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Artificial human organs

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642968/review-historical-and-futuristic-developments-in-bovine-semen-technology
#1
P Lonergan
Up to the 18th century, the prevailing view of reproduction, or 'generation' as it was referred to, was that organisms develop from miniatures of themselves, termed preformation. The alternative theory, epigenesis, proposed that the structure of an animal emerges gradually from a relatively formless egg. The teachings of the Ancient Greeks who argued either that both sexes each contributed 'semen' to form the embryo, or held a more male-centred view that the female merely provided fertile ground for the male seed to grow, dominated thinking until the 17th century, when the combined work of numerous scholars led to the theory that all female organisms, including humans, produced eggs...
April 12, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607020/patterns-of-musculoskeletal-growth-and-dimensional-changes-associated-with-selection-and-developmental-plasticity-in-domestic-and-wild-strain-turkeys
#2
Kristin K Stover, Daniel M Weinreich, Thomas J Roberts, Elizabeth L Brainerd
Domestication is a type of experimental evolution in which humans have artificially selected for specific desired traits. Selected strain animals can be utilized to identify correlated responses by comparing them to the wild strain. In particular, domestic turkeys have been selected for increased body mass and high-growth rate, most significantly over the past 60 years. Yet it remains unclear how artificial selection has affected the morphology and evolution of the musculoskeletal system as a whole. Here, we compare growth rate over 21 weeks, hind limb bone scaling across ontogeny via in vivo CT scanning, and muscle proportions in wild and domestic turkeys to identify differences in structural scaling and the potential contributions of selection and developmental plasticity to whole-organism morphology...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603454/an-ultrastable-ionic-chemiresistor-skin-with-an-intrinsically-stretchable-polymer-electrolyte
#3
Ming Liang Jin, Sangsik Park, Jong-Seon Kim, Sung Hyun Kwon, Shuye Zhang, Min Seok Yoo, Sungwoo Jang, Hyeong-Jun Koh, Soo-Yeon Cho, So Young Kim, Chi Won Ahn, Kilwon Cho, Seung Geol Lee, Do Hwan Kim, Hee-Tae Jung
Ultrastable sensing characteristics of the ionic chemiresistor skin (ICS) that is designed by using an intrinsically stretchable thermoplastic polyurethane electrolyte as a volatile organic compound (VOC) sensing channel are described. The hierarchically assembled polymer electrolyte film is observed to be very uniform, transparent, and intrinsically stretchable. Systematic experimental and theoretical studies also reveal that artificial ions are evenly distributed in polyurethane matrix without microscale phase separation, which is essential for implementing high reliability of the ICS devices...
March 30, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593463/young-blood-rejuvenates-old-bodies-a-call-for-reflection-when-moving-from-mice-to-men
#4
Bjørn Hofmann
Connecting the circulatory system of old and young mice (parabiosis) is documented to have rejuvenating effects on cells, tissues, organs, and functions. A wide range of benefits are envisioned. Blood-based rejuvenation can come to totally change population health and aging. The first blood rejuvenation studies on humans with Alzheimer's disease have started. It puts blood at the center of therapy and revitalizes the historical line of humoral pathology from Hippocrates and Harvey, creating a new type of 'bloodletting...
January 2018: Transfusion Medicine and Hemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574625/the-cluster-re-6-se-8-i-6-3-penetrates-biological-membranes-drug-like-properties-for-cns-tumor-treatment-and-diagnosis
#5
Lisbell D Estrada, Elizabeth Duran, Matias Cisterna, Cesar Echeverria, Zhiping Zheng, Vincenzo Borgna, Nicolas Arancibia-Miranda, Rodrigo Ramírez-Tagle
Tumorigenic cell lines are more susceptible to [Re6 Se8 I6 ]3- cluster-induced death than normal cells, becoming a novel candidate for cancer treatment. Still, the feasibility of using this type of molecules in human patients remains unclear and further pharmacokinetics analysis is needed. Using coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy, we determined the Re-cluster tissue content in injected mice, as a biodistribution measurement. Our results show that the Re-cluster successfully reaches different tissues, accumulating mainly in heart and liver...
March 24, 2018: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564327/compositional-quality-and-potential-gastrointestinal-behavior-of-probiotic-products-commercialized-in-italy
#6
Alessandra Vecchione, Francesco Celandroni, Diletta Mazzantini, Sonia Senesi, Antonella Lupetti, Emilia Ghelardi
Recent guidelines indicate that oral probiotics, living microorganisms able to confer a health benefit on the host, should be safe for human consumption, when administered in a sufficient amount, and resist acid and bile to exert their beneficial effects (e.g., metabolic, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, competitive). This study evaluated quantitative and qualitative aspects and the viability in simulated gastric and intestinal juices of commercial probiotic formulations available in Italy. Plate counting and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry were used to enumerate and identify the contained organisms...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545373/hormonally-mediated-effects-of-artificial-light-at-night-on-behavior-and-fitness-linking-endocrine-mechanisms-with-function
#7
REVIEW
Jenny Q Ouyang, Scott Davies, Davide Dominoni
Alternation between day and night is a predictable environmental fluctuation that organisms use to time their activities. Since the invention of artificial lighting, this predictability has been disrupted and continues to change in a unidirectional fashion with increasing urbanization. As hormones mediate individual responses to changing environments, endocrine systems might be one of the first systems affected, as well as being the first line of defense to ameliorate any negative health impacts. In this Review, we first highlight how light can influence endocrine function in vertebrates...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536823/ensemble-of-rankers-for-efficient-gene-signature-extraction-in-smoke-exposure-classification
#8
Maurizio Giordano, Kumar Parijat Tripathi, Mario Rosario Guarracino
BACKGROUND: System toxicology aims at understanding the mechanisms used by biological systems to respond to toxicants. Such understanding can be leveraged to assess the risk of chemicals, drugs, and consumer products in living organisms. In system toxicology, machine learning techniques and methodologies are applied to develop prediction models for classification of toxicant exposure of biological systems. Gene expression data (RNA/DNA microarray) are often used to develop such prediction models...
March 8, 2018: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535715/interaction-of-the-human-contact-system-with-pathogens-an-update
#9
REVIEW
Sonja Oehmcke-Hecht, Juliane Köhler
The name human contact system is related to its mode of action, as "contact" with artificial negatively charged surfaces triggers its activation. Today, it is generally believed that the contact system is an inflammatory response mechanism not only against artificial material but also against misfolded proteins and foreign organisms. Upon activation, the contact system is involved in at least two distinct (patho)physiologic processes: i . the trigger of the intrinsic coagulation via factor XI and ii ...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528446/characterization-of-migratory-primordial-germ-cells-in-the-aorta-gonad-mesonephros-of-a-4-5-week-old-human-embryo-a-toolbox-to-evaluate-in-vitro-early-gametogenesis
#10
Maria Gomes Fernandes, Monika Bialecka, Daniela C F Salvatori, Susana M Chuva de Sousa Lopes
STUDY QUESTION: Which set of antibodies can be used to identify migratory and early post-migratory human primordial germ cells (hPGCs)? STUDY FINDING: We validated the specificity of 33 antibodies for 31 markers, including POU5F1, NANOG, PRDM1 and TFAP2C as specific markers of hPGCs at 4.5 weeks of development of Carnegie stage (CS12-13), whereas KIT and SOX17 also marked the intra-aortic hematopoietic stem cell cluster in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM). WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The dynamics of gene expression during germ cell development in mice is well characterized and this knowledge has proved crucial to allow the development of protocols for the in-vitro derivation of functional gametes...
March 8, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523820/zfp226-is-a-novel-artificial-transcription-factor-for-selective-activation-of-tumor-suppressor-kibra
#11
Katrin Schelleckes, Boris Schmitz, Malte Lenders, Mirja Mewes, Stefan-Martin Brand, Eva Brand
KIBRA has been suggested as a key regulator of the hippo pathway, regulating organ size, cell contact inhibition as well as tissue regeneration and tumorigenesis. Recently, alterations of KIBRA expression caused by promotor methylation have been reported for several types of cancer. Our current study aimed to design an artificial transcription factor capable of re-activating expression of the tumor suppressor KIBRA and the hippo pathway. We engineered a new gene named 'ZFP226' encoding for a ~23 kDa fusion protein...
March 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516581/artificial-organs-2017-a-year-in-review
#12
REVIEW
Paul S Malchesky
In this Editor's Review, articles published in 2017 are organized by category and summarized. We provide a brief reflection of the research and progress in artificial organs intended to advance and better human life while providing insight for continued application of these technologies and methods. Artificial Organs continues in the original mission of its founders "to foster communications in the field of artificial organs on an international level." Artificial Organs continues to publish developments and clinical applications of artificial organ technologies in this broad and expanding field of organ Replacement, Recovery, and Regeneration from all over the world...
March 2018: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504145/effect-of-a-1800-mhz-electromagnetic-field-emitted-during-embryogenesis-on-chick-development-and-hatchability
#13
K Pawlak, Z Nieckarz, A Sechman, D Wojtysiak, B Bojarski, B Tombarkiewicz
The level of artificial electromagnetic field (EMF) has steadily increased with the development of human civilization. The developing chicken embryo has been considered a good model to study the effects of EMF on living organisms. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of a 1800 MHz electromagnetic field during embryogenesis on the frequency of chick embryo malformations, morphometric parameters of the heart and liver and concentration of corticosterone in blood plasma, lipid and glycogen content in the liver of newly hatched chicks...
March 5, 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499147/human-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-engineered-tissues-clinical-considerations
#14
Kelly R Stevens, Charles E Murry
The combined power of human pluripotent stem cells and tissue engineering promises to revolutionize medicine by building tissue patches and artificial replacement organs for patients battling diverse diseases. Here, we articulate some big questions that need to be addressed before such engineered tissues become mainstream in the clinic.
March 1, 2018: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474122/non-animal-methods-to-predict-skin-sensitization-ii-an-assessment-of-defined-approaches
#15
Nicole C Kleinstreuer, Sebastian Hoffmann, Nathalie Alépée, David Allen, Takao Ashikaga, Warren Casey, Elodie Clouet, Magalie Cluzel, Bertrand Desprez, Nichola Gellatly, Carsten Göbel, Petra S Kern, Martina Klaric, Jochen Kühnl, Silvia Martinozzi-Teissier, Karsten Mewes, Masaaki Miyazawa, Judy Strickland, Erwin van Vliet, Qingda Zang, Dirk Petersohn
Skin sensitization is a toxicity endpoint of widespread concern, for which the mechanistic understanding and concurrent necessity for non-animal testing approaches have evolved to a critical juncture, with many available options for predicting sensitization without using animals. Cosmetics Europe and the National Toxicology Program Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods collaborated to analyze the performance of multiple non-animal data integration approaches for the skin sensitization safety assessment of cosmetics ingredients...
February 23, 2018: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466319/skin-on-a-chip-transepithelial-electrical-resistance-and-extracellular-acidification-measurements-through-an-automated-air-liquid-interface
#16
Frank A Alexander, Sebastian Eggert, Joachim Wiest
Skin is a critical organ that plays a crucial role in defending the internal organs of the body. For this reason, extensive work has gone into creating artificial models of the epidermis for in vitro skin toxicity tests. These tissue models, called reconstructed human epidermis (RhE), are used by researchers in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and environmental arenas to evaluate skin toxicity upon exposure to xenobiotics. Here, we present a label-free solution that leverages the use of the intelligent mobile lab for in vitro diagnostics (IMOLA-IVD), a noninvasive, sensor-based platform, to monitor the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) of RhE models and adherent cells cultured on porous membrane inserts...
February 21, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463885/machine-learning-for-the-meta-analyses-of-microbial-pathogens-volatile-signatures
#17
Susana I C J Palma, Ana P Traguedo, Ana R Porteira, Maria J Frias, Hugo Gamboa, Ana C A Roque
Non-invasive and fast diagnostic tools based on volatolomics hold great promise in the control of infectious diseases. However, the tools to identify microbial volatile organic compounds (VOCs) discriminating between human pathogens are still missing. Artificial intelligence is increasingly recognised as an essential tool in health sciences. Machine learning algorithms based in support vector machines and features selection tools were here applied to find sets of microbial VOCs with pathogen-discrimination power...
February 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445326/structure-function-studies-of-the-%C3%AE-4-subunit-reveal-evolutionary-loss-of-a-glyr-subtype-involved-in-startle-and-escape-responses
#18
Sophie Leacock, Parnayan Syed, Victoria M James, Anna Bode, Koichi Kawakami, Angelo Keramidas, Maximiliano Suster, Joseph W Lynch, Robert J Harvey
Inhibitory glycine receptors (GlyRs) are pentameric ligand-gated anion channels with major roles in startle disease/hyperekplexia (GlyR α1), cortical neuronal migration/autism spectrum disorder (GlyR α2), and inflammatory pain sensitization/rhythmic breathing (GlyR α3). However, the role of the GlyR α4 subunit has remained enigmatic, because the corresponding human gene ( GLRA4 ) is thought to be a pseudogene due to an in-frame stop codon at position 390 within the fourth membrane-spanning domain (M4). Despite this, a recent genetic study has implicated GLRA4 in intellectual disability, behavioral problems and craniofacial anomalies...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435770/visual-artificial-grammar-learning-by-rhesus-macaques-macaca-mulatta-exploring-the-role-of-grammar-complexity-and-sequence-length
#19
Lisa A Heimbauer, Christopher M Conway, Morten H Christiansen, Michael J Beran, Michael J Owren
Humans and nonhuman primates can learn about the organization of stimuli in the environment using implicit sequential pattern learning capabilities. However, most previous artificial grammar learning studies with nonhuman primates have involved relatively simple grammars and short input sequences. The goal in the current experiments was to assess the learning capabilities of monkeys on an artificial grammar-learning task that was more complex than most others previously used with nonhumans. Three experiments were conducted using a joystick-based, symmetrical-response serial reaction time task in which two monkeys were exposed to grammar-generated sequences at sequence lengths of four in Experiment 1, six in Experiment 2, and eight in Experiment 3...
February 12, 2018: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427952/survey-of-218-organic-contaminants-in-groundwater-derived-from-the-world-s-largest-untreated-wastewater-irrigation-system-mezquital-valley-mexico
#20
Luis E Lesser, Abrahan Mora, Cristina Moreau, Jürgen Mahlknecht, Arturo Hernández-Antonio, Aldo I Ramírez, Héctor Barrios-Piña
The Mezquital Valley system is the world's oldest and largest example with regard to use of untreated wastewater for agricultural irrigation. Because of the artificial high recharge associated with the Mezquital Valley aquifers, groundwater is extracted for human consumption, and there are plans to use this groundwater as a water resource for Mexico City. Thus, this study analyzed 218 organic micro-contaminants in wastewater, springs, and groundwater from Mezquital Valley. Five volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nine semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) were detected in the wastewater used for irrigation...
February 3, 2018: Chemosphere
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