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Artificial human organs

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445326/structure-function-studies-of-the-%C3%AE-4-subunit-reveal-evolutionary-loss-of-a-glyr-subtype-involved-in-startle-and-escape-responses
#1
Sophie Leacock, Parnayan Syed, Victoria M James, Anna Bode, Koichi Kawakami, Angelo Keramidas, Maximiliano Suster, Joseph W Lynch, Robert J Harvey
Inhibitory glycine receptors (GlyRs) are pentameric ligand-gated anion channels with major roles in startle disease/hyperekplexia (GlyR α1), cortical neuronal migration/autism spectrum disorder (GlyR α2), and inflammatory pain sensitization/rhythmic breathing (GlyR α3). However, the role of the GlyR α4 subunit has remained enigmatic, because the corresponding human gene ( GLRA4 ) is thought to be a pseudogene due to an in-frame stop codon at position 390 within the fourth membrane-spanning domain (M4). Despite this, a recent genetic study has implicated GLRA4 in intellectual disability, behavioral problems and craniofacial anomalies...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435770/visual-artificial-grammar-learning-by-rhesus-macaques-macaca-mulatta-exploring-the-role-of-grammar-complexity-and-sequence-length
#2
Lisa A Heimbauer, Christopher M Conway, Morten H Christiansen, Michael J Beran, Michael J Owren
Humans and nonhuman primates can learn about the organization of stimuli in the environment using implicit sequential pattern learning capabilities. However, most previous artificial grammar learning studies with nonhuman primates have involved relatively simple grammars and short input sequences. The goal in the current experiments was to assess the learning capabilities of monkeys on an artificial grammar-learning task that was more complex than most others previously used with nonhumans. Three experiments were conducted using a joystick-based, symmetrical-response serial reaction time task in which two monkeys were exposed to grammar-generated sequences at sequence lengths of four in Experiment 1, six in Experiment 2, and eight in Experiment 3...
February 12, 2018: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427952/survey-of-218-organic-contaminants-in-groundwater-derived-from-the-world-s-largest-untreated-wastewater-irrigation-system-mezquital-valley-mexico
#3
Luis E Lesser, Abrahan Mora, Cristina Moreau, Jürgen Mahlknecht, Arturo Hernández-Antonio, Aldo I Ramírez, Héctor Barrios-Piña
The Mezquital Valley system is the world's oldest and largest example with regard to use of untreated wastewater for agricultural irrigation. Because of the artificial high recharge associated with the Mezquital Valley aquifers, groundwater is extracted for human consumption, and there are plans to use this groundwater as a water resource for Mexico City. Thus, this study analyzed 218 organic micro-contaminants in wastewater, springs, and groundwater from Mezquital Valley. Five volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nine semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) were detected in the wastewater used for irrigation...
February 3, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426127/disentangling-multiple-pressures-on-fish-assemblages-in-large-rivers
#4
Petr Zajicek, Johannes Radinger, Christian Wolter
European large rivers are exposed to multiple human pressures and maintained as waterways for inland navigation. However, little is known on the dominance and interactions of multiple pressures in large rivers and in particular inland navigation has been ignored in multi-pressure analyzes so far. We determined the response of ten fish population metrics (FPM, related to densities of diagnostic guilds and biodiversity) to 11 prevailing pressures including navigation intensity at 76 sites in eight European large rivers...
February 5, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395987/humanitarian-health-computing-using-artificial-intelligence-and-social-media-a-narrative-literature-review
#5
Luis Fernandez-Luque, Muhammad Imran
INTRODUCTION: According to the World Health Organization (WHO), over 130 million people are in constant need of humanitarian assistance due to natural disasters, disease outbreaks, and conflicts, among other factors. These health crises can compromise the resilience of healthcare systems, which are essential for achieving the health objectives of the sustainable development goals (SDGs) of the United Nations (UN). During a humanitarian health crisis, rapid and informed decision making is required...
January 25, 2018: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29365169/non-b-form-dna-is-enriched-at-centromeres
#6
Sivakanthan Kasinathan, Steven Henikoff
Animal and plant centromeres are embedded in repetitive "satellite" DNA, but are thought to be epigenetically specified. To define genetic characteristics of centromeres, we surveyed satellite DNA from diverse eukaryotes and identified variation in < 10-bp dyad symmetries predicted to adopt non-B-form conformations. Organisms lacking centromeric dyad symmetries had binding sites for sequence-specific DNA binding proteins with DNA bending activity. For example, human and mouse centromeres are depleted for dyad symmetries, but are enriched for non-B-form DNA and are associated with binding sites for the conserved DNA-binding protein CENP-B, which is required for artificial centromere function but is paradoxically non-essential...
January 22, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354602/the-future-medical-science-and-colorectal-surgeons
#7
REVIEW
Young Jin Kim
Future medical technology breakthroughs will build from the incredible progress made in computers, biotechnology, and nanotechnology and from the information learned from the human genome. With such technology and information, computer-aided diagnoses, organ replacement, gene therapy, personalized drugs, and even age reversal will become possible. True 3-dimensional system technology will enable surgeons to envision key clinical features and will help them in planning complex surgery. Surgeons will enter surgical instructions in a virtual space from a remote medical center, order a medical robot to perform the operation, and review the operation in real time on a monitor...
December 2017: Annals of Coloproctology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334188/soft-artificial-bladder-detrusor
#8
Xuxu Yang, Chengrui An, Shuting Liu, Tingyu Cheng, Varitsara Bunpetch, Yixiao Liu, Shurong Dong, Shijian Li, Xiaohui Zou, Tiefeng Li, Hongwei Ouyang, Zhaohui Wu, Wei Yang
Developing soft devices for invasive procedures bears great importance for human health. The softness and large strain actuation of responsive hydrogels promise the potential to fabricate soft devices, which can attach on and assist to the function of organs. The key challenges lie in the fabrication of soft devices with robust actuating ability and biocompatibility to the attached organ. This paper presents a solution that integrates the thermoresponsive hydrogel membrane with flexible electronics and silk scaffold into a balloon-like soft device...
January 15, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318963/nanodiagnostics-and-nanodelivery-applications-in-genetic-alterations
#9
Maria Sofia Falzarano, Cristina Flesia, Roberta Cavalli, Caterina Guiot, Alessandra Ferlini
Background Genetic alterations cause hereditary diseases (HDs) with a wide range of incidences. Some, like cystic fibrosi, occur frequently (1/1,000 newborns), whilst others, such as Pompe disease and other metabolic disorders are very rare (1/100,000 newborns). They are well under the threshold of 1/3,000, denoted by the European Community as rare diseases (RDs). Genetic alterations are also associated with multifactorial disorders like diabetes, and underline both somatic and germline mutations in cancer...
January 10, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309118/proton-coupled-electron-transfer-in-artificial-photosynthetic-systems
#10
S Jimena Mora, Emmanuel Odella, Gary F Moore, Devens Gust, Thomas A Moore, Ana L Moore
Artificial photosynthetic constructs can in principle operate more efficiently than natural photosynthesis because they can be rationally designed to optimize solar energy conversion for meeting human demands rather than the multiple needs of an organism competing for growth and reproduction in a complex ecosystem. The artificial photosynthetic constructs described in this Account consist primarily of covalently linked synthetic chromophores, electron donors and acceptors, and proton donors and acceptors that carry out the light absorption, electron transfer, and proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) processes characteristic of photosynthetic cells...
January 8, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303248/multifunctional-sensor-based-on-porous-carbon-derived-from-metal-organic-frameworks-for-real-time-health-monitoring
#11
Xin-Hua Zhao, Sai-Nan Ma, Hui Long, Huiyu Yuan, Chun Yin Tang, Ping Kwong Cheng, Yuen Hong Tsang
Flexible and sensitive sensors that can detect external stimuli such as pressure, temperature, and strain are essential components for applications in health diagnosis and artificial intelligence. Multifunctional sensors with the capabilities of sensing pressure and temperature simultaneously are highly desirable for health monitoring. Here, we have successfully fabricated a flexible and simply structured bimodal sensor based on metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) derived porous carbon (PC) and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite...
January 5, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291241/pseudoneglect-in-visual-search-behavioral-evidence-and-connectional-constraints-in-simulated-neural-circuitry
#12
Onofrio Gigliotta, Tal Seidel Malkinson, Orazio Miglino, Paolo Bartolomeo
Most people tend to bisect horizontal lines slightly to the left of their true center (pseudoneglect) and start visual search from left-sided items. This physiological leftward spatial bias may depend on hemispheric asymmetries in the organization of attentional networks, but the precise mechanisms are unknown. Here, we modeled relevant aspects of the ventral and dorsal attentional networks (VAN and DAN) of the human brain. First, we demonstrated pseudoneglect in visual search in 101 right-handed psychology students...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289849/toxicity-of-the-readily-leachable-fraction-of-urban-pm2-5-to-human-lung-epithelial-cells-role-of-soluble-metals
#13
Simonetta Palleschi, Barbara Rossi, Giovanna Armiento, Maria Rita Montereali, Elisa Nardi, Simona Mazziotti Tagliani, Marco Inglessis, Antonio Gianfagna, Leopoldo Silvestroni
Fine airborne particulate matter (PM2.5) has been repeatedly associated with adverse health effects in humans. The PM2.5 soluble fraction, and soluble metals in particular, are thought to cause lung damage. Literature data, however, are not consistent and the role of leachable metals is still under debate. In this study, Winter and Summer urban PM2.5 aqueous extracts, obtained by using a bio-compatible solution and different contact times at 37 °C, were used to investigate cytotoxic effects of PM2.5 in cultured lung epithelial cells (A549) and the role played by the leachable metals Cu, Fe, Zn, Ni, Pb and Cd...
December 26, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287261/a-combination-of-nmr-and-liquid-chromatography-to-characterize-the-protective-effects-of-rhus-tripartita-extracts-on-ethanol-induced-toxicity-and-inflammation-on-intestinal-cells
#14
Zaineb Ben Barka, Konstantinos Grintzalis, Madeleine Polet, Clement Heude, Ulf Sommer, Hanène Ben Miled, Khémais Ben Rhouma, Sakly Mohsen, Olfa Tebourbi, Yves-Jacques Schneider
Consumption of ethanol may have severe effects on human organs and tissues and lead to acute and chronic inflammation of internal organs. The present study aims at investigating the potential protective effects of three different extracts prepared from the leaves, root, and stem of the sumac, Rhus tripartita, against ethanol-induced toxicity and inflammation using intestinal cells as a cell culture system, in vitro model of the intestinal mucosa. The results showed an induction of cytotoxicity by ethanol, which was partially reversed by co-administration of the plant extracts...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285919/ultra-sensitive-flexible-proximity-sensor-based-on-organic-crystal-for-location-detection
#15
Haiting Wang, Qingxin Tang, Xiaoli Zhao, Yanhong Tong, Yichun Liu
A new type of flexible proximity sensor that uses the micro-sized organic crystal as the sensing element is demonstrated. The two-terminal organic sensor can accurately perceive the external objects, such as the human finger, fibre and even AFM tip. The proximity sensor shows an unprecedented distance resolution of 0.05 mm, which is two order of magnitude higher than that of previously reported conventional capacitor proximity sensors. A novel method has been proposed to realize the location detection of the approaching unknown object by modulating the relative distance between stimuli object and sensor...
December 29, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276513/multidimensional-analysis-integrating-human-t-cell-signatures-in-lymphatic-tissues-with-sex-of-humanized-mice-for-prediction-of-responses-after-dendritic-cell-immunization
#16
Valery Volk, Andreas I Reppas, Philippe A Robert, Loukia M Spineli, Bala Sai Sundarasetty, Sebastian J Theobald, Andreas Schneider, Laura Gerasch, Candida Deves Roth, Stephan Klöss, Ulrike Koehl, Constantin von Kaisenberg, Constanca Figueiredo, Haralampos Hatzikirou, Michael Meyer-Hermann, Renata Stripecke
Mice transplanted with human cord blood-derived hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) became a powerful experimental tool for studying the heterogeneity of human immune reconstitution and immune responses in vivo. Yet, analyses of human T cell maturation in humanized models have been hampered by an overall low immune reactivity and lack of methods to define predictive markers of responsiveness. Long-lived human lentiviral induced dendritic cells expressing the cytomegalovirus pp65 protein (iDCpp65) promoted the development of pp65-specific human CD8+ T cell responses in NOD...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274357/the-role-of-temporal-inversion-in-the-perception-of-realistic-and-morphed-dynamic-transitions-between-facial-expressions
#17
Olga A Korolkova
Recent studies suggest that video recordings of human facial expressions are perceived differently than linear morphing between the first and last frames of these records. Also, observers can differentiate dynamic expressions presented in normal versus time-reversed frame orders. To date, the simultaneous influence of dynamics (natural or linear) and timeline (normal or reversed) has not yet been tested on a wide range of dynamic emotional expressions and the transitions between them. We compared the perception of dynamic transitions between basic emotions in realistic (human-posed) and artificial (linearly morphed) stimuli which were presented in reversed or non-reversed order...
December 20, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259025/noncanonical-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-and-the-essential-kinase-nik-modulate-crucial-features-associated-with-eosinophilic-esophagitis-pathogenesis
#18
Kristin Eden, Daniel E Rothschild, Dylan K McDaniel, Bettina Heid, Irving C Allen
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an allergic disease of the esophagus driven by T cell and eosinophil responses to dietary allergens, resulting in chronic mucosal inflammation. Few spontaneous animal models of esophageal eosinophilia exist, with most studies relying on artificial sensitization procedures. NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK; MAP3K14) is a key signaling molecule of the noncanonical NF-κB (NFKB1) pathway, an alternative signaling cascade producing chemokines involved in lymphoid stroma development and leukocyte trafficking...
December 19, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247536/three-dimensional-liver-derived-extracellular-matrix-hydrogel-promotes-liver-organoids-function
#19
Mona Saheli, Mohammadmajid Sepantafar, Behshad Pournasr, Zahra Farzaneh, Massoud Vosough, Abbas Piryaei, Hossein Baharvand
An important advantage of employing extracellular matrix (ECM)-derived biomaterials in tissue engineering is the ability to tailor the biochemical and physical microenvironment of the cells. This study aims to assess whether three-dimensional (3D) liver-derived ECM hydrogel (LEMgel) promotes physiological function of liver organoids generated by self-organization of human hepatocarcinoma cells together with human mesenchymal and endothelial cells. We have optimized the decellularization method to fabricate liver ECM derived from sheep to preserve the greatest content of glycosaminoglycans, collagen, laminin and fibronectin in produced LEMgel...
December 16, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214351/regenerative-medicine-for-the-esophagus
#20
REVIEW
Kengo Kanetaka, Shinichiro Kobayashi, Susumu Eguchi
Advances in tissue engineering techniques have made it possible to use human cells as biological material. This has enabled pharmacological studies to be conducted to investigate drug effects and toxicity, to clarify the mechanisms underlying diseases, and to elucidate how they compensate for impaired organ function. Many researchers have tried to construct artificial organs using these techniques, but none has succeeded in growing a whole organ. Unlike other digestive organs with complicated functions, such as the processing and absorption of nutrients, the esophagus has the relatively simple function of transporting content, which can be replicated easily by a substitute...
December 6, 2017: Surgery Today
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