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Artificial human organs

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527117/non-viral-and-viral-delivery-systems-for-crispr-cas9-technology-in-the-biomedical-field
#1
REVIEW
Zhi-Yao He, Ke Men, Zhou Qin, Yang Yang, Ting Xu, Yu-Quan Wei
The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated protein 9 (CRISPR-Cas9) system provides a novel genome editing technology that can precisely target a genomic site to disrupt or repair a specific gene. Some CRISPR-Cas9 systems from different bacteria or artificial variants have been discovered or constructed by biologists, and Cas9 nucleases and single guide RNAs (sgRNA) are the major components of the CRISPR-Cas9 system. These Cas9 systems have been extensively applied for identifying therapeutic targets, identifying gene functions, generating animal models, and developing gene therapies...
May 2, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522333/development-of-qsars-for-parameterizing-physiology-based-toxicokinetic-models
#2
Dimosthenis Α Sarigiannis, Krystalia Papadaki, Periklis Kontoroupis, Spyros P Karakitsios
A Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) model was developed in order to predict physicochemical and biochemical properties of industrial chemicals of various groups. This model was based on the solvation equation, originally proposed by Abraham. In this work Abraham's solvation model got parameterized using artificial intelligence techniques such as artificial neural networks (ANNs) for the prediction of partitioning into kidney, heart, adipose, liver, muscle, brain and lung for the estimation of the bodyweight-normalized maximal metabolic velocity (Vmax) and the Michaelis - Menten constant (Km)...
May 15, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482493/advances-in-ultra-high-molecular-weight-polyethylene-hydroxyapatite-composites-for-biomedical-applications-a-brief-review
#3
REVIEW
Domingos Lusitâneo Pier Macuvele, Janaína Nones, Jonas V Matsinhe, Marla M Lima, Cíntia Soares, Márcio A Fiori, Humberto G Riella
Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is a semicrystalline polymer that has been applied, as a bearing surface in total human joint replacements and artificial bones. UHMWPE has a superior wear resistance, low-friction surface, biological inertness, high levels of strength, creep resistance and low friction coefficient. However, the wear debris generated during the joint motions could cause problem in human implant, such as osteolysis and loosening. For this, several attempts was been made to improve UHMWPE properties and increases safety and biocompatibility in human implants...
July 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474920/diffusion-geometry-unravels-the-emergence-of-functional-clusters-in-collective-phenomena
#4
Manlio De Domenico
Collective phenomena emerge from the interaction of natural or artificial units with a complex organization. The interplay between structural patterns and dynamics might induce functional clusters that, in general, are different from topological ones. In biological systems, like the human brain, the overall functionality is often favored by the interplay between connectivity and synchronization dynamics, with functional clusters that do not coincide with anatomical modules in most cases. In social, sociotechnical, and engineering systems, the quest for consensus favors the emergence of clusters...
April 21, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439034/teleosts-as-model-organisms-to-understand-host-microbe-interactions
#5
Emily A Lescak, Kathryn C Milligan-Myhre
Host-microbe interactions are influenced by complex host genetics and environment. Studies across animal taxa have aided our understanding of how intestinal microbiota influence vertebrate development, disease, and physiology. However, traditional mammalian studies can be limited by use of isogenic strains, husbandry constraints that result in small sample sizes and limited statistical power, reliance on indirect characterization of gut microbial communities from fecal samples, and concerns whether observations in artificial conditions are actually reflective of what occurs in the wild...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433878/effect-of-freshwater-sediment-characteristics-on-the-persistence-of-fecal-indicator-bacteria-and-genetic-markers-within-a-southern-california-watershed
#6
Amity G Zimmer-Faust, Vanessa Thulsiraj, Catalina Marambio-Jones, Yiping Cao, John F Griffith, Patricia A Holden, Jennifer A Jay
In this study, the aging of culturable FIB and DNA representing genetic markers for Enterococcus spp. (ENT1A), general Bacteroides (GB3), and human-associated Bacteroides (HF183) in freshwater sediments was evaluated. Freshwater sediment was collected from four different sites within the upper and lower reach of the Topanga Creek Watershed and two additional comparator sites within the Santa Monica Bay, for a total of six sites. Untreated (ambient) and oven-dried (reduced microbiota) sediment was inoculated with 5% sewage and artificial freshwater...
April 18, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416316/effect-of-passive-ultrasonic-activation-on-organic-tissue-dissolution-from-simulated-grooves-in-root-canals-using-sodium-hypochlorite-with-or-without-surfactants-and-edta
#7
Roberto Estevez, Antonio J Conde, Oliver Valencia de Pablo, Francisco de la Torre, Giampiero Rossi-Fedele, Rafael Cisneros
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate the porcine palatal mucosa dissolution from artificial grooves using a final rinse with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) with or without a surfactant or ultrasonic activation (PUI). METHODS: The root canals of 130 human maxillary central incisors were chemomechanically prepared and the teeth split. A standardized longitudinal intracanal groove was created in 1 of the root halves. One hundred thirty porcine palatal mucosa samples were collected, adapted in order to fit into the grooves, and weighed...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412386/characterization-of-rodent-constitutively-active-estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-variants-and-their-constitutive-transactivation-mechanisms
#8
Hirotaka Ishii, Yujiro Hattori, Arisa Munetomo, Hiroshi Watanabe, Yasuo Sakuma, Hitoshi Ozawa
Estrogen receptor α (ERα) mRNAs exhibit remarkable heterogeneity owing to complicated alternative splicing. Some encode C-terminally-truncated ERα proteins, which display ligand-independent transactivation or dominant-negative activity. We previously characterized C-terminally-truncated ERα mRNA variants with cryptic sequences in humans and mice, and demonstrated that helices in the ligand-binding domains (LBDs) of ERα variants contribute to ligand-independent transcriptional activity. However, existence of non-conventional coding exons and generation of constitutively active ERα variants have remained to be examined in rats...
April 13, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411451/anisotropic-tough-double-network-hydrogel-from-fish-collagen-and-its-spontaneous-in%C3%A2-vivo-bonding-to-bone
#9
Md Tariful Islam Mredha, Nobuto Kitamura, Takayuki Nonoyama, Susumu Wada, Keiko Goto, Xi Zhang, Tasuku Nakajima, Takayuki Kurokawa, Yasuaki Takagi, Kazunori Yasuda, Jian Ping Gong
Soft supporting tissues in the human body, such as cartilages and ligaments, are tough materials and firmly fixed to bones. These soft tissues, once injured, cannot regenerate spontaneously in vivo. Developing tough and biocompatible hydrogels as artificial soft supporting tissues would substantially improve outcomes after soft tissue injury. Collagen is the main rigid component in soft connective tissues which is organized in various hierarchical arrays. We have successfully developed a novel class of collagen fibril-based tough hydrogels based on the double network (DN) concept using swim bladder collagen (SBC) extracted from Bester sturgeon fish...
July 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402148/should-modulation-of-p50-be-a-therapeutic-target-in-the-critically-ill
#10
Amudan J Srinivasan, Clare Morkane, Daniel S Martin, Ian J Welsby
A defining feature of human hemoglobin is its oxygen binding affinity, quantified by the partial pressure of oxygen at which hemoglobin is 50% saturated (p50), and the variability of this parameter over a range of physiological and environmental states. Modulation of this property of hemoglobin can directly affect the degree of peripheral oxygen offloading and tissue oxygenation. Areas covered: This review summarizes the role of hemoglobin oxygen affinity in normal and abnormal physiology and discusses the current state of the literature regarding artificial modulation of p50...
April 12, 2017: Expert Review of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388499/microfluidic-enhanced-3d-bioprinting-of-aligned-myoblast-laden-hydrogels-leads-to-functionally-organized-myofibers-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo
#11
Marco Costantini, Stefano Testa, Pamela Mozetic, Andrea Barbetta, Claudia Fuoco, Ersilia Fornetti, Francesco Tamiro, Sergio Bernardini, Jakub Jaroszewicz, Wojciech Święszkowski, Marcella Trombetta, Luisa Castagnoli, Dror Seliktar, Piotr Garstecki, Gianni Cesareni, Stefano Cannata, Alberto Rainer, Cesare Gargioli
We present a new strategy for the fabrication of artificial skeletal muscle tissue with functional morphologies based on an innovative 3D bioprinting approach. The methodology is based on a microfluidic printing head coupled to a co-axial needle extruder for high-resolution 3D bioprinting of hydrogel fibers laden with muscle precursor cells (C2C12). To promote myogenic differentiation, we formulated a tailored bioink with a photocurable semi-synthetic biopolymer (PEG-Fibrinogen) encapsulating cells into 3D constructs composed of aligned hydrogel fibers...
July 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373615/the-co-existence-of-technology-and-caring-in-the-theory-of-technological-competency-as-caring-in-nursing
#12
Rozzano C Locsin
The coexistence of technology and caring is best exemplified in nursing. The theory of Technological Competency as Caring in Nursing illuminates this coexistence as the essence of technology in health care premised on machine technologies as a generic concept of objects or things that are mechanical, organic, and electronic. With its timely development these technologies are continually imbued with artificial general intelligence. As such, the ultimate expression of machine technologies in nursing turns out to be autonomous robots (ARs) with future potentials of functions comparable to human persons...
2017: Journal of Medical Investigation: JMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371771/ecg-based-classification-of-resuscitation-cardiac-rhythms-for-retrospective-data-analysis
#13
Ali Bahrami Rad, Trygve Eftestol, Kjersti Engan, Unai Irusta, Jan Terje Kvaloy, Jo Kramer-Johansen, Lars Wik, Aggelos K Katsaggelos
There is a need to monitor the heart rhythm in resuscitation to improve treatment quality. Resuscitation rhythms are categorized into: ventricular tachycardia (VT), ventricular fibrillation (VF), pulseless electrical activity (PEA), asystole (AS), and pulse-generating rhythm (PR). Manual annotation of rhythms is time-consuming and infeasible for large datasets. Our objective was to develop ECG-based algorithms for the retrospective and automatic classification of resuscitation cardiac rhythms. METHODS: The dataset consisted of 1631 3- second ECG segments with clinical rhythm annotations, obtained from 298 out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients...
March 30, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361319/making-a-kidney-organoid-using-the-directed-differentiation-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#14
Minoru Takasato, Melissa H Little
An organoid can be defined as a three-dimensional organ-like structure formed from organ-specific progenitor cells. Organ progenitor cells were empirically found to self-organize three-dimensional tissues when they were aggregated and cultivated in vitro. While this nature power of progenitor cells has an amazing potential to recreate artificial organs in vitro, there had been difficulty to apply this technology to human organs due to the inaccessibility to human progenitor cells until human-induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) was invented by Takahashi and Yamanaka in 2007...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341771/small-chromosomal-regions-position-themselves-autonomously-according-to-their-chromatin-class
#15
Harmen Jan George van de Werken, Josien C de Haan, Yana Feodorova, Dominika Bijos, An Weuts, Koen Theunis, Sjoerd Holwerda, Wouter Meuleman, Ludo Pagie, Katharina Thanisch, Parveen Kumar, Heinrich Leonhardt, Peter Marynen, Bas van Steesel, Thierry Voet, Wouter de Laat, Irina Solovei, Boris Joffe
The spatial arrangement of chromatin is linked to the regulation of nuclear processes. One striking aspect of nuclear organization is the spatial segregation of heterochromatic and euchromatic domains. The mechanisms of this chromatin segregation are still poorly understood. In this work we investigated the link between the primary genomic sequence and chromatin domains. We analyzed the spatial intranuclear arrangement of a human artificial chromosome (HAC) in a xenospecific mouse background in comparison to an orthologous region of native mouse chromosome...
March 24, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333343/centromere-destiny-in-dicentric-chromosomes-new-insights-from-the-evolution-of-human-chromosome-2-ancestral-centromeric-region
#16
Giorgia Chiatante, Giuliana Giannuzzi, Francesco Maria Calabrese, Evan E Eichler, Mario Ventura
Dicentric chromosomes are products of genomic rearrangements that place two centromeres on the same chromosome. Due to the presence of two primary constrictions, they are inherently unstable and overcome their instability by epigenetically inactivating and/or deleting one of the two centromeres, thus resulting in functionally monocentric chromosomes that segregate normally during cell division. Our understanding to date of dicentric chromosome formation, behavior and fate has been largely inferred from observational studies in plants and humans as well as artificially produced de novo dicentrics in yeast and in human cells...
March 15, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332822/screening-of-wolbachia-endosymbiont-infection-in-aedes-aegypti-mosquitoes-using-attenuated-total-reflection-mid-infrared-spectroscopy
#17
Aazam Khoshmanesh, Dale Christensen, David Perez-Guaita, Inaki Iturbe-Ormaetxe, Scott L O'Neill, Don McNaughton, Bayden R Wood
Dengue fever is the most common mosquito transmitted viral infection afflicting humans, estimated to generate around 390 million infections each year in over 100 countries. The introduction of the endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia into Aedes aegypti mosquitoes has the potential to greatly reduce the public health burden of the disease. This approach requires extensive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing of the Wolbachia-infection status of mosquitoes in areas where Wolbachia-A. aegypti are released. Here, we report the first example of small organism mid-infrared spectroscopy where we have applied attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FT-IR) spectroscopy and multivariate modeling methods to determine sex, age, and the presence of Wolbachia (wMel strain) in laboratory mosquitoes and sex and age in field mosquitoes...
April 8, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326171/large-scale-isolation-and-cytotoxicity-of-extracellular-vesicles-derived-from-activated-human-natural-killer-cells
#18
Ambrose Y Jong, Chun-Hua Wu, Jingbo Li, Jianping Sun, Muller Fabbri, Alan S Wayne, Robert C Seeger
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been the focus of great interest, as they appear to be involved in numerous important cellular processes. They deliver bioactive macromolecules such as proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids, allowing intercellular communication in multicellular organisms. EVs are secreted by all cell types, including immune cells such as natural killer cells (NK), and they may play important roles in the immune system. Currently, a large-scale procedure to obtain functional NK EVs is lacking, limiting their use clinically...
2017: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281283/artificial-organs-2016-a-year-in-review
#19
REVIEW
Angela T Hadsell, Paul S Malchesky
In this Editor's Review, articles published in 2016 are organized by category and briefly summarized. We aim to provide a brief reflection of the currently available worldwide knowledge that is intended to advance and better human life while providing insight for continued application of technologies and methods of organ Replacement, Recovery, and Regeneration. As the official journal of The International Federation for Artificial Organs, The International Faculty for Artificial Organs, the International Society for Mechanical Circulatory Support, the International Society for Pediatric Mechanical Cardiopulmonary Support, and the Vienna International Workshop on Functional Electrical Stimulation, Artificial Organs continues in the original mission of its founders "to foster communications in the field of artificial organs on an international level...
March 2017: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273622/mercury-critical-concentrations-to-enchytraeus-crypticus-annelida-oligochaeta-under-normal-and-extreme-conditions-of-moisture-in-tropical-soils-reproduction-and-survival
#20
Andressa Cristhy Buch, Rüdiger M Schmelz, Cintia Carla Niva, Maria Elizabeth Fernandes Correia, Emmanoel Vieira Silva-Filho
Soil provides many ecosystem services that are essential to maintain its quality and healthy development of the flora, fauna and human well-being. Environmental mercury levels may harm the survival and diversity of the soil fauna. In this respect, efforts have been made to establish limit values of mercury (Hg) in soils to terrestrial fauna. Soil organisms such as earthworms and enchytraeids have intimate contact with trace metals in soil by their oral and dermal routes, reflecting the potentially adverse effects of this contaminant...
May 2017: Environmental Research
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