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Arachidonic acid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926949/influence-of-freeze-drying-and-oven-drying-post-blanching-on-the-nutrient-composition-of-the-edible-insect-ruspolia-differens
#1
Forkwa Tengweh Fombong, Mik Van Der Borght, Jozef Vanden Broeck
The longhorn grasshopper, Ruspolia differens (Serville), plays an important role as a food source across Sub-Saharan Africa, where it is consumed as a delicacy in both rural and urban areas. The effect of two drying methods (freeze-drying and oven-drying), employed after blanching, on the proximate, fatty acid and mineral composition of the two most common morphs was determined. Ruspolia differens grasshoppers were harvested in Uganda and Kenya from wild swarms during the rainy periods of November-December 2016...
September 16, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926758/some-aspects-of-the-iodine-metabolism-of-the-giant-kelp-macrocystis-pyrifera-phaeophyceae
#2
Teresa M Tymon, Eric P Miller, Jennifer L Gonzales, Andrea Raab, Frithjof C Küpper, Carl J Carrano
Despite its paramount role in the functioning of coastal ecosystems, relatively little is known about halogen metabolism in giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera). This is an important shortcoming given the potential implications for marine and atmospheric chemical processes in the wide distribution range of Macrocystis. The work presented here constitutes the first in depth investigation of the uptake, efflux, and of the physiological function of iodide in this important kelp species. Iodide uptake and efflux rates were measured in adult sporophytes of Macrocystis under normal and stressed (exogenous hydrogen peroxide and an elicitor-triggered oxidative burst) conditions...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923590/isoprostanes-neuroprostanes-and-phytoprostanes-an-overview-of-25years-of-research-in-chemistry-and-biology
#3
REVIEW
Jean-Marie Galano, Yiu Yiu Lee, Camille Oger, Claire Vigor, Joseph Vercauteren, Thierry Durand, Martin Giera, Jetty Chung-Yung Lee
Since the beginning of the 1990's diverse types of metabolites originating from polyunsaturated fatty acids, formed under autooxidative conditions were discovered. Known as prostaglandin isomers (or isoprostanoids) originating from arachidonic acid, neuroprostanes from docosahexaenoic acid, and phytoprostanes from α-linolenic acid proved to be prevalent in biology. The syntheses of these compounds by organic chemists and the development of sophisticated mass spectrometry methods has boosted our understanding of the isoprostanoid biology...
September 15, 2017: Progress in Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923362/human-retinal-endothelial-cells-and-astrocytes-cultured-on-3-d-scaffolds-for-ocular-drug-discovery-and-development
#4
Kay D Beharry, Charles L Cai, Gloria B Valencia, Douglas Lazzaro, Arwin M Valencia, Fabrizio Salomone, Jacob V Aranda
Topical ocular ketorolac improves the outcomes of severe retinopathy of prematurity and when administered with systemic caffeine, decreases the severity of oxygen-induced retinopathy. We tested the hypothesis that co-cultures of human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs) and human retinal astrocytes (HRAs) on 3-dimensional (3-D) hydrogel scaffolds is a more representative biomimetic paradigm of the blood-retinal-barrier (BRB) than 2-D cultures, and should be utilized for preclinical drug discovery and development...
September 15, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923202/dietary-linoleic-acid-and-its-oxidized-metabolites-exacerbate-liver-injury-caused-by-ethanol-via-induction-of-hepatic-proinflammatory-response-in-mice
#5
Dennis R Warner, Huilin Liu, Matthew E Miller, Christopher E Ramsden, Bin Gao, Ariel E Feldstein, Susanne Schuster, Craig J McClain, Irina A Kirpich
Alcoholic liver disease is a major human health problem leading to significant morbidity and mortality in the United States and worldwide. Dietary fat plays an important role in alcoholic liver disease pathogenesis. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that a combination of ethanol and a diet rich in linoleic acid (LA) leads to the increased production of oxidized LA metabolites (OXLAMs), specifically 9- and 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids (HODEs), which contribute to a hepatic proinflammatory response exacerbating liver injury...
October 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920002/ep4-antagonism-by-e7046-diminishes-myeloid-immunosuppression-and-synergizes-with-treg-reducing-il-2-diphtheria-toxin-fusion-protein-in-restoring-anti-tumor-immunity
#6
Diana I Albu, Zichun Wang, Kuan-Chun Huang, Jiayi Wu, Natalie Twine, Sarah Leacu, Christy Ingersoll, Lana Parent, Winnie Lee, Diana Liu, Renee Wright-Michaud, Namita Kumar, Galina Kuznetsov, Qian Chen, Wanjun Zheng, Kenichi Nomoto, Mary Woodall-Jappe, Xingfeng Bao
Reprogramming of immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME) by targeting alternatively activated tumor associated macrophages (M2TAM), myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC), and regulatory T cells (Tregs), represents a promising strategy for developing novel cancer immunotherapy. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), an arachidonic acid pathway metabolite and mediator of chronic inflammation, has emerged as a powerful immunosuppressor in the TME through engagement with one or more of its 4 receptors (EP1-EP4). We have developed E7046, an orally bioavailable EP4-specific antagonist and show here that E7046 has specific and potent inhibitory activity on PGE2-mediated pro-tumor myeloid cell differentiation and activation...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919040/heme-binding-biguanides-target-cytochrome-p450-dependent-cancer-cell-mitochondria
#7
Zhijun Guo, Irina F Sevrioukova, Ilia G Denisov, Xia Zhang, Ting-Lan Chiu, Dafydd G Thomas, Eric A Hanse, Rebecca A D Cuellar, Yelena V Grinkova, Vanessa Wankhede Langenfeld, Daniel S Swedien, Justin D Stamschror, Juan Alvarez, Fernando Luna, Adela Galván, Young Kyung Bae, Julia D Wulfkuhle, Rosa I Gallagher, Emanuel F Petricoin, Beverly Norris, Craig M Flory, Robert J Schumacher, M Gerard O'Sullivan, Qing Cao, Haitao Chu, John D Lipscomb, William M Atkins, Kalpna Gupta, Ameeta Kelekar, Ian A Blair, Jorge H Capdevila, John R Falck, Stephen G Sligar, Thomas L Poulos, Gunda I Georg, Elizabeth Ambrose, David A Potter
The mechanisms by which cancer cell-intrinsic CYP monooxygenases promote tumor progression are largely unknown. CYP3A4 was unexpectedly associated with breast cancer mitochondria and synthesized arachidonic acid (AA)-derived epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), which promoted the electron transport chain/respiration and inhibited AMPKα. CYP3A4 knockdown activated AMPKα, promoted autophagy, and prevented mammary tumor formation. The diabetes drug metformin inhibited CYP3A4-mediated EET biosynthesis and depleted cancer cell-intrinsic EETs...
August 29, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913856/multiplate-and-teg-platelet-mapping-in-a-population-of-severely-injured-trauma-patients
#8
M J George, J Burchfield, B MacFarlane, Y-W W Wang, J C Cardenas, N J White, B S Gill, C E Wade
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to compare thromboelastography platelet mapping (TEG PM) with impedance aggregometry (Multiplate, MP) in a single trauma population and relate their results clinically. BACKGROUND: Platelet function as measured by thromboelastography and impedance aggregometry demonstrates significant reductions that persist for days following traumatic injury. However, no study compares these devices and the correlation between them is not known...
September 15, 2017: Transfusion Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913351/adequate-platelet-function-inhibition-confirmed-by-two-inductive-agents-predicts-lower-recurrence-of-ischemic-stroke-transient-ischemic-attack
#9
Lulu Zhang, Xiaowei Hu, Juehua Zhu, Xiuying Cai, Yan Kong, Hui Wang, Shanshan Diao, Hongru Zhao, Jianhua Jiang, Dapeng Wang, Quanquan Zhang, Yiren Qin, Wei Yue, Qi Fang
BACKGROUND: The correlation between platelet function and recurrent ischemic stroke or TIA remains uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To investigate two inductive agents to detect platelet functions and assess associations with recurrent ischemic stroke/TIA. METHOD: The study included 738 ischemic stroke/TIA patients. On days 0, 3, and 9 after antiplatelet therapy, platelet function tests were determined by maximum aggregation rate (MAR) using a PL-11 platelet function analyzer and phase matching reagents...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912717/global-metabolomics-reveals-the-metabolic-dysfunction-in-ox-ldl-induced-macrophage-derived-foam-cells
#10
Wenjuan Xu, Ziyi Wei, Jiaojiao Dong, Feipeng Duan, Kuikui Chen, Chang Chen, Jie Liu, Xiaowei Yang, Lianming Chen, Hongbin Xiao, An Liu
Atherosclerosis (AS) is a chronic disorder of large arteries that is a major risk factors of high morbidity and mortality. Oxidative modification LDL is one of the important contributors to atherogenesis. Macrophages take up ox-LDL and convert into foam cells, which is the hallmark of AS. To advance the understanding of the metabolic perturbation involved in ox-LDL induced macrophage-derived foam cells and discover the potential biomarkers of early AS, a global metabolomics approach was applied based on UHPLC-QTOF/MS...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910408/effects-of-tumour-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-upon-the-metabolism-of-the-endocannabinoid-anandamide-in-prostate-cancer-cells
#11
Jessica Karlsson, Sandra Gouveia-Figueira, Mireille Alhouayek, Christopher J Fowler
Tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) is involved in the pathogenesis of prostate cancer, a disease where disturbances in the endocannabinoid system are seen. In the present study we have investigated whether treatment of DU145 human prostate cancer cells affects anandamide (AEA) catabolic pathways. Additionally, we have investigated whether cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) can regulate the uptake of AEA into cells. Levels of AEA synthetic and catabolic enzymes were determined by qPCR. AEA uptake and hydrolysis in DU145 and RAW264...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910323/comparative-proteomic-analyses-reveal-the-proteome-response-to-short-term-drought-in-italian-ryegrass-lolium-multiflorum
#12
Ling Pan, Zhongfu Yang, Jianping Wang, Pengxi Wang, Xiao Ma, Meiliang Zhou, Ji Li, Nie Gang, Guangyan Feng, Junming Zhao, Xinquan Zhang
Drought is a major abiotic stress that impairs growth and productivity of Italian ryegrass. Comparative analysis of drought responsive proteins will provide insight into molecular mechanism in Lolium multiflorum drought tolerance. Using the iTRAQ-based approach, proteomic changes in tolerant and susceptible lines were examined in response to drought condition. A total of 950 differentially accumulated proteins was found to be involved in carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid metabolism, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, and signal transduction pathway, such as β-D-xylosidase, β-D-glucan glucohydrolase, glycerate dehydrogenase, Cobalamin-independent methionine synthase, glutamine synthetase 1a, Farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase, diacylglycerol, and inositol 1, 4, 5-trisphosphate, which might contributed to enhance drought tolerance or adaption in Lolium multiflorum...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903761/protective-effects-of-grape-seed-and-skin-extract-against-high-fat-diet-induced-lipotoxicity-in-rat-lung
#13
Mohamed El Ayed, Safwen Kadri, Selima Smine, Salem Elkahoui, Ferid Limam, Ezzedine Aouani
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a public health problem characterized by increased fat accumulation in different tissues. Obesity is directly linked to breathing problems and medical complications with lung, including obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, obesity hypoventilation syndrome, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma….In the present work, we aimed to investigate the effect of high fat diet (HFD) on lung lipotoxicity, oxidative stress, fatty acid composition and proportions in lung and implication in asthma development...
September 13, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903622/maternal-dietary-n-6-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-deprivation-does-not-exacerbate-post-weaning-reductions-in-arachidonic-acid-and-its-mediators-in-the-mouse-hippocampus
#14
Shoug M Alashmali, Alex P Kitson, Lin Lin, R J Scott Lacombe, Richard P Bazinet
OBJECTIVES: The present study examines how lowering maternal dietary n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (starting from pregnancy) compared to offspring (starting from post-weaning) affect the levels of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids in phospholipids (PL) and lipid mediators in the hippocampus of mice. METHODS: Pregnant mice were randomly assigned to consume either a deprived or an adequate n-6 PUFA diet during pregnancy and lactation (maternal exposure). On postnatal day (PND) 21, half of the male pups were weaned onto the same diet as their dams, and the other half were switched to the other diet for 9 weeks (offspring exposure)...
September 13, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901892/the-effect-of-anthocyanin-supplementation-in-modulating-platelet-function-in-sedentary-population-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-cross-over-trial
#15
Kiara Thompson, Holly Hosking, Wayne Pederick, Indu Singh, Abishek B Santhakumar
The anti-thrombotic properties of anthocyanin (ACN) supplementation was evaluated in this randomised, double-blind, placebo (PBO) controlled, cross-over design, dietary intervention trial in sedentary population. In all, sixteen participants (three males and thirteen females) consumed ACN (320 mg/d) or PBO capsules for 28 d followed by a 2-week wash-out period. Biomarkers of thrombogenesis and platelet activation induced by ADP; platelet aggregation induced by ADP, collagen and arachidonic acid; biochemical, lipid, inflammatory and coagulation profile were evaluated before and after supplementation...
September 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901776/liposomal-delivery-of-diacylglycerol-lipase-beta-inhibitors-to-macrophages-dramatically-enhances-selectivity-and-efficacy-in-vivo
#16
Myungsun Shin, Helena W Snyder, Giulia Donvito, Lesley D Schurman, Todd E Fox, Aron H Lichtman, Mark Kester, Ku-Lung Hsu
Diacylglycerol lipase-beta (DAGLβ) hydrolyzes arachidonic acid (AA)-containing diacylglycerols to produce bioactive lipids including endocannabinoids and AA-derived eicosanoids involved in regulation of inflammatory signaling. Previously, we demonstrated that DAGLβ inactivation using the triazole urea inhibitor KT109 blocked macrophage inflammatory signaling and reversed allodynic responses of mice in inflammatory and neuropathic pain models. Here, we tested whether we could exploit the phagocytic capacity of macrophages to localize delivery of DAGLβ inhibitors to these cells in vivo using liposome encapsulated KT109...
September 13, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901489/uplc%C3%A2-qtofms%C3%A2-based-metabolomic-analysis-of-the-serum-of-hypoxic-preconditioning-mice
#17
Jie Liu, Gang Zhan, Dewei Chen, Jian Chen, Zhi-Bin Yuan, Er-Long Zhang, Yi-Xing Gao, Gang Xu, Bing-Da Sun, Wenting Liao, Yu-Qi Gao
Hypoxic preconditioning (HPC) is well‑known to exert a protective effect against hypoxic injury; however, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. The present study utilized a serum metabolomics approach to detect the alterations associated with HPC. In the present study, an animal model of HPC was established by exposing adult BALB/c mice to acute repetitive hypoxia four times. The serum samples were collected by orbital blood sampling. Metabolite profiling was performed using ultra‑performance liquid chromatography‑quadrupole time‑of‑flight mass spectrometry (UPLC‑QTOFMS), in conjunction with univariate and multivariate statistical analyses...
September 13, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900017/omega-3-fatty-acids-and-inflammatory-processes-from-molecules-to-man
#18
REVIEW
Philip C Calder
Inappropriate, excessive or uncontrolled inflammation contributes to a range of human diseases. Inflammation involves a multitude of cell types, chemical mediators and interactions. The present article will describe nutritional and metabolic aspects of omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids and explain the roles of bioactive members of those fatty acid families in inflammatory processes. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are n-3 fatty acids found in oily fish and fish oil supplements...
September 12, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899689/enhanced-expression-of-genes-related-to-xenobiotic-metabolism-in-the-skin-of-patients-with-atopic-dermatitis-but-not-with-ichthyosis-vulgaris
#19
Stefan Blunder, Sulev Kõks, Gea Kõks, Ene Reimann, Hubert Hackl, Robert Gruber, Verena Moosbrugger-Martinz, Matthias Schmuth, Sandrine Dubrac
Previous transcriptome analyses underscored the importance of immunological and skin barrier abnormalities in atopic dermatitis (AD). We sought to identify novel pathogenic pathways involved in AD by comparing the transcriptomes of AD patients stratified for filaggrin (FLG) null mutations to those of both healthy donors and patients with ichthyosis vulgaris (IV). We applied RNA-sequencing to analyze the whole transcriptome of nonlesional skin. Six-hundred and seven genes (476 up-regulated and 131 down-regulated by greater than 2-fold) and one-hundred and ninety-three genes (172 up-regulated and 21 down-regulated by greater than 2-fold) were differentially expressed when all AD or IV patients were compared to healthy donors, respectively...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898884/effects-of-mucuna-pruriens-on-free-fatty-acid-levels-and-histopathological-changes-in-the-brains-of-rats-fed-a-high-fructose-diet
#20
Bekir Akgun, Aysel Sarı, Sait Ozturk, Fatih Serhat Erol, Ibrahim Hanifi Ozercan, Ramazan Ulu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate free fatty acid levels and histopathologic changes in the brain of rats fed a high fructose diet and to evaluate the effects of Mucuna pruriens, known to have antidiabetic activity, on these changes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study comprised of 28 mature female Wistar rats. The rats were divided into four groups, each included 7 rats. Group 1: control; Group 2: fed a high fructose diet (HFrD), Group 3: fed normal rat chow and Mucuna pruriens, and Group 4: fed a high fructose diet and Mucuna pruriens for 6 weeks...
September 11, 2017: Medical Principles and Practice: International Journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre
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