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Bronchial asthma

Keitaro Nakamoto, Masato Watanabe, Mitsuru Sada, Toshiya Inui, Masuo Nakamura, Kojiro Honda, Hiroo Wada, Yu Mikami, Hirotaka Matsuzaki, Masafumi Horie, Satoshi Noguchi, Yasuhiro Yamauchi, Hikari Koyama, Toshiyuki Kogane, Tadashi Kohyama, Hajime Takizawa
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Bronchial asthma (BA) is a chronic airway disease characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness and remodeling, which are intimately linked to chronic airway inflammation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide are generated by inflammatory cells that are involved in the pathogenesis of BA. However, the role of ROS in the management of BA patients is not yet clear. We attempted to determine the role of ROS as a biomarker in the clinical setting of BA...
2016: PloS One
Seyyed Shamsadin Athari, Zahra Pourpak, Gert Folkerts, Johan Garssen, Mostafa Moin, Ian M Adcock, Masoud Movassaghi, Mehdi Shafiee Ardestani, Seyed Mohammad Moazzeni, Esmaeil Mortaz
Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by airway inflammation, bronchoconstriction, airway hyperresponsiveness and recurring attacks of impaired breathing. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) has been proposed as a novel anti-asthma drug due to its effects on airway smooth muscle relaxation, bronchodilation and vasodilation along with its immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. In the current study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of VIP when conjugated with α-alumina nanoparticle (α-AN) to prevent enzymatic degradation of VIP in the respiratory tract...
October 19, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
A Vora, Amit Bhargava
INTRODUCTION: Cough is significant health problem with greater implication for impaired quality of life. Acute and chronic cough due to infective (viral/bacterial), allergic conditions or bronchial asthma including cough variant asthma are often treated with combination of mucolytics, expectorants and bronchodilators. Bronchodilators reduces cough sensitivity, promotes clearance of cough secretions while reducing protrusive inflammatory mediator release. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To further understand the clinical utility and safety of Bronchodilatory cough formulations (BCF) containing Levosalbutamol in real world settings...
September 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Huaqi Tang, Chunsheng Liu, Yanpeng Li, Xinyue Zhang, Guojie Xu
Fungi of the Alternaria genus are associated with allergic diseases, with Alternaria alternata being one of the most prevalent species. A. alternata has been frequently reported as the etiologic agent of hypersensitivity pneumonitis, allergic rhinosinusitis, bronchial asthma, and other diseases. In this study, we developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay and a real-time PCR assay to detect low levels of A. alternata in herbal tea samples. The LAMP assay can detect as little as 3 pg/μL of A...
October 18, 2016: Journal of AOAC International
Cassandra E Deering-Rice, Chris Stockmann, Erin G Romero, Zhenyu Lu, Darien Shapiro, Brian L Stone, Bernhard Fassl, Flory Nkoy, Derek A Uchida, Robert M Ward, John M Veranth, Christopher A Reilly
Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are activated by environmental particulate materials. We hypothesized that polymorphic variants of TRPV1 would be uniquely responsive to insoluble coal fly ash compared to the prototypical soluble agonist capsaicin. Furthermore, these changes would manifest as differences in lung cell responses to these agonists and perhaps correlate with changes in asthma symptom control. The TRPV1 I315M and T469I variants were more responsive to capsaicin and coal fly ash. The I585V variant was less responsive to coal fly ash particles, due to reduced translation of protein and an apparent role for I585 in activation by particles...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Joachim Heinrich, Guo Feng, Mary Jo Trepka
BACKGROUND: Although mercury exposure has been associated with several adverse health effects, the association with childhood asthma is under-investigated. Therefore, we explore the association between mercury and childhood asthma in a population with low mercury levels. METHODS: Mercury levels were measured in blood and urine in 1,056 children aged 5-14 years. In addition to including questions about asthma diagnosis and wheezing, the study measured bronchial hyper-responsiveness and allergic sensitization to common aeroallergens...
October 6, 2016: Epidemiology
R Dawar, D Nagarjuna, R Gupta, N P Ghonge, R Sardana
A 62-year-old man with asthma sought care for intermittent fever, cough with expectoration, breathlessness and orthopnoea with grunting. Computed tomography revealed clusters of centrilobular nodules on both sides with a tree-in-bud appearance and mild diffuse bronchial wall thickening. Sputum sample grew pure colonies of Actinobacillus ureae which was confirmed by MALDI-TOF and 16SrRNA gene sequencing. A. ureae may be an additional bacteriologic causative agent of the tree-in-bud pattern on computed tomographic scan...
November 2016: New Microbes and New Infections
Tarig Ali-Dinar, Jason E Lang
Obesity is a major risk factor for several conditions including atherosclerotic disease, metabolic syndrome, and upper airway dysfunction. However, the purported link between obesity and asthma has remained more difficult to define, in part due to limitations in past epidemiologic studies and the inherent challenge in accurately defining asthma in children. It is possible that obesity leads to asthma only in the presence of a mediating variable such as an obesity-related conditions such as esophageal reflux or insulin resistance...
October 17, 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
Cecilia K Andersson, Alexandra Adams, Prasad Nagakumar, Cara Bossley, Atul Gupta, Daphne De Vries, Afiqah Adnan, Andrew Bush, Sejal Saglani, Clare M Lloyd
BACKGROUND: Neutrophils and IL-17A have been linked mechanistically in models of allergic airways disease and have been associated with asthma severity. However, their role in paediatric asthma is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the role of neutrophils and the IL-17A pathway in mediating paediatric severe therapy resistant asthma (STRA). METHODS: Children with STRA (n=51, age 12.6 (6 -16.3) years) and non-asthmatic controls (n=15, age 4...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Jillian M Cavallari, Tara S Jawaro, Nadia I Awad, Patrick J Bridgeman
Glucagon, a hormone secreted by pancreatic alpha cells, causes bronchial smooth muscle relaxation by activating the synthesis of cyclic adenosine monophosphate. It was studied in the 1980s and 1990s as a treatment option for the management of asthma but has since not been evaluated. Data to support its use are limited, but it may serve as a last-line agent for refractory asthma exacerbation. Here we describe 4 cases in which intravenous glucagon was used to manage severe, refractory asthma exacerbation in the emergency department...
September 30, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Thomas Westergren, Sveinung Berntsen, Karin C Lødrup Carlsen, Petter Mowinckel, Geir Håland, Liv Fegran, Kai-Håkon Carlsen
BACKGROUND: Children with asthma may be less physically active than their healthy peers. We aimed to investigate if perceived exercise limitation (EL) was associated with lung function or bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR), socio-economic factors, prenatal smoking, overweight, allergic disease, asthma severity or physical activity (PA). METHODS: The 302 children with asthma from the 10-year examination of the Environment and Childhood Asthma birth cohort study underwent a clinical examination including perceived EL (structured interview of child and parent(s)), measure of overweight (body mass index by sex and age passing through 25kg/m(2) or above at18 years), exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 ) pre- and post-exercise), methacholine bronchial challenge (severe BHR; provocative dose causing ≥20% decrease in FEV1≤1μmol) and asthma severity score (dose of controller medication and exacerbations last 12 months)...
October 13, 2016: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Rolf Merget, Ngoc Pham, Maike Schmidtke, Swaantje Casjens, Vera van Kampen, Ingrid Sander, Olaf Hagemeyer, Kirsten Sucker, Monika Raulf, Thomas Brüning
PURPOSE: Medical surveillance of workers in precious metals refineries and catalyst production plants is well established in many countries as a measure to prevent occupational asthma due to platinum (Pt) salts. It was the aim of this study to evaluate the impact of medical surveillance and to define prognostic factors with an emphasis on exposure determinants. METHODS: As part of an observational longitudinal study, 96 workers from German precious metals refineries and catalyst production plants with Pt salt allergy underwent a second examination several years (median 67 months) after the initial diagnosis was made...
October 12, 2016: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
José Serrano-Pariente, Vicente Plaza, Joan B Soriano, Mercè Mayosc, Antolín López-Viña, César Picado, Laura Vigil
BACKGROUND: Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in asthma patients with concomitant obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) seems to have a favorable impact on asthma, but data are inconsistent due to methodological limitations of previous studies METHODS: Prospective, multicenter study. We examined asthma outcomes after six months of CPAP in 99 adult asthma patients (mean age 57 years) with OSAS (respiratory disturbance index ≥20). Asthma control and quality of life were assessed with the Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) and the Mini Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (MiniAQLQ), respectively...
October 12, 2016: Allergy
Anirudh Karanam, B G Shiva Kumar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Pankaj Kumar Singh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Ronen Bar-Yoseph, Nir Kugelman, Galit Livnat, Michal Gur, Fahed Hakim, Vered Nir, Lea Bentur
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder requiring intermittent or continuous anti-inflammatory therapy. Patients often turn to alternative treatments as complements or replacements to conventional treatments. We aimed to evaluate the effect of salt room chambers (halotherapy) on bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR), fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), and quality of life in children with asthma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Children aged 5-13 years with a clinical diagnosis of mild asthma not receiving anti-inflammatory therapy...
October 10, 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
Detlef Neumann
Histamine is a pro-inflammatory mediator with a prominent role in allergic diseases. Antagonists at the histamine receptor subtype 1 are central in anti-allergic therapies, with the exception of allergic asthma, where they are clinically without effect. The latest identified histamine receptor subtype 4, which is expressed mainly in hematopoietic cells, now provides a reasonable target for new therapeutic strategies inhibiting histamine function. The pathophysiology of allergy, esp. allergic asthma, and in its context the effects of antagonists at the histamine receptor subtype 4 in preclinical and clinical settings are discussed in this chapter...
October 8, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Thomas Southworth, Jonathan Plumb, Vandana Gupta, James Pearson, Isabel Ramis, Martin D Lehner, Montserrat Miralpeix, Dave Singh
BACKGROUND: Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase delta (PI3Kδ) and Janus-activated kinases (JAK) are both novel anti-inflammatory targets in asthma that affect lymphocyte activation. We have investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of PI3Kδ and JAK inhibition on cytokine release from asthma bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells and T-cell activation, and measured lung PI3Kδ and JAK signalling pathway expression. METHOD: Cells isolated from asthma patients and healthy subjects were treated with PI3Kδ or JAK inhibitors, and/or dexamethasone, before T-cell receptor stimulation...
October 4, 2016: Respiratory Research
Feng-Jia Chen, Xin-Yan Huang, Yang-Li Liu, Geng-Peng Lin, Can-Mao Xie
BACKGROUND: Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is an easy, sensitive, reproducible, and noninvasive marker of eosinophilic airway inflammation. Accordingly, FeNO is extensively used to diagnose and manage asthma. Patients with COPD who share some of the features of asthma have a condition called asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS). The feasibility of using FeNO to differentiate ACOS patients from asthma and COPD patients remains unclear. METHODS: From February 2013 to May 2016, patients suspected with asthma and COPD through physician's opinion were subjected to FeNO measurement, pulmonary function test (PFT), and bronchial hyperresponsiveness or bronchodilator test...
2016: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Ryo Atsuta, Yasuo To, Susumu Sakamoto, Isao Mukai, Akihiro Kobayashi, Arisa Kinoshita, Kazuhisa Takahashi
BACKGROUND: Maintaining high treatment adherence levels is critical for effective management of chronic diseases. The Adherence Starts with Knowledge 20 (ASK-20) questionnaire is the only linguistically validated patient-reported treatment adherence tool available in Japan. We conducted additional analyses on ASK-20 data from Japanese adults with asthma. METHODS: This was a prospective, non-interventional, single-visit, multi-centre study in Japanese adults (n = 300) with asthma receiving long-term treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) or ICS/long-acting beta-agonists...
October 3, 2016: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
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