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"Pulmonary physiology"

Surat Tongyoo, Chairat Permpikul, Wasineenart Mongkolpun, Veerapong Vattanavanit, Suthipol Udompanturak, Mehmet Kocak, G Umberto Meduri
BACKGROUND: Authors of recent meta-analyses have reported that prolonged glucocorticoid treatment is associated with significant improvements in patients with severe pneumonia or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) of multifactorial etiology. A prospective randomized trial limited to patients with sepsis-associated ARDS is lacking. The objective of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of hydrocortisone treatment in sepsis-associated ARDS. METHODS: In this double-blind, single-center (Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok), randomized, placebo-controlled trial, we recruited adult patients with severe sepsis within 12 h of their meeting ARDS criteria...
October 15, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Andrew H Liu, Denise C Babineau, Rebecca Z Krouse, Edward M Zoratti, Jacqueline A Pongracic, George T O'Connor, Robert A Wood, Gurjit K Khurana Hershey, Carolyn M Kercsmar, Rebecca S Gruchalla, Meyer Kattan, Stephen J Teach, Melanie Makhija, Dinesh Pillai, Carin I Lamm, James E Gern, Steven M Sigelman, Peter J Gergen, Alkis Togias, Cynthia M Visness, William W Busse
BACKGROUND: Pathway analyses can be used to determine how host and environmental factors contribute to asthma severity. OBJECTIVE: To investigate pathways explaining asthma severity in inner-city children. METHODS: On the basis of medical evidence in the published literature, we developed a conceptual model to describe how 8 risk-factor domains (allergen sensitization, allergic inflammation, pulmonary physiology, stress, obesity, vitamin D, environmental tobacco smoke [ETS] exposure, and rhinitis severity) are linked to asthma severity...
October 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Jacqueline A Pongracic, Rebecca Z Krouse, Denise C Babineau, Edward M Zoratti, Robyn T Cohen, Robert A Wood, Gurjit K Khurana Hershey, Carolyn M Kercsmar, Rebecca S Gruchalla, Meyer Kattan, Stephen J Teach, Christine C Johnson, Leonard B Bacharier, James E Gern, Steven M Sigelman, Peter J Gergen, Alkis Togias, Cynthia M Visness, William W Busse, Andrew H Liu
BACKGROUND: Treatment levels required to control asthma vary greatly across a population with asthma. The factors that contribute to variability in treatment requirements of inner-city children have not been fully elucidated. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify the clinical characteristics that distinguish difficult-to-control asthma from easy-to-control asthma. METHODS: Asthmatic children aged 6 to 17 years underwent baseline assessment and bimonthly guideline-based management visits over 1 year...
October 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Edward M Zoratti, Rebecca Z Krouse, Denise C Babineau, Jacqueline A Pongracic, George T O'Connor, Robert A Wood, Gurjit K Khurana Hershey, Carolyn M Kercsmar, Rebecca S Gruchalla, Meyer Kattan, Stephen J Teach, Steven M Sigelman, Peter J Gergen, Alkis Togias, Cynthia M Visness, William W Busse, Andrew H Liu
BACKGROUND: Children with asthma in low-income urban areas have high morbidity. Phenotypic analysis in these children is lacking, but may identify characteristics to inform successful tailored management approaches. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify distinct asthma phenotypes among inner-city children receiving guidelines-based management. METHODS: Nine inner-city asthma consortium centers enrolled 717 children aged 6 to 17 years. Data were collected at baseline and prospectively every 2 months for 1 year...
October 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Sandra Chartrand, Jeffrey J Swigris, Lina Stanchev, Joyce S Lee, Kevin K Brown, Aryeh Fischer
OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical phenotype and natural history of a cohort of patients with interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features (IPAF). METHODS: A retrospective, single center study of 56 patients with IPAF evaluated between February 2008 and August 2014. All clinical data were extracted from the electronic medical record and longitudinal changes in forced vital capacity (FVC) were analyzed with mixed-effects, piecewise linear regression models that considered time as a continuous factor...
October 2016: Respiratory Medicine
Lucia Flors, John P Mugler, Eduard E de Lange, Grady W Miller, Jaime F Mata, Nick Tustison, Iulian C Ruset, F William Hersman, Talissa A Altes
The assessment of early pulmonary disease and its severity can be difficult in young children, as procedures such as spirometry cannot be performed on them. Computed tomography provides detailed structural images of the pulmonary parenchyma, but its major drawback is that the patient is exposed to ionizing radiation. In this context, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a promising technique for the evaluation of pediatric lung disease, especially when serial imaging is needed. Traditionally, MRI played a small role in evaluating the pulmonary parenchyma...
September 2016: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
Jacqueline O'Toole, Lucas Mikulic, David A Kaminsky
The epidemiology and physiology of severe asthma are inherently linked because of varying phenotypes and expressions of asthma throughout the population. To understand how to better treat severe asthma, we must use both population data and physiologic principles to individualize therapies among groups with similar expressions of this disease.
August 2016: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America
Richard Auten, Jurgen Schwarze, Clement Ren, Stephanie Davis, Terry L Noah
Our journal covers a broad range of research and scholarly topics related to children's respiratory disorders. For updated perspectives on the rapidly expanding knowledge in our field, we will summarize the past year's publications in our major topic areas, as well as selected publications in these areas from the core clinical journal literature outside our own pages. The current review covers articles on neonatal lung disease, pulmonary physiology, and respiratory infection. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2016;51:733-739...
July 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
James A Stockley, Robert A Stockley
Cystic fibrosis is predominantly an airway disease with marked bronchiectatic changes associated with inflammation, chronic colonization, and progressive airflow obstruction. The condition can be identified in childhood and monitored with detectable airway changes early in life while conventional spirometry remains in the normal range. Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency can also be detected early in life through blood spot and genetic testing and leads (in some) to the development of airflow obstruction and a predominant emphysema phenotype with bronchiectatic changes in about 30%...
April 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Sandra Chartrand, Jeffrey J Swigris, Lina Peykova, Jonathan Chung, Aryeh Fischer
INTRODUCTION: Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is 1 possible manifestation of the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM). Occasionally, patients presenting with ILD are mistakenly diagnosed with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP), but after multidisciplinary evaluation, their ILD is determined to be because of antisynthetase syndrome (SynS) or myositis spectrum of disease. METHODS: We used retrospective analytic methods to identify patients with ILD evaluated at the National Jewish Health between February 2008 and August 2014 and believed initially to have IIP but ultimately diagnosed with SynS or myositis spectrum of disease...
May 2016: Journal of Rheumatology
Fausto Salaffi, Marina Carotti, Eleonora Di Donato, Marco Di Carlo, Luca Ceccarelli, Gianmarco Giuseppetti
OBJECTIVES: This study was designed (a) to evaluate an improved quantitative lung fibrosis score based on a computer-aided diagnosis (CaM) system in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc),-related interstitial lung disease (SSc-ILD), (b) to investigate the relationship between physiologic parameters (forced vital capacity [FVC] and single-breath diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide [DLCO]), patient-centred measures of dyspnea and functional disability and CaM and visual reader-based (CoVR) methods, and (c) to identify potential surrogate measures from quantitative and visual HRCT measurement...
2016: PloS One
Satoru Fukuyama, Koichiro Matsumoto, Yasuko Kaneko, Keiko Kan-o, Naotaka Noda, Yukari Tajiri-Asai, Takako Nakano, Yumiko Ishii, Yutaka Kiyohara, Yoichi Nakanishi, Hiromasa Inoue
Spirometry in health checkup may contribute to early diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. Although post-bronchodilator airflow limitation is essential for definite diagnosis of COPD and post-bronchodilator normalization of airflow is suggestive of asthma, this test has not been prevailed in health checkup. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of airflow limitation defined by pre- and post-bronchodilator spirometry in health checkup. Post-bronchodilator spirometry was conducted for participants with airflow limitation in a town-wide health checkup for residents aged 40 years and older in Hisayama, a town in the western part of Japan...
2016: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
Sandra Chartrand, Jeffrey J Swigris, Lina Peykova, Aryeh Fischer
OBJECTIVE: To describe our experience with rituximab (RTX) as treatment for a diverse spectrum of chronic connective tissue disease-associated interstitial lung disease (CTD-ILD). METHODS: Twenty-four subjects with CTD-ILD were included. All had pulmonary function testing before and after their first RTX infusion. Each subject was evaluated in a multidisciplinary autoimmune and ILD outpatient clinic. Data were extracted by retrospective review of complete medical records...
2015: Sarcoidosis, Vasculitis, and Diffuse Lung Diseases: Official Journal of WASOG
Anup Das, Mainul Haque, Marc Chikhani, Wenfei Wang, Tayyba Ali, Oana Cole, Jonathan G Hardman, Declan G Bates
We describe the development of an integrated cardiovascular and pulmonary model for use in the investigation of novel mechanical ventilation strategies in the intensive care unit. The cardiac model includes the cardiac chambers, the pulmonary circulation and the systemic circulation. The modeling of complex mechanisms for vascular segments, time varying elastance functions of cardiovascular components and the effect of vascular resistances, in health and disease under the influence of mechanical ventilation is investigated...
2015: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Wendy R Williams, Matthew S Johnston, Sarah Higgins, Angelo A Izzo, Lon V Kendall
The guinea pig is a common animal model that is used in biomedical research to study a variety of systems, including hormonal and immunological responses, pulmonary physiology, corticosteroid response and others. However, because guinea pigs are evolutionarily a prey species, they do not readily show behavioral signs of disease, which can make it difficult to detect illness in a laboratory setting. Minimally invasive blood tests, such as complete blood counts and plasma biochemistry assays, are useful in both human and veterinary medicine as an initial diagnostic technique to rule in or rule out systemic illness...
January 2016: Lab Animal
John B West
Frank N. Low (1911-1998) has the distinction of publishing the first electron micrographs showing the ultrastructure of the pulmonary capillary and particularly the blood-gas barrier. This work in 1952 and 1953 was enabled by the progress in fixation and staining of tissue made by George Palade and was part of the very rapid advance in electron microscopy during the previous 25 years. Low's micrographs clearly showed the three layers of the blood-gas barrier: capillary endothelium, extracellular matrix, and alveolar epithelium...
March 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Stefan Kreyer, Vittorio Scaravilli, Katharina Linden, Slava M Belenkiy, Corina Necsoiu, Yansong Li, Christian Putensen, Kevin K Chung, Andriy I Batchinsky, Leopoldo C Cancio
INTRODUCTION: In thermally injured patients, inhalation injury is often associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and is an independent predictor of increased morbidity and mortality. Extracorporeal CO2 removal (ECCO2R) therapy offers new possibilities in protective mechanical ventilation in ARDS patients. We performed an early application of ECCO2R in mild-to-moderate ARDS in sheep ventilated in BiPAP mode. Our aim was to investigate its effect on severity of the lung injury...
January 2016: Shock
Joshua J Solomon, Jonathan H Chung, Gregory P Cosgrove, M Kristen Demoruelle, Evans R Fernandez-Perez, Aryeh Fischer, Stephen K Frankel, Stephen B Hobbs, Tristan J Huie, Jill Ketzer, Amar Mannina, Amy L Olson, Gloria Russell, Yutaka Tsuchiya, Zulma X Yunt, Pearlanne T Zelarney, Kevin K Brown, Jeffrey J Swigris
Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a common pulmonary manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis. There is lack of clarity around predictors of mortality and disease behaviour over time in these patients.We identified rheumatoid arthritis-related interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD) patients evaluated at National Jewish Health (Denver, CO, USA) from 1995 to 2013 whose baseline high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scans showed either a nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) or a "definite" or "possible" usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern...
February 2016: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
C Wong, A A Shakir, A Farboud, H B Whittet
BACKGROUND: Artificial humidification should be provided in the post-operative period for self-ventilating tracheostomy and laryngectomy patients (Neck Breathers) to prevent pulmonary complications. Neck breathers have significantly altered pulmonary physiology as the normal conditioning and filtration of inhaled air in the nose and pharynx are bypassed, allowing unconditioned air to enter the trachea directly. Heated humidification and heat and moisture exchanger are the most common methods of artificial humidification for these patients, however the optimal method of humidification is not known...
October 27, 2015: Clinical Otolaryngology
Constanze Vitzthum, Wolfgang G Clauss, Martin Fronius
The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a Cl(-) channel that is essential for electrolyte and fluid homeostasis. Preliminary evidence indicates that CFTR is a mechanosensitive channel. In lung epithelia, CFTR is exposed to different mechanical forces such as shear stress (Ss) and membrane distention. The present study questioned whether Ss and/or stretch influence CFTR activity (wild type, ∆F508, G551D). Human CFTR (hCFTR) was heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes and the response to the mechanical stimulus and forskolin/IBMX (FI) was measured by two-electrode voltage-clamp experiments...
November 2015: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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