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Artificial human organs

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326171/large-scale-isolation-and-cytotoxicity-of-extracellular-vesicles-derived-from-activated-human-natural-killer-cells
#1
Ambrose Y Jong, Chun-Hua Wu, Jingbo Li, Jianping Sun, Muller Fabbri, Alan S Wayne, Robert C Seeger
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been the focus of great interest, as they appear to be involved in numerous important cellular processes. They deliver bioactive macromolecules such as proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids, allowing intercellular communication in multicellular organisms. EVs are secreted by all cell types, including immune cells such as natural killer cells (NK), and they may play important roles in the immune system. Currently, a large-scale procedure to obtain functional NK EVs is lacking, limiting their use clinically...
2017: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281283/artificial-organs-2016-a-year-in-review
#2
REVIEW
Angela T Hadsell, Paul S Malchesky
In this Editor's Review, articles published in 2016 are organized by category and briefly summarized. We aim to provide a brief reflection of the currently available worldwide knowledge that is intended to advance and better human life while providing insight for continued application of technologies and methods of organ Replacement, Recovery, and Regeneration. As the official journal of The International Federation for Artificial Organs, The International Faculty for Artificial Organs, the International Society for Mechanical Circulatory Support, the International Society for Pediatric Mechanical Cardiopulmonary Support, and the Vienna International Workshop on Functional Electrical Stimulation, Artificial Organs continues in the original mission of its founders "to foster communications in the field of artificial organs on an international level...
March 2017: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273622/mercury-critical-concentrations-to-enchytraeus-crypticus-annelida-oligochaeta-under-normal-and-extreme-conditions-of-moisture-in-tropical-soils-reproduction-and-survival
#3
Andressa Cristhy Buch, Rüdiger M Schmelz, Cintia Carla Niva, Maria Elizabeth Fernandes Correia, Emmanoel Vieira Silva-Filho
Soil provides many ecosystem services that are essential to maintain its quality and healthy development of the flora, fauna and human well-being. Environmental mercury levels may harm the survival and diversity of the soil fauna. In this respect, efforts have been made to establish limit values of mercury (Hg) in soils to terrestrial fauna. Soil organisms such as earthworms and enchytraeids have intimate contact with trace metals in soil by their oral and dermal routes, reflecting the potentially adverse effects of this contaminant...
March 5, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252135/t-cell-immunoengineering-with-advanced-biomaterials
#4
Derfogail Delcassian, Susanne Sattler, Iain E Dunlop
Recent advances in biomaterials design offer the potential to actively control immune cell activation and behaviour. Many human diseases, such as infections, cancer, and autoimmune disorders, are partly mediated by inappropriate or insufficient activation of the immune system. T cells play a central role in the host immune response to these diseases, and so constitute a promising cell type for manipulation. In vivo, T cells are stimulated by antigen presenting cells (APC), therefore to design immunoengineering biomaterials that control T cell behaviour, artificial interfaces that mimic the natural APC-T cell interaction are required...
March 1, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249010/tfap2-paralogs-regulate-melanocyte-differentiation-in-parallel-with-mitf
#5
Hannah E Seberg, Eric Van Otterloo, Stacie K Loftus, Huan Liu, Greg Bonde, Ramakrishna Sompallae, Derek E Gildea, Juan F Santana, J Robert Manak, William J Pavan, Trevor Williams, Robert A Cornell
Mutations in the gene encoding transcription factor TFAP2A result in pigmentation anomalies in model organisms and premature hair graying in humans. However, the pleiotropic functions of TFAP2A and its redundantly-acting paralogs have made the precise contribution of TFAP2-type activity to melanocyte differentiation unclear. Defining this contribution may help to explain why TFAP2A expression is reduced in advanced-stage melanoma compared to benign nevi. To identify genes with TFAP2A-dependent expression in melanocytes, we profile zebrafish tissue and mouse melanocytes deficient in Tfap2a, and find that expression of a small subset of genes underlying pigmentation phenotypes is TFAP2A-dependent, including Dct, Mc1r, Mlph, and Pmel...
March 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248996/evaluation-of-stiffness-feedback-for-hard-nodule-identification-on-a-phantom-silicone-model
#6
Min Li, Jelizaveta Konstantinova, Guanghua Xu, Bo He, Vahid Aminzadeh, Jun Xie, Helge Wurdemann, Kaspar Althoefer
Haptic information in robotic surgery can significantly improve clinical outcomes and help detect hard soft-tissue inclusions that indicate potential abnormalities. Visual representation of tissue stiffness information is a cost-effective technique. Meanwhile, direct force feedback, although considerably more expensive than visual representation, is an intuitive method of conveying information regarding tissue stiffness to surgeons. In this study, real-time visual stiffness feedback by sliding indentation palpation is proposed, validated, and compared with force feedback involving human subjects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248570/the-diacetyl-exposed-human-airway-epithelial-secretome-new-insights-into-flavoring-induced-airways-disease
#7
David M Brass, William M Gwinn, Ashlee M Valente, Francine L Kelly, Christie D Brinkley, Andrew E Nagler, M Arthur Moseley, Daniel L Morgan, Scott M Palmer, Matthew W Foster
Bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) is an increasingly important lung disease characterized by fibroproliferative airway lesions and decrements in lung function. Occupational exposure to the artificial food flavoring ingredient diacetyl, commonly used to impart a buttery flavor to microwave popcorn, has been associated with BO development. In the occupational setting, diacetyl vapor is first encountered by the airway epithelium. To better understand the effects of diacetyl vapor on the airway epithelium we used an unbiased proteomic approach to characterize both the apical and basolateral secretomes of air liquid interface cultures of primary human airway epithelial cells from four unique donors after exposure to an occupationally relevant ~1100 ppm of diacetyl vapor or PBS as a control on alternating days...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243228/plasmid-replicons-from-pseudomonas-are-natural-chimeras-of-functional-exchangeable-modules
#8
Leire Bardaji, Maite Añorga, José A Ruiz-Masó, Gloria Del Solar, Jesús Murillo
Plasmids are a main factor for the evolution of bacteria through horizontal gene exchange, including the dissemination of pathogenicity genes, resistance to antibiotics and degradation of pollutants. Their capacity to duplicate is dependent on their replication determinants (replicon), which also define their bacterial host range and the inability to coexist with related replicons. We characterize a second replicon from the virulence plasmid pPsv48C, from Pseudomonas syringae pv. savastanoi, which appears to be a natural chimera between the gene encoding a newly described replication protein and a putative replication control region present in the widespread family of PFP virulence plasmids...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242914/defatted-coconut-residue-crude-polysaccharides-as-potential-prebiotics-study-of-their-effects-on-proliferation-and-acidifying-activity-of-probiotics-in-vitro
#9
Nur 'Ain Najwa Mohd Nor, Sahar Abbasiliasi, Mohammed Nazrim Marikkar, Arbakariya Ariff, Mehrnoush Amid, Dhilia Udie Lamasudin, Mohd Yazid Abdul Manap, Shuhaimi Mustafa
This paper reports on the extraction, partial characterization and the potential application of crude polysaccharides from defatted coconut residue as a prebiotic. The coconut residue was defatted and extracted to obtain the crude polysaccharides and its physicochemical properties were determined. The crude polysaccharides were assessed for monosaccharide composition, total carbohydrate content, reducing sugar concentration and protein content determination. The functional group and structural elucidation of crude polysaccharides was also done using Fourier transform infrared spectra analysis...
January 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241039/the-genotype-phenotype-map-of-an-evolving-digital-organism
#10
Miguel A Fortuna, Luis Zaman, Charles Ofria, Andreas Wagner
To understand how evolving systems bring forth novel and useful phenotypes, it is essential to understand the relationship between genotypic and phenotypic change. Artificial evolving systems can help us understand whether the genotype-phenotype maps of natural evolving systems are highly unusual, and it may help create evolvable artificial systems. Here we characterize the genotype-phenotype map of digital organisms in Avida, a platform for digital evolution. We consider digital organisms from a vast space of 10141 genotypes (instruction sequences), which can form 512 different phenotypes...
February 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240875/direct-and-air-mediated-transfer-of-labeled-svocs-from-indoor-sources-to-dust
#11
Vilma Sukiene, Natalie von Goetz, Andreas C Gerecke, Martine I Bakker, Christiaan J E Delmaar, Konrad Hungerbühler
Two small-scale field studies were conducted to investigate the transfer of substances from products into dust due to direct and air-mediated transfer. The project focused on semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), which are frequently found in and re-emitted from dust. For the field studies, four artificial products containing deuterium-labeled SVOCs (eight phthalates and adipates) were installed in residential indoor environments. Two plastic products were installed vertically to investigate substance transfer due to evaporation into air...
March 21, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222194/forecasting-outpatient-visits-using-empirical-mode-decomposition-coupled-with-back-propagation-artificial-neural-networks-optimized-by-particle-swarm-optimization
#12
Daizheng Huang, Zhihui Wu
Accurately predicting the trend of outpatient visits by mathematical modeling can help policy makers manage hospitals effectively, reasonably organize schedules for human resources and finances, and appropriately distribute hospital material resources. In this study, a hybrid method based on empirical mode decomposition and back-propagation artificial neural networks optimized by particle swarm optimization is developed to forecast outpatient visits on the basis of monthly numbers. The data outpatient visits are retrieved from January 2005 to December 2013 and first obtained as the original time series...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218920/a-non-volatile-organic-electrochemical-device-as-a-low-voltage-artificial-synapse-for-neuromorphic-computing
#13
Yoeri van de Burgt, Ewout Lubberman, Elliot J Fuller, Scott T Keene, Grégorio C Faria, Sapan Agarwal, Matthew J Marinella, A Alec Talin, Alberto Salleo
The brain is capable of massively parallel information processing while consuming only ∼1-100 fJ per synaptic event. Inspired by the efficiency of the brain, CMOS-based neural architectures and memristors are being developed for pattern recognition and machine learning. However, the volatility, design complexity and high supply voltages for CMOS architectures, and the stochastic and energy-costly switching of memristors complicate the path to achieve the interconnectivity, information density, and energy efficiency of the brain using either approach...
February 20, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216437/extracellular-eosinophilic-traps-in-association-with-staphylococcus-aureus-at-the-site-of-epithelial-barrier-defects-in-patients-with-severe-airway-inflammation
#14
Elien Gevaert, Nan Zhang, Olga Krysko, Feng Lan, Gabriële Holtappels, Natalie De Ruyck, Hans Nauwynck, Shida Yousefi, Hans-Uwe Simon, Claus Bachert
BACKGROUND: Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps is characterized by TH2-biased eosinophilic inflammation. Eosinophils have been shown to generate so-called extracellular eosinophilic traps (EETs) under similar pathologic conditions. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate a possible link between EET formation and the presence of Staphylococcus aureus, an organism frequently colonizing the upper airways, at the human mucosal site of the disease. METHODS: Tissue slides were investigated for the presence of EETs and S aureus by using immunofluorescent staining and the PNA-Fish assay, respectively...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211900/amyloid-%C3%AE-oligomers-interact-with-neurexin-and-diminish-neurexin-mediated-excitatory-presynaptic-organization
#15
Yusuke Naito, Yuko Tanabe, Alfred Kihoon Lee, Edith Hamel, Hideto Takahashi
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by excessive production and deposition of amyloid-beta (Aβ) proteins as well as synapse dysfunction and loss. While soluble Aβ oligomers (AβOs) have deleterious effects on synapse function and reduce synapse number, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Here we screened synaptic organizer proteins for cell-surface interaction with AβOs and identified a novel interaction between neurexins (NRXs) and AβOs. AβOs bind to NRXs via the N-terminal histidine-rich domain (HRD) of β-NRX1/2/3 and alternatively-spliced inserts at splicing site 4 of NRX1/2...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140399/timing-of-light-exposure-affects-mood-and-brain-circuits
#16
REVIEW
T A Bedrosian, R J Nelson
Temporal organization of physiology is critical for human health. In the past, humans experienced predictable periods of daily light and dark driven by the solar day, which allowed for entrainment of intrinsic circadian rhythms to the environmental light-dark cycles. Since the adoption of electric light, however, pervasive exposure to nighttime lighting has blurred the boundaries of day and night, making it more difficult to synchronize biological processes. Many systems are under circadian control, including sleep-wake behavior, hormone secretion, cellular function and gene expression...
January 31, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129904/a-miniaturized-bismuth-based-sensor-to-evaluate-the-marine-organism-styela-plicata-bioremediation-capacity-toward-heavy-metal-polluted-seawater
#17
Noemi Colozza, Maria Flavia Gravina, Luca Amendola, Modesto Rosati, Djamal Eddine Akretche, Danila Moscone, Fabiana Arduini
Cadmium and lead are highly toxic heavy metals which cause a severe worldwide pollution. In addition to the toxic effect produced by the direct exposure, they can be bioconcentrated and accumulated in living organisms, including humans. Herein, a miniaturized and disposable electrochemical sensor was improved for the simultaneous detection of cadmium and lead ions to study the bioremediation of polluted seawater in presence of the filter-feeding marine organism Styela plicata. A screen-printed electrode modified in situ with a bismuth film was selected using the anodic stripping analysis as detection technique...
April 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122816/effectiveness-of-fipronil-as-a-systemic-control-agent-against-xenopsylla-cheopis-siphonaptera-pulicidae-in-madagascar
#18
D M Rajonhson, A Miarinjara, S Rahelinirina, M Rajerison, S Boyer
Fipronil was evaluated as a systemic control agent for the rat flea Xenopsylla cheopis (Rothschild), the main vector of Yersinia pestis (Yersin), the causative agent of plague, in Madagascar. The effectiveness of fipronil as a systemic control agent against X. cheopis was assessed by determining the toxicity values of the "Lethal Dose 50" (LD50). Two techniques were used to evaluate the systemic action of the insecticide on the vector: 1) an artificial feeding device filled with blood-fipronil mixture from which X...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113935/a-context-driven-extractive-framework-for-generating-realistic-image-descriptions
#19
Amara Tariq, Hassan Foroosh
Automatic image annotation methods are extremely beneficial for image search, retrieval and organization systems. The lack of strict correlation between semantic concepts and visual features, referred to as the semantic gap is a huge challenge for annotation systems. In this paper, we propose an image annotation model that incorporates contextual cues collected from sources both intrinsic and extrinsic to images, to bridge the semantic gap. The main focus of our work is a large real-world dataset of news images that we collected...
November 14, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113586/a-robust-approach-for-the-background-subtraction-based-on-multi-layered-self-organizing-maps
#20
Giorgio Gemignani, Alessandro Rozza
Motion detection in video streams is a challenging task for several computer vision applications. Indeed, segmentation of moving and static elements in the scene allows to increase the efficiency of several challenging tasks such as human computer interface (HCI), robot visions, and intelligent surveillance systems. In this paper, we approach motion detection through a multilayered artificial neural network, which is able to build for each background pixel a multi-modal color distribution evolving over time through self organization...
August 31, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
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