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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319643/grooved-glaucoma-drainage-devices-that-continuously-deliver-cyclosporine-a-decrease-postsurgical-scar-formation-in-rabbit-eyes
#1
Zhaoxing Dai, Xiaobo Yu, Jianguo Sun, Xinghuai Sun
Purpose: To study the functional outcomes of filtration surgery by implanting improved glaucoma drainage devices (GDDs) comprising surface grooves and a composite coating of cyclosporine A (CsA) and PLGA in experimental rabbit eyes. Methods: Improved GDDs were designed and prepared by modifying normal GDD with surface grooves and a CsA-PLGA composite coating. Normal GDDs, grooved GDDs (G-GDDs), and G-GDDs with a CsA-PLGA composite coating (CsA@G-GDD) were implanted into 18 rabbit eyes (six eyes per group)...
March 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301940/engineering-synthetic-proteins-to-generate-ca-2-signals-in-mammalian-cells
#2
Anam Qudrat, Kevin Truong
The versatility of Ca(2+) signals allows it to regulate diverse cellular processes such as migration, apoptosis, motility and exocytosis. In some receptors (e.g., VEGFR2), Ca(2+) signals are generated upon binding their ligand(s) (e.g., VEGF-A). Here, we employed a design strategy to engineer proteins that generate a Ca(2+) signal upon binding various extracellular stimuli by creating fusions of protein domains that oligomerize to the transmembrane domain and the cytoplasmic tail of the VEGFR2. To test the strategy, we created chimeric proteins that generate Ca(2+) signals upon stimulation with various extracellular stimuli (e...
March 17, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295841/morphogenesis-and-developmental-ultrastructure-of-nicotiana-tabacum-short-glandular-trichomes
#3
Branka Uzelac, Dušica Janošević, Dragana Stojičić, Snežana Budimir
The anatomy and ultrastructure of the short glandular trichomes occurring on young expanding leaves of Nicotiana tabacum were investigated using light and transmission electron microscopy. The objective of the present research was to characterize the cellular changes that occur during morphogenesis of short glandular trichomes, from initiation to senescence. Ultrastructural analysis of their secretory cells revealed characteristics common to gland cells: numerous mitochondria in highly organized cytoplasm, large nuclei, and an elaborate network of endoplasmic reticulum...
March 11, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291960/trabeculectomy-with-ologen-versus-mitomycin-c-in-juvenile-open-angle-glaucoma-a-1-year-study
#4
Fathi El-Sayyad, Heba Magdy Ahmed El-Saied, Mohamad Amr Salah Eddin Abdelhakim
BACKGROUND: We assessed bleb morphology and the intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering effect of trabeculectomy with ologen compared to mitomycin C (MMC) in juvenile open-angle glaucoma (JOAG). METHODS: This is a prospective interventional comparative study conducted on 40 eyes (20 patients) with medically uncontrolled JOAG, randomly operating one eye for trabeculectomy with ologen (group A: 20 eyes) and the other with MMC (group B: 20 eyes). IOP measurement, SITA standard perimetry, and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) for retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness were all done pre- and postoperatively...
March 15, 2017: Ophthalmic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286307/strabismus-surgery-outcomes-in-eyes-with-glaucoma-drainage-devices
#5
Carla J Osigian, Kara M Cavuoto, Julia D Rossetto, Mohamed Sayed, Sara Grace, Ta C Chang, Hilda Capo
PURPOSE: To report strabismus surgery outcomes in eyes with prior implantation of glaucoma drainage devices (GDD). METHODS: The medical records of patients who underwent strabismus surgery for ocular misalignment that developed after implantation of a GDD over a 13-year period at a single institution were examined retrospectively. Patient characteristics, deviation types, preoperative measurements, surgical procedures, and postoperative measurements were analyzed...
March 9, 2017: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276317/inhibitors-of-pi3k-erk-1-2-p38-mapk-show-preferential-activity-against-endocrine-resistant-breast-cancer-cells
#6
Maitham A Khajah, Princy M Mathew, Yunus A Luqmani
Current mainstream pharmacological options for treatment of endocrine resistant breast cancer have limitations in termsof side effect profile and lack of discrimination between normal and cancer cells. In the current study, we assessed the responses of normal breast epithelial cells MCF10A, estrogen receptor (ER) positive MCF-7 and ER silenced pII breast cancer cells, to inhibitors (either individually or in combination) of downstream signaling molecules. The expression/activity of ERK1/2, p38 MAPK and Akt was determined by western blotting...
March 8, 2017: Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273314/losartan-attenuates-scar-formation-in-filtering-bleb-after-trabeculectomy
#7
Huimin Shi, Huiying Wang, Shuhao Fu, Kang Xu, Xiaoyan Zhang, Yiqin Xiao, Wen Ye
Purpose: To examine the effects of losartan on scar formation after trabeculectomy and on fibrotic changes of human Tenon's fibroblasts (HTFs). Methods: Trabeculectomy was performed on New Zealand rabbits. They were randomized to receive one of the following treatments: 0.9% normal saline, mitomycin-C, or one of the three doses of losartan. Bleb morphology, IOP, and histopathology examination were performed. Primary cultured HTFs were treated with losartan or vehicle, with or without angiotensin II (Ang II)...
March 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267620/cancer-associated-circulating-large-extracellular-vesicles-in-cholangiocarcinoma-and-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#8
Henrike Julich-Haertel, Sabine K Urban, Marcin Krawczyk, Arnulf Willms, Krzysztof Jankowski, Waldemar Patkowski, Beata Kruk, Maciej Krasnodębski, Joanna Ligocka, Robert Schwab, Ines Richardsen, Sebastian Schaaf, Angelina Klein, Sebastian Gehlert, Hanna Sänger, Markus Casper, Jesus M Banales, Detlef Schuppan, Piotr Milkiewicz, Frank Lammert, Marek Krawczyk, Veronika Lukacs-Kornek, Miroslaw Kornek
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: we previously reported that large extracellular vesicles, specifically AnnexinV(+)EpCAM(+)CD147(+) tumour-associated microparticles (taMPs), facilitate the detection of colorectal carcinoma (CRC), non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) as well as pancreas carcinoma (PaCa). Here we assess the diagnostic value of taMPs for detection and monitoring of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Specifically, we aim to differentiate liver taMPs from other cancer taMPs, such as CRC and NSCLC...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263262/anterior-segment-optical-coherence-tomography-for-targeted-transconjunctival-suture-placement-in-overfiltering-trabeculectomy-blebs
#9
Morgan Heisler, Whitney L Quong, Sieun Lee, Sherry Han, Mirza F Beg, Marinko V Sarunic, Paul J Mackenzie
PURPOSE: To demonstrate the utility of swept-source anterior segment optical coherence tomography (SS-AS-OCT) in guiding placement of transconjunctival sutures in hypotonous patients after a trabeculectomy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a longitudinal case series of 10 eyes from 10 patients who required transconjunctival sutures after a trabeculectomy. SS-AS-OCT was used to aid in the placement of the sutures to improve the function of the overfiltering bleb. RESULTS: SS-AS-OCT reliably identified localized areas of overfiltering, allowing for targeted suture placement in 8 eyes...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260955/peroral-endoscopic-myotomy-procedural-complications-and-pain-management-for-the-perioperative-clinician
#10
Lopa Misra, Norio Fukami, Katarina Nikolic, Terrence L Trentman
Achalasia refers to the lack of smooth muscle relaxation of the distal esophagus. Although nonsurgical treatments such as pneumatic dilatation of the distal esophagus and botulinum toxin injections have been performed, these procedures have limited duration. Similarly, surgical treatment with Heller myotomy is associated with complications. At our institution, we perform the peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) in qualified patients. Briefly, POEM involves endoscopic creation of a mid-esophageal submucosal bleb, creation of a submucosal tunnel with the endoscope, and then a distal myotomy, resulting in relaxation of the distal esophagus...
2017: Medical Devices: Evidence and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256234/vancomycin-reduces-cell-wall-stiffness-and-slows-swim-speed-of-the-lyme-disease-bacterium
#11
Michael W Harman, Alex E Hamby, Ross Boltyanskiy, Alexia A Belperron, Linda K Bockenstedt, Holger Kress, Eric R Dufresne, Charles W Wolgemuth
Borrelia burgdorferi, the spirochete that causes Lyme disease, is a tick-transmitted pathogen that requires motility to invade and colonize mammalian and tick hosts. These bacteria use a unique undulating flat-wave shape to penetrate and propel themselves through host tissues. Previous mathematical modeling has suggested that the morphology and motility of these spirochetes depends crucially on the flagellar/cell wall stiffness ratio. Here, we test this prediction using the antibiotic vancomycin to weaken the cell wall...
February 28, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254630/hydrodynamic-gene-delivery-in-human-skin-using-a-hollow-microneedle-device
#12
M Dul, M Stefanidou, P Porta, J Serve, C O'Mahony, B Malissen, S Henri, Y Levin, E Kochba, F S Wong, C Dayan, S A Coulman, J C Birchall
Microneedle devices have been proposed as a minimally invasive delivery system for the intradermal administration of nucleic acids, both plasmid DNA (pDNA) and siRNA, to treat localised disease or provide vaccination. Different microneedle types and application methods have been investigated in the laboratory, but limited and irreproducible levels of gene expression have proven to be significant challenges to pre-clinical to clinical progression. This study is the first to explore the potential of a hollow microneedle device for the delivery and subsequent expression of pDNA in human skin...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254382/a-direct-imaging-cryo-em-study-of-shedding-extracellular-vesicles-from-leukemic-monocytes
#13
Na'ama Koifman, Idan Biran, Anat Aharon, Benjamin Brenner, Yeshayahu Talmon
The human leukemia monocytic cell line (THP-1) is known to shed extracellular vesicles (EVs) under various stimulations. We studied the effects of two types of common stimulation types, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and starvation conditions by high resolution cryogenic electron microscopy, namely, cryo-SEM and cryo-TEM. Cryo-SEM data of cells undergoing EV blebbing and shedding is presented here for the first time. The high-resolution images show good agreement with models describing the membrane processes of shedding...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251924/differential-role-of-nonmuscle-myosin-ii-isoforms-during-blebbing-of-mcf-7-cells
#14
Sumit K Dey, Raman K Singh, Shyamtanu Chattoraj, Shekhar Saha, Alakesh Das, Kankan Bhattacharyya, Kaushik Sengupta, Shamik Sen, Siddhartha S Jana
Bleb formation has been correlated with nonmuscle myosin II (NM-II) activity. Whether three isoforms of NM-II (NM-IIA, -IIB, and -IIC) have the same or differential roles in bleb formation is not well understood. Here, we report that ectopically expressed GFP-tagged NM-II isoforms exhibit different types of membrane protrusions such as multiple blebs, lamellipodia, combination of both or absence of any such protrusions in MCF-7 cells. Quantification suggests that 50% of NM-IIA-GFP, 29% of NM-IIB-GFP and 19% of NM-IIC1-GFP expressing MCF-7 cells show multiple blebs formation compared with 36% of GFP alone expressing cells...
March 1, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242039/ca-2-mediated-rewiring-of-cell-homing-and-fusion-to-vegf-sources
#15
Abdullah A Mosabbir, Kevin Truong
Challenges of cell-based cancer therapy include effectively homing therapeutic cells to the disease site and producing a controlled response in recognition of the microenvironment. While stem cells have been intensively studied for treating cancer as they naturally home towards sites of injury, they have drawbacks due to their pluripotency. In this paper we have shown that a stable HEK293 cell line expressing VEGFR2 and CarQ (an engineered Ca(2+)-sensitive RhoA) can home towards a cell colony expressing VEGF...
February 20, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241319/integration-of-subretinal-suspension-transplants-of-human-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells-in-a-large-eyed-model-of-geographic-atrophy
#16
Sandra Petrus-Reurer, Hammurabi Bartuma, Monica Aronsson, Sofie Westman, Fredrik Lanner, Helder André, Anders Kvanta
Purpose: Subretinal suspension transplants of human embryonic stem cell-derived retinal pigment epithelial cells (hESC-RPE) have the capacity to form functional monolayers in naive eyes. We explore hESC-RPE integration when transplanted in suspension to a large-eyed model of geographic atrophy (GA). Methods: Derivation of hESC-RPE was performed in a xeno-free and defined manner. Subretinal bleb injection of PBS or sodium iodate (NaIO3) was used to induce a GA-like phenotype...
February 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228121/bleb-failure-and-intraocular-pressure-rise-following-nd-yag-laser-capsulotomy
#17
Andreas Diagourtas, Petros Petrou, Ilias Georgalas, Kostantinos Oikonomakis, Panagiotis Giannakouras, Athanasios Vergados, Dimitrios Papaconstantinou
BACKGROUND: To report the negative effect of Nd: Yag (Neodymium-doped: Yttrium Aluminium Garnet) laser capsulotomy on the intraocular pressure (IOP) and the trabeculectomy bleb integrity, in a small series of eyes, both trabeculectomised and pseudophakic, following the laser application for the management of posterior capsular opacification (PCO). METHODS: This is a retrospective, non-comparative interventional case series study, in which 20 trabeculectomised and pseudophakic eyes from 15 patients, with otherwise well functioning blebs, were presented with uncontrolled IOP, in a variable distance of time following the application of YAG laser capsulotomy...
February 22, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221330/comparison-of-anterior-segment-optical-coherence-tomography-bleb-grading-moorfields-bleb-grading-system-and-intraocular-pressure-after-trabeculectomy
#18
Joanne C Wen, Sandra S Stinnett, Sanjay Asrani
PURPOSE: To compare a novel anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) bleb grading system with a clinical bleb grading system and both with intraocular pressure (IOP) following trabeculectomy surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A novel AS-OCT grading system based on bleb size and internal reflectivity was developed. An imaging center was tasked with masked grading of AS-OCT images acquired by multiple surgical sites at postoperative week (POW) 2, postoperative month (POM) 4, 6, and 12, respectively...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212536/targeting-the-stress-oncoprotein-ledgf-p75-to-sensitize-chemoresistant-prostate-cancer-cells-to-taxanes
#19
Leslimar Ríos-Colón, Christina K Cajigas-Du Ross, Anamika Basu, Catherine Elix, Ivana Alicea-Polanco, Tino W Sanchez, Vinodh Radhakrishnan, Chien-Shing Chen, Carlos A Casiano
Prostate cancer (PCa) is associated with chronic prostate inflammation resulting in activation of stress and pro-survival pathways that contribute to disease progression and chemoresistance. The stress oncoprotein lens epithelium-derived growth factor p75 (LEDGF/p75), also known as DFS70 autoantigen, promotes cellular survival against environmental stressors, including oxidative stress, radiation, and cytotoxic drugs. Furthermore, LEDGF/p75 overexpression in PCa and other cancers has been associated with features of tumor aggressiveness, including resistance to cell death and chemotherapy...
February 14, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211869/non-apoptotic-cell-death-in-animal-development
#20
REVIEW
Lena M Kutscher, Shai Shaham
Programmed cell death (PCD) is an important process in the development of multicellular organisms. Apoptosis, a form of PCD characterized morphologically by chromatin condensation, membrane blebbing, and cytoplasm compaction, and molecularly by the activation of caspase proteases, has been extensively investigated. Studies in Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila, mice, and the developing chick have revealed, however, that developmental PCD also occurs through other mechanisms, morphologically and molecularly distinct from apoptosis...
February 17, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
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