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J Wong, X Chen, K Truong
Since tobacco etch virus protease (TEVp) has a high specificity and efficiency in cleaving its target substrates, many groups have attempted to engineer conditional control of its activity. Temperature induction is widely used for modulating gene function because it has fast temporal response, good penetrability and applicability to many model organisms. Here, we engineered a temperature sensitive TEVp (tsTEVp) by using N-terminal truncations to TEVp that achieved efficient proteolysis on a timescale of 4 h after 30°C induction, while remaining relatively inactive at 37°C...
October 13, 2017: Protein Engineering, Design & Selection: PEDS
Cohen Shlomi, Daniel T Kovari, Wenbin Wei, Rebecca Keate, Jennifer E Curtis, Shuyi Nie
The member of Rho family of small GTPases Cdc42 plays important and conserved roles in cell polarity and motility. The Cdc42ep family proteins have been identified to bind to Cdc42, yet how they interact with Cdc42 to regulate cell migration remains to be elucidated. In this study, we focus on Cdc42ep1, which is expressed predominantly in the highly migratory neural crest cells in frog embryos. Through morpholino-mediated knockdown, we show that Cdc42ep1 is required for the migration of cranial neural crest cells...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
Jing Wang, Keith Barton
Aqueous shunts or glaucoma drainage devices are increasingly utilized in the management of refractory glaucoma. The general design of the most commonly-used shunts is based on the principles of the Molteno implant: ie. a permanent sclerostomy (tube), a predetermined bleb area (plate) and diversion of aqueous humour to the equatorial region and away from the limbal subconjunctival space. These three factors make aqueous shunts more resistant to scarring as compared to trabeculectomy. The two most commonly used shunts are the Ahmed Glaucoma Valve, which contains a flow-restrictor, and the non-valved Baervedlt Glaucoma Implant...
July 2017: Taiwan Journal of Ophthalmology
Bela Joos, Benjamin M Barlow, Catherine E Morris
Two features common to diverse sick excitable cells are "leaky" Nav channels and bleb damage-damaged membranes. The bleb damage, we have argued, causes a channel kinetics based "leakiness." Recombinant (node of Ranvier type) Nav1.6 channels voltage-clamped in mechanically-blebbed cell-attached patches undergo a damage intensity dependent kinetic change. Specifically, they experience a coupled hyperpolarizing (left) shift of the activation and inactivation processes. The biophysical observations on Nav1.6 currents formed the basis of Nav-Coupled Left Shift (Nav-CLS) theory...
October 14, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Maria Grazia Palmerini, Gulmira Zhurabekova, Aru Balmagambetova, Stefania Annarita Nottola, Selenia Miglietta, Manuel Belli, Serena Bianchi, Sandra Cecconi, Valentina Di Nisio, Giuseppe Familiari, Guido Macchiarelli
Lindane, which is one of the most persistent organochlorine pesticide contaminating the Aral Sea region, is associated with numerous pathologies of the female reproductive system, including infertility, due to its gap junction blocker activity. By using an in vitro model of reproductive toxicity consisting of mouse parietal granulosa cells (GCs) exposed to increasing concentrations of Lindane ranging from 1 to 100μM (L1; L10; L100), we aimed to ascertain the Lindane toxicity by evaluating the ultrastructure and expression of the cell death protein p53...
October 10, 2017: Reproductive Biology
Khuloud Bajbouj, Jasmin Shafarin, Maher Y Abdalla, Iman M Ahmad, Mawieh Hamad
It is well established that several forms of cancer associate with significant iron overload. Recent studies have suggested that estrogen (E2) disrupts intracellular iron homeostasis by reducing hepcidin synthesis and maintaining ferroportin integrity. Here, the ability of E2 to alter intracellular iron status and cell growth potential was investigated in MCF-7 cells treated with increasing concentrations of E2. Treated cells were assessed for intracellular iron status, the expression of key proteins involved in iron metabolism, oxidative stress, cell survival, growth, and apoptosis...
October 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
Gabriela Pimenta-Dos-Reis, Eduardo José Lopes Torres, Paula Gabriela Quintana, Lincon Onorio Vidal, Bárbara Andréa Fortes Dos Santos, Chuan-Sheng Lin, Norton Heise, Pedro Muanis Persechini, Julieta Schachter
Extracellular nucleotides can modulate the immunological response by activating purinergic receptors (P2Rs) on the cell surface of macrophages, dendritic, and other immune cells. In particular, the activation of P2X7R can induce release of cytokines and cell death as well as the uptake of large molecules through the cell membrane by a mechanism still poorly understood. Polyoxotungstate-1 (POM-1) has been proposed as a potent inhibitor of ecto-nucleotidases, enzymes that hydrolyze extracellular nucleotides, regulating the activity of P2Rs...
October 11, 2017: Purinergic Signalling
Jasmin Rezapour, Esther M Hoffmann, Verena Prokosch-Willing, Adrian Gericke, Norbert Pfeiffer
INTRODUCTION: Suprachoroidal hemorrhage is a rare, but potentially vision-threatening event with poor long-term visual prognosis. At present, there is disagreement whether surgical intervention or conservative treatment is superior in the management. We report on a case of spontaneous resolution of severe SCH after needling procedure in the only eye of a young patient with congenital glaucoma. CASE PRESENTATION: A 43-year-old woman with congenital glaucoma was scheduled for bleb needling in her only eye...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Glaucoma
Nathan M Kerr
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
Pau Romera-Romero, Jordi Loscos-Arenas, Aina Moll-Udina, Nevena Romanic-Bubalo, Jordi Castellvi-Manent, Xavier Valldeperas
PURPOSE: To report 2-year results of deep sclerectomy (DS) with mitomycin C and the uveoscleral implant Esnoper-Clip (AJL Ophthalmics, Álava, Spain), a nonabsorbable hema implant, and the morphologic analysis of the surgical area with anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 41 eyes of 41 patients with medically uncontrolled open angle glaucoma who underwent DS with the uveoscleral implant were included in this prospective interventional study...
October 2017: Journal of Glaucoma
Arnes Rešić, Ana Močić Pavić, Ante Čizmić, Ines Potočnjak
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2017: Vascular Medicine
Bishnu Prasad Bastakoti, Juan Perez-Mercader
The chemical energy and radicals from an oscillating chemical reaction are used to synthesize a polymer vesicle from a homogeneous solution of monomeric units. Periodically formed radicals from the Belousov-Zhabotinsky (B-Z) reaction initiate radical polymerization between a polyethylene glycol based chain transfer agent (PEG-CTA) and hydrophilic acrylonitrile monomers in water. The growth of a hydrophobic chain on the hydrophilic PEG chain induces self-assembly of polymeric amphiphiles to form micrometer-sized vesicles entrapping an active oscillating B-Z reaction...
October 6, 2017: Advanced Materials
Verena Prokosch-Willing, Urs Vossmerbaeumer, Esther Hoffmann, Norbert Pfeiffer
PURPOSE: To report for the first time a clinical case of suprachoroidal bleeding after XEN45®gel implantation. OBSERVATIONS: A 84-year old female patient with pseudoexfoliation glaucoma with intraocular pressure (20 mm Hg) above target despite maximal IOP lowering therapy was scheduled for XEN45® gel implantation. The XEN45® gel implantation went without complications and was properly placed in the anterior chamber and beneath the conjunctiva. On the first postoperative day, the patient presented with an IOP of 4 mm Hg, a functioning bleb and a deep anterior chamber...
September 3, 2017: Journal of Glaucoma
Claudia Muratori, Andrei G Pakhomov, Elena Gianulis, Jade Meads, Maura Casciola, Peter A Mollica, Olga N Pakhomova
Nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) are emerging as a novel modality for cell stimulation and tissue ablation. However, the downstream protein effectors responsible for nsPEF bioeffects remain to be established. Here we demonstrate that nsPEFs activate TMEM16F, (or anoctamin 6), a protein functioning as a Ca(2+)-dependent phospholipid scramblase and Ca(2+)-activated chloride channel. Using confocal microscopy and patch-clamp recording, we investigated the relevance of TMEM16F activation for several bioeffects triggered by nsPEF, including phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization, nanopore-conducted currents, membrane blebbing, and cell death...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Benjamin Ifeoluwa Okeleye, Noxolo Thabiso Mkwetshana, Roland Ndip Ndip
We evaluated the in-vitro antiproliferative and apoptotic potential of the ethyl acetate extract (EAE) of Peltophorum africanum, a member of the family Fabaceae (Sond) in order to validate its pharmacological use. Antiproliferation of human breast (MCF-7), colon (HT-29) and cervical (HeLa) cancer cell lines by EAE was investigated using the Cell Titer-Blue viability assay and the mechanism of action delineated using the Nucleic Acid and Protein Purification Nucleospin(®) Tissue Kit, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), propidium iodide (PI) and acridine orange (AO) double-staining techniques...
2017: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
Chuncheng Wu, Qinghua Tan, Qiongying Zhang, Bing Hu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Cynthia Yu-Wai-Man, Aristides D Tagalakis, Jinhong Meng, Yann Bouremel, Richard M H Lee, Alex Virasami, Stephen L Hart, Peng T Khaw
Importance: Postsurgical fibrosis is a critical determinant of the long-term success of glaucoma surgery, but no reliable biomarkers are currently available to stratify the risk of scarring. Objective: To compare the clinical phenotype of patients with conjunctival fibrosis after glaucoma surgery with candidate gene expression tissue biomarkers of fibrosis. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cross-sectional study, 42 patients were recruited at the time of glaucoma surgery at the Moorfields Eye Hospital from September 1, 2014, to September 1, 2016...
September 21, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
Anat Aharon, Anni Sabbah, Shahar Ben-Shaul, Hila Berkovich, David Loven, Benjamin Brenner, Gil Bar-Sela
Breast cancer (BC) is the most prevalent type of malignancy in women. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are subcellular membrane blebs that include exosomes and microparticles. STUDY AIMS: To elucidate the effects of chemotherapy administration on BC patients' EVs characteristics and their effects on endothelial cells (EC) functions. METHODS: EVs were isolated from the blood samples of 54 BC patients treated by chemotherapy (25 neo-adjuvant, 29 adjuvant) and from 20 healthy women (control group)...
September 8, 2017: Oncotarget
Arif H K Pathan, Alexander Barash, Lawrence B Tena, Paul T Finger
PURPOSE: To provide a clinical description of the long-term outcome of a 103Pd plaque-irradiated ciliary body melanoma with extrascleral extension while attempting to preserve a subadjacent glaucoma filtering bleb. METHODS: A 75-year-old woman with pseudoexfoliative glaucoma for 17 years, 16 years status post argon laser trabeculoplasty, and 15 years status post trabeculectomy in the left eye, was diagnosed with an ipsilateral ciliary body melanoma with visible extrascleral extension...
September 23, 2017: European Journal of Ophthalmology
Caleb C Roth, Randolph D Glickman, Stacey L Martens, Ibtissam Echchgadda, Hope T Beier, Ronald A Barnes, Bennett L Ibey
BACKGROUND: Exposure of cells to very short (<1 µs) electric pulses in the megavolt/meter range have been shown to cause a multitude of effects, both physical and molecular in nature. Physically, nanosecond electrical pulses (nsEP) can cause disruption of the plasma membrane, cellular swelling, shrinking and blebbing. Molecularly, nsEP have been shown to activate signaling pathways, produce oxidative stress, stimulate hormone secretion and induce both apoptotic and necrotic death...
March 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
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