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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545257/the-reactive-sulfur-species-concept-15-years-on
#1
REVIEW
Gregory I Giles, Muhammad Jawad Nasim, Wesam Ali, Claus Jacob
Fifteen years ago, in 2001, the concept of "Reactive Sulfur Species" or RSS was advocated as a working hypothesis. Since then various organic as well as inorganic RSS have attracted considerable interest and stimulated many new and often unexpected avenues in research and product development. During this time, it has become apparent that molecules with sulfur-containing functional groups are not just the passive "victims" of oxidative stress or simple conveyors of signals in cells, but can also be stressors in their own right, with pivotal roles in cellular function and homeostasis...
May 23, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545186/gallium-nanoparticle-mediated-reduction-of-brain-specific-serine-protease-4-in-an-experimental-metastatic-cancer-model
#2
Enas M Moustafa, Marwa Abdelhameed Mohamed, Noura M Thabet
Purpose: Tumor growth and metastasis depend on angiogenesis; therefore, efforts are being made to develop specific angiogenic inhibitors. Gallium (Ga) is the second most common metal ion, after platinum, used in cancer treatment. Its activities are numerous and various. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effect of Ga on brain metastasis arising from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Materials and methods: Forty experimental rats (divided into 4 groups) received diethylnitrosamine (DEN) at a dose (20 mg/kg...
April 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545154/site-specific-phosphorylation-of-casein-kinase-1-%C3%AE-ck1%C3%AE-regulates-its-activity-towards-the-circadian-regulator-per2
#3
Gracie Wee Ling Eng, Edison, David M Virshup
Circadian rhythms are intrinsic ~24 hour cycles that regulate diverse aspects of physiology, and in turn are regulated by interactions with the external environment. Casein kinase 1 delta (CK1δ, CSNK1D) is a key regulator of the clock, phosphorylating both stabilizing and destabilizing sites on the PER2 protein, in a mechanism known as the phosphoswitch. CK1δ can itself be regulated by phosphorylation on its regulatory domain, but the specific sites involved, and the role this plays in control of circadian rhythms as well as other CK1-dependent processes is not well understood...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545141/prion-pathogenesis-is-unaltered-in-the-absence-of-sirp%C3%AE-mediated-don-t-eat-me-signaling
#4
Mario Nuvolone, Marta Paolucci, Silvia Sorce, Veronika Kana, Rita Moos, Takashi Matozaki, Adriano Aguzzi
Prion diseases are neurodegenerative conditions caused by misfolding of the prion protein, leading to conspicuous neuronal loss and intense microgliosis. Recent experimental evidence point towards a protective role of microglia against prion-induced neurodegeneration, possibly through elimination of prion-containing apoptotic bodies. The molecular mechanisms by which microglia recognize and eliminate apoptotic cells in the context of prion diseases are poorly defined. Here we investigated the possible involvement of signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα), a key modulator of host cell phagocytosis; SIRPα is encoded by the Sirpa gene that is genetically linked to the prion gene Prnp...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545126/pheromone-sensing-neurons-regulate-peripheral-lipid-metabolism-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#5
Rosalind Hussey, Jon Stieglitz, Jaleh Mesgarzadeh, Tiffany T Locke, Ying K Zhang, Frank C Schroeder, Supriya Srinivasan
It is now established that the central nervous system plays an important role in regulating whole body metabolism and energy balance. However, the extent to which sensory systems relay environmental information to modulate metabolic events in peripheral tissues has remained poorly understood. In addition, it has been challenging to map the molecular mechanisms underlying discrete sensory modalities with respect to their role in lipid metabolism. In previous work our lab has identified instructive roles for serotonin signaling as a surrogate for food availability, as well as oxygen sensing, in the control of whole body metabolism...
May 18, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545104/pkng-senses-amino-acid-availability-to-control-metabolism-and-virulence-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#6
Barbara Rieck, Giulia Degiacomi, Michael Zimmermann, Alessandro Cascioferro, Francesca Boldrin, Natalie R Lazar-Adler, Andrew R Bottrill, Fabien le Chevalier, Wafa Frigui, Marco Bellinzoni, María-Natalia Lisa, Pedro M Alzari, Liem Nguyen, Roland Brosch, Uwe Sauer, Riccardo Manganelli, Helen M O'Hare
Sensing and response to changes in nutrient availability are essential for the lifestyle of environmental and pathogenic bacteria. Serine/threonine protein kinase G (PknG) is required for virulence of the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and its putative substrate GarA regulates the tricarboxylic acid cycle in M. tuberculosis and other Actinobacteria by protein-protein binding. We sought to understand the stimuli that lead to phosphorylation of GarA, and the roles of this regulatory system in pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria...
May 17, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545086/cancer-cell-spheroids-are-a-better-screen-for-the-photodynamic-efficiency-of-glycosylated-photosensitizers
#7
Patrícia M R Pereira, Naxhije Berisha, N V S Dinesh K Bhupathiraju, Rosa Fernandes, João P C Tomé, Charles Michael Drain
Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) relies on the use of non-toxic photosensitizers that are locally and selectively activated by light to induce cell death or apoptosis through reactive oxygen species generation. The conjugation of porphyrinoids with sugars that target cancer is increasingly viewed as an effective way to increase the selectivity of PDT. To date, in vitro PDT efficacy is mostly screened using two-dimensional monolayer cultures. Compared to monolayer cultures, three-dimensional spheroid cultures have unique spatial distributions of nutrients, metabolites, oxygen and signalling molecules; therefore better mimic in vivo conditions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545052/brl3-and-atrgs1-cooperate-to-fine-tune-growth-inhibition-and-ros-activation
#8
Meral Tunc-Ozdemir, Alan M Jones
Plasma membrane-localized leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases directly activates G protein complex via interaction with seven transmembrane domain Regulator of G-protein Signaling 1 (AtRGS1) protein. Brassinosteroid insensitive 1 (BRI1) LIKE3 (BRL3) phosphorylates AtRGS1 in vitro. FRET analysis showed that BRL3 and AtRGS1 interaction dynamics change in response to glucose and flg22. Both BRL3 and AtRGS1 function in glucose sensing and brl3 and rgs1-2 single mutants are hyposensitive to high glucose as well as the brl3/rgs1 double mutant...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545029/tusc3-induces-autophagy-in-human-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-cells-through-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#9
Yun Peng, Jun Cao, Xiao-Yi Yao, Jian-Xin Wang, Mei-Zuo Zhong, Ping-Ping Gan, Jian-Huang Li
We investigated the effects of tumor suppressor candidate 3 (TUSC3) on autophagy in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. A total of 118 NSCLC patients (88 males and 30 females) who underwent surgery at our institute were enrolled in the study. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that TUSC3 protein expression was lower in NSCLC specimens than adjacent normal tissue. Correspondingly, there was greater methylation of TUSC3 in NSCLC than adjacent normal tissue. After transient transfection of A549 NSCLC cells with constructs designed to up-regulate or down-regulate TUSC3 expression, we analyzed the effects of inhibiting the Wnt pathway (XAV939) and autophagy (chloroquine, CQ) on the behavior of NSCLC cells...
May 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545028/stc1-promotes-cell-apoptosis-via-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-phospho-p65-ser536-in-cervical-cancer-cells
#10
Xi Pan, Binyuan Jiang, Jianhao Liu, Juan Ding, Yuehui Li, Ruili Sun, Li Peng, Changfei Qin, Shujuan Fang, Guancheng Li
Stanniocalin-1 (STC1) is a secreted glycoprotein hormone and involved in various types of human malignancies. Our previous studies revealed that STC1 inhibited cell proliferation and invasion of cervical cancer cells through NF-κB P65 activation, but the mechanism is poorly understood. In our studies, we found overexpression of STC1 promoted cell apoptosis while silencing of STC1 promoted cell growth of cervical cancer. Phospho-protein profiling and Western blotting results showed the expression of NF-κB related phosphorylation sites including NF-κB P65 (Ser536), IκBα, IKKβ, PI3K, and AKT was altered in STC1-overexpressed cervical cancer cells...
May 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545025/oncogenic-mnk-signalling-regulates-the-metastasis-suppressor-ndrg1
#11
Shuye Tian, Xuemin Wang, Christopher G Proud
The protein N-myc down-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) represses tumour metastasis. It is phosphorylated at several sites by serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (SGK1). Here we show that NDRG1 is also regulated by the oncogenic MAP kinase-interacting kinase (MNK) pathway, a target for cancer therapy.Inhibiting MNKs increases the expression of NDRG1 protein and mRNA in breast cancer cells. MNK inhibition also decreases the phosphorylation of NDRG1. Phosphorylation of NDRG1 is reduced in cells lacking MNK1, but not MNK2-knockout cells, indicating that NDRG1 phosphorylation is a specific target for MNK1...
May 2, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545024/an-unusual-intragenic-promoter-of-piwil2-contributes-to-aberrant-activation-of-oncogenic-pl2l60
#12
Shan-Shan Liu, Ning Liu, Meng-Yao Liu, Lei Sun, Wu-Yan Xia, Hong-Min Lu, Yu-Jie Fu, Guo-Liang Yang, Juan-Jie Bo, Xiao-Xing Liu, Haizhong Feng, Hailong Wu, Lin-Feng Li, Jian-Xin Gao
PIWIL2-like (PL2L) protein 60 (PL2L60), a product of aberrantly activated PIWIL2 gene, is widely expressed in various types of tumors and may promote tumorigenesis. However, the mechanisms underlying the activation of expression of PL2L60 remain unknown. In this study, an intragenic promoter responsible for the activation of PL2L60 within the human PIWIL2 gene has been identified, cloned and characterized. The promoter of PL2L60 is located in the intron 10 of the host gene PIWIL2. Bioinformatic and mutagenic analysis reveals that this intragenic promoter within the sequence of 50 nucleotides contains two closely arranged cis-acting elements specific for the hepatic leukemia factor (HLF) in the positive strand and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in the negative strand...
May 2, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545017/12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-tpa-increases-murine-intestinal-crypt-stem-cell-survival-following-radiation-injury
#13
Yaojie Liang, Hongwei Zhou, Yibing Yao, Ailing Deng, Zhihong Wang, Boning Gao, Minhang Zhou, Yu Cui, Lili Wang, Lei Zhou, Bianhong Wang, Li Wang, Anqi Liu, Lanlan Qiu, Kun Qian, Yejian Lu, Wanping Deng, Xi Zheng, Zhengtao Han, Yonghui Li, Junzhong Sun
Radiation enteropathy is a common complication in cancer patients following radiation therapy. Thus, there is a need for agents that can protect the intestinal epithelium against radiation. 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) has been shown to induce differentiation and/or apoptosis in multiple cell lines and primary cells. In the current report, we studied the function of TPA in radiation induced enteropathy in cultured rat intestinal epithelial cell line IEC-6 after ionizing radiation (IR) and in mice after high dose total-body gamma-IR (TBI)...
April 20, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544973/pegylation-of-a-tlr2-agonist-based-vaccine-delivery-system-improves-antigen-trafficking-and-the-magnitude-of-ensuing-antibody-and-cd8-t-cell-responses
#14
Toshiki Sekiya, Junya Yamagishi, John Henry V Gray, Paul G Whitney, Axel Martinelli, Weiguang Zeng, Chinn Yi Wong, Chihiro Sugimoto, David C Jackson, Brendon Y Chua
The lipopeptide R4Pam2Cys is an agonist for toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2), a key pathogen-associated molecular pattern receptor expressed on many antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells (DCs). Electrostatic association of R4Pam2Cys with soluble protein antigens significantly enhances their immunogenicity and there is evidence to suggest that reducing the size of suitably adjuvanted-antigen complexes in solution may further improve their immunostimulatory capabilities. In this study, we investigated how incorporation of polyethylene glycol (PEG) into R4Pam2Cys affects the size, activity and efficacy of formed antigen-lipopeptide complexes...
May 11, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544936/effect-of-follicular-dendritic-cell-secreted-protein-on-gene-expression-of-human-periodontal-ligament-cells
#15
Lin Xiang, Na Xin, Ying Yuan, Xiaogang Hou, Junwei Chen, Na Wei, Ping Gong
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the specific roles of follicular dendritic cell secreted protein (FDC-SP), a protein exists in saliva, in the inhibition of calcium precipitation during periodontal regeneration, as well as affect phenotype expression of human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs) during the differentiation process. DESIGN: To investigate this, we applied microarray technology to identify gene expression changes in hPDLCs transfected with FDC-SP and then clustered them according to their biological functions...
May 17, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544903/estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-deficiency-impairs-bdnf-5-ht2a-signaling-in-the-hippocampus-of-female-brain-a-possible-mechanism-for-menopausal-depression
#16
Anindit Chhibber, Sarah K Woody, M A Karim Rumi, Michael J Soares, Liqin Zhao
Depression currently affects 350 million people worldwide and 19 million Americans each year. Women are 2.5 times more likely to experience major depression than men, with some women appearing to be at a heightened risk during the menopausal transition. Estrogen signaling has been implicated in the pathophysiology of mood disorders including depression; however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, the role of estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes, ERα and ERβ, in the regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and serotonin (5-HT) signaling was investigated; two pathways that have been hypothesized to be interrelated in the etiology of depression...
May 18, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544778/differential-regulation-of-protein-tyrosine-kinase-signaling-by-dock-and-the-ptp61f-variants
#17
Lee F Willoughby, Jan Manent, Kirsten Allan, Han Lee, Marta Portela, Florian Wiede, Coral Warr, Tzu-Ching Meng, Tony Tiganis, Helena E Richardson
Tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent signalling is coordinated by the opposing actions of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) and protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs). There is a growing list of adaptor proteins that interact with PTPs and facilitate the dephosphorylation of substrates. The extent to which any given adaptor confers selectivity for any given substrate in vivo remains unclear. Here we have taken advantage of Drosophila melanogaster as a model organism to explore the influence of the SH3/SH2 adaptor protein Dock on the abilities of the membrane (PTP61Fm)- and nuclear (PTP61Fn)-targeted variants of PTP61F (the Drosophila othologue of the mammalian enzymes PTP1B and TCPTP respectively) to repress PTK signaling pathways in vivo...
May 23, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544775/potentiation-of-spinal-glutamatergic-response-in-the-neuron-glia-interactions-underlies-the-intrathecal-il-1%C3%AE-induced-thermal-hyperalgesia-in-rats
#18
Chun-Sung Sung, Zhi-Hong Wen, Chien-Wei Feng, Chun-Hong Chen, Shi-Ying Huang, Nan-Fu Chen, Wu-Fu Chen, Chih-Shung Wong
AIMS: We previously demonstrated that intrathecal IL-1β upregulated phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (P-p38 MAPK) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in microglia and astrocytes in spinal cord, increased nitric oxide (NO) release into cerebrospinal fluid, and induced thermal hyperalgesia in rats. This study investigated the role of spinal glutamatergic response in intrathecal IL-1β-induced nociception in rats. METHODS: The pretreatment effects of MK-801 (5 μg), minocycline (20 μg), and SB203580 (5 μg) on intrathecal IL-1β (100 ng) in rats were measured by behavior, Western blotting, CSF analysis, and immunofluorescence studies...
May 19, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544771/quantitative-proteomic-analysis-of-host-epithelial-cells-infected-by-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium
#19
Linlu Qi, Mo Hu, Jiaqi Fu, Yanhua Liu, Mei Wu, Kaiwen Yu, Xiaoyun Liu
Systems-level analyses have the capability to offer new insight into host-pathogen interactions on the molecular level. Using Salmonella infection of host epithelial cells as a model system, we previously analyzed intracellular bacterial proteome as a window into pathogens' adaptations to their host environment (Infect. Immun. 2015; J. Proteome Res. 2017). Herein we extended our efforts to quantitatively examine protein expression of host cells during infection. In total, we identified more than 5,000 proteins with 194 differentially regulated proteins upon bacterial infection...
May 25, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544763/hp30-2-a-mitochondrial-prat-protein-for-import-of-signal-sequence-less-precursor-proteins-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#20
Claudia Rossig, John Gray, Oscar Valdes, Sachin Rustgi, Diter von Wettstein, Christiane Reinbothe, Steffen Reinbothe
Chloroplasts and mitochondria contain a family of putative preprotein and amino acid transporters designated PRAT. Here, we analyzed the role of two previously characterized PRAT protein family member, encoded by At3g49560 (HP30) and At5g24650 (HP30-2), in planta using a combination of genetic, cell biological and biochemical approaches. Expression studies and GFP tagging identified HP30-2 both in chloroplasts and mitochondria, whereas HP30 was located exclusively in chloroplasts. Biochemical evidence was obtained for an association of mitochondrial HP30-2 with two distinct protein complexes, one containing the inner membrane translocase TIM22 and the other containing an alternative NAD(P)H dehydrogenase subunit (NDC1) implicated in a respiratory complex 1-like electron transport chain...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
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