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Maria Grazia Palmerini, Manuel Belli, Stefania Annarita Nottola, Selenia Miglietta, Serena Bianchi, Sara Bernardi, Sevastiani Antonouli, Sandra Cecconi, Giuseppe Familiari, Guido Macchiarelli
Mancozeb, an ethylene bis-dithiocarbamate, is widely used as a fungicide and exerts reproductive toxicity in vivo and in vitro in mouse oocytes by altering spindle morphology and impairing the ability to fertilize. Mancozeb also induces a premalignant status in mouse granulosa cells (GCs) cultured in vitro, as indicated by decreased p53 expression and tenuous oxidative stress. However, the presence and extent of ultrastructural alterations induced by mancozeb on GCs in vitro have not yet been reported. Using an in vitro model of reproductive toxicity, comprising parietal GCs from mouse antral follicles cultured with increasing concentrations of mancozeb (0...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Jiwon Baek, Dahae Lee, Tae Kyoung Lee, Ji Hoon Song, Ju Sung Lee, Seong Lee, Sang-Woo Yoo, Ki Sung Kang, Eunjung Moon, Sanghyun Lee, Ki Hyun Kim
Lespedeza cuneata (Dum. Cours.) G. Don. (Fabaceae), known as Chinese bushclover or sericea lespedeza, has been used in traditional medicine to treat diabetes, hematuria, and insomnia, and it has been reported that bioactive compounds from L. cuneata possess various pharmacological properties. However, there has been no study to determine the active compounds from L. cuneata with potential activity against ovarian cancer. This study aimed to isolate cytotoxic compounds from L. cuneata and identify the molecular mechanisms underlying the apoptosis pathway in ovarian cancer cells...
November 28, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Ivano Riva, Andreas Katsanos, Francesco Oddone, Luciano Quaranta
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of visually non-significant cataract extraction in patients with hypotony maculopathy and reduced visual acuity due to over-filtering blebs after trabeculectomy. METHODS: Patients with intraocular pressure (IOP) < 6 mmHg and documented hypotony maculopathy due to over-filtering blebs after trabeculectomy were prospectively recruited. Eligible patients underwent visually non-significant cataract phacoemulsification, no earlier than 12 weeks from the diagnosis of hypotony maculopathy...
December 8, 2017: Advances in Therapy
Aljawharah Al-Qathama, Simon Gibbons, Jose M Prieto
Diphyllin and its derivatives are well known cytotoxic natural products structurally related to the anti-cancer drug podophyllotoxin. We here study their structure-activity relationship upon human melanoma cells for first time. To this end, human melanoma A375 cells were incubated with Justicidin B and its 4-methoxylated or 4-glycosylated derivatives to evaluate their selective cytotoxicity and study their effects on cell cycle distribution, caspase activation, apoptosis induction using Annexin V-FITC/PI staining, cell morphology and western blot analysis...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
Nidhi Relhan, Richard K Forster, Harry W Flynn
PURPOSE: To report historically evolving strategies (then and now) in prevention and management of endophthalmitis. DESIGN: A perspective on relevant topics in the prophylaxis and management of endophthalmitis. METHODOLOGY: This is an author selected review of studies leading to changes in strategies for endophthalmitis management over the last 100 years. RESULTS: The current perspective discusses the trends and strategies over the past century...
December 4, 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Karl Mercieca, Brett Drury, Archana Bhargava, Cecilia Fenerty
AIMS: To evaluate, describe and quantify the diversity in postoperative antimetabolite administration and bleb needling practices among glaucoma specialists performing trabeculectomy surgery within the UK and Ireland. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey was distributed to all consultant glaucoma specialists who are on the United Kingdom and Eire Glaucoma Society (UKEGS) contact list. Participants were asked specific questions about their current practices for post-trabeculectomy antimetabolite administration followed by questions directly related to bleb needling procedures...
December 6, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Ling-Yi Ke, Zong-Keng Kuo, Yu-Shih Chen, Tsu-Yi Yeh, Minxiang Dong, Hsiang-Wen Tseng, Cheng-Hsien Liu
A cancer immunotherapy μ-environment LabChip, equipped with titanium oxide phthalocyanine (TiOPc)-based optoelectronic tweezers (OET) to achieve direct cell-cell contact, can be used to study the interaction between immune cells and other cells for real-time analysis of NK cells' behavior. In microfluidic devices, it is difficult to solve dead zone problems and observe dynamic cell-cell interactions. We have created a stable and static culture μ-environment which can enhance NK cell activities. In addition, OET is used to solve dead zone problems by manipulating a single cell into four-leaf-clover-shaped (FLCS) microwells made of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEG-DA) through optofluidic maskless lithography, causing direct cell-cell contact...
December 6, 2017: Lab on a Chip
Paolo Machi, Rafik Ouared, Olivier Brina, Pierre Bouillot, Hasan Yilmaz, Maria I Vargas, Renato Gondar, Philippe Bijlenga, Karl O Lovblad, Zsolt Kulcsár
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Hemodynamics play a driving role in the life cycle of brain aneurysms from initiation through growth until eventual rupture. The specific factors behind aneurysm growth, especially in small aneurysms, are not well elucidated. The goal of this study was to differentiate focal versus general growth and to analyze the hemodynamic microenvironment at the sites of enlargement in small cerebral aneurysms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Small aneurysms showing growth during follow-up were identified from our prospective aneurysm database...
December 5, 2017: Clinical Neuroradiology
Maria T K Zaldivia, James D McFadyen, Bock Lim, Xiaowei Wang, Karlheinz Peter
Microvesicles (MVs) circulating in the blood are small vesicles (100-1,000 nm in diameter) derived from membrane blebs of cells such as activated platelets, endothelial cells, and leukocytes. A growing body of evidence now supports the concept that platelet-derived microvesicles (PMVs), the most abundant MVs in the circulation, are important regulators of hemostasis, inflammation, and angiogenesis. Compared with healthy individuals, a large increase of circulating PMVs has been observed, particularly in patients with cardiovascular diseases...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
Carsten H Meyer, Robert Borny, Nicole Horchi
Background: To close a refractory full thickness macular hole (FTMH) by adjacent subretinal fluid application to release the elastic retina from the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Case presentation: A 83 years old patient presented an old FTMH with a diameter of 1444 μm. After confirming intraoperatively the complete release of the epiretinal membrane around the FTMH, we installed 3 small subretinal blebs around the hole, to release the adjacent retina from the RPE...
2017: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous
Anna Marie Sokac
In this issue of Developmental Cell, Goudarzi et al. (2017) examine the membrane source that allows bleb-based cell migration in vivo. Their work reminds us of the fractal nature of cell surfaces and highlights how the unfolding of these convoluted surfaces contributes to physiologically relevant cell shape change in intact organisms.
December 4, 2017: Developmental Cell
Jennifer R Hughes, Trish Berger
Apical blebbing, a non-classical secretion mechanism, occurs in the mature porcine epididymis as part of its normal function. Proteins secreted by this mechanism contribute to the modification of the sperm plasma membrane during epididymal transit and are thought to contribute to acquisition of fertilizing ability. However, little is known about the regulation of this secretion mechanism in an in vivo model. Previous work demonstrated apical blebbing in the epididymis developed pubertally, suggesting androgens, sperm or other luminal factors regulated this process...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
Diogo Ferreira do Amaral, Mateus Flores Montalvão, Bruna de Oliveira Mendes, Joyce Moreira de Souza, Thales Quintão Chagas, Aline Sueli de Lima Rodrigues, Guilherme Malafaia
Tannery industries are considered highly polluting due to the large production of polluted wastewater [untreated tannery effluent (UTE)]. Although previous studies have already shown the consequences from fish, birds and mammals' exposure to this pollutant, little is known about its toxicological effect on representatives of class amphibian. Thus, we aim at assessing whether short-term UTE exposure, even at low concentrations (0.2% UTE diluted in water), would be able to induce behavioral, morphological and cyto-genotoxic changes in L...
December 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Narumon Keorochana, Sutheera Kunasuntiwarakul, Isaraporn Treesit, Raveewan Choontanom
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of preoperative posterior subtenon injection of triamcinolone acetonide (PSTA) in noninfectious uveitic patients with secondary glaucoma undergoing primary trabeculectomy with mitomycin C. Design: This was a retrospective study. Patients and methods: We reviewed the medical records of 10 noninfectious uveitic patients, who had received a single preoperative PSTA 40 mg/1 mL, with secondary glaucoma undergoing primary trabeculectomy with mitomycin C...
2017: Clinical Ophthalmology
Chao Fang, T H Hui, X Wei, X Shao, Yuan Lin
Although accumulating evidence has demonstrated the important role of membrane blebbing in various cellular processes, the fundamental question of how the initiation/evolution of blebs are influenced by physical factors like membrane-cortex interactions and intracellular pressure remains unclear. Here, we report a combined modeling and experimental study to address this outstanding issue. Specifically, boundary integral method was used to track the motion of membrane (in 3D) during blebbing while possible rupture of the bilayer-cortex adhesion has also been taken into account...
November 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
Andrew J Davidson, Clelia Amato, Peter A Thomason, Robert H Insall
Actin pseudopods induced by SCAR/WAVE drive normal migration and chemotaxis in eukaryotic cells. Cells can also migrate using blebs, in which the edge is driven forward by hydrostatic pressure instead of actin. In Dictyostelium discoideum, loss of SCAR is compensated by WASP moving to the leading edge to generate morphologically normal pseudopods. Here we use an inducible double knockout to show that cells lacking both SCAR and WASP are unable to grow, make pseudopods or, unexpectedly, migrate using blebs. Remarkably, amounts and dynamics of actin polymerization are normal...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
Norbert Pfeiffer, Bogomil Voykov, Giulia Renieri, Katharina Bell, Paul Richter, Melanie Weigel, Hagen Thieme, Barbara Wilhelm, Katrin Lorenz, Martin Feindor, Katja Wosikowski, Michel Janicot, Daniela Päckert, Regina Römmich, Carola Mala, Petra Fettes, Eugen Leo
PURPOSE: To evaluate the safety and tolerability of intravitreal ISTH0036, an antisense oligonucleotide selectively targeting transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGF-β2), in patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) undergoing trabeculectomy (TE; glaucoma filtration surgery). METHODS: In this prospective phase I trial glaucoma patients scheduled for TE with mitomycin C (MMC) received a single intravitreal injection of ISTH0036 at the end of surgery in escalating total doses of 6...
2017: PloS One
Michael S Quist, Ninita Brown, Amanda K Bicket, Leon W Herndon
PURPOSE: Traditionally, during trabeculectomy, Mitomycin-C (MMC) is applied to the tissues using surgical sponges. However, alternate modes of application exist. This study assessed the success rates, complication rates, final intraocular pressure (IOP) and bleb characteristics between patients receiving subtenon MMC application by sponge versus irrigation. PATIENTS & METHODS: 100 patients with glaucoma were enrolled and each was randomized to one of the two treatment groups...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Glaucoma
Xiao-Bing Liu, Chung-Mau Lo, Qiao Cheng, Kevin Tak-Pan Ng, Yan Shao, Chang-Xian Li, Sookja K Chung, Irene Oi Lin Ng, Jun Yu, Kwan Man
Background and Aims: Expanded donor criteria poses increased risk for late phase complications such as fibrosis that lead to graft dysfunction in liver transplantation. There remains a need to elucidate the precise mechanisms of post-transplant liver damage in order to improve the long-term outcomes of marginal liver grafts. In this study, we aimed to examine the role of oval cells in fibrogenic development of marginal liver grafts and explore the underlying mechanisms. Methods: Using an orthotopic rat liver transplantation model and human post-transplant liver biopsy tissues, the dynamics of oval cells in marginal liver grafts was evaluated by the platform integrating immuno-labeling techniques and ultrastructure examination...
2017: Theranostics
Thangavelu Lakshmi, Devaraj Ezhilarasan, Rajagopal Vijayaragavan, Sukhwinder Kaur Bhullar, Ramasamy Rajendran
Oral cancer is in approximately 30% of all cancers in India. This study was conducted to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of ethanolic extract of Acacia catechu bark (ACB) against human squamous cell carcinoma cell line-25 (SCC-25). Cytotoxic effect of ACB extract was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium Bromide assay. A. catechu extract was treated SCC-25 cells with 25 and 50 μg/mL for 24 h. Apoptosis markers such as caspases-8 and 9, bcl-2, bax, and cytochrome c (Cyt-c) were done by RT-PCR...
October 2017: Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research
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