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Masaki Osawa, Harold P Erickson
Bacterial cytokinesis begins with the assembly of FtsZ into a Z ring at the center of the cell. The Z-ring constriction in Gram-negative bacteria may occur in an environment where the periplasm and the cytoplasm are isoosmotic, but in Gram-positive bacteria the constriction may have to overcome a substantial turgor pressure. We address three potential sources of invagination force. (1) FtsZ itself may generate force by curved protofilaments bending the attached membrane. This is sufficient to constrict liposomes in vitro ...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Juha Välimäki
PURPOSE: Cataract surgery has been reported to adversely affect the IOP control in eyes with the glaucoma drainage implant (GDI). One reason might be the flow of lens debris/viscoelastic material through the GDI tube into the bleb. This pilot study was conducted to determine the clinical results of a novel technique for temporary occlusion of the GDI tube with an iris retractor hook during phacoemulsification. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 15 patients (control group) who underwent phacoemulsification between January 2005 and December 2010 and 17 patients (treatment group) who underwent phacoemulsification with the hooked tube technique between January 2011 and April 2016 with a minimum 1-year follow-up...
February 13, 2018: International Ophthalmology
J A Quadri, S Sarwar, A Sinha, M Kalaivani, A K Dinda, A Bagga, T S Roy, T K Das, A Shariff
The susceptibility of the kidneys to fluoride toxicity can largely be attributed to its anatomy and function. As the filtrate moves along the complex tubular structure of each nephron, it is concentrated in the proximal and distal tubules and collecting duct. It has been frequently observed that the children suffering from renal impairments also have some symptoms of dental and skeletal fluorosis. The findings suggest that fluoride somehow interferes with renal anatomy and physiology, which may lead to renal pathogenesis...
January 1, 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Jonathan Y-X L Than, Toby S Al-Mugheiry, Jesse Gale, Keith R Martin
BACKGROUND: Bleb needling is widely used to restore flow and lower intraocular pressure (IOP) in a failing trabeculectomy. We aimed to measure the safety and efficacy of needling in a large cohort and identify factors that were associated with success and failure. METHODS: This retrospective audit included all patients who underwent needling at Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge over a 10-year period. Data were available on 91 patients (98% of patients identified), including 191 needlings on 96 eyes...
February 9, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
K M Engel, C H Springsguth, S Grunewald
To study apoptosis as a functional pathway in mature spermatozoa and apoptosis correlated to the acrosome reaction via the intracellular calcium concentration, semen samples from 27 healthy human donors were treated with inducers of apoptosis (betulinic acid, thapsigargin), inducers of the acrosome reaction (thapsigargin, calcium ionophore) or hydrogen peroxide to produce reactive oxygen species with and without prior incubation with a calcium chelator. Computer-assisted sperm analysis, flow cytometry, and transmission electron microscopy were performed to analyze changes in the acrosomal status and in apoptotic features...
February 13, 2018: Andrology
Noraziah Nordin, Nazia Abdul Majid, Rozana Othman, Fatima Abdelmutaal Ahmed Omer, Muhammad Nazil Afiq Nasharuddin, Najihah Mohd Hashim
Plagioneurin B belongs to acetogenin group has well-established class of compounds. Acetogenin group has attracted worldwide attention in the past few years due their biological abilities as inhibitors for several types of tumour cells. Plagioneurin B was isolated via conventional chromatography and tested for thorough mechanistic apoptosis activity on human ovarian cancer cells (CAOV-3). Its structure was also docked at several possible targets using Autodock tools software. Our findings showed that plagioneurin B successfully inhibits the growth of CAOV-3 cells at IC50 of 0...
February 12, 2018: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
Alessandra Antunes Dos Santos, Caridad López-Granero, Marcelo Farina, João B T Rocha, Aaron B Bowman, Michael Aschner
Methylmercury is a toxic environmental contaminant that elicits significant toxicity in humans. The central nervous system is the primary target of toxicity, and is particularly vulnerable during development. Rho-associated protein kinase 1 (ROCK-1) is a major downstream effector of the small GTPase RhoA and a direct substrate of caspase-3. The activation of ROCK-1 is necessary for membrane blebbing during apoptosis. In this work, we examined whether MeHg could affect the RhoA/ROCK-1 signaling pathway in primary cultures of mouse astrocytes...
February 8, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
J Luebke, M Neuburger, J F Jordan, T Wecker, D Boehringer, B Cakir, T Reinhard, A Anton
PURPOSE: Bleb-related infections are serious complications after trabeculectomy. They can be limited to the bleb or disseminate and lead to endophthalmitis. We herein report on all bleb-related infections that have been diagnosed at the Eye Center of the University of Freiburg, Germany, since 1999. METHODS: We reviewed a total of 1816 consecutive trabeculectomies that were performed at our hospital between the years 1999 and 2014 (353 without and 1463 with intraoperative application of mitomycin C)...
February 9, 2018: International Ophthalmology
Jorge Castro-Garza, Miriam Lorena Luévano-Martínez, Licet Villarreal-Treviño, Jaime Gosálvez, José Luis Fernández, Martha Imelda Dávila-Rodríguez, Catalina García-Vielma, Silvia González-Hernández, Elva Irene Cortés-Gutiérrez
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an intracellular pathogen, which may either block cellular defensive mechanisms and survive inside the host cell or induce cell death. Several studies are still exploring the mechanisms involved in these processes. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the genomic instability of M. tuberculosis-infected macrophages and compare it with that of uninfected macrophages. METHODS: We analysed the possible variations in the genomic instability of Mycobacterium-infected macrophages using the DNA breakage detection fluorescence in situ hybridisation (DBD-FISH) technique with a whole human genome DNA probe...
March 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Andre Grixti, Raman Malhotra
To provide an extensive literature review on the clinical indications of oral mucosa grafts (OMG) and minor salivary gland grafts (MSGG) in periorbital reconstruction together with safe practice graft harvesting techniques to minimize donor-site morbidity. A literature review was performed by searching the databases of PUBMED, EMBASE, and COCHRANE library using the keywords: minor salivary glands; oral mucosal graft; orbit; and eye. The bibliographies of the pertinent articles were examined for additional papers...
February 6, 2018: Orbit
Constanze Lamprecht, Mathias Gehrmann, Josef Madl, Winfried Römer, Gabriele Multhoff, Andreas Ebner
Hsp70-1A-the major stress-inducible member of the HSP70 chaperone family-is being implicated in cancer diseases with the development of resistances to standard therapies. In normal cells, the protein is purely cytosolic, but in a growing number of tumor cells, a significant fraction can be identified on to the cell surface. The anchoring mechanism is still under debate, as Hsp70-1A lacks conventional signaling sequences for translocation from the cytosol to exoplasmic leaflet of the plasma membrane and common membrane binding domains...
February 5, 2018: Cell Stress & Chaperones
Erin A Boese, Manjool Shah
PURPOSE: To report a case of spontaneous dislocation of a gelatin microstent six months after the initial uncomplicated surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We describe a 73-year-old male with a history of advanced primary open angle glaucoma who had previously undergone an unsuccessful micropulse transcleral cyclophotocoagulation (CPC) of the left eye. He underwent an uncomplicated combined phacoemulsification with an ab interno gelatin microstent, but was noted to have a spontaneous dislocation of the microstent six months post-operatively...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
Nathan Beals, Michael Model, Matt Worden, Torsten Hegmann, Soumitra Basu
Over the past decade, nanomedicine has gained considerable traction through its relevance, for example in "smart" delivery, thus creating platforms for novel treatments. Here we report a natural polymer-DNA conjugate that undergoes self-assembly in a K+ dependent fashion to form a G-quadruplex (GQ) and generate superpolymeric structures. We derivatized the naturally occurring glycosaminoglycan polymer hyaluronic acid (HA) with short G-rich DNA (HASH-DNA) that can form intermolecular non-canonical GQ structure...
February 5, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Naiem Nassiri, Lauren A Huntress, Mitchell Simon, Susan Murphy
OBJECTIVE: No standardized therapeutic algorithm or embolic agent of choice has yet been identified for management of congenital peripheral venous malformations (VMs). Treatment options and reported outcomes therefore vary widely. Herein, we present an institution-wide algorithm for management of symptomatic congenital peripheral VMs using a single embolotherapeutic modality. METHODS: During 36 months, patients with symptomatic congenital peripheral VMs underwent contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery. Venous and Lymphatic Disorders
Roman Petrovsky, Georg Krohne, Jörg Großhans
The nuclear envelope has a stereotypic morphology consisting of a flat double layer of the inner and outer nuclear membrane, with interspersed nuclear pores. Underlying and tightly linked to the inner nuclear membrane is the nuclear lamina, a proteinous layer of intermediate filament proteins and associated proteins. Physiological, experimental or pathological alterations in the constitution of the lamina lead to changes in nuclear morphology, such as blebs and lobulations. It has so far remained unclear whether the morphological changes depend on the differentiation state and the specific lamina protein...
January 24, 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
Verena Prokosch-Willing, Shahzada Najam Ul Hassan, Julia Lamparter, Anani P Toshev, Norbert Pfeiffer, Esther M Hoffmann
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the results of an adaptive approach of bleb revision surgery for late onset hypotony after trabeculectomy with mitomycin C due to bleb leakage and/or scleral melting. METHODS: 29 eyes of 27 patients, aged 63.8±11.7 years with hypotony maculopathy (IOP ≤6▒mm Hg) due to late onset bleb leakage and/or scleral melting after trabeculectomy with mitomycin C in which minimally invasive transconjunctival suturing of the scleral flap was impossible were enrolled in this retrospective interventional case series...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
Yanhua Huang, Ziyi Fu, Wei Dong, Zhenming Zhang, Jinquan Mu, Junfeng Zhang
Tongue squamous epithelial cells are the main component of tongue coating, with proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis being the root cause of the formation and maintenance of tongue coating. The present study aimed to explore the molecular mechanism by which serum influences tongue coating, to enable a better understanding for future investigations. Tongue carcinoma squamous cells were exposed to serum‑starvation in vitro. Cellular proliferation and apoptosis were observed by using 3‑[4,5‑dimethyl‑2‑thiazolyl]‑2,5‑diphenyl‑2‑H‑tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, flow cytometry, Hoechst staining, scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and by measuring the expression ratio of B‑cell lymphoma 2 apoptosis regulator (Bcl‑2)/Bcl‑2 associated protein X apoptosis regulator (Bax) mRNA and protein by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR) and western blotting, respectively...
January 29, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Giulia Furini, Nina Schroeder, Linghong Huang, David Boocock, Alessandra Scarpellini, Clare Coveney, Elisa Tonoli, Raghavendran Ramaswamy, Graham Ball, Claudia Verderio, Timothy S Johnson, Elisabetta A M Verderio
Increased export of transglutaminase-2 (TG2) by tubular epithelial cells (TECs) into the surrounding interstitium modifies the extracellular homeostatic balance, leading to fibrotic membrane expansion. Although silencing of extracellular TG2 ameliorates progressive kidney scarring in animal models of CKD, the pathway through which TG2 is secreted from TECs and contributes to disease progression has not been elucidated. In this study, we developed a global proteomic approach to identify binding partners of TG2 responsible for TG2 externalization in kidneys subjected to unilateral ureteric obstruction (UUO) using TG2 knockout kidneys as negative controls...
January 30, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Jeremy S Logue, Alexander X Cartagena-Rivera, Richard S Chadwick
Cancer cell migration requires that cells respond and adapt to their surroundings. In the absence of extracellular matrix cues, cancer cells will undergo a mesenchymal to ameboid transition, whereas a highly confining space will trigger a switch to "leader bleb-based" migration. To identify oncogenic signaling pathways mediating these transitions, we undertook a targeted screen using clinically useful inhibitors. Elevated Src activity was found to change actin and focal adhesion dynamics, whereas inhibiting Src triggered focal adhesion disassembly and blebbing...
January 30, 2018: Oncogene
J Wendler, D Ehmann, L Courth, B O Schroeder, N P Malek, J Wehkamp
The antimicrobial peptide human ß-defensin 1 (hBD1) is continuously produced by epithelial cells in many tissues. Compared to other defensins, hBD1 has only minor antibiotic activity in its native state. After reduction of its disulfide bridges, however, it becomes a potent antimicrobial agent against bacteria, while the oxidized native form (hBD1ox) shows specific activity against Gram-negative bacteria. We show that the killing mechanism of hBD1ox depends on aerobic growth conditions and bacterial enzymes...
January 29, 2018: Infection and Immunity
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