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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214351/regenerative-medicine-for-the-esophagus
#1
REVIEW
Kengo Kanetaka, Shinichiro Kobayashi, Susumu Eguchi
Advances in tissue engineering techniques have made it possible to use human cells as biological material. This has enabled pharmacological studies to be conducted to investigate drug effects and toxicity, to clarify the mechanisms underlying diseases, and to elucidate how they compensate for impaired organ function. Many researchers have tried to construct artificial organs using these techniques, but none has succeeded in growing a whole organ. Unlike other digestive organs with complicated functions, such as the processing and absorption of nutrients, the esophagus has the relatively simple function of transporting content, which can be replicated easily by a substitute...
December 6, 2017: Surgery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196747/a-small-cassette-enables-conditional-gene-inactivation-by-crispr-cas9
#2
Paloma M Guzzardo, Christina Rashkova, Rodrigo L Dos Santos, Raha Tehrani, Philippe Collin, Tilmann Bürckstümmer
The availability of CRISPR/Cas9 technology has enabled the rapid establishment of gene knockouts in many cell types and even whole organisms. However, conditional inactivation of essential genes remains a challenge. We devised an approach named DECAI (DEgradation based on Cre-regulated- Artificial Intron). It utilizes a small cassette of just 201 nucleotides that is inserted into the coding exon of a target gene using CRISPR/Cas9 technology and homology-directed repair. As its sequence is derived from an artificial intron, the cassette is removed by the splicing machinery and thus leaves no trace in the "off-state"...
December 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185029/european-status-on-temporal-bone-training-a-questionnaire-study
#3
Andreas Frithioff, Mads Sølvsten Sørensen, Steven Arild Wuyts Andersen
PURPOSE: In otorhinolaryngology training, introduction to temporal bone surgery through hands-on practice on cadaveric human temporal bones is the gold-standard training method before commencing supervised surgery. During the recent decades, the availability of such specimens and the necessary laboratory facilities for training seems to be decreasing. Alternatives to traditional training can consist of drilling artificial models made of plaster or plastic but also virtual reality (VR) simulation...
November 28, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170512/generation-of-interspecies-limited-chimeric-nephrons-using-a-conditional-nephron-progenitor-cell-replacement-system
#4
S Yamanaka, S Tajiri, T Fujimoto, K Matsumoto, S Fukunaga, B S Kim, H J Okano, T Yokoo
Animal fetuses and embryos may have applications in the generation of human organs. Progenitor cells may be an appropriate cell source for regenerative organs because of their safety and availability. However, regenerative organs derived from exogenous lineage progenitors in developing animal fetuses have not yet been obtained. Here, we established a combination system through which donor cells could be precisely injected into the nephrogenic zone and native nephron progenitor cells (NPCs) could be eliminated in a time- and tissue-specific manner...
November 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167949/survey-of-beaver-related-restoration-practices-in-rangeland-streams-of-the-western-usa
#5
David S Pilliod, Ashley T Rohde, Susan Charnley, Rachael R Davee, Jason B Dunham, Hannah Gosnell, Gordon E Grant, Mark B Hausner, Justin L Huntington, Caroline Nash
Poor condition of many streams and concerns about future droughts in the arid and semi-arid western USA have motivated novel restoration strategies aimed at accelerating recovery and increasing water resources. Translocation of beavers into formerly occupied habitats, restoration activities encouraging beaver recolonization, and instream structures mimicking the effects of beaver dams are restoration alternatives that have recently gained popularity because of their potential socioeconomic and ecological benefits...
November 22, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162445/the-neuromorphological-caudate-putaminal-clustering-of-neostriate-interneurons-kohonen-self-organizing-maps-and-supervised-artificial-neural-networks-with-multivariate-analysis
#6
Ivan Grbatinić, Nebojša Milošević, Bojana Krstonošić
AIMS: The objective of this study is to investigate the possibility of the neuromorphotopological clustering of neostriate interneurons (NSIN) and their consequent classification into caudate (CIN) and putaminal neuron type (PIN), according to the nuclear localization of the neurons. It tends to discover whether these two topological neuron types are morphologically different. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The binary images of adult human NSIN are used for the purposes of the analysis...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160686/human-hair-keratin-for-biocompatible-flexible-and-transient-electronic-devices
#7
Jieun Ko, Luong Thi Hieun Nguyen, Abhijith Surendran, Bee Yi Tan, Kee Woei Ng, Wei Lin Leong
Biomaterials have been attracting attention as a useful building block for biocompatible and bioresorbable electronics due to its non-toxic property and solution processabillity. In this work, we report the integration of biocompatible keratin from human hair as dielectric layer for organic thin-film transistors (TFTs), with high performance, flexibility and transient property. The keratin dielectric layer exhibited a high capacitance value above 1.27 μF/cm2 at 20 Hz due to the formation of electrical double layer...
November 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144022/collagen-a-review-on-its-sources-and-potential-cosmetic-applications
#8
REVIEW
María Isabela Avila Rodríguez, Laura G Rodríguez Barroso, Mirna Lorena Sánchez
Collagen is a fibrillar protein that conforms the conjunctive and connective tissues in the human body, essentially skin, joints, and bones. This molecule is one of the most abundant in many of the living organisms due to its connective role in biological structures. Due to its abundance, strength and its directly proportional relation with skin aging, collagen has gained great interest in the cosmetic industry. It has been established that the collagen fibers are damaged with the pass of time, losing thickness and strength which has been strongly related with skin aging phenomena [Colágeno para todo...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129979/hair-germ-model-in-vitro-via-human-postnatal-keratinocyte-dermal-papilla-interactions-impact-of-hyaluronic-acid
#9
Ekaterina Kalabusheva, Vasily Terskikh, Ekaterina Vorotelyak
Hair follicle (HF) reconstruction in vitro is a promising field in alopecia treatment and human HF development research. Here, we combined postnatal human dermal papilla (DP) cells and skin epidermal keratinocytes (KCs) in a hanging drop culture to develop an artificial HF germ. The method is based on DP cell hair-inducing properties and KC self-organization. We evaluated two protocols of aggregate assembling. Mixed HF germ-like structures demonstrated the initiation of epithelial-mesenchymal interaction, including WNT pathway activation and expression of follicular markers...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128531/the-hierarchical-response-of-human-corneal-collagen-to-load
#10
J S Bell, S Hayes, C Whitford, J Sanchez-Weatherby, O Shebanova, C Vergari, C P Winlove, N Terrill, T Sorensen, A Elsheikh, K M Meek
Fibrillar collagen in the human cornea is integral to its function as a transparent lens of precise curvature, and its arrangement is now well-characterised in the literature. While there has been considerable effort to incorporate fibrillar architecture into mechanical models of the cornea, the mechanical response of corneal collagen to small applied loads is not well understood. In this study the fibrillar and molecular response to tensile load was quantified using small and wide angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS), and digital image correlation (DIC) photography was used to calculate the local strain field that gave rise to the hierarchical changes...
November 8, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127860/human-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-cardiovascular-progenitor-cells-efficiently-colonize-in-bfgf-tethered-natural-matrix-to-construct-contracting-humanized-rat-hearts
#11
Sarah Rajabi, Sara Pahlavan, Mohammad Kazemi Ashtiani, Hassan Ansari, Saeed Abbasalizadeh, Forough Azam Sayahpour, Fahimeh Varzideh, Sawa Kostin, Nasser Aghdami, Thomas Braun, Hossein Baharvand
Bioengineering of whole hearts using human embryonic stem cells (hESCs)-derived cardiovascular progenitor cells (CPCs) and natural matrices is a promising approach to overcome organ donor shortage threatening millions of patients awaiting for heart transplantation. Here, we developed a novel strategy for generation of heart constructs by repopulating engineered decellularized rat hearts using hESCs-derived CPCs. Careful expansion of CPCs in a scalable stirred-suspension bioreactor combined with step-wise seeding (60 million cells in 3 steps of 20 million per 1...
November 1, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124824/why-artificial-light-at-night-should-be-a-focus-for-global-change-research-in-the-21st-century
#12
Thomas W Davies, Tim Smyth
The environmental impacts of artificial light at night have been a rapidly growing field of global change science in recent years. Yet, light pollution has not achieved parity with other global change phenomena in the level of concern and interest it receives from the scientific community, government and nongovernmental organizations. This is despite the globally widespread, expanding and changing nature of night-time lighting and the immediacy, severity and phylogenetic breath of its impacts. In this opinion piece, we evidence 10 reasons why artificial light at night should be a focus for global change research in the 21st century...
November 10, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097992/circadian-and-metabolic-effects-of-light-implications-in-weight-homeostasis-and-health
#13
REVIEW
Santiago A Plano, Leandro P Casiraghi, Paula García Moro, Natalia Paladino, Diego A Golombek, Juan J Chiesa
Daily interactions between the hypothalamic circadian clock at the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and peripheral circadian oscillators regulate physiology and metabolism to set temporal variations in homeostatic regulation. Phase coherence of these circadian oscillators is achieved by the entrainment of the SCN to the environmental 24-h light:dark (LD) cycle, coupled through downstream neural, neuroendocrine, and autonomic outputs. The SCN coordinate activity and feeding rhythms, thus setting the timing of food intake, energy expenditure, thermogenesis, and active and basal metabolism...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096297/risk-assessment-and-driving-factors-for-artificial-topography-on-element-heterogeneity-case-study-at-jiangsu-china
#14
Hualong Hong, Minyue Dai, Haoliang Lu, Jingchun Liu, Jie Zhang, Chongling Yan
The rapid expansion of construction related to coastal development evokes great concern about environmental risks. Recent attention has been focused mainly on factors related to the effects of waterlogging, but there is urgent need to address the potential hazard caused by artificial topography: derived changes in the elemental composition of the sediments. To reveal possible mechanisms and to assess the environmental risks of artificial topography on transition of elemental composition in the sediment at adjoining zones, a nest-random effects-combined investigation was carried out around a semi-open seawall...
October 26, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095704/medical-education-must-move-from-the-information-age-to-the-age-of-artificial-intelligence
#15
Steven A Wartman, C Donald Combs
Changes to the medical profession require medical education reforms that will enable physicians to more effectively enter contemporary practice. Proposals for such reforms abound. Common themes include renewed emphasis on communication, teamwork, risk-management, and patient safety. These reforms are important but insufficient. They do not adequately address the most fundamental change--the practice of medicine is rapidly transitioning from the information age to the age of artificial intelligence. Employers need physicians who: work at the top of their license, have knowledge spanning the health professions and care continuum, effectively leverage data platforms, focus on analyzing outcomes and improving performance, and communicate the meaning of the probabilities generated by massive amounts of data to patients given their unique human complexities...
November 1, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076334/a-method-for-assessing-the-retention-of-trace-elements-in-human-body-using-neural-network-technology
#16
Yulia Tunakova, Svetlana Novikova,, Aligejdar Ragimov, Rashat Faizullin, Vsevolod Valiev
Models that describe the trace element status formation in the human organism are essential for a correction of micromineral (trace elements) deficiency. A direct trace element retention assessment in the body is difficult due to the many internal mechanisms. The trace element retention is determined by the amount and the ratio of incoming and excreted substance. So, the concentration of trace elements in drinking water characterizes the intake, whereas the element concentration in urine characterizes the excretion...
2017: Journal of Healthcare Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065586/a-method-for-assessing-the-retention-of-trace-elements-in-human-body-using-neural-network-technology
#17
Yulia Tunakova, Svetlana Novikova, Aligejdar Ragimov, Rashat Faizullin, Vsevolod Valiev
Models that describe the trace element status formation in the human organism are essential for a correction of micromineral (trace elements) deficiency. A direct trace element retention assessment in the body is difficult due to the many internal mechanisms. The trace element retention is determined by the amount and the ratio of incoming and excreted substance. So, the concentration of trace elements in drinking water characterizes the intake, whereas the element concentration in urine characterizes the excretion...
2017: Journal of Healthcare Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053641/wear-and-tear-of-tyres-a-stealthy-source-of-microplastics-in-the-environment
#18
REVIEW
Pieter Jan Kole, Ansje J Löhr, Frank G A J Van Belleghem, Ad M J Ragas
Wear and tear from tyres significantly contributes to the flow of (micro-)plastics into the environment. This paper compiles the fragmented knowledge on tyre wear and tear characteristics, amounts of particles emitted, pathways in the environment, and the possible effects on humans. The estimated per capita emission ranges from 0.23 to 4.7 kg/year, with a global average of 0.81 kg/year. The emissions from car tyres (100%) are substantially higher than those of other sources of microplastics, e.g., airplane tyres (2%), artificial turf (12-50%), brake wear (8%) and road markings (5%)...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040941/influence-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-on-antimony-phyto-uptake-and-compartmentation-in-vegetables-cultivated-in-urban-gardens
#19
Antoine Pierart, Camille Dumat, Arthur QuyManh Maes, Nathalie Sejalon-Delmas
1. CONTEXT: Urban areas are often contaminated with various forms of persistent metal (loid) and emerging contaminants such as antimony (Sb). Thus, in the context of urban agriculture where sustainable practices such as biofertilizers application (arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, AMF) could improve nutrient transfer from the soil to the vegetables, the effect of AMF on metal (loid) mobility and human bioaccessibility is still poorly known. 2. METHODS: The role of AMF in Sb uptake by lettuce and carrot grown in artificial substrate spiked with different Sb chemical species was investigated...
October 10, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038022/a-conjugate-of-decyltriphenylphosphonium-with-plastoquinone-can-carry-cyclic-adenosine-monophosphate-but-not-cyclic-guanosine-monophosphate-across-artificial-and-natural-membranes
#20
Alexander M Firsov, Irina G Rybalkina, Elena A Kotova, Tatyana I Rokitskaya, Vadim N Tashlitsky, Galina A Korshunova, Sergei D Rybalkin, Yuri N Antonenko
The present study demonstrated for the first time the interaction between adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP), one of the most important signaling compounds in living organisms, and the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant plastoquinonyl-decyltriphenylphosphonium (SkQ1). The data obtained on model liquid membranes and human platelets revealed the ability of SkQ1 to selectively transport cAMP, but not guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP), across both artificial and natural membranes. In particular, SkQ1 elicited translocation of cAMP from the source to the receiving phase of a Pressman-type cell, while showing low activity with cGMP...
October 13, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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