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L Ottria, D Lauritano, L Oberti, V Candotto, F Cura, A Tagliabue, L Tettamanti
HIV infection is one of the major health problem of the last decades. This disease causes a chronic infection that can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). According to the Global AIDS update, released in 2016 by HIV department of World Health Organization (WHO) and by the Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), at the end of 2015, 36.7 million people were infected by HIV: 34.9 million of these were adults and 1.8 million were children under 15 years of age. The same report shows that during 2015, 2...
January 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
F Rubin, A Villeneuve, L Alciato, L Slaïm, P Bonfils, O Laccourreye
GOAL: To analyze the characteristics of adult idiopathic unilateral vocal-fold paralysis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective study of diagnostic problems, clinical data and recovery in an inception cohort of 100 adult patients with idiopathic unilateral vocal-fold paralysis (Group A) and comparison with a cohort of 211 patients with isolated non-idiopathic non-traumatic unilateral vocal-fold paralysis (Group B). RESULTS: Diagnostic problems were noted in 24% of cases in Group A: eight patients with concomitant common upper aerodigestive tract infection, five patients with a concomitant condition liable to induce immunodepression and 11 patients in whom a malignant tumor occurred along the path of the ipsilateral vagus and inferior laryngeal nerves or in the ipsilateral paralyzed larynx...
February 2, 2018: European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases
F Gadby, L Quaesaet, C Eveilleau, A Payet-Charneau, F Couturaud, C Tromeur
INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary alveolar echinococcosis is a rare but potentially severe condition. CASE REPORT: We report the case of a 50-year-old woman suffering from pulmonary alveolar echinococcosis who had had a renal transplant for polycystic liver and kidney disease. A lung opacity was identified radiologically in May 2013. Both broncho-alveolar lavage and bronchial biopsy were uninformative. In January 2014, a follow up CT-scan showed the opacity to be enlarging...
January 27, 2018: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
Alexandra Yannoutsos, Jade Ghosn, Jacques Blacher
Although viral replication is apparently controlled with highly active antiretroviral therapy, cardiovascular risk of patients living with HIV remains a concern in clinical practice with population ageing. Cardiovascular risk profile in patients living with HIV is changing with the emergence of new parameters related to the persistence of residual viral replication, the antecedent and severity of immunodepression, the resulting chronic inflammation, as well as prolonged exposure to antiretroviral drugs and "classical" cardiovascular risk factors...
January 2018: La Presse Médicale
Manfredi Gagliano, Costanza Marchiani, Giulia Bandini, Paolo Bernardi, Nicolas Palagano, Elisa Cioni, Martina Finocchi, Silvia Bellando Randone, Alberto Moggi Pignone
BACKGROUND: Spondylodiscitis are vertebral column infections whose incidence is rising due to an increase of the susceptible population and improved ascertainment. They have been associated with a wide range of microorganisms. Fungal spondylodiscitis is uncommon (0.5%-1.6%) and strongly associated with immunodepression and diabetes (Gouliouris et al., 2010). We present a rare case of Candida glabrata spondylodiscitis in a non neutropenic diabetic patient with the review of the literature...
January 12, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Dan-Dan Liu, Shi-Feng Chu, Chen Chen, Peng-Fei Yang, Nai-Hong Chen, Xin He
In recent years, stroke-induced immunodepression syndrome (SIDS) and the resulting stroke-associated infection (SAI) have become a focus of current research efforts. Inflammatory reactions after stroke promote tissue healing and eliminate necrotic cells, whereas excessive inflammatory reactions may cause secondary damage. Stroke-induced immunodepression not only reduces inflammatory reactions and protects brain tissues but also weakens the resistance of the human body against pathogens and leads to infection...
January 6, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Azizul Haque, Faruk Berat Akçeşme, Anudeep B Pant
The Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic has recently emerged as public health threat due to its teratogenic nature and association with the serious neurological condition Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). To date, no approved antiviral therapeutics or vaccines are available to confront ZIKV. In order to develop effective anti-ZIKV vaccines, improved animal models and a better understanding of immunological correlates of protection against ZIKV are required. In this paper, we discuss the recent progress in developing vaccines against ZIKV and the hurdles to overcome in making efficacious anti-Zika vaccines...
January 4, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Qi Xu, Yong Zhou, Rong Zhang, Zhan Sun, Lu-Feng Cheng
Objective: The aim was to study the therapeutic effects and mechanisms of QWRG on adjuvant-induced RA in rats. Methods: The RA rat models were manipulated and subsequently divided into five experimental groups: AIA, DEX, and QWRG groups. The paw volume, body weight, arthritic score, and mechanical nociceptive threshold were assessed. The serum levels of the RF, MDA, ALP, AST, ALT, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-16, and TNF-α were measured. The proliferative capacity of lymphocytes was evaluated, and the synovial tissue was histopathologically examined...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
D Nieto Rodríguez, E Sendagorta Cudós, J M Rueda Carnero, P Herranz Pinto
Herpesvirus infections are not uncommon in hematologic patients. Our first patient, diagnosed with chronic lymphatic leukemia, presented extensive genital herpes infection refractory to treatment with acyclovir and with a partial response to foscarnet, which had to be withdrawn due to systemic adverse effects. The second patient, diagnosed with follicular Hodgkin lymphoma, presented hypertrophic herpes infection refractory to treatment with acyclovir but that responded to intralesional cidofovir and topical imiquimod...
December 1, 2017: Actas Dermo-sifiliográficas
Nora Bouaziz, Alice Titia Rizzi
The refusal of treatment is frequent in human immunodeficiency virus-positive adolescents. The clinical history of a teenage girl presenting severe immunodepression secondary to the virus, a depressive disorder and a refusal of treatment, illustrates the benefit of combined paediatric, child psychiatric and cross-cultural care as proposed by the Cochin-Paris Adolescent Centre. Working on the meaning of the refusal was a prerequisite for the construction of a care project forming part of a life project, as the psychopathological work could only begin once somatic care ensuring the patient's protection was in place...
November 2017: Soins. Psychiatrie
Felipe Lira, Gabriele Berg, José L Martínez
Most studies on bacterial virulence focus on the pathogen itself. However, it is important to recall that the in-host behavior and the virulence of bacterial pathogens constitute a complex situation that depends on both the microorganisms and the infected host. While healthy people (the community) is infected by classical pathogenic microorganisms, able to cope with the anti-infection defenses of the host, in the case of people with basal diseases, debilitated or immunodepressed, the range of pathogens able to cause infection is wider and includes the so-named opportunistic pathogens, which lack the inherent ability to cause disease in healthy hosts and rarely produce infections in the community...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Abul Farah Md Hasanuzzaman, Juan Andrés Rubiolo, Diego Robledo, Antonio Gómez-Tato, José Antonio Álvarez-Dios, Sergio Fernández-Boo, Asunción Cao, Antonio Villalba, Belén G Pardo, Paulino Martínez
The production of Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) is seriously threatened by the protistan parasite Perkinsus olseni. We characterized and compared gene expression of Manila clam haemocytes in response to P. olseni in a time-course (10 h, 24 h, 8 d) controlled laboratory challenge (LC), representing the first step of infection, and in a more complex infection in the wild (WI), using a validated oligo-microarray containing 11,232 transcripts, mostly annotated. Several immune-genes involved in NIK/NF-kappaB signalling, Toll-like receptor signalling and apoptosis were activated at LC-10 h...
January 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Ayako Takuma, Arata Abe, Yoshikazu Saito, Chikako Nito, Masayuki Ueda, Yoshiro Ishimaru, Hideki Harada, Keiko Abe, Kazumi Kimura, Tomiko Asakura
Given the abundance of stroke patients and deaths from stroke worldwide, many studies concerning the aftermath of stroke are being carried out. To reveal the precise effect of ischemic infarction, we conducted a comprehensive gene expression analysis. Alongside a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) Sprague-Dawley rat model, we used a group undergoing sham surgery for comparison, which was the same as MCAO surgery but without blood vessel occlusion. Subsequently, infarction of the brains of MCAO-treated rats occurred, but did not occur in the sham-treated rats...
November 5, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
C Bobin, P Ingrand, B Dréno, E Rio, O Malard, F Espitalier
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) develops on the head in 80% of cases. Parotid metastasis (PM) is rare, but treatment, which associates surgery and radiation therapy, is heavy and prognosis poor. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All cases of parotidectomy for PM of CSCC of the head and neck between 2005 and 2015 were studied retrospectively. Epidemiologic, oncologic and therapeutic data were analyzed. Overall and specific survival were calculated following Kaplan-Meier...
October 31, 2017: European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases
A Marrone, N Capoluongo, C D'Amore, M Pisaturo, M Esposito, S Guastafierro, I Siniscalchi, M Macera, A Boemio, L Onorato, L Rinaldi, C Minichini, L E Adinolfi, E Sagnelli, L Mastrullo, N Coppola
This study evaluated the long-term efficacy and safety of an 18-month lamivudine prophylaxis in 68 HBsAg-negative/anti-HBc-positive patients with oncohaematological disease. All 68 consecutive HBsAg-negative/anti-HBc-positive patients with an oncohaematological disease and naïve for chemotherapy observed from April 2008 to December 2012 at 2 Hematology Units in Naples were treated with lamivudine for 18 months after stopping chemotherapy and monitored for HBsAg at months 1 and 3 during chemotherapy and then every 3 months after its discontinuation...
February 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Hugo Barragué, Bertrand Condat, Nicolas Petitdidier, Eric Champagne, Christophe Renou, Jacques Izopet, Florence Abravanel
RATIONALE: Acute hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections are usually self-limiting in immunocompetent patients. HEV persistence has been described only in immunosuppressed patients such as solid-organ transplant recipients, patients with hematological diseases, or patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 61-year-old patient was admitted in hospital for jaundice and asthenia. DIAGNOSES: The patient had underlying cirrhosis and developed a chronic HEV infection...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Marcial Álvarez-Salafranca, Asunción Vicente, Carolina Prat Torres, Andrea Combalia, Manuel Monsonís, Veronica Paola Celis-Passini, María Antonia González-Enseñat
Demodex mites are commensal organisms rarely found in healthy children. Human demodicosis can be classified as a primary or a secondary form. The secondary form in children usually affects severely immunodepressed children. To our knowledge, this is the first report of human demodicosis associated with Langerhans cell histiocytosis. These cases show that this skin disorder can occur months after completing chemotherapy, without recurrence of the systemic disease.
November 2017: Pediatric Dermatology
Deodatta S Gajbhiye, Lidita Khandeparker
The endosymbiont-host relationship between a pea crab and its bivalve host has been studied previously using bivalve's multi-physiological parameters. The present study is first of its kind that uses hemocyte's immune functionality to evaluate the symbiotic relationship between bivalve Paphia malabarica and its symbiont crab, Pinnotheres vicajii. The sampling was carried out at two stations (differed in nutrient concentration, productivity, and bacterial abundance) located along the southwest coast of India...
September 6, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Floarea Mimi NiŢu, Mihai Olteanu, Costin Teodor Streba, Gabriela Jimborean, Paraschiva Postolache, Milena Adina Man, Antigona Carmen Trofor, Roxana Maria Nemeş, Livia Dragonu, Mădălina Olteanu
Tuberculosis (TB) is a global health issue, with a rising incidence since the beginning of this century. It poses a severe mortality risk and also poses a serious economic risk as it reduces the working capacity of an individual in the most productive part of life. Developing countries face widespread tuberculosis infection - up to 95% of all cases and 98% of deaths, respectively. It is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (the Koch bacillus) that can be contracted from either humans or animal hosts...
2017: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
P-L Conan, C Ficko, F Charton, O Bylicki, H Le Floch, J Margery, F Rivière
INTRODUCTION: Nocardia is an opportunist bacteria involved in patients with cellular immunodepression or chronic lung disease. The most frequent portals of entry are the respiratory tract by inhalation or direct inoculation through a cutaneous effraction. Nocardiosis may be localised or disseminated. CASE REPORT: We report a rare case of disseminated nocardiosis to Nocardia nova with pulmonary, cutaneous, cerebral attacks and femoral osteomyelitis. The diagnosis was confirmed by prolonged cultures of the bronchoalveolar fluid and the pus extracted from a cutaneous lesion...
July 14, 2017: La Revue de Médecine Interne
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