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Artificial human organs

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023694/adaptive-self-organization-in-the-embryo-its-importance-to-adult-anatomy-and-to-tissue-engineering
#1
REVIEW
Jamie A Davies
The anatomy of healthy humans shows much minor variation, and twin-studies reveal at least some of this variation cannot be explained genetically. A plausible explanation is that fine-scale anatomy is not specified directly in a genetic programme, but emerges from self-organizing behaviours of cells that, for example, place a new capillary where it happens to be needed to prevent local hypoxia. Self-organizing behaviour can be identified by manipulating growing tissues (e.g. putting them under a spatial constraint) and observing an adaptive change that conserves the character of the normal tissue while altering its precise anatomy...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990462/atmps-a-guide-for-bone-marrow-derived-mscs-application-in-bone-and-cartilage-tissue-engineering
#2
Davide Confalonieri, Andrea Schwab, Heike Walles, Franziska Ehlicke
Millions of people worldwide suffer from trauma- or age-related orthopedic diseases such as osteoarthritis, osteoporosis or cancer. Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine are multidisciplinary fields focusing on the development of artificial organs, biomimetic engineered tissues and cells to restore or maintain tissue and organ function. While allogenic and future autologous transplantations are nowadays the gold standards for both cartilage and bone defect repair, they are both subject to important limitations such as availability of healthy tissue, donor site morbidity and graft rejection...
October 7, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985202/3d-bioprinting-using-stem-cells
#3
REVIEW
Chin Siang Ong, Pooja Yesantharao, Chen Yu Huang, Gunnar Mattson, Joseph Boktor, Takuma Fukunishi, Huaitao Zhang, Narutoshi Hibino
Recent advances have allowed for three-dimensional (3D) printing technologies to be applied to biocompatible materials, cells and supporting components, creating a field of 3D bioprinting that holds great promise for artificial organ printing and regenerative medicine. At the same time, stem cells, such as human induced pluripotent stem cells, have driven a paradigm shift in tissue regeneration and the modeling of human disease, and represent an unlimited cell source for tissue regeneration and the study of human disease...
October 6, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976033/photonic-microhand-with-autonomous-action
#4
Daniele Martella, Sara Nocentini, Dmitry Nuzhdin, Camilla Parmeggiani, Diederik S Wiersma
Grabbing and holding objects at the microscale is a complex function, even for microscopic living animals. Inspired by the hominid-type hand, a microscopic equivalent able to catch microelements is engineered. This microhand is light sensitive and can be either remotely controlled by optical illumination or can act autonomously and grab small particles on the basis of their optical properties. Since the energy is delivered optically, without the need for wires or batteries, the artificial hand can be shrunk down to the micrometer scale...
October 4, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973379/identification-of-any-structure-specific-hepatotoxic-potential-of-different-pyrrolizidine-alkaloids-using-random-forest-and-artificial-neural-network
#5
Verena Schöning, Felix Hammann, Mark Peinl, Jürgen Drewe
Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are characteristic metabolites of some plant families and form a powerful defence mechanism against herbivores. More than 600 different PAs are known. PAs are ester alkaloids composed of a necine base and a necic acid, which can be used to divide PAs in different structural subcategories. The main target organs for PA metabolism and toxicity are liver and lungs. Additionally, PAs are potentially genotoxic, carcinogenic and exhibit developmental toxicity. Only for very few PAs, in vitro and in vivo investigations have characterised their toxic potential...
September 9, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971198/polyethyleneimine-methylphosphonate-towards-the-design-of-a-new-class-of-macromolecular-actinide-chelating-agents-in-the-case-of-human-exposition
#6
Florian Lahrouch, Oleksandr Sofronov, Gaëlle Creff, André Rossberg, Christoph Hennig, Christophe Den Auwer, Chirstophe Di Giorgio
The use of uranium and to a minor extent plutonium as fuel for nuclear energy production or as components in military applications is under increasing public pressure. Uranium is weakly radioactive in its natural isotopy but its chemical toxicity, combined with its large scale industrial utilization, makes it a source of concern in terms of health impact for workers and possibly the general population. Plutonium is an artificial element that exhibits both chemical and radiological toxicities. So far, uranium (under its form uranyl, U(vi)) or plutonium (as Pu(iv)) decorporation or protecting strategies based on molecular design have been of limited efficiency to remove the actinide once incorporated after human exposure...
October 3, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956858/circadian-rhythms-of-retinomotor-movement-in-a-marine-megapredator-the-atlantic-tarpon-megalops-atlanticus
#7
Kristin L Kopperud, Michael S Grace
Many ecologically and economically important marine fish species worldwide spend portions of their lives in coastal regions that are increasingly inundated by artificial light at night. However, while extensive research illustrates the harmful effects of inappropriate light exposure on biological timing in humans, rodents and birds, comparable studies on marine fish are virtually nonexistent. This study aimed to assess the effects of light on biological clock function in the marine fish retina using the Atlantic tarpon (Megalops atlanticus) as a model...
September 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954676/groundwater-pollution-and-vulnerability-assessment
#8
Sudarshan Kurwadkar
Groundwater is a critical resource that serve as a source of drinking water to large human population and, provide long-term water for irrigation purposes. In recent years; however, this precious resource being increasingly threatened, due to natural and anthropogenic activities. A variety of contaminants of emerging concern such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products, perfluorinated compounds, endocrine disruptors, and biological agents detected in the groundwater sources of both developing and developed nations...
October 1, 2017: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938797/revisiting-the-safety-of-aspartame
#9
Arbind Kumar Choudhary, Etheresia Pretorius
Aspartame is a synthetic dipeptide artificial sweetener, frequently used in foods, medications, and beverages, notably carbonated and powdered soft drinks. Since 1981, when aspartame was first approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, researchers have debated both its recommended safe dosage (40 mg/kg/d) and its general safety to organ systems. This review examines papers published between 2000 and 2016 on both the safe dosage and higher-than-recommended dosages and presents a concise synthesis of current trends...
September 1, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930917/shock-2017-military-supplement-an-overview-of-two-human-trials-of-perfluorocarbon-emulsions-in-non-cardiac-surgery
#10
Donat R Spahn, Peter E Keipert
Perfluorochemicals (PFCs) constitute one class of artificial oxygen carriers that are being produced completely synthetically. One formulation that has been evaluated extensively in clinical trials is a 60% w/v perflubron-based emulsion. Efficacy and safety of this perflubron emulsion was evaluated in a Phase 2 and a large prospective randomized Phase 3 multicenter European study, which collectively included a total of 639 patients. Perflubron emulsion was highly successful in improving organ function, reversing physiologic transfusion triggers and in reducing the need for allogeneic blood transfusions...
September 19, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915407/differentiation-and-sarcomere-formation-in-skeletal-myocytes-directly-prepared-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-using-a-sphere-based-culture
#11
Saowanee Jiwlawat, Eileen Lynch, Jennifer Glaser, Ivy Smit-Oistad, Jeremy Jeffrey, Jonathan M Van Dyke, Masatoshi Suzuki
Human induced-pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are a promising resource for propagation of myogenic progenitors. Our group recently reported a unique protocol for the derivation of myogenic progenitors directly (without genetic modification) from human pluripotent cells using free-floating spherical culture. Here we expand our previous efforts and attempt to determine how differentiation duration, culture surface coatings, and nutrient supplements in the medium influence progenitor differentiation and formation of skeletal myotubes containing sarcomeric structures...
August 1, 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910802/effects-of-expanded-hemodialysis-therapy-on-clinical-outcomes
#12
Sandip Mitra, Kunaal Kharbanda
The invention of dialysis has been a phenomenal advance in the treatment of kidney failure. The introduction of artificial kidneys in clinical care remains one of the most successful lifesaving interventions in modern medicine. Its glory, however, has been tempered by poor long-term outcomes and a negative qualitative impact on the lives of patients who suffer from an extremely complex, burdensome, and restricted life on dialysis. There remains a huge gap in patient well-being and outcomes between artificial kidney treatments and kidney transplantation...
2017: Contributions to Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895924/artificial-turf-contested-terrains-for-precautionary-public-health-with-particular-reference-to-europe
#13
Andrew Watterson
Millions of adults, children and teenagers use artificial sports pitches and playgrounds globally. Pitches are artificial grass and bases may be made up of crumb rubber from recycled tires or new rubber and sand. Player injury on pitches was a major concern. Now, debates about health focus on possible exposure and uptake of chemicals within pitch and base materials. Research has looked at potential risks to users from hazardous substances such as metals, volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons including benzo (a) (e) pyrenes and phthalates: some are carcinogens and others may be endocrine disruptors and have developmental reproductive effects...
September 12, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887379/a-comprehensive-open-source-platform-for-mass-spectrometry-based-glycoproteomics-data-analysis
#14
Gang Liu, Kai Cheng, Chi Y Lo, Jun Li, Jun Qu, Sriram Neelamegham
Glycosylation is among the most abundant and diverse protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) identified to date. The structural analysis of this PTM is challenging due to the diverse monosaccharides which are not conserved among organisms, the branched nature of glycans, their isomeric structures, and heterogeneity in the glycan distribution at a given site. Glycoproteomics experiments have adopted the traditional high-throughput LC-MS(n) proteomics workflow to analyze site-specific glycosylation. However, comprehensive computational platforms for data analyses are scarce...
September 8, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873330/differential-expression-of-virulence-genes-in-legionella-pneumophila-growing-in-acanthamoeba-and-human-monocytes
#15
Qianqian Mou, Polly H M Leung
Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, is widely distributed throughout natural and artificial water systems and can replicate in macrophages and amoebae. Amoebae are the natural hosts of L. pneumophila, whereas macrophages are incidentally infected. The life cycle of L. pneumophila comprises a replicative phase within the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV) and a transmissive phase during which bacterial cells become motile and are released via killing of the host. Although the host death mechanisms induced by L...
September 5, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870443/light-at-night-as-an-environmental-endocrine-disruptor
#16
REVIEW
Kathryn L G Russart, Randy J Nelson
Environmental endocrine disruptors (EEDs) are often consequences of human activity; however, the effects of EEDs are not limited to humans. A primary focus over the past ∼30years has been on chemical EEDs, but the repercussions of non-chemical EEDs, such as artificial light at night (LAN), are of increasing interest. The sensitivity of the circadian system to light and the influence of circadian organization on overall physiology and behavior make the system a target for disruption with widespread effects...
September 6, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861143/artificial-urine-for-teaching-urinalysis-concepts-and-diagnosis-of-urinary-tract-infection-in-the-medical-microbiology-laboratory
#17
Latifa B Khan, Hannah M Read, Stephen R Ritchie, Thomas Proft
Dipstick urinalysis is an informative, quick, cost-effective and non-invasive diagnostic tool that is useful in clinical practice for the diagnosis of urinary tract infections (UTIs), kidney diseases, and diabetes. We used dipstick urinalysis as a hands-on microbiology laboratory exercise to reinforce student learning about UTIs with a particular focus on cystitis, which is a common bacterial infection. To avoid exposure to potentially contaminated human urine samples, we prepared artificial urine using easily acquired and affordable ingredients, which allowed less-experienced students to perform urinalysis without the risk of exposure to pathogenic organisms and ensured reliable availability of the urine samples...
2017: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859067/bionic-balance-organs-progress-in-the-development-of-vestibular-prostheses
#18
REVIEW
Paul F Smith
The vestibular system is a sensory system that is critically important in humans for gaze and image stability as well as postural control. Patients with complete bilateral vestibular loss are severely disabled and experience a poor quality of life. There are very few effective treatment options for patients with no vestibular function. Over the last 10 years, rapid progress has been made in developing artificial 'vestibular implants' or 'prostheses', based on cochlear implant technology. As of 2017, 13 patients worldwide have received vestibular implants and the results are encouraging...
September 1, 2017: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854585/sperm-chemorepulsion-a-supplementary-mechanism-to-regulate-fertilization
#19
H A Guidobaldi, M Cubilla, A Moreno, M V Molino, L Bahamondes, L C Giojalas
STUDY QUESTION: Are human spermatozoa able of chemorepulsive behaviour? SUMMARY ANSWER: Capacitated human spermatozoa are able to be chemorepelled by synthetic Progesterone Receptor Ligands (sPRL, known as contraceptives) and zinc (a cation released by the oocyte upon fertilization). WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Moving cells can be oriented towards or against a molecular gradient, processes called chemoattraction and chemorepulsion, respectively, which have been described in unicellular organisms such as amoebas and bacteria, to organismic cells such macrophages and developmental cells...
August 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844977/the-reversible-function-switching-of-the-circadian-clock-protein-kaia-is-encoded-in-its-structure
#20
Qiang Chen, Sen Liu, Liting Yang, Lingya Zhang, Jinkui Li
BACKGROUND: Circadian rhythms are important to the evolution of organisms and human health, and recent studies proved that post-translational circadian clocks widely exist in all phyla. The circadian clock of cyanobacteria is an important model system as the first verified circadian oscillator independent of transcriptional-/translational-level regulations. This circadian oscillator consists of three proteins, KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC, in which KaiA stimulates KaiC's phosphorylation but KaiB antagonizes KaiA...
November 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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