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Artificial human organs

Wadih Ghattas, Virginie Dubosclard, Arne Wick, Audrey Bendelac, Régis Guillot, Rémy Ricoux, Jean-Pierre Mahy
Artificial metalloenzymes are known to be promising tools for biocatalysis, but their recent compartmentalization has led to compatibly with cell components thus shedding light on possible therapeutic applications. We prepared and characterized artificial metalloenzymes based on the A2A adenosine receptor embedded in the cytoplasmic membranes of living human cells. The wild type receptor was chemically engineered into metalloenzymes by its association with strong antagonists that were covalently bound to copper(II) catalysts...
June 18, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Jonathan Visentin, Lionel Couzi, Claire Dromer, Martine Neau-Cransac, Gwendaline Guidicelli, Vincent Veniard, Karine Nubret-le Coniat, Pierre Merville, Carmelo Di Primo, Jean-Luc Taupin
Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) donor-specific antibodies are key serum biomarkers for assessing the outcome of transplanted patients. Measuring their active concentration, i.e. the fraction that really interacts with donor HLA, and their affinity could help deciphering their pathogenicity. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is recognized as the gold-standard for measuring binding kinetics but also active concentrations, without calibration curves. SPR-based biosensors often suffer from non-specific binding (NSB) occurring with the sensor chip surface and the immobilized targets, especially for complex media such as human serum...
June 7, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Bożena Muszyńska, Agata Krakowska, Jan Lazur, Barbara Jękot, Łukasz Zimmer, Agnieszka Szewczyk, Katarzyna Sułkowska-Ziaja, Ewa Poleszak, Włodzimierz Opoka
Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck is a spherical, green alga belonging to the genus Chlorella and family Chlorellaceae. It has high nutritional value and shows multiple biological effects. Dietary supplements that contain extracts of C. vulgaris are sold in the form of tablets, capsules, powders, and aqueous solutions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to determine the content of bioelements (zinc, iron, and magnesium), phenolic compounds, and lutein before and after incubation with artificial digestive juices from preparations containing C...
2018: Journal of Applied Phycology
Ahmed Jalal, Fahmida Alam, Sohini RoyChoudhury, Yogeswaran Umasankar, Nezih Pala, Shekhar Bhansali
The chemical signatures of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in humans can be utilized for point-of-care (POC) di-agnosis. Apart from toxic exposure studies, VOCs generated in humans can provide insights into one's healthy and dis-eased metabolic states, acting as a biomarker for identifying numerous diseases non-invasively. VOC sensors and the technology of e-nose have received significant attention for continuous and selective monitoring of various physiolog-ical and pathophysiological conditions of an individual...
June 8, 2018: ACS Sensors
Kyle D Gustafson, Michelle G Hawkins, Tracy L Drazenovich, Robert Church, Susan A Brown, Holly B Ernest
Domestication and breeding for human-desired morphological traits can reduce population genetic diversity via founder events and artificial selection, resulting in inbreeding depression and genetic disorders. The ferret ( Mustela putorius furo ) was domesticated from European polecats ( M. putorius ), transported to multiple continents, and has been artificially selected for several traits. The ferret is now a common pet, a laboratory model organism, and feral ferrets can impact native biodiversity. We hypothesized global ferret trade resulted in distinct international genetic clusters and that ferrets transported to other continents would have lower genetic diversity than ferrets from Europe because of extreme founder events and no hybridization with wild polecats or genetically diverse ferrets...
June 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Mi Ju Son, Hwi-Jin Im, Boncho Ku, Jun-Hwan Lee, So Young Jung, Young-Eun Kim, Sung Bae Lee, Jun Young Kim, Chang-Gue Son
Introduction: Gongjin-dan (GJD) is an herbal drug commonly used in Korea and China to combat fatigue, but there are only few clinical studies on its effectiveness and experimental studies on its mechanism of action, and no randomized controlled trial of GJD on the efficacy and mechanism of action has been reported. Here, we performed an exploratory study to evaluate both questions regarding GJD use in humans. Methods: A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover clinical trial was conducted in the Republic of Korea...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Chae Kim, Xiangzhu Xiao, Shugui Chen, Tracy Haldiman, Vitautas Smirnovas, Diane Kofskey, Miriam Warren, Krystyna Surewicz, Nicholas R Maurer, Qingzhong Kong, Witold Surewicz, Jiri G Safar
The molecular mechanism that determines under physiological conditions transmissibility of the most common human prion disease, sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) is unknown. We report the synthesis of new human prion from the recombinant human prion protein expressed in bacteria in reaction seeded with sCJD MM1 prions and cofactor, ganglioside GM1. These synthetic human prions were infectious to transgenic mice expressing non-glycosylated human prion protein, causing neurologic dysfunction after 459 and 224 days in the first and second passage, respectively...
June 4, 2018: Nature Communications
Maria E A Santos, James Davis Reimer
The increasing availability of human-made structure in the oceans coupled with climate changes may lead to the range expansion of species able to disperse by rafting. In this study, we report on zoantharian species of genera Isaurus, Palythoa, Umimayanthus and Zoanthus covering artificial substrates in locations in both the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Moreover, we reviewed observations of additional zoantharians as macrofouling organisms, and discuss the possible role of rafting in the dispersal of this cosmopolitan group...
May 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Fabio Andrade Machado, Thiago Macek Gonçalves Zahn, Gabriel Marroig
Morphological integration refers to the fact that different phenotypic traits of organisms are not fully independent from each other, and tend to covary to different degrees. The covariation among traits is thought to reflect properties of the species' genetic architecture and thus can have an impact on evolutionary responses. Furthermore, if morphological integration changes along the history of a group, inferences of past selection regimes might be problematic. Here, we evaluated the stability and evolution of the morphological integration of skull traits in Carnivora by using evolutionary simulations and phylogenetic comparative methods...
May 26, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Ian Ken D Dimzon, Ann Selma Morata, Janine Müller, Roy Kristian Yanela, Stephan Lebertz, Heike Weil, Teresita R Perez, Jutta Müller, Fabian M Dayrit, Thomas P Knepper
More than half of the freshwater lakes in the Philippines are small with surface areas of <2 km2 . The dynamics in these lakes are different from those in the bigger lakes. This study was conducted to determine the organic pollutants and their sources in three of the seven lakes of San Pablo City in Laguna, Philippines: lakes Palakpakin, Sampaloc, and Pandin. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Liquid Chromatography - Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) were used in the targeted and non-targeted analysis of the lake water samples...
May 22, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Donggu Kang, Geunseon Ahn, Donghwan Kim, Hyun-Wook Kang, Seokhwan Yun, Won-Soo Yun, Jin-Hyung Shim, Songwan Jin
Recent advances in three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting technology have led to various attempts in fabricating human tissue-like structures. However, current bioprinting technologies have limitations for creating native tissue-like structures. To resolve these issues, we developed a new pre-set extrusion bioprinting technique that can create heterogeneous, multicellular, and multimaterial structures simultaneously. The key to this ability lies in the use of a precursor cartridge that can stably preserve a multimaterial with a pre-defined configuration that can be simply embedded in a syringe-based printer head...
May 22, 2018: Biofabrication
Dai Xue, Yancheng Wang, Jiaxin Zhang, Deqing Mei, Yue Wang, Shaochen Chen
To fully actualize artificial, cell-laden biological models in tissue engineering, such as 3D organoids and organs-on-a-chip systems, cells need to be patterned such that they can precisely mimic natural microenvironments in vitro. Despite increasing interest in this area, patterning cells at multiscales (~10 μm - 10 mm) remains a significant challenge in bioengineering. Here we report a projection-based 3D printing system that achieves rapid and high-resolution fabrication of hydrogel scaffolds featuring intricate channels for multi-scale cell patterning...
May 21, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Erdal Yabalak
This study was performed to investigate the mineralization of ticarcillin in the artificially prepared aqueous solution presenting ticarcillin contaminated waters, which constitute a serious problem for human health. 81.99% of total organic carbon removal, 79.65% of chemical oxygen demand removal, and 94.35% of ticarcillin removal were achieved by using eco-friendly, time-saving, powerful and easy-applying, subcritical water oxidation method in the presence of a safe-to-use oxidizing agent, hydrogen peroxide...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Xiao Zhang, Xianghui Xu, Yachao Li, Cheng Hu, Zhijun Zhang, Zhongwei Gu
Poor drug penetration into tumor cells and tissues is a worldwide difficulty in cancer therapy. A strategy is developed for virion-like membrane-breaking nanoparticles (MBNs) to smoothly accomplish tumor-activated cell-and-tissue dual-penetration for surmounting impermeable drug-resistant cancer. Tailor-made dendritic arginine-rich peptide prodrugs are designed to mimic viral protein transduction domains and globular protein architectures. Attractively, these protein mimics self-assemble into virion-like nanoparticles in aqueous solution, having highly ordered secondary structure...
May 17, 2018: Advanced Materials
Kevin Faust, Quin Xie, Dominick Han, Kartikay Goyle, Zoya Volynskaya, Ugljesa Djuric, Phedias Diamandis
BACKGROUND: There is growing interest in utilizing artificial intelligence, and particularly deep learning, for computer vision in histopathology. While accumulating studies highlight expert-level performance of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) on focused classification tasks, most studies rely on probability distribution scores with empirically defined cutoff values based on post-hoc analysis. More generalizable tools that allow humans to visualize histology-based deep learning inferences and decision making are scarce...
May 16, 2018: BMC Bioinformatics
Zelong Zhao, Yongjia Pan, Jingwei Jiang, Shan Gao, Hongjuan Sun, Ying Dong, Pihai Sun, Xiaoyan Guan, Zunchun Zhou
Bacteria are the most abundant organisms in natural environment and dominant drivers of multiple geochemical functions. Drawing a global picture of microbial community structure and understanding their ecological status remain a grand challenge. As a typical artificial process, aquaculture provides a large amount of foods and creates great economic benefits for human beings. However, few studies are aimed at the microbial community in the aquaculture environment of aquatic plants. We analyzed microbial communities from 21 water samples in a coastal aquaculture area during the whole cultural process of Undaria pinnatifida by using high-throughout sequencing of 16S rRNA gene...
May 8, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
Dahae Kim, Jung-Hyun Kim, Min-Seob Kim, Kongtae Ra, Kyung-Hoon Shin
We investigate historical environmental changes in an artificial lake, Lake Shihwa in South Korea, based on bulk (TOC, TN, C/N ratio, δ13 CTOC , and δ15 NTN ) and molecular (concentrations and δ13 C of n-alkanes) parameters, by analyzing riverbank sediments (n = 12), lake surface sediments (n = 9), and lake core sediments (n = 108). Although the bulk organic parameters showed similar characteristics for all lake surface sediment samples, the distribution pattern and δ13 C of n-alkanes revealed distinct differences between 2009 samples and 2012/2016 samples...
May 4, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Changzheng Cui, Qi Han, Lei Jiang, Lei Ma, Lei Jin, Dong Zhang, Kuangfei Lin, Tianyang Zhang
This study investigated the occurrence and variation of 11 antibiotics (including four sulfonamides (SAs), four fluoroquinolones (FQs), two tetracyclines (TCs), and one macrolide (ML)) and one SA synergist trimethoprim (TMP) in an artificial drinking water source reservoir in Yangtze River delta of East China. Water samples were collected each month from January to November in 2014 at the water inlet and outlet site of the reservoir. Sulfamethoxazole, sulfadiazine, and norfloxacin were detected with the high frequencies of 100, 92...
May 4, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Danilo Augusto de Holanda Ferreira, Carolina Patrícia Aires, Regina Célia Bressan Queiroz De Figueiredo, Frederico Barbosa de Sousa
The amount of organic material in the cariogenic environment correlates with the amount of organic material incorporated in carious enamel. The incorporated organic material may be expected to reduce the pore volumes available for remineralization and resin infiltration, but these expected outcomes have not yet been quantified. We tested the effect of the amount of organic content in the cariogenic agent on remineralization and the resin-occluded pore volume in artificial subsurface enamel caries. An acid gel (organic-rich; G1) and an aqueous solution (organic-poor; G2) were used to induce subsurface lesions in human enamel...
May 3, 2018: Caries Research
Connor W Coley, William H Green, Klavs F Jensen
Computer-aided synthesis planning (CASP) is focused on the goal of accelerating the process by which chemists decide how to synthesize small molecule compounds. The ideal CASP program would take a molecular structure as input and output a sorted list of detailed reaction schemes that each connect that target to purchasable starting materials via a series of chemically feasible reaction steps. Early work in this field relied on expert-crafted reaction rules and heuristics to describe possible retrosynthetic disconnections and selectivity rules but suffered from incompleteness, infeasible suggestions, and human bias...
May 1, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
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