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Immunodepression

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501040/-the-relationship-between-immunodepression-and-the-development-of-skin-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Maria Mendonça Sanches, Ana Rita Travassos, Luis Soares-de-Almeida
The effects of immunodepression on several disease states have constituted an important area of research, leading to the identification of relevant associations between immunodepression and a vast set of comorbidities, including infectious diseases, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Research on the effects of immunodepression has mostly been conducted in individuals under immunodepression by the human immunodeficiency virus and transplant recipients under pharmacological immunosuppression, due to the difficulties in obtaining relevant samples sizes in other contexts of immunodepression...
January 31, 2017: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411047/immunodepression-after-cpb-cytokine-dynamics-and-clinics-after-pediatric-cardiac-surgery-a-prospective-trial
#2
Georgia Justus, Christoph Walker, Lisa-Maria Rosenthal, Felix Berger, Oliver Miera, Katharina Rose Luise Schmitt
BACKGROUND: Corrective surgery for congenital heart defects is known to trigger a severe immune reaction. There has been extensive research on the effects of inflammation after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Interestingly, monocytes are observed to be non-responsive to stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) under these conditions, indicating a state of immunodepression, which lays the ground for second hit infections after cardiosurgery with CPB. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this prospective study was to analyze immunodepression after pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass and to differentiate the effects of monocytic anergy on postoperative outcome...
April 11, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399686/prevalence-of-congenital-malaria-in-newborns-of-mothers-co-infected-with-hiv-and-malaria-in-benin-city
#3
Fidelis Ewenitie Eki-Udoko, Ayebo E Sadoh, Michael O Ibadin, Augustine I Omoigberale
BACKGROUND: HIV and Plasmodium falciparum malaria co-infection annually complicates about one million pregnancies in sub-Saharan Africa. Congenital malaria (CM) has deleterious effects on newborns. Little is known about the effect of co-infections on the prevalence of CM in infants born by these women. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of CM in newborns of mothers co-infected with HIV and malaria compared to HIV-negative mothers with malaria in Benin-City. METHODS: Subjects were 162 newborns of mothers co-infected with HIV and malaria...
April 11, 2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344576/genomic-characterization-of-recent-chicken-anemia-virus-isolates-in-china
#4
Yang Li, Lichun Fang, Shuai Cui, Jiayuan Fu, Xiaohan Li, Huanmin Zhang, Zhizhong Cui, Shuang Chang, Weifeng Shi, Peng Zhao
Chicken anemia virus (CAV) causes diseases in young chickens, which include increased pathogenicity of secondary infectious agents, generalized lymphoid depletion, and immunodepression. In the present study, we have identified 22 CAV strains isolated from several commercial chicken farms in Northern China during 2014-2015. In addition, two CAVs were also isolated from stray mouse and dog feces, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report of identification of CAV from mouse and dog feces. Phylogenetic analysis of 121 full-length CAV genome sequences showed that all available CAV could be classified into eight lineages, supported by phylogenetic trees estimated using different methods...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320030/changes-in-regulatory-t-cell-levels-in-acute-cerebral-ischemia
#5
Xuerui Pang, Weidong Qian
Background Acute stroke causes intense and significant changes in the immune system as well as in the number and the ratio of various immune cells. Material and Methods Several large-scale studies have shown that ischemic stroke leaves the human body in a state of immunodepression. The regulatory T (Treg) cells may be strongly associated with a change of immune status. In this trial, we collected venous blood from a cohort of patients who were diagnosed with acute ischemic stroke within the last 24 hours (n = 139)...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part A, Central European Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294590/successful-omalizumab-treatment-in-hiv-positive-patient-with-chronic-spontaneous-urticaria-a-case-report
#6
E Iemoli, F Niero, L Borgonovo, M V Cossu, S Piconi
We described a case of a 56 year old homosexual HIV positive man who presented a history of CSU since one year (2012). All the allergologic, immunologic and microbiologic tests to evaluate the pathogenesis of wheals resulted negative. Therefore in June 2015 we decided to start therapy with Omalizumab while the patient kept on effective antiretroviral therapy with 310 cells/mm3 TCD4 counts and undetectable HIV viremia. After two monthly subcutaneuous injection of 150 mg of Omalizumab the patient had no more urticarial symptoms...
March 2017: European Annals of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229615/bacteremia-with-raoultella-planticola-in-the-setting-of-acute-pancreatitis-complicated-with-acute-cholangitis
#7
Esther Merino Rodríguez, Susana Rebolledo Olmedo, Joaquín Miquel Plaza
The bacterium Raoultella planticola (R planticola) is a rare pathogen in humans. We report a case of mild acute pancreatitis (MAP) of biliary origin with cholangitis and bacteremia with R planticola in association with pancreatic panniculitis (PP). A 55-year-old woman with rheumatic multiple valvulopathy presented with epigastric pain radiating to the back in a belt-like fashion for 48 hours, jaundice, choluria, acholia, and fever (38.2oC). Lab tests showed: amylase 2126 U/L, ALT 124 U/L, AST 169 U/L, GGT 3548 U/L, AP 1516 U/L, TBil 12...
February 23, 2017: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162168/-analysis-of-clinical-characteristics-and-outcomes-of-mechanically-ventilated-patients-with-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis
#8
Y Zhang, Y Y Su, D Q Gao, H Ye
Objective: To explore the clinical characteristics and long-term outcomes of mechanically ventilated patients with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis. Methods: In this observational study, patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis were enrolled, who were admitted into Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University from Jan 2012 to Jun 2015.All patients accepted tumor screening, symptomatic therapy, and immunotherapy.Outcomes were assessed by modified Rankin Scale (mRS) after immunotherapy every 6 months, and mRS 0-2 was defined as favorable outcome...
January 17, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012729/neurologic-emergencies-in-hiv-negative-immunosuppressed-patients
#9
J A Guzmán-De-Villoria, P Fernández-García, P J Borrego-Ruiz
HIV-negative immunosuppressed patients comprise a heterogeneous group including transplant patients, patients undergoing treatment with immunosuppressors, uremic patients, alcoholics, undernourished patients, diabetics, patients on dialysis, elderly patients, and those diagnosed with severe or neoplastic processes. Epileptic seizures, focal neurologic signs, and meningoencephalitis are neurologic syndromes that require urgent action. In most of these situations, neuroimaging tests are necessary, but the findings can be different from those observed in immunocompetent patients in function of the inflammatory response...
December 21, 2016: Radiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011968/extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-among-the-pediatric-population-who-is-at-risk-and-why-results-from-a-single-centre-prospective-study
#10
Carmelina Calitri, Carlo Scolfaro, Sara Colombo, Gianfranco De Intinis, Francesca Carraro, Silvia Garazzino, Pier-Angelo Tovo
A prospective 18-month case-control study was performed in a tertiary Paediatric Centre in Turin (Italy) to analyse the disease burden and identify risk factors for acquisition of Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-pE). Children with ESBL-pE isolation were enrolled as cases, with controls matched according to age, type of pathogen isolated and sample of isolation. Out of 83 children (37 males, mean age 4.7 ± 5.46 years), 45 were identified as infected (54.2%) and 38 as colonised (45...
December 1, 2016: Le Infezioni in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008941/systemic-wound-healing-associated-with-local-sub-cutaneous-mechanical-stimulation
#11
Christine Nardini, Valentina Devescovi, Yuanhua Liu, Xiaoyuan Zhou, Youtao Lu, Jennifer E Dent
Degeneration is a hallmark of autoimmune diseases, whose incidence grows worldwide. Current therapies attempt to control the immune response to limit degeneration, commonly promoting immunodepression. Differently, mechanical stimulation is known to trigger healing (regeneration) and it has recently been proposed locally for its therapeutic potential on severely injured areas. As the early stages of healing consist of altered intra- and inter-cellular fluxes of soluble molecules, we explored the potential of this early signal to spread, over time, beyond the stimulation district and become systemic, to impact on distributed or otherwise unreachable injured areas...
December 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938930/clinical-characteristics-and-outcomes-in-a-population-with-disseminated-herpes-zoster-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#12
M L Bollea-Garlatti, L A Bollea-Garlatti, A S Vacas, A C Torre, A M Kowalczuk, R L Galimberti, B L Ferreyro
INTRODUCTION: Shingles is the cutaneous expression of the reactivation of latent varicella zoster virus infection in sensory ganglia. It presents as vesicles in the corresponding dermatome. The condition is called disseminated herpes zoster (DHZ) when more than 2 contiguous dermatomes are affected, more than 20 vesicles are observed outside the initial dermatome, or involvement is systemic. DHZ is rare and most frequently occurs in immunocompromised patients. OBJECTIVES: To describe the epidemiology, predisposing factors, clinical presentation, laboratory findings, and clinical course of patients with DHZ, and to compare the findings in immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients...
March 2017: Actas Dermo-sifiliográficas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919843/non-adherence-to-antiretroviral-therapy-in-patients-infected-with-hiv-and-cryptococcal-meningitis-two-cases-at-the-lambar%C3%A3-n%C3%A3-hospital-center-in-gabon
#13
U D Kombila, J Iba Ba, G Tsoumbou-Bakana, J-B Moussavou Kombila
Cryptococcal meningitis is a serious infection occurring mainly in immunodepressed patients, especially those with AIDS. Its incidence is growing among people living with HIV/AIDS who interrupt their antiretroviral treatment. We report two cases that occurred in this situation and had lethal outcomes in the short term. Testing for cryptococcal antigen in serum (serum CRAG test) enables a reliable and early diagnosis, and its use should be promoted in rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa.
December 5, 2016: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909225/recovery-of-the-immune-system-after-exercise
#14
Jonathan M Peake, Oliver Neubauer, Neil P Walsh, Richard J Simpson
The notion that prolonged, intense exercise causes an 'open window' of immunodepression during recovery after exercise is well accepted. Repeated exercise bouts or intensified training without sufficient recovery may increase the risk of illness. However, except for salivary IgA, clear and consistent markers of this immunodepression remain elusive. Exercise increases circulating neutrophil and monocyte counts, and reduces circulating lymphocyte count during recovery. This lymphopenia results from preferential egress of lymphocyte subtypes with potent effector functions (e...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868139/clinical-genetic-and-innate-immunity-characteristics-of-melanoma-in-organ-transplant-recipients
#15
Anabelle Brocard, Anne-Chantal Knol, Céline Bossard, Marc Guillaume Denis, Gaëlle Quéreux, Mélanie Saint-Jean, Lucie Peuvrel, Amir Khammari, Gilles Blancho, Jacques Dantal, Brigitte Dréno
The aims of this study were to determine the clinical and histological characteristics of melanoma in transplant recipients, the mutation profile (BRAF, NRAS and c-KIT genes), and the immune tolerance of the tumour microenvironment by immunohistochemical study of the expression of IDO, PD1, PD-L1, CD8 and FoxP3. The study population comprised patients who had undergone a renal transplant in Nantes University Hospital who developed post-transplantation melanoma. Twenty cases of melanoma out of 4,663 transplant recipients were studied...
November 10, 2016: Acta Dermato-venereologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742582/neuroanatomical-correlates-of-stroke-associated-infection-and-stroke-induced-immunodepression
#16
Xabier Urra, Carlos Laredo, Yashu Zhao, Sergio Amaro, Salvatore Rudilosso, Arturo Renú, Alberto Prats-Galino, Anna M Planas, Laura Oleaga, Ángel Chamorro
BACKGROUND: Infections represent the most frequent medical complications in stroke patients. Their main determinants are dysphagia and a transient state of immunodepression. We analyzed whether distinct anatomical brain regions were associated with the occurrence of stroke-associated infections or immunodepression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 106 patients with acute ischemic stroke, we evaluated the incidence of pneumonia, urinary tract infection, or other infections together with the characterization of biomarkers of immunodepression...
February 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733675/stroke-induced-immunodepression-and-dysphagia-independently-predict-stroke-associated-pneumonia-the-predict-study
#17
Sarah Hoffmann, Hendrik Harms, Lena Ulm, Darius G Nabavi, Bruno-Marcel Mackert, Ingo Schmehl, Gerhard J Jungehulsing, Joan Montaner, Alejandro Bustamante, Marcella Hermans, Frank Hamilton, Jos Göhler, Uwe Malzahn, Carolin Malsch, Peter U Heuschmann, Christian Meisel, Andreas Meisel
Stroke-associated pneumonia is a frequent complication after stroke associated with poor outcome. Dysphagia is a known risk factor for stroke-associated pneumonia but accumulating evidence suggests that stroke induces an immunodepressive state increasing susceptibility for stroke-associated pneumonia. We aimed to confirm that stroke-induced immunodepression syndrome is associated with stroke-associated pneumonia independently from dysphagia by investigating the predictive properties of monocytic HLA-DR expression as a marker of immunodepression as well as biomarkers for inflammation (interleukin-6) and infection (lipopolysaccharide-binding protein)...
January 1, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692802/molecular-characteristics-and-antimicrobial-resistance-in-invasive-and-noninvasive-group-b-streptococcus-between-2008-and-2015-in-china
#18
Binghuai Lu, Xingchun Chen, Junrui Wang, Duochun Wang, Ji Zeng, Yi Li, Dong Li, Fengxia Zhu, Yanchao Cui, Lei Huang
Group B streptococcus (GBS) is an increasing pathogen threat to newborns and adults with immunodepressive diseases. Here, a total of 193 GBS, including 51 invasive and 142 noninvasive isolates, were collected from the patients with infections in 7 tertiary hospitals from 5 cities in China during the year 2008 to 2015. The strains of GBS were characterized by classical and molecular techniques for capsular polysaccharide serotyping, genes for pilus island (PI) and α-like protein (alp), and antibiotic resistance profiling...
December 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681270/cryptosporidium-spp-infection-in-solid-organ-transplantation-the-nationwide-transcrypto-study
#19
Fanny Lanternier, Karima Amazzough, Loic Favennec, Marie-France Mamzer-Bruneel, Hendy Abdoul, Jérome Tourret, Stéphane Decramer, Julien Zuber, Anne Scemla, Christophe Legendre, Olivier Lortholary, Marie-Elisabeth Bougnoux
BACKGROUND: Diarrhea is a frequent complication of solid organ transplantation. Cryptosporidiosis is classically reported in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and emerged as a cause of persistent diarrhea in solid organ transplant patients. METHODS: Through the ANOFEL Cryptosporidium National Network and the French Transplantation Society, we collected all cryptosporidiosis cases identified in solid organ transplanted patients between 2006 and 2010 in France...
April 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678356/spontaneous-fungal-peritonitis-epidemiology-current-evidence-and-future-prospective
#20
REVIEW
Marco Fiore, Sebastiano Leone
Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is a complication of ascitic patients with end-stage liver disease (ESLD); spontaneous fungal peritonitis (SFP) is a complication of ESLD less known and described. ESLD is associated to immunodepression and the resulting increased susceptibility to infections. Recent perspectives of the management of the critically ill patient with ESLD do not specify the rate of isolation of fungi in critically ill patients, not even the antifungals used for the prophylaxis, neither optimal treatment...
September 14, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
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