute to the functional worsening observed in some patients...
October 2016: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27476377/-ecthyma-gangrenosum-of-the-eyelid-after-chickenpox
#15
M-S Ouédraogo, N Korsaga Somé, G-P Tapsoba, A-N Ouédraogo, K-A Sondo, I-A Inouss, M-L Sanou, T Konsem, J Sakandé, F Barro Traoré, P Niamba, A Traoré
BACKGROUND: Ecthyma gangrenosum is an acute ulcer necrotic skin infection frequently caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It is characterised by necrotic ulcerations circumscribed by an inflammatory halo. Lesions are normally found in the anal, genital and axillary regions. Ecthyma gangrenosum is most commonly seen in immunodepressed patients (cytotoxic chemotherapy, HIV infection, neutropenia or functional neutrophil deficiency, agammaglobulinemia). It is a rarely described complication in chicken pox...
October 2016: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27465324/up-regulation-of-nkg2a-inhibitory-receptor-on-circulating-nk-cells-contributes-to-transfusion-induced-immunodepression-in-patients-with-%C3%AE-thalassemia-major
#16
Yong Zou, Zhi-Xing Song, Ying Lu, Xiao-Li Liang, Qing Yuan, Si-Hong Liao, Jun-Jie Bao
Accumulating evidence has shown that allogeneic blood transfusions can induce significant immunosuppression in recipients, and thereby increase the risk of postoperative infection and/or tumor relapse. Although it is well known that natural killer (NK) cells are responsible for the immunodepression effects of transfusion, the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. In this study, we investigated the role of NK cells in transfusion-induced immunodepression in β-thalassemia major. The proportion of circulating NK cells and the expression of NK receptors (NKG2A, CD158a, NKP30, NKP46 and NKG2D) as well as CD107a were detected by multicolor flow cytometry...
August 2016: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27419178/ten-year-experience-of-cutaneous-and-or-subcutaneous-infections-due-to-coelomycetes-in-france
#17
Sarah Guégan, Dea Garcia-Hermoso, Karine Sitbon, Sarah Ahmed, Philippe Moguelet, Françoise Dromer, Olivier Lortholary
Background.  Coelomycetes are rarely but increasingly reported in association with human infections involving mostly skin and subcutaneous tissues, both in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. Coelomycetes constitute a heterogeneous group of filamentous fungi with distinct morphological characteristics in culture, namely an ability to produce asexual spores within fruit bodies. Methods.  We included all cases of proven primary cutaneous and/or subcutaneous infections due to coelomycetes received for identification at the French National Reference Center for Invasive Mycoses and Antifungals between 2005 and 2014...
April 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27410414/ralstonia-pickettii-bacteremia-in-hemodialysis-patients-a-report-of-two-cases
#18
Darwin Tejera, Gino Limongi, Mauricio Bertullo, Mario Cancela
Ralstonia pickettii is a low-virulence gram-negative bacillus that may be associated with infections related to health care and may cause bacteremia. Ralstonia pickettii bacteremia is uncommon but is related to the contamination of medical products, mainly in immunodepressed patients. We present two cases of patients on chronic hemodialysis with Ralstonia pickettii bacteremia linked to contamination of the dialysis water. Similar cases have been published with links to intravenous fluid administration, medication ampules, and the use of extracorporeal oxygenation membranes, among other factors...
June 2016: Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27409177/potential-specific-immunological-indicators-for-stroke-associated-infection-are-partly-modulated-by-sympathetic-pathway-activation
#19
Huan Wang, Fu-Ling Yan, Michael Cunningham, Qi-Wen Deng, Lei Zuo, Fang-Lan Xing, Lu-Hang Shi, Shan-Shan Hu, Ya Huang
BACKGROUND: Evidence has led to the consideration of immunodepression after stroke as an important contributor to stroke associated infection (SAI). However, so far no specific immunological indicator has been identified for SAI, and the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. RESULTS: SAI patients had significantly higher IL-6 and IL-10 levels and lower HLA-DR levels than no-infection patients within 48h after stroke onset. NA significantly increased IL-10 levels, reduced HLA-DR expression, and decreased IL-6 expression by increasing β-arrestin2 expression which reduced the activation of the NF-κB pathway...
July 8, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27367319/listeria-monocytogenes-meningitis-in-the-elderly-epidemiological-clinical-and-therapeutic-findings
#20
Pasquale Pagliano, Tiziana Ascione, Giovanni Boccia, Francesco De Caro, Silvano Esposito
Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive bacillus and facultative intracellular bacterium whose transmission occurs mainly through the consumption of contaminated food, L. monocytogenes invades the host cells using various protein and can escape to the human T-cell immune system by cell-to-cell spreading. If the infection is not controlled at the stage in which the bacterium is in the liver, for instance, due to a severe immunodepression, a secondary bacteraemia can be developed and L. monocytogenes reaches the preferred sites transgressing the blood-brain barrier or the placental barrier...
June 1, 2016: Le Infezioni in Medicina
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