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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119122/pediatric-inhalation-injury
#1
REVIEW
Soman Sen
Smoke inhalation injury can cause severe physiologic perturbations. In pediatric patients, these perturbations cause profound changes in cardiac and pulmonary physiology. In this review, we examine the pathology, early management options, ventilator strategy, and long-term outcomes in pediatric patients who have suffered a smoke inhalation injury.
2017: Burns and trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076654/the-respiratory-system-in-pediatric-chronic-heart-disease
#2
REVIEW
Sotiria C Apostolopoulou
Cardiovascular disease in the pediatric population closely affects the respiratory system inducing water retention in the lungs and pulmonary edema, airway compression by cardiovascular structures, restrictive pulmonary physiology as a result of hemodynamic changes and surgical repair, susceptibility to respiratory infections, development of pulmonary hypertension, thrombosis, or hemorrhage. Chronic heart failure and congenital heart disease are characterized by various respiratory manifestations and symptoms mimicking lung disease, which are frequently difficult to diagnose and treat...
December 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059879/investigating-the-effect-of-cardiac-oscillations-and-deadspace-gas-mixing-during-apnea-using-computer-simulation
#3
Marianna Laviola, Anup Das, Marc Chikhani, Declan G Bates, Jonathan G Hardman
Gaseous mixing in the anatomical deadspace with stimulation of respiratory ventilation through cardiogenic oscillations is an important physiological mechanism at the onset of apnea, which has been credited with various beneficial effects, e.g. reduction of hypercapnia during the use of low flow ventilation techniques. In this paper, a novel method is proposed to investigate the effect of these mechanisms in silico. An existing computational model of cardio-pulmonary physiology is extended to include the apneic state, gas mixing within the anatomical deadspace, insufflation into the trachea and cardiogenic oscillations...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042461/how-do-we-improve-training-in-pulmonary-physiology-and-the-interpretation-of-lung-function-tests
#4
EDITORIAL
Gerrard Phillips
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971975/tbx4-is-involved-in-the-super-enhancer-driven-transcriptional-programs-underlying-features-specific-to-lung-fibroblasts
#5
Masafumi Horie, Naoya Miyashita, Yu Mikami, Satoshi Noguchi, Yasuhiro Yamauchi, Maho Suzukawa, Takeshi Fukami, Ken Ohta, Yoshihide Asano, Shinichi Sato, Yoko Yamaguchi, Mitsuhiro Ohshima, Hiroshi Suzuki, Akira Saito, Takahide Nagase
Lung fibroblasts participate in the pathogenesis of respiratory diseases, including lung cancer and pulmonary fibrosis. Although fibroblasts are ubiquitous constituents of various organs, their cellular diversity among different organs has been poorly characterized. Here, we aimed to investigate the distinct gene signature of lung fibroblasts that represents its pulmonary origin, and the underlying gene regulatory networks. Promoter-level differential expression analysis by cap analysis of gene expression (CAGE) sequencing revealed distinct gene expression patterns of fibroblasts derived from different anatomical sites and identified 88 coding genes with higher expression in lung fibroblasts relative to other fibroblasts...
September 28, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918201/clinical-management-of-pressure-control-ventilation-an-algorithmic-method-of-patient-ventilatory-management-to-address-forgotten-but-important-variables
#6
Lonny Ashworth, Yasuhiro Norisue, Megan Koster, Jeff Anderson, Junko Takada, Hatsuyo Ebisu
Pressure controlled ventilation is a common mode of ventilation used to manage both adult and pediatric populations. However, there is very little evidence that distinguishes the efficacy of pressure controlled ventilation over that of volume controlled ventilation in the adult population. This gap in the literature may be due to the absence of a consistent and systematic algorithm for managing pressure controlled ventilation. This article provides a brief overview of the applications of both pressure controlled ventilation and volume controlled ventilation and proposes an algorithmic approach to the management of patients receiving pressure controlled ventilation...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852836/indications-for-surgical-stabilization-of-rib-fractures-in-patients-without-flail-chest-surveyed-opinions-of-members-of-the-chest-wall-injury-society
#7
Fredric M Pieracci, Suresh Agarwal, Andrew Doben, Adam Shiroff, Larwence Lottenberg, Sarah Ann Whitbeck, Thomas W White
PURPOSE: There are currently no evidence-based indications for surgical stabilization of rib fractures (SSRF) in patients without flail chest. The purpose of this survey was to identify patients for whom there is relative equipoise (operative vs. non-operative) in order to assist in designing a randomized clinical trial. METHODS: Members of the Chest Wall Injury Society were sent an online survey, in which 18 patient scenarios were presented. The baseline patient had ≥ three displaced, contiguous fractures and had no other contraindications for surgery...
August 29, 2017: International Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707108/clinical-and-biological-insights-from-the-university-of-california-san-francisco-prospective-and-longitudinal-cohort
#8
Bryan S Benn, Zoe Lehman, Sharon A Kidd, Melissa Ho, Sara Sun, Joris Ramstein, Nicholas K Arger, Christine P Nguyen, Robert Su, Antonio Gomez, Jeffrey M Gelfand, Laura L Koth
INTRODUCTION: Sarcoidosis is a systemic inflammatory disease characterized by non-necrotizing granulomas in involved organs, most commonly the lung. Description of patient characteristics in the Western United States is limited. Furthermore, blood-based measures that relate to clinical sarcoidosis phenotypes are lacking. We present an analysis of a prospective, longitudinal sarcoidosis cohort at a Northern Californian academic medical center. METHODS: We enrolled 126 sarcoidosis subjects and 64 healthy controls and recorded baseline demographic and clinical characteristics...
October 2017: Lung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570148/an-official-american-thoracic-society-workshop-report-obesity-and-metabolism-an-emerging-frontier-in-lung-health-and-disease
#9
Benjamin T Suratt, Niki D J Ubags, Deepa Rastogi, Kelan G Tantisira, Benjamin J Marsland, Irina Petrache, Janice B Allen, Jason H T Bates, Fernando Holguin, Meredith C McCormack, Evangelos D Michelakis, Stephen M Black, Manu Jain, Ana L Mora, Viswanathan Natarajan, Yury I Miller, Michael B Fessler, Konstantin G Birukov, Ross S Summer, Stephanie A Shore, Anne E Dixon
The world is in the midst of an unprecedented epidemic of obesity. This epidemic has changed the presentation and etiology of common diseases. For example, steatohepatitis, directly attributable to obesity, is now the most common cause of cirrhosis in the United States. Type 2 diabetes is increasingly being diagnosed in children. Pulmonary researchers and clinicians are just beginning to appreciate the impact of obesity and altered metabolism on common pulmonary diseases. Obesity has recently been identified as a major risk factor for the development of asthma and for acute respiratory distress syndrome...
June 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514950/lung-function-imaging-methods-in-cystic-fibrosis-pulmonary-disease
#10
REVIEW
Magdalena Kołodziej, Michael J de Veer, Marian Cholewa, Gary F Egan, Bruce R Thompson
Monitoring of pulmonary physiology is fundamental to the clinical management of patients with Cystic Fibrosis. The current standard clinical practise uses spirometry to assess lung function which delivers a clinically relevant functional readout of total lung function, however does not supply any visible or localised information. High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) is a well-established current 'gold standard' method for monitoring lung anatomical changes in Cystic Fibrosis patients. HRCT provides excellent morphological information, however, the X-ray radiation dose can become significant if multiple scans are required to monitor chronic diseases such as cystic fibrosis...
May 17, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467885/diving-and-pulmonary-physiology-surfactant-binding-protein-lung-fluid-and-cardiopulmonary-test-changes-in-professional-divers
#11
Zora Susilovic-Grabovac, Cristina Banfi, Denise Brusoni, Massimo Mapelli, Stefania Ghilardi, Ante Obad, Darija Bakovic-Kramaric, Zeljko Dujic, Piergiuseppe Agostoni
Alteration of breathing pattern ranging from an increase of respiratory rate to overt hyperventilation during and after SCUBA diving is frequently reported and is associated with intrathoracic fluid overload. This study was undertaken to assess breathing efficiency after diving and the association with damage of alveolar cells. Ventilation efficiency (VE/VCO2) during maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) before and 2h after a standard protocol dive has been analyzed in twelve professional males divers (39...
September 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370266/inhaled-steroids-reduce-pain-and-svcam-levels-in-individuals-with-sickle-cell-disease-a-triple-blind-randomized-trial
#12
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Jeffrey Glassberg, Caterina Minnitti, Caroline Cromwell, Lawrence Cytryn, Thomas Kraus, Gwen S Skloot, Jason T Connor, Adeeb H Rahman, William J Meurer
Clinical and preclinical data demonstrate that altered pulmonary physiology (including increased inflammation, increased blood flow, airway resistance, and hyper-reactivity) is an intrinsic component of Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) and may contribute to excess SCD morbidity and mortality. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), a safe and effective therapy for pulmonary inflammation in asthma, may ameliorate the altered pulmonary physiologic milieu in SCD. With this single-center, longitudinal, randomized, triple-blind, placebo controlled trial we studied the efficacy and feasibility of ICS in 54 nonasthmatic individuals with SCD...
July 2017: American Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326312/a-comparison-of-published-multidimensional-indices-to-predict-outcome-in-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#13
Charles Sharp, Huzaifa I Adamali, Ann B Millar
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) has an unpredictable course and prognostic factors are incompletely understood. We aimed to identify prognostic factors, including multidimensional indices from a significant IPF cohort at the Bristol Interstitial Lung Disease Centre in the UK. Patients diagnosed with IPF between 2007 and 2014 were identified. Longitudinal pulmonary physiology and exercise testing results were collated, with all-cause mortality used as the primary outcome. Factors influencing overall, 12- and 24-month survival were identified using Cox proportional hazards modelling and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis...
January 2017: ERJ Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166611/health-related-quality-of-life-in-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-data-from-the-australian-ipf-registry
#14
Ian N Glaspole, Sally A Chapman, Wendy A Cooper, Samantha J Ellis, Nicole S Goh, Peter M Hopkins, Sacha Macansh, Annabelle Mahar, Yuben P Moodley, Eldho Paul, Paul N Reynolds, E Haydn Walters, Christopher J Zappala, Tamera J Corte
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Studies analysing the effect of worsening pulmonary physiological impairment in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) with respect to quality of life have been limited to single centres or highly selected trial populations. The aim of this study was to determine the principal determinants of baseline and longitudinal health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in a large unselected IPF population. METHODS: We used the Australian IPF Registry to examine the relationship between HRQoL, measured using the St George Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), and demographic features, physiological features, co-morbidities and symptoms...
February 6, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055281/effects-of-bronchoscopy-on-lung-function-in-asthmatics
#15
Christina Bellinger, Eugene R Bleecker, Stephen Peters, Rodolfo Pascual, Jeffrey Krings, Regina Smith, Annette T Hastie, Wendy C Moore
BACKGROUND: To better understand the changes in pulmonary physiology related to asthma severity following bronchoscopy, we performed scheduled pre- and post-procedure spirometry on subjects undergoing bronchoscopy in our research program. METHODS: Control subjects and asthma subjects were recruited for bronchoscopy. On the day of bronchoscopy, subjects underwent spirometry pre-bronchoscopy and then up to three sets within 2 hour following the completion of bronchoscopy...
October 2017: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048395/we-fg-206-07-assessing-the-lung-function-of-patients-with-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-using-hyperpolarized-xenon-129-dissolved-phase-mri
#16
K Qing, J Mugler, Q Chen
PURPOSE: Hyperpolarized xenon-129 dissolved-phase MRI is the first imaging technique that allows 3-dimensional regional mapping of ventilation and gas uptake by tissue and blood the in human lung. Multiple outcome measures can be produced from this method. Existing studies in subjects with major lung diseases compared to healthy controls demonstrated high sensitivities of this method to pulmonary physiological factors including ventilation, alveolar tissue density, surface-to-volume ratio, pulmonary perfusion and gas-blood barrier thickness...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832494/adhesion-gpcr-function-in-pulmonary-development-and-disease
#17
REVIEW
Marie-Gabrielle Ludwig, Klaus Seuwen, James P Bridges
Classic G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) control multiple aspects of pulmonary physiology as demonstrated by loss-of-function experiments in mice and pharmacologic targeting of GPCRs for treatment of several pulmonary diseases. Emerging data demonstrate critical roles for members of the adhesion GPCR (aGPCR) family in pulmonary development, homeostasis, and disease. Although this field is still in its infancy, this chapter will review all available data regarding aGPCRs in pulmonary biology, with a particular focus on the aGPCR for which the most substantial data to date exist: Adgrf5...
2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796509/lung-remodeling-associated-with-recovery-from-acute-lung-injury
#18
REVIEW
Sean E Gill, Cory M Yamashita, Ruud A W Veldhuizen
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a disease with a variety of causes and is defined by severe hypoxemia. Whereas ARDS carries a mortality of approximately 30 %, patients that survive may ultimately regain near normal pulmonary physiology. The critical pathophysiological processes in ARDS are alveolar barrier dysfunction and overwhelming inflammation. This encompasses damage to the epithelial and endothelial layers, thickening of the interstitial matrix, edema with inactivation of pulmonary surfactant at the alveolar surface and marked inflammation mediated by infiltrating neutrophils and pro-inflammatory macrophages...
March 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741949/hydrocortisone-treatment-in-early-sepsis-associated-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-results-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Surat Tongyoo, Chairat Permpikul, Wasineenart Mongkolpun, Veerapong Vattanavanit, Suthipol Udompanturak, Mehmet Kocak, G Umberto Meduri
BACKGROUND: Authors of recent meta-analyses have reported that prolonged glucocorticoid treatment is associated with significant improvements in patients with severe pneumonia or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) of multifactorial etiology. A prospective randomized trial limited to patients with sepsis-associated ARDS is lacking. The objective of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of hydrocortisone treatment in sepsis-associated ARDS. METHODS: In this double-blind, single-center (Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok), randomized, placebo-controlled trial, we recruited adult patients with severe sepsis within 12 h of their meeting ARDS criteria...
October 15, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720018/pathways-through-which-asthma-risk-factors-contribute-to-asthma-severity-in-inner-city-children
#20
Andrew H Liu, Denise C Babineau, Rebecca Z Krouse, Edward M Zoratti, Jacqueline A Pongracic, George T O'Connor, Robert A Wood, Gurjit K Khurana Hershey, Carolyn M Kercsmar, Rebecca S Gruchalla, Meyer Kattan, Stephen J Teach, Melanie Makhija, Dinesh Pillai, Carin I Lamm, James E Gern, Steven M Sigelman, Peter J Gergen, Alkis Togias, Cynthia M Visness, William W Busse
BACKGROUND: Pathway analyses can be used to determine how host and environmental factors contribute to asthma severity. OBJECTIVE: To investigate pathways explaining asthma severity in inner-city children. METHODS: On the basis of medical evidence in the published literature, we developed a conceptual model to describe how 8 risk-factor domains (allergen sensitization, allergic inflammation, pulmonary physiology, stress, obesity, vitamin D, environmental tobacco smoke [ETS] exposure, and rhinitis severity) are linked to asthma severity...
October 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
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