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Yanfei Hao, Mingying Sun, Zhaoyang Jiao, Yajing Guo, Xue Pan, Xiangyang Pang, Jianqiang Zhu
We propose two efficient methods of determining damage growth threshold (DGT) based on the saturation damage size analysis (SDSA) for multilayer dielectric gratings by picosecond pulsed lasers. The damage size at laser fluences above DGT increases with the shot number and finally saturates due to the Gaussian focal spot. The DGT is extracted by mapping the boundary of a saturation damage site obtained at single fluence to the beam profile, which is called the monofluence SDSA method. Meanwhile, the saturation damage size decreases when reducing laser fluence...
May 20, 2018: Applied Optics
Ji Xu, Nannan Shi, Yilin Chen, Xinyi Lu, Hongyu Wei, Yunqing Lu, Ning Liu, Baifu Zhang, Jin Wang
This study reports on a cylindrical hybrid plasmonic waveguide (CHPW) consisting of a high-index dielectric core, a sandwiched low-index dielectric layer, and a metal cladding. The CHPW supports the TM01 mode with a radially polarized transverse component of the electric field. Optical fields can be significantly enhanced in the sandwiched low-index dielectric region with nanoscale thickness down to 5 nm, and tight mode confinement with the same order of the normalized mode area compared with that of the plasmonic waveguide is achieved...
May 20, 2018: Applied Optics
Alma K González-Alcalde, Rafael Salas-Montiel, Habib Mohamad, Alain Morand, Sylvain Blaize, Demetrio Macías
In this work, we propose an inversion scheme to tailor the chromatic response of an all-dielectric structure. To this end, we couple, through a previously defined objective functional involving the concept of color difference, a forward solver with an optimization algorithm. The former is based on the differential method, whereas the latter is based on particle swarm optimization. The optimal geometrical parameters of the structure that generates a specific color are obtained through the solution of an approximation problem...
May 10, 2018: Applied Optics
Hesham A Okda, Ishac Kandas, Moustafa H Aly, M El Osairy
The exact solution of the modal dispersion relation of multilayer optical fibers is very critical and complicated, especially in the case of complex refractive indices of some layers added to the fiber. In this paper, a different methodology is proposed to solve the complex dispersion relations for cladding modes, based on the well-defined proper expressions of electromagnetic fields in the different layers of optical fibers. An optical fiber, coated by a dielectric nonlinear layer, is analyzed using the exact four-layer model, and the results obtained are compared with those analyzed in the literature based on the approximate three-layer model, where the effect of the coating layer is neglected when solving the dispersion relation...
May 10, 2018: Applied Optics
Shangliang Wu, Yan Ye, Minghui Luo, Linsen Chen
A metadielectric nanostructure with narrow cavities is proposed, behaving as a reflective color filter for TM-polarized light while as a broadband reflector for TE-polarized light. By varying the cavity depth or changing the incident light polarization, reflective colors of the proposed structure cover the entire visible spectrum conveniently. In particular, the reflections of this proposed structure show good angular tolerance up to 50° for both polarizations. Furthermore, it can display colors even with two grating slits, which shows high printing resolution up to 70555 dpi, having great potential for applications of a large area color imaging and anticounterfeiting devices...
May 10, 2018: Applied Optics
Justyna Pacułt, Marzena Rams-Baron, Beata Chrząszcz, Renata Jachowicz, Marian Paluch
Rational selection of polymers for amorphous drug stabilization is necessary for further successful development of solid dispersion technology. In this paper we investigated the effect of polymer chain length on the inhibition of amorphous drug recrystallization. To consider this problem we prepared a drug-polymer blends (in 10:1 drug to polymer ratio) containing bicalutamide (BIC) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) with different chain lengths K10, K30, K90. We applied broadband dielectric spectroscopy to compare the molecular dynamics of investigated samples and thoroughly recognize their crystallization tendencies from supercooled liquid state...
May 23, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Ali Charkhesht, Chola Regmi, Katie R Mitchell-Koch, Shengfeng Cheng, Nguyen Q Vinh
The low-frequency collective vibrational modes in proteins as well as the protein-water interface have been suggested as dominant factors controlling the efficiency of biochemical reactions and biological energy transport. It is thus crucial to uncover the mystery of hydration structure and dynamics as well as their coupling to collective motions of proteins in aqueous solutions. Here we report dielectric properties of aqueous BSA protein solutions as a model system using an extremely sensitive dielectric spectrometer with frequencies spanning from megahertz to terahertz...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
H N Mayrovitz, S R Gildenberg, P Spagna, L Killpack, D A Altman
BACKGROUND: Measuring tissue dielectric constant (TDC) of cancer tissues to distinguish them from normal or non-cancerous tissues has been an active area of research that has targeted several different cancer types usually using in vitro specimens. The goal of this study was to determine if and to what extent TDC values measured in vivo at 300 MHz using a simple hand-held measuring device might differentiate between skin cancer lesions and non-cancerous skin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Triplicate TDC measurements were made in 32 patients who were subsequently diagnosed with skin basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and in 14 patients subsequently diagnosed as having non-cancerous lesions...
May 23, 2018: Skin Research and Technology
Bingjun Han, Ya Li, Bing Qian, Yan He, Lixu Peng, Huamei Yu
A novel detector for liquid chromatography (LC) for the determination of dithiocarbamate (DTC) fungicides is presented with a miniaturized dielectric barrier discharge-microplasma molecular emission spectrometer and an online microwave-assisted hydrolysis reactor. DTCs in the sample/standard solutions together with SnCl2 were pumped to the reactor to be converted to CS2 with high efficiency, which was then separated from the liquid phase and transformed for the detection of the specific molecular emission at 257...
May 23, 2018: Analyst
Ángela I Barreda, Hassan Saleh, Amélie Litman, Francisco González, Jean-Michel Geffrin, Fernando Moreno
Low-losses and directionality effects exhibited by High Refractive Index Dielectric particles make them attractive for applications where radiation direction control is relevant. For instance, isolated metallo-dielectric core-shell particles or aggregates (dimers) of High Refractive Index Dielectric particles have been proposed for building operational switching devices. Also, the possibility of using isolated High Refractive Index Dielectric particles for optimizing solar cells performance has been explored...
May 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ashwani Kumar, Premlal Balakrishna Pillai, Xiaoyao Song, Maria De Souza
Negative capacitance transistors are a unique class of switches capable of operation beyond the Boltzmann limit to realise sub-thermionic switching. Until now, the negative capacitance effect has been predominantly attributed to devices employing an unstable insulator with ferroelectric properties, exhibiting a two-well energy landscape, in accordance with Landau theory. The theory and operation of a solid electrolyte Field Effect Transistor (SE-FET) of subthreshold swing less than 60 mV/dec in the absence of a ferroelectric gate dielectric is demonstrated in this work...
May 23, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jorik van de Groep, Mark L Brongersma
The ability to control and structurally tune the optical resonances of semiconductor nanostructures has far-reaching implications for a wide range of optical applications, including photodetectors, (bio)sensors, and photovoltaics. Such control is commonly obtained by tailoring the nanostructure's geometry, material, or dielectric environment. Here, we combine insights from the field of coherent optics and metasurface mirrors to effectively turn Mie resonances on and off with high spatial control and in a polarization-dependent fashion...
May 22, 2018: Nano Letters
Jing Chen, Sheng-Zhe Wang, Jun-Yu Chen, Dong-Zhi Chen, Shang-Gui Deng, Bin Xu
BACKGROUND: Atmospheric cold plasma (ACP) has emerged as a potential alternative to traditional methods for non-thermal food decontamination. However, little data are available about ACP treatment for seafood. In this study, dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) was applied to generate CP, and the aim of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of DBD-ACP on improving the quality of chub mackerel on the basis of chemical, microbial, and sensory characteristics. RESULTS: The effect of DBD-ACP on the quality of chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) during storage was examined...
May 21, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Changhee Lee, Servin Rathi, Muhammad Atif Khan, Dongsuk Lim, Yunseob Kim, Sun Jin Yun, Doo-Hyeb Youn, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Gil-Ho Kim
Molybdenum disulfide (MoS<sub>2</sub>) based field effect transistors (FETs) are of considerable interest in electronic and opto-electronic applications but often have large hysteresis and threshold voltage instabilities. In this study, by using advanced transfer techniques, hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) encapsulated FETs based on a single, homogeneous and atomic-thin MoS<sub>2</sub> flake are fabricated on hBN and SiO<sub>2</sub> substrates...
May 22, 2018: Nanotechnology
W Gamal, H Wu, I Underwood, J Jia, S Smith, P O Bagnaninchi
Therapies based on regenerative techniques have the potential to radically improve healthcare in the coming years. As a result, there is an emerging need for non-destructive and label-free technologies to assess the quality of engineered tissues and cell-based products prior to their use in the clinic. In parallel, the emerging regenerative medicine industry that aims to produce stem cells and their progeny on a large scale will benefit from moving away from existing destructive biochemical assays towards data-driven automation and control at the industrial scale...
July 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Binghao Wang, Wei Huang, Lifeng Chi, Mohammed Al-Hashimi, Tobin J Marks, Antonio Facchetti
Recent advances in flexible and stretchable electronics (FSE), a technology diverging from the conventional rigid silicon technology, have stimulated fundamental scientific and technological research efforts. FSE aims at enabling disruptive applications such as flexible displays, wearable sensors, printed RFID tags on packaging, electronics on skin/organs, and Internet-of-things as well as possibly reducing the cost of electronic device fabrication. Thus, the key materials components of electronics, the semiconductor, the dielectric, and the conductor as well as the passive (substrate, planarization, passivation, and encapsulation layers) must exhibit electrical performance and mechanical properties compatible with FSE components and products...
May 22, 2018: Chemical Reviews
Alexandre De Neef, Cédric Samuel, Grégory Stoclet, Mohamed Rguiti, Christian Courtois, Philippe Dubois, Jérémie Soulestin, Jean-Marie Raquez
Poly(vinylidene difluoride) (PVDF) displays attractive ferroelectric/piezoelectric properties and its polar β-crystals are specifically targeted for achieving electroactive applications. However, their direct crystallization from the melt state represents a challenging task that has never been addressed using melt-state processes. The use of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) is herein investigated to promote the PVDF polar β-phase using melt-blending and extrusion-calendering technologies. The presence of the β-phase is here confirmed by ATR-FTIR and WAXS experiments with blends at a PMMA content as low as 5 wt%...
May 22, 2018: Soft Matter
Huiyong Sun, Lili Duan, Fu Chen, Hui Liu, Zhe Wang, Peichen Pan, Feng Zhu, John Z H Zhang, Tingjun Hou
Entropy effects play an important role in drug-target interactions, but the entropic contribution to ligand-binding affinity is often neglected by end-point binding free energy calculation methods, such as MM/GBSA and MM/PBSA, due to the expensive computational cost of normal mode analysis (NMA). Here, we systematically investigated entropy effects on the prediction power of MM/GBSA and MM/PBSA using >1500 protein-ligand systems and six representative AMBER force fields. Two computationally efficient methods, including NMA based on truncated structures and the interaction entropy approach, were used to estimate the entropic contributions to ligand-target binding free energies...
May 22, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Amirabbas Pirouz, F Levent Degertekin
This paper reports an improved CMOS compatible low temperature sacrificial layer fabrication process for Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers (CMUTs). The process adds the fabrication step of silicon oxide evaporation which is followed by a lift-off step to define the membrane support area without a need for an extra mask. This simple addition improves reliability by reducing the electric field between the top and bottom electrodes everywhere except the moving membrane without affecting the vacuum gap thickness...
August 2018: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering: Structures, Devices, and Systems
S Fritz, A Seiler, L Radtke, R Schneider, M Weides, G Weiß, D Gerthsen
This work is concerned with Al/Al-oxide(AlOx )/Al-layer systems which are important for Josephson-junction-based superconducting devices such as quantum bits. The device performance is limited by noise, which has been to a large degree assigned to the presence and properties of two-level tunneling systems in the amorphous AlOx tunnel barrier. The study is focused on the correlation of the fabrication conditions, nanostructural and nanochemical properties and the occurrence of two-level tunneling systems with particular emphasis on the AlOx -layer...
May 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
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