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Arachidonic acid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342349/membrane-allostery-and-unique-hydrophobic-sites-promote-enzyme-substrate-specificity
#1
Varnavas D Mouchlis, Yuan Chen, J Andrew McCammon, Edward A Dennis
We demonstrate that lipidomics coupled with molecular dynamics reveals unique phospholipase A2 specificity toward membrane phospholipid substrates. We discovered unexpected head-group and acyl-chain specificity for three-major human phospholipases A2. These differences between each enzyme's specificity coupled with molecular dynamicsbased structural and binding studies revealed unique active site and interfacial surface binding moieties for each enzyme that explains the observed specificity at a hitherto inaccessible structural level...
January 17, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340222/direct-molecular-fishing-of-new-protein-partners-for-human-thromboxane-synthase
#2
A V Svirid, P V Ershov, E O Yablokov, L A Kaluzhskiy, Yu V Mezentsev, A V Florinskaya, T A Sushko, N V Strushkevich, A A Gilep, S A Usanov, A E Medvedev, A S Ivanov
Thromboxane synthase (TBXAS1) catalyzes the isomerization reaction of prostaglandin H2 producing thromboxane A2, the autocrine and paracrine factor in many cell types. A high activity and metastability by these arachidonic acid derivatives suggests the existence of supramolecular structures that are involved in the regulation of the biosynthesis and directed translocation of thromboxane to the receptor. The objective of this study was to identify TBXAS1 protein partners from human liver tissue lysate using a complex approach based on the direct molecular fishing technique, LC-MS/MS protein identification, and protein-protein interaction validation by surface plasmon resonance (SPR)...
October 2017: Acta Naturae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339456/parp-inhibition-prevents-ethanol-induced-neuroinflammatory-signaling-and-neurodegeneration-in-adult-age-rat-brain-slice-cultures
#3
Nuzhath F Tajuddin, Hee-Yong Kim, Michael A Collins
Utilizing rat adult-age hippocampal-entorhinal cortical (HEC) slice cultures we examined the role of poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase (PARP) in binge ethanol's brain inflammatory and neurodegenerative mechanisms. Activated by DNA strand breaks, PARP (principally PARP1 in brain) promotes DNA repair via poly [ADP-ribose] (PAR) products, but PARP overactivation triggers regulated neuronal necrosis, e.g., parthanatos. Previously we found that brain PARP1 levels were upregulated by neurotoxic ethanol binges in adult rats and HEC slices, and PARP inhibitor PJ34 abrogated slice neurodegeneration...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339153/inhibition-of-cox-2-and-5-lox-regulates-the-progression-of-colorectal-cancer-by-promoting-pten-and-suppressing-pi3k-akt-pathway
#4
Jian Chang, Nan Tang, Qi Fang, Kongfan Zhu, Lei Liu, Xingcheng Xiong, Zhongchao Zhu, Bixiang Zhang, Mingzhi Zhang, Jing Tao
For colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, local and systemic inflammatory responses have been extensively reported to closely associate with patient survival. However, the specific signalling pathways responsible for carcinogenic responses are unclear. Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) is a negative regulator of PI3K/AKT pathway that is gradually inactivated in cancers through mutation, loss of heterozygosity and others epigenetic mechanisms. In addition, COX and LOX metabolic pathways of arachidonic acid (AA) play a crucial role in promoting adenoma development...
January 12, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335779/equine-neutrophils-and-their-role-in-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-and-lung-inflammation
#5
REVIEW
Stacy L Anderson, Baljit Singh
Horses are susceptible to a multitude of inflammatory conditions that are characterized by a strong neutrophilic response. Here, we review basic equine neutrophil biology and explore the role of neutrophils in inflammatory conditions with emphasis on intestinal ischemia and reperfusion injury and lung inflammation. In addition, unique aspects of equine neutrophil biology have been highlighted. Neutrophils comprise the highest proportion of circulating white blood cells in equine blood. The concentration of circulating equine neutrophils is a primary indicator of systemic inflammation...
January 15, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335039/replacing-carbohydrate-during-a-glucose-challenge-with-the-egg-white-portion-or-whole-eggs-protects-against-postprandial-impairments-in-vascular-endothelial-function-in-prediabetic-men-by-limiting-increases-in-glycaemia-and-lipid-peroxidation
#6
Joshua D McDonald, Chureeporn Chitchumroonchokchai, Jinhui Li, Eunice Mah, Allison N Labyk, Elizabeth J Reverri, Kevin D Ballard, Jeff S Volek, Richard S Bruno
Eggs attenuate postprandial hyperglycaemia (PPH), which transiently impairs vascular endothelial function (VEF). We hypothesised that co-ingestion of a glucose challenge with egg-based meals would protect against glucose-induced impairments in VEF by attenuating PPH and oxidative stress. A randomised, cross-over study was conducted in prediabetic men (n 20) who ingested isoenegertic meals (1674 kJ (400 kcal)) containing 100 g glucose (GLU), or 75 g glucose with 1·5 whole eggs (EGG), seven egg whites (WHITE) or two egg yolks (YOLK)...
January 16, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330663/human-cytomegalovirus-encoded-mir-ul112-contributes-to-hcmv-mediated-vascular-diseases-by-inducing-vascular-endothelial-cell-dysfunction
#7
Kai Shen, Liyun Xu, Dongdong Chen, Weiguo Tang, Yanyan Huang
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection has been linked to the pathogenesis of vasculopathy by inducing dysfunction of vascular cells such as endothelial cells. Hcmv-miR-UL112 is the most well-characterized HCMV-encoded microRNA occurring in the plasma of patients with cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension, while the specific underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are yet to be defined. The current study investigated the effect of hcmv-miR-UL112 on the growth and proliferation of human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs); it might also be associated with signaling pathways...
January 12, 2018: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329295/novel-signature-fatty-acid-profile-of-the-giant-manta-ray-suggests-reliance-on-an-uncharacterised-mesopelagic-food-source-low-in-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids
#8
Katherine B Burgess, Michel Guerrero, Andrea D Marshall, Anthony J Richardson, Mike B Bennett, Lydie I E Couturier
Traditionally, large planktivorous elasmobranchs have been thought to predominantly feed on surface zooplankton during daytime hours. However, the recent application of molecular methods to examine long-term assimilated diets, has revealed that these species likely gain the majority from deeper or demersal sources. Signature fatty acid analysis (FA) of muscle tissue was used to examine the assimilated diet of the giant manta ray Mobula birostris, and then compared with surface zooplankton that was collected during feeding and non-feeding events at two aggregation sites off mainland Ecuador...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328968/in-vitro-examination-of-an-oleosome-based-sun-protection-product-on-the-influence-of-uvb-induced-inflammation-markers-in-human-epidermal-skin-equivalent-tissue-model
#9
James V Gruber, Robert Holtz, Soo In Yang
In vitro human epidermal skin equivalent tissues (MatTek EpiDerm™) were employed to examine the influence of UVB radiation on various established inflammation markers in the presence of topically applied sunscreens. MatTek EpiDerm™ tissues were treated with 2.0mg/cm2 of an Experimental oleosome-based SPF 30 product or a commercial SPF 30 beach product. Tissues were irradiated with 300mJ/cm2 of UVB radiation. Inflammatory cytokines IL-1α, IL-6 and IL-8 as well as arachidonic acid cascade marker PGE2 were examined via ELISA-based antibody detection...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326169/dual-cyclooxygenase-fatty-acid-amide-hydrolase-inhibitor-exploits-novel-binding-interactions-in-the-cyclooxygenase-active-site
#10
Michael C Goodman, Shu Xu, Carol A Rouzer, Surajit Banerjee, Kebreab Ghebreselasie, Marco Migliore, Daniele Piomelli, Lawrence J Marnett
The cyclooxygenases COX-1 and COX-2 oxygenate arachidonic acid (AA) to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2). COX-2 also oxygenates the endocannabinoids, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and arachidonoylethanolamide (AEA), to the corresponding PGH2 analogs. Both enzymes are targets of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), but NSAID-mediated COX inhibition is associated with gastrointestinal toxicity. One potential strategy to counter this toxicity is to also inhibit fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), which hydrolyzes bioactive fatty acid ethanolamides (FAEs) into fatty acids and ethanolamine...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326165/phosphorylation-mediated-structural-changes-within-the-soar-domain-of-stim1-enable-specific-activation-of-distinct-orai-channels
#11
Jill L Thompson, Yue Zhao, Peter B Stathopulos, Alan Grossfield, Trevor J Shuttleworth
The low-conductance, highly calciumselective channels formed by the Orai proteins are known to take two major forms, namely the storeoperated CRAC channels, and store-independent, arachidonic acid-activated ARC channels. Both are activated by STIM1, but whereas CRAC channels are activated by the stromal-interacting STIM1 located in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, ARC channels are activated by the minor pool of STIM1 located in the plasma membrane. Critically, maximally activated CRAC channel currents and ARC channel currents are completely additive within the same cell, demonstrating that these two channels are entirely distinct entities...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324448/the-expression-of-hsd17b12-is-associated-with-cox-2-expression-and-is-increased-in-high-grade-epithelial-ovarian-cancer
#12
Heidi Kemiläinen, Kaisa Huhtinen, Annika Auranen, Olli Carpén, Leena Strauss, Matti Poutanen
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to characterize the expression of hydroxysteroid (17β) dehydrogenase type 12 (HSD17B12), an enzyme involved in the synthesis of arachidonic acid (AA), in ovarian cancer, and to study its coexpression with its upstream and downstream enzymes in the AA pathway, namely elongation of very long chain fatty acids protein 5 (ELOVL5) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), respectively. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Samples from benign and malignant ovarian neoplastic lesions were immunohistochemically stained with HSD17B12, ELOVL5, and COX-2...
January 12, 2018: Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317615/biotransformation-of-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-to-bioactive-hepoxilins-and-trioxilins-by-microbial-enzymes
#13
Jung-Ung An, Yong-Seok Song, Kyoung-Rok Kim, Yoon-Joo Ko, Do-Young Yoon, Deok-Kun Oh
Hepoxilins (HXs) and trioxilins (TrXs) are involved in physiological processes such as inflammation, insulin secretion and pain perception in human. They are metabolites of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), including arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, formed by 12-lipoxygenase (LOX) and epoxide hydrolase (EH) expressed by mammalian cells. Here, we identify ten types of HXs and TrXs, produced by the prokaryote Myxococcus xanthus, of which six types are new, namely, HXB5, HXD3, HXE3, TrXB5, TrXD3 and TrXE3...
January 9, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315663/circulating-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-nasopharyngeal-airway-metabolome-and-bronchiolitis-severity
#14
Kohei Hasegawa, Christopher J Stewart, Juan C Celedón, Jonathan M Mansbach, Courtney Tierney, Carlos A Camargo
Low circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels are a risk factor for acute respiratory infection (e.g., bronchiolitis) in children. However, little is known about the relation of circulating 25OHD with the many downstream functional molecules in target organs - such as the airway - and with clinical outcomes. In this prospective multicenter study of infants (age <1 year) hospitalized with bronchiolitis, we measured serum 25OHD levels and profiled the metabolome of 144 nasopharyngeal airway samples. Among 254 metabolites identified, we defined a set of 20 metabolites that are related to lower serum 25OHD and higher vitamin D-binding protein levels...
January 9, 2018: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314596/multiplate%C3%A2-evaluation-of-acetylsalicylic-acid-efficacy-in-carotid-surgery-routine-and-genetic-influencing-factors
#15
S Roullet, S Labrouche, C Carrie, H Auque, X Berard, G Freyburger
BACKGROUND: Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is recommended before, during and after carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Efficacy of ASA is influenced by numerous biological and genotypic factors. OBJECTIVES: To determine the biological efficacy of ASA by using the Multiplate® method and to explore the biological parameters and genomic factors influencing this efficacy. METHODS: This descriptive cross-sectional study included all patients scheduled for CEA between January 2012 and April 2013...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313230/diagnostics-of-early-changes-in-the-immune-system-due-to-low-concentration-of-n-nitrosamines-in-the-blood
#16
N V Zaitseva, T S Ulanova, O V Dolgikh, T V Nurislamova, O A Mal'tseva
The concentration of N-nitrosamines (N-nitrosodimethylamine and N-nitrosodiethylamine) was measured in blood samples from children after consumption of drinking water with high content of nitrates (main group) or water meeting health standards (reference group). N-nitrosodimethylamine level in the blood from children of the main group differed from that in the reference group by 2.6 times (0.00026±0.00012 and 0.0001±0.00092 mg/dm3, respectively; p<0.05). The specific immune response to N-nitrosodimethylamine exposure was manifested in an increase in the level of specific serum IgG (2 times higher than that in the reference group)...
January 8, 2018: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312832/lipid-raft-localization-of-tlr2-and-its-co-receptors-is-independent-of-membrane-lipid-composition
#17
Christine Hellwing, Axel Schoeniger, Claudia Roessler, Anja Leimert, Julia Schumann
Background: Toll like receptors (TLRs) are an important and evolutionary conserved class of pattern recognition receptors associated with innate immunity. The recognition of Gram-positive cell wall constituents strongly depends on TLR2. In order to be functional, TLR2 predominantly forms a heterodimer with TLR1 or TLR6 within specialized membrane microdomains, the lipid rafts. The membrane lipid composition and the physicochemical properties of lipid rafts are subject to modification by exogenous fatty acids...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310667/wwl70-protects-against-chronic-constriction-injury-induced-neuropathic-pain-in-mice-by-cannabinoid-receptor-independent-mechanisms
#18
Jie Wen, Melissa Jones, Mikiei Tanaka, Prabhuanand Selvaraj, Aviva J Symes, Brian Cox, Yumin Zhang
BACKGROUND: Targeting the endocannabinoid system has emerged as an effective strategy for the treatment of inflammatory and neurological diseases. Unlike the inhibition of the principal 2-arachidonyl glycerol (2-AG) hydrolytic enzyme monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), which leads to 2-AG overload and cannabinoid receptor desensitization, selective inhibition of the minor 2-AG hydrolytic enzyme alpha, beta-hydrolase domain 6 (ABHD6) can provide therapeutic benefits without producing cannabimimetic side effects...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310050/explore-the-effects-of-huang-lian-jie-du-tang-on-alzheimer-s-disease-by-uplc-qtof-ms-based-plasma-metabolomics-study
#19
Li-Min Sun, Bao-Jie Zhu, Hui-Ting Cao, Xin-Yi Zhang, Qi-Chun Zhang, Gui-Zhong Xin, Lin-Mei Pan, Li-Fang Liu, Hua-Xu Zhu
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease with neither definitive pathogenesis nor effective treatment method so far. Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang (HLJDT) is a classic formula of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) proven to have ameliorative effects on learning and memory deficits of dementia. Morris water maze (MWM) test and pathology analysis have demonstrated that HLJDT could ameliorate learning and memory deficits in AD mouse model, which may act via its anti-neuroinflammation properties...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309861/protective-effects-of-diketopiperazines-from-moslae-herba-against-influenza-a-virus-induced-pulmonary-inflammation-via-inhibition-of-viral-replication-and-platelets-aggregation
#20
Huan-Huan Zhang, Wen-Ying Yu, Lan Li, Fang Wu, Qin Chen, Yang Yang, Chen-Huan Yu
ETHNOPHARMACROLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Moslae Herba (MH) is broadly used as an antiviral, antipyretic and anticoagulant drug which effectively treats respiratory diseases including cough, asthma, throat, cold and flu. AIM OF THIS STUDY: The excessive inflammation of the lungs is the hallmark of severe influenza A virus (IAV) infection, while platelet aggregation and its subsequent microvascular thrombosis can exacerbate IAV-induced lung injury. Thus, inhibition of platelet aggregation can be a potential target for IAV treatment...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
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