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Seong Jun Yoon, Kwanyong Pak, Taewook Nam, Alexander Yoon, Hyungjun Kim, Sung Gap Im, Byung Jin Cho
Semiconductor integrated circuit chip industries have been striving to introduce porous ultralow-k (ULK) dielectrics into the multilevel interconnection process in order to improve their chip operation speed by reducing capacitance along the signal path. To date, however, highly porous ULK dielectrics (porosity > 40%, dielectric constant (k) < 2.4) have not been successfully adopted in real devices because the porous nature causes many serious problems including non-continuous barrier deposition, penetration of the barrier metal, and reliability issues...
July 19, 2017: ACS Nano
Hao Xu, Shinobu Nagasaka, Naohiro Kameta, Mitsutoshi Masuda, Takashi Ito, Daniel A Higgins
Synthetic organic nanotubes self-assembled from bolaamphiphile surfactants are now being explored for use as drug delivery vehicles. In this work, several factors important to their implementation in drug delivery are explored. All experiments are performed with the nanotubes immersed in ethanol. First, Nile Red (NR) and a hydroxylated Nile Red derivative (NR-OH) are loaded into the nanotubes and spectroscopic fluorescence imaging methods are used to determine the apparent dielectric constant of their local environment...
July 19, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Ferry Anggoro Ardy Nugroho, Rickard Frost, Tomasz J Antosiewicz, Joachim Fritzsche, Elin M Larsson Langhammer, Christoph Langhammer
Nanoplasmonic sensors typically comprise arrangements of noble metal nanoparticles on a dielectric support. Thus, they are intrinsically characterized by surface topography with corrugations at the 10-100 nm length scale. While irrelevant in some bio- and chemosensing applications, it is also to be expected that the surface topography significantly influences the interaction between solids, fluids, nanoparticles and (bio)molecules, and the nanoplasmonic sensor surface. To address this issue, we present a wafer-scale nanolithography-based fabrication approach for high-temperature compatible, chemically inert, topographically flat, and laterally homogeneous nanoplasmonic sensor chips...
January 27, 2017: ACS Sensors
Hyeuknam Kwon, Seward B Rutkove, Benjamin Sanchez
OBJECTIVE: The neurology and physiatry community need improved tools for the evaluation of skeletal muscle condition. Here, we evaluate needle electrical impedance myography (EIM), a new minimally invasive approach to determine muscle status that could ultimately become a bedside tool for the assessment of neuromuscular disorders. APPROACH: We design and study the recording characteristics of tetrapolar EIM needle electrodes combining theory and finite element model simulations...
July 19, 2017: Physiological Measurement
Yiqin Chen, Xiaoyang Duan, Marcus Matuschek, Yanming Zhou, Frank Neubrech, Huigao Duan, Na Liu
High-resolution multicolor printing based on pixelated optical nanostructures is of great importance for promoting advances in color display science. So far, most of the work in this field has been focused on achieving static colors, limiting many potential applications. This inevitably calls for the development of dynamic color displays with advanced and innovative functionalities. In this Letter, we demonstrate a novel dynamic color printing scheme using magnesium-based pixelated Fabry-Pérot cavities by grey-scale nanolithography...
July 19, 2017: Nano Letters
Changlei Zhang, Cheng Huang, Mingbo Pu, Jiakun Song, Zeyu Zhao, Xiaoyu Wu, Xiangang Luo
In this article, a dual-band wide-angle metamaterial perfect absorber is proposed to achieve absorption at the wavelength where laser radar operates. It is composed of gold ring array and a Helmholtz resonance cavity spaced by a Si dielectric layer. Numerical simulation results reveal that the designed absorber displays two absorption peaks at the target wavelength of 10.6 μm and 1.064 μm with the large frequency ratio and near-unity absorptivity under the normal incidence. The wide-angle absorbing property and the polarization-insensitive feature are also demonstrated...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
Xiong Li, Shanshan Wei, Liucheng Chen, Gang Qu, Huisheng Zhang, Zhou Liu, Liqiu Wang, Tiantian Kong, Tianfu Wang
In this work, we investigate the pulsation of an electrically charged jet surrounded by an immiscible dielectric liquid in flow-focusing capillary microfluidics. We have characterized a low-frequency large-amplitude pulsation and a high-frequency small-amplitude pulsation, respectively. The former, due to the unbalanced charge and fluid transportation is responsible for generating droplets with a broad size distribution. The latter is intrinsic and produces droplets with a relatively narrow size distribution...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
Tongnan Xia, Hanming Guo, Jinbing Hu, Songlin Zhuang
By eliminating the spherical aberrations of microsphere we derived a simple but useful formula on the focusing of dielectric microsphere. On basis of this formula, not only can researchers determine the parameters of an optical microsphere system with super-resolution, but they can also perform parameter transformation. In order to facilitate the application, the principle of parameter transformation was summarized into three kinds of case listed in Table 1, which were all demonstrated numerically with concrete examples by finite-difference time-domain method...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
Janika Tang, Vaibhav Thakore, Tapio Ala-Nissila
Increased reflectance from the inclusion of highly scattering particles at low volume fractions in an insulating dielectric offers a promising way to reduce radiative thermal losses at high temperatures. Here, we investigate plasmonic resonance driven enhanced scattering from microinclusions of low-bandgap semiconductors (InP, Si, Ge, PbS, InAs and Te) in an insulating composite to tailor its infrared reflectance for minimizing thermal losses from radiative transfer. To this end, we compute the spectral properties of the microcomposites using Monte Carlo modeling and compare them with results from Fresnel equations...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
Francisco Javier Ferrández-Pastor, Juan Manuel García-Chamizo, Mario Nieto-Hidalgo
Electromagnetic radiation is energy that interacts with matter. The interaction process is of great importance to the sensing applications that characterize material media. Parameters like constant dielectric represent matter characteristics and they are identified using emission, interaction and reception of electromagnetic radiation in adapted environmental conditions. How the electromagnetic wave responds when it interacts with the material media depends on the range of frequency used and the medium parameters...
July 18, 2017: Sensors
Pushpa Raj Pudasaini, Michael G Stanford, Akinola Oyedele, Anthony Wong, Anna Hofmann, Dayrl Briggs, Kai Xiao, David G Mandrus, Thomas Z Ward, Philip D Rack
In this paper, high performance top-gated WSe2 field effect transistor (FET) devices are demonstrated via a two-step remote plasma assisted ALD process. High-quality, low-leakage aluminum oxide (Al2O3) gate dielectric layers are deposited onto the WSe2 channel using a remote plasma assisted ALD process with an ultrathin (~1 nm) titanium buffer layer. The first few nanometers (~2 nm) of the Al2O3 dielectric film is deposited at relatively low temperature (i.e. 50 ºC) and remainder of the film is deposited at 150 ºC to ensure the conformal coating of Al2O3 on the WSe2 surface...
July 18, 2017: Nanotechnology
Jeong Hyun Kwon, Seungyeop Choi, Yongmin Jeon, Hyuncheol Kim, Ki Soo Chang, Kyung Cheol Choi
In this study, a new and efficient dielectric-metal-dielectric-based thin-film encapsulation (DMD-TFE) with an inserted Ag thin film is proposed to guarantee the reliability of flexible displays by improving the barrier properties, mechanical flexibility, and heat dissipation, considered as essential requirements for OLED encapsulation. The DMD-TFE, which is composed of Al2O3, Ag, and a silica nanoparticle-embedded sol-gel hybrid nanocomposite, shows a water vapor transmission rate of 8.70 × 10-6 g/m2/day and good mechanical reliability at a bending radius of 30 mm corresponding to 0...
July 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Xing-Quan Wang, Ren-Wu Zhou, Gerard de Groot, Kateryna Bazaka, Anthony B Murphy, Kostya Ken Ostrikov
Cold atmospheric plasma has recently emerged as a simple, low-cost and efficient physical method for inducing significant biological responses in seeds and plants without the use of traditional, potentially environmentally-hazardous chemicals, fungicides or hormones. While the beneficial effects of plasma treatment on seed germination, disease resistance and agricultural output have been reported, the mechanisms that underpin the observed biological responses are yet to be fully described. This study employs Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and emission spectroscopy to capture chemical interactions between plasmas and seed surfaces with the aim to provide a more comprehensive account of plasma-seed interactions...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
O García-Zaldívar, T Escamilla-Díaz, M Ramírez-Cardona, M A Hernández-Landaverde, R Ramírez-Bon, J M Yañez-Limón, F Calderón-Piñar
The stabilization of δ-phase of poly(vinylidene fluoride) PVDF in a 14 µm-thickness ferroelectric membrane is achieved by a simple route based on the use of a dimethylformamide (DMF)/acetone solvent, in which the application of external electric field is not required. X-ray diffraction and calorimetric experiments on heating reveal that, at 154 °C, the original mixture between ferroelectric δ-phase and paraelectric α-phase transits to a system with only this latter phase in the crystalline fraction. A gradual and slight increment of amorphous fraction up to the melting at 161 °C is also observed...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
R Jayaprakash, F G Kalaitzakis, G Christmann, K Tsagaraki, M Hocevar, B Gayral, E Monroy, N T Pelekanos
Polariton lasers are coherent light sources based on the condensation of exciton-polaritons in semiconductor microcavities, which occurs either in the kinetic or thermodynamic (Bose-Einstein) regime. Besides their fundamental interest, polariton lasers have the potential of extremely low operating thresholds. Here, we demonstrate ultra-low threshold polariton lasing at room temperature, using an all-dielectric, GaN membrane-based microcavity, with a spontaneously-formed zero-dimensional trap. The microcavity is fabricated using an innovative method, which involves photo-electrochemical etching of an InGaN sacrificial layer and allows for the incorporation of optimally-grown GaN active quantum wells inside a cavity with atomically-smooth surfaces...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
Zhou Li, Weiwei Wang, Zhai Cai, Shuai Han, Shiming Lin, Linyun He, Miaoliang Chen, Dongyue Pan, Guanhua Deng, Song Duan, Sherman Xuegang Xin
The study was designed to identify differences in the dielectric properties of ex vivo colorectal cancerous tissues at different tumor stages. To date, 130 freshly excised colorectal cancerous specimens underwent measurement of both relative permittivity and conductivity on the serosal and mucosal surfaces of the carcinoma nidus, and the mucosa of the surgical resection margin ranging from 50 to 500 MHz at the Larmor frequencies. Tumor node metastasis staging was determined according to pathological reports for each patient...
July 17, 2017: Bioelectromagnetics
Dalia M Abdel-Basset, Suresh Mulmi, Mohammed S El-Bana, Suzan S Fouad, Venkataraman Thangadurai
Lithium garnet oxides are considered as very promising solid electrolyte candidates for all-solid-state lithium ion batteries (SSLiBs). In this work, we present a cubic garnet-type Li5+2xLa3Ta2-xSmxO12 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.55) system as a potential electrolyte for SSLiBs. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were employed to investigate the structural stability of Li5+2xLa3Ta2-xSmxO12. The results from PXRD and SEM suggested structural and morphological transformation as a function of dopant concentration...
July 17, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
Tyler Cosby, Zachariah Vicars, Yangyang Wang, Joshua R Sangoro
Experimental access to the lifetimes and dynamics of mesoscopic structures in room temperature ionic liquids - a feature expected to correlate with many physicochemical properties of these materials - remains limited. Here, we report the observation of slow, sub- α relaxations corresponding to dynamics of nanoscale hydrophobic aggregates in a systematic series of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium-based ionic liquids from detailed analysis of dynamic-mechanical and broadband dielectric spectra. The emergence of the sub-α relaxations as determined by the two experimental methods correlates with an increase in alkyl spacer length on the imidazolium cation and results in higher zero-shear viscosity and static dielectric permittivity, constituting direct evidence of the influence of mesoscale aggregation on the physicochemical properties of ionic liquids...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Amin Azizi, Matthew R Gadinski, Qi Li, Mohammed Abu AlSaud, Jianjun Wang, Yi Wang, Bo Wang, Feihua Liu, Long-Qing Chen, Nasim Alem, Qing Wang
Polymer dielectrics are the preferred materials of choice for power electronics and pulsed power applications. However, their relatively low operating temperatures significantly limit their uses in harsh-environment energy storage devices, e.g., automobile and aerospace power systems. Herein, hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) films are prepared from chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and readily transferred onto polyetherimide (PEI) films. Greatly improved performance in terms of discharged energy density and charge-discharge efficiency is achieved in the PEI sandwiched with CVD-grown h-BN films at elevated temperatures when compared to neat PEI films and other high-temperature polymer and nanocomposite dielectrics...
July 17, 2017: Advanced Materials
Furong Wang, Pascal Pernot, Pierre Archirel, Daniel Ortiz, Sophie Le Caer, Mehran Mostafavi
NMR measurements show that diethyl carbonate (DEC, a solvent with a low dielectric constant) solutions of LiClO4 contain (LiClO4)n oligomers. The reduction of these species by solvated electrons and pre-solvated electrons is followed by picosecond pulse radiolysis measurements. The data analysis shows that several anions absorbing in the NIR and visible range are formed after the 7 ps electron pulse. In contrast with THF solutions of LiClO4, the anionic monomer (LiClO4)- is not observed in DEC solutions. This is due to the fact that DEC is a non-polar solvent favoring the clustering of the monomers in the non-irradiated solution as shown by NMR results, and also due to the instability of the anionic monomer...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
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