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Artificial human organs

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088485/semantic-attributes-are-encoded-in-human-electrocorticographic-signals-during-visual-object-recognition
#1
Kyle Rupp, Matthew Roos, Griffin Milsap, Carlos Caceres, Christopher Ratto, Mark Chevillet, Nathan E Crone, Michael Wolmetz
Non-invasive neuroimaging studies have shown that semantic category and attribute information are encoded in neural population activity. Electrocorticography (ECoG) offers several advantages over non-invasive approaches, but the degree to which semantic attribute information is encoded in ECoG responses is not known. We recorded ECoG while patients named objects from 12 semantic categories and then trained high-dimensional encoding models to map semantic attributes to spectral-temporal features of the task-related neural responses...
January 11, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054069/challenge-and-perspective-the-relevance-of-ultraviolet-uv-radiation-and-the-vitamin-d-endocrine-system-vdes-for-psoriasis-and-other-inflammatory-skin-diseases
#2
Jörg Reichrath, Roman Saternus, Thomas Vogt
During evolution, the ability of many organisms to synthesize vitamin D photochemically represented, and still represents, a major driving factor for the development of life on earth. In humans because not more than 10-20% of the requirement of vitamin D can be satisfied by the diet (under most living conditions in the US and Europe), the remaining 80-90% need to be photochemically synthesized in the skin through the action of solar or artificial ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation. The skin is a key organ of the human body's vitamin D endocrine system (VDES), representing both the site of vitamin D synthesis and a target tissue for biologically active vitamin D metabolites...
January 5, 2017: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043741/exposure-to-benzo-a-pyrene-impairs-decidualization-and-decidual-angiogenesis-in-mice-during-early-pregnancy
#3
Xueyan Li, Cha Shen, Xueqing Liu, Junlin He, Yubin Ding, Rufei Gao, Xinyi Mu, Yanqing Geng, Yingxiong Wang, Xuemei Chen
Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a ubiquitous environmental persistent organic pollutant and a well-known endocrine disruptor. BaP exposure could alter the steroid balance in females. Endometrium decidualization and decidual angiogenesis are critical events for embryo implantation and pregnancy maintenance during early pregnancy and are modulated by steroids. However, the effect of BaP on decidualization is not clear. This study aimed to explore the effects of BaP on decidualization and decidual angiogenesis in pregnant mice...
December 30, 2016: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040606/steinert-syndrome-and-repercussions-in-dental-medicine
#4
REVIEW
Helena Baptista, Inês Lopes Cardoso
Steinert syndrome, also called myotonic dystrophy type 1, is a genetic disorder with autosomal dominant transmission characterized by myotonia and a multisystemic clinical picture that affects several tissues of the human body. The most common systemic phenotypes are: muscular, cardiac, respiratory, CNS, ocular, gynecological, digestive, orthopedical, as well as cognitive and psychological symptoms (cognitive decline). Muscles involved in voluntary movement are highly affected by myotonia especially distal muscles of upper limbs...
December 23, 2016: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991967/evaluation-of-deciduous-broadleaf-forests-mountain-using-satellite-data-using-neural-network-method-near-caspian-sea-in-north-of-iran
#5
Seyed A Hashemi
During the recent decades, deciduous forests have been molested by human intervention. Easy access, abundance and diversity of valuable forest products have led to increased population density, creating new residential areas and deforestation activities. Revealing changes is one of the fundamental methods in management and assessment of natural resources. This study is evaluated changes in forests area of 2013 using satellite images. In order to mapping the forest extent condition 2013, images of the mentioned years were digitized and geo-referenced by using the ground control points and the maps of mapping organization...
October 2016: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989781/the-present-and-future-of-human-sexuality-impact-of-faulty-perinatal-hormonal-imprinting
#6
REVIEW
György Csaba
INTRODUCTION: Hormonal imprinting occurs perinatally, when the developing hormone receptors connect to their target hormones. This is required for the normal development of the receptor-hormone connection. At this time, the selectivity of receptors is weak and can be misdirected to related endogenous or exogenous molecules, such as other members of the same hormone family, synthetic hormones, drugs, hormone-like environmental pollutants, and endocrine disruptors. In this situation, faulty hormonal imprinting develops with lifelong consequences, which are manifested by altered receptor binding capacity, hormone production, changed bone formation, and brain neurotransmitter content...
December 15, 2016: Sexual Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987463/a-taxonomy-of-chemicals-of-emerging-concern-based-on-observed-fate-at-water-resource-recovery-facilities
#7
Steven M Jones, Zaid K Chowdhury, Michael J Watts
As reuse of municipal water resource recovery facility (WRRF) effluent becomes vital to augment diminishing fresh drinking water resources, concern exists that conventional barriers may prove deficient, and the upcycling of chemicals of emerging concern (CECs) could prove harmful to human health and aquatic species if more effective and robust treatment barriers are not in place. A multiple month survey, of both primary and secondary effluents, from three (3) WRRFs, for 95 CECs was conducted in 2014 to classify CECs by their persistence through conventional water reclamation processes...
March 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934259/impacts-of-large-scale-land-use-change-on-the-uptake-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-in-the-artificial-three-northern-regions-shelter-forest-across-northern-china
#8
Tao Huang, Xiaodong Zhang, Zaili Ling, Leiming Zhang, Hong Gao, Chongguo Tian, Jiujiu Guo, Yuan Zhao, Li Wang, Jianmin Ma
This study quantifies the influence of large-scale land-use change induced by the artificial Three-Northern Regions Shelter Forest (TNRSF) across northern China on the environmental cycling of organic chemicals. Atmospheric removal and long-term trends of two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) species, phenanthrene (PHE) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), resulting from increasing vegetation coverage and soil organic carbon in the TNRSF over the last two decades were examined. Field sampling data and modeling result showed that the total atmospheric removal of PHE by TNRSF increased from 36...
December 6, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916866/relationship-between-soft-drink-consumption-and-obesity-in-9-11-years-old-children-in-a-multi-national-study
#9
Peter T Katzmarzyk, Stephanie T Broyles, Catherine M Champagne, Jean-Philippe Chaput, Mikael Fogelholm, Gang Hu, Rebecca Kuriyan, Anura Kurpad, Estelle V Lambert, Jose Maia, Victor Matsudo, Timothy Olds, Vincent Onywera, Olga L Sarmiento, Martyn Standage, Mark S Tremblay, Catrine Tudor-Locke, Pei Zhao
The purpose of this study was to determine the association between regular (sugar containing) and diet (artificially sweetened) soft drink consumption and obesity in children from 12 countries ranging in levels of economic and human development. The sample included 6162 children aged 9-11 years. Information on soft drink consumption was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire. Percentage body fat (%BF) was estimated by bio-electrical impedance analysis, body mass index (BMI) z-scores were computed using World Health Organization reference data, and obesity was defined as a BMI > +2 standard deviations (SD)...
November 30, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913018/potential-impact-of-flowback-water-from-hydraulic-fracturing-on-agricultural-soil-quality-metal-metalloid-bioaccessibility-microtox-bioassay-and-enzyme-activities
#10
Season S Chen, Yuqing Sun, Daniel C W Tsang, Nigel J D Graham, Yong Sik Ok, Yujie Feng, Xiang-Dong Li
Hydraulic fracturing has advanced the development of shale gas extraction, while inadvertent spills of flowback water may pose a risk to the surrounding environment due to its high salt content, metals/metalloids (As, Se, Fe and Sr), and organic additives. This study investigated the potential impact of flowback water on four representative soils from shale gas regions in Northeast China using synthetic flowback solutions. The compositions of the solutions were representative of flowback water arising at different stages after fracturing well establishment...
February 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887864/optimization-of-cgmp-purification-and-expansion-of-umbilical-cord-blood-derived-t-regulatory-cells-in-support-of-first-in-human-clinical-trials
#11
David H McKenna, Darin Sumstad, Diane M Kadidlo, Bjorn Batdorf, Colin J Lord, Sarah C Merkel, Christine M Koellner, Julie M Curtsinger, Carl H June, James L Riley, Bruce L Levine, Jeffrey S Miller, Claudio G Brunstein, John E Wagner, Bruce R Blazar, Keli L Hippen
BACKGROUND AIMS: Thymic-derived regulatory T cells (tTreg) are critical regulators of the immune system. Adoptive tTreg transfer is a curative therapy for murine models of autoimmunity, graft rejection, and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). We previously completed a "first-in-human" clinical trial using in vitro expanded umbilical cord blood (UCB)-derived tTreg to prevent GVHD in patients undergoing UCB hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). tTreg were safe and demonstrated clinical efficacy, but low yield prevented further dose escalation...
February 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875647/what-pacemakers-can-teach-us-about-the-ethics-of-maintaining-artificial-organs
#12
Katrina Hutchison, Robert Sparrow
One day soon it may be possible to replace a failing heart, liver, or kidney with a long-lasting mechanical replacement or perhaps even with a 3-D printed version based on the patient's own tissue. Such artificial organs could make transplant waiting lists and immunosuppression a thing of the past. Supposing that this happens, what will the ongoing care of people with these implants involve? In particular, how will the need to maintain the functioning of artificial organs over an extended period affect patients and their doctors and the responsibilities of those who manufacture such devices? Drawing on lessons from the history of the cardiac pacemaker, this article offers an initial survey of the ethical issues posed by the need to maintain and service artificial organs...
November 2016: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875221/a-context-driven-extractive-framework-for-generating-realistic-image-descriptions
#13
Amara Tariq, Hassan Foroosh
Automatic image annotation methods are extremely beneficial for image search, retrieval and organization systems. The lack of strict correlation between semantic concepts and visual features, referred to as the semantic gap is a huge challenge for annotation systems. In this paper, we propose an image annotation model that incorporates contextual cues collected from sources both intrinsic and extrinsic to images, to bridge the semantic gap. The main focus of our work is a large real-world dataset of news images that we collected...
November 14, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834123/translational-applications-of-tissue-engineering-in-cardiovascular-medicine
#14
Y Murat Elçin, Arin Dogan, Eser Elçin
Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of worldwide deaths. Current paradigm in medicine seeks novel approaches for the treatment of progressive or end-stage diseases. The organ transplantation option is limited in availability and unfortunately, a great number of patients are lost while waiting for donor organs. Animal studies have shown that upon myocardial infarction, it may be possible to stop adverse remodeling in its tracks and reverse with tissue engineering methods. Regaining the myocardium function and avoiding further deterioration towards heart failure can benefit millions of people with a significantly lesser burden on healthcare systems worldwide...
November 11, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830946/seven-day-human-biological-rhythms-an-expedition-in-search-of-their-origin-synchronization-functional-advantage-adaptive-value-and-clinical-relevance
#15
Alain E Reinberg, Laurence Dejardin, Michael H Smolensky, Yvan Touitou
This fact-finding expedition explores the perspectives and knowledge of the origin and functional relevance of the 7 d domain of the biological time structure, with special reference to human beings. These biological rhythms are displayed at various levels of organization in diverse species - from the unicellular sea algae of Acetabularia and Goniaulax to plants, insects, fish, birds and mammals, including man - under natural as well as artificial, i.e. constant, environmental conditions. Nonetheless, very little is known about their derivation, functional advantage, adaptive value, synchronization and potential clinical relevance...
November 10, 2016: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822543/the-oral-and-skin-microbiomes-of-captive-komodo-dragons-are-significantly-shared-with-their-habitat
#16
Embriette R Hyde, Jose A Navas-Molina, Se Jin Song, Jordan G Kueneman, Gail Ackermann, Cesar Cardona, Gregory Humphrey, Don Boyer, Tom Weaver, Joseph R Mendelson, Valerie J McKenzie, Jack A Gilbert, Rob Knight
Examining the way in which animals, including those in captivity, interact with their environment is extremely important for studying ecological processes and developing sophisticated animal husbandry. Here we use the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) to quantify the degree of sharing of salivary, skin, and fecal microbiota with their environment in captivity. Both species richness and microbial community composition of most surfaces in the Komodo dragon's environment are similar to the Komodo dragon's salivary and skin microbiota but less similar to the stool-associated microbiota...
July 2016: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822379/removal-of-micropollutants-through-a-biological-wastewater-treatment-plant-in-a-subtropical-climate-queensland-australia
#17
Miguel Antonio Reyes Cardenas, Imtiaj Ali, Foon Yin Lai, Les Dawes, Ricarda Thier, Jay Rajapakse
BACKGROUND: Municipal wastewaters contain a multitude of organic compounds derived from domestic and industrial sources including active components of pharmaceutical and personal care products and compounds used in agriculture, such as pesticides, or food processing such as artificial sweeteners often referred to as micropollutants. Some of these compounds or their degradation products may have detrimental effects on the environment, wildlife and humans. Acesuflame is one of the most popular artificial sweeteners to date used in foodstuffs...
2016: Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821862/manipulation-of-zebrafish-s-orientation-using-artificial-cilia-in-a-microchannel-with-actively-adaptive-wall-design
#18
Karthick Mani, Tsung-Chun Chang Chien, Bivas Panigrahi, Chia-Yuan Chen
The zebrafish is a powerful genetic model organism especially in the biomedical chapter for new drug discovery and development. The genetic toolbox which this vertebrate possesses opens a new window to investigate the etiology of human diseases with a high degree genetic similarity. Still, the requirements of laborious and time-consuming of contemporary zebrafish processing assays limit the procedure in carrying out such genetic screen at high throughput. Here, a zebrafish control scheme was initiated which includes the design and validation of a microfluidic platform to significantly increase the throughput and performance of zebrafish larvae manipulation using the concept of artificial cilia actuation...
November 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818910/biologically-inspired-smart-release-system-based-on-3d-bioprinted-perfused-scaffold-for-vascularized-tissue-regeneration
#19
Haitao Cui, Wei Zhu, Benjamin Holmes, Lijie Grace Zhang
A critical challenge to the development of large-scale artificial tissue grafts for defect reconstruction is vascularization of the tissue construct. As an emerging tissue/organ manufacturing technique, 3D bioprinting offers great precision in controlling the internal architecture of a scaffold with preferable mechanical strength and printing complicated microstructures comparable to native tissue. However, current bioprinting techniques still exhibit difficulty in achieving biomimetic nano resolution and cooperating with bioactive spatiotemporal signals...
August 2016: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809342/effect-of-sonic-and-ultrasonic-activation-on-organic-tissue-dissolution-from-simulated-grooves-in-root-canals-using-sodium-hypochlorite-and-edta
#20
A J Conde, R Estevez, G Loroño, Ó Valencia de Pablo, G Rossi-Fedele, R Cisneros
AIM: To compare soft-tissue dissolution by sodium hypochlorite, with an EDTA intermediate rinse, with or without activation with passive ultrasonic activation (PUI) or sonic activation using the Endoactivator (EA) or Eddy tips (ED). METHODOLOGY: The root canals of eighty-three human maxillary central incisors were chemo-mechanically prepared and the teeth split. A standardized longitudinal intracanal groove was created in one of the root halves. Eighty-three porcine palatal mucosa samples were collected, adapted to fit into the grooves and weighed...
November 3, 2016: International Endodontic Journal
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