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Artificial human organs

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433878/effect-of-freshwater-sediment-characteristics-on-the-persistence-of-fecal-indicator-bacteria-and-genetic-markers-within-a-southern-california-watershed
#1
Amity G Zimmer-Faust, Vanessa Thulsiraj, Catalina Marambio-Jones, Yiping Cao, John F Griffith, Patricia A Holden, Jennifer A Jay
In this study, the aging of culturable FIB and DNA representing genetic markers for Enterococcus spp. (ENT1A), general Bacteroides (GB3), and human-associated Bacteroides (HF183) in freshwater sediments was evaluated. Freshwater sediment was collected from four different sites within the upper and lower reach of the Topanga Creek Watershed and two additional comparator sites within the Santa Monica Bay, for a total of six sites. Untreated (ambient) and oven-dried (reduced microbiota) sediment was inoculated with 5% sewage and artificial freshwater...
April 18, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416316/effect-of-passive-ultrasonic-activation-on-organic-tissue-dissolution-from-simulated-grooves-in-root-canals-using-sodium-hypochlorite-with-or-without-surfactants-and-edta
#2
Roberto Estevez, Antonio J Conde, Oliver Valencia de Pablo, Francisco de la Torre, Giampiero Rossi-Fedele, Rafael Cisneros
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate the porcine palatal mucosa dissolution from artificial grooves using a final rinse with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) with or without a surfactant or ultrasonic activation (PUI). METHODS: The root canals of 130 human maxillary central incisors were chemomechanically prepared and the teeth split. A standardized longitudinal intracanal groove was created in 1 of the root halves. One hundred thirty porcine palatal mucosa samples were collected, adapted in order to fit into the grooves, and weighed...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412386/characterization-of-rodent-constitutively-active-estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-variants-and-their-constitutive-transactivation-mechanisms
#3
Hirotaka Ishii, Yujiro Hattori, Arisa Munetomo, Hiroshi Watanabe, Yasuo Sakuma, Hitoshi Ozawa
Estrogen receptor α (ERα) mRNAs exhibit remarkable heterogeneity owing to complicated alternative splicing. Some encode C-terminally-truncated ERα proteins, which display ligand-independent transactivation or dominant-negative activity. We previously characterized C-terminally-truncated ERα mRNA variants with cryptic sequences in humans and mice, and demonstrated that helices in the ligand-binding domains (LBDs) of ERα variants contribute to ligand-independent transcriptional activity. However, existence of non-conventional coding exons and generation of constitutively active ERα variants have remained to be examined in rats...
April 13, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411451/anisotropic-tough-double-network-hydrogel-from-fish-collagen-and-its-spontaneous-in%C3%A2-vivo-bonding-to-bone
#4
Md Tariful Islam Mredha, Nobuto Kitamura, Takayuki Nonoyama, Susumu Wada, Keiko Goto, Xi Zhang, Tasuku Nakajima, Takayuki Kurokawa, Yasuaki Takagi, Kazunori Yasuda, Jian Ping Gong
Soft supporting tissues in the human body, such as cartilages and ligaments, are tough materials and firmly fixed to bones. These soft tissues, once injured, cannot regenerate spontaneously in vivo. Developing tough and biocompatible hydrogels as artificial soft supporting tissues would substantially improve outcomes after soft tissue injury. Collagen is the main rigid component in soft connective tissues which is organized in various hierarchical arrays. We have successfully developed a novel class of collagen fibril-based tough hydrogels based on the double network (DN) concept using swim bladder collagen (SBC) extracted from Bester sturgeon fish...
July 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402148/should-modulation-of-p50-be-a-therapeutic-target-in-the-critically-ill
#5
Amudan J Srinivasan, Clare Morkane, Daniel S Martin, Ian J Welsby
A defining feature of human hemoglobin is its oxygen binding affinity, quantified by the partial pressure of oxygen at which hemoglobin is 50% saturated (p50), and the variability of this parameter over a range of physiological and environmental states. Modulation of this property of hemoglobin can directly affect the degree of peripheral oxygen offloading and tissue oxygenation. Areas covered: This review summarizes the role of hemoglobin oxygen affinity in normal and abnormal physiology and discusses the current state of the literature regarding artificial modulation of p50...
April 12, 2017: Expert Review of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388499/microfluidic-enhanced-3d-bioprinting-of-aligned-myoblast-laden-hydrogels-leads-to-functionally-organized-myofibers-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo
#6
Marco Costantini, Stefano Testa, Pamela Mozetic, Andrea Barbetta, Claudia Fuoco, Ersilia Fornetti, Francesco Tamiro, Sergio Bernardini, Jakub Jaroszewicz, Wojciech Święszkowski, Marcella Trombetta, Luisa Castagnoli, Dror Seliktar, Piotr Garstecki, Gianni Cesareni, Stefano Cannata, Alberto Rainer, Cesare Gargioli
We present a new strategy for the fabrication of artificial skeletal muscle tissue with functional morphologies based on an innovative 3D bioprinting approach. The methodology is based on a microfluidic printing head coupled to a co-axial needle extruder for high-resolution 3D bioprinting of hydrogel fibers laden with muscle precursor cells (C2C12). To promote myogenic differentiation, we formulated a tailored bioink with a photocurable semi-synthetic biopolymer (PEG-Fibrinogen) encapsulating cells into 3D constructs composed of aligned hydrogel fibers...
March 23, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373615/the-co-existence-of-technology-and-caring-in-the-theory-of-technological-competency-as-caring-in-nursing
#7
Rozzano C Locsin
The coexistence of technology and caring is best exemplified in nursing. The theory of Technological Competency as Caring in Nursing illuminates this coexistence as the essence of technology in health care premised on machine technologies as a generic concept of objects or things that are mechanical, organic, and electronic. With its timely development these technologies are continually imbued with artificial general intelligence. As such, the ultimate expression of machine technologies in nursing turns out to be autonomous robots (ARs) with future potentials of functions comparable to human persons...
2017: Journal of Medical Investigation: JMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371771/ecg-based-classification-of-resuscitation-cardiac-rhythms-for-retrospective-data-analysis
#8
Ali Bahrami Rad, Trygve Eftestol, Kjersti Engan, Unai Irusta, Jan Terje Kvaloy, Jo Kramer-Johansen, Lars Wik, Aggelos K Katsaggelos
There is a need to monitor the heart rhythm in resuscitation to improve treatment quality. Resuscitation rhythms are categorized into: ventricular tachycardia (VT), ventricular fibrillation (VF), pulseless electrical activity (PEA), asystole (AS), and pulse-generating rhythm (PR). Manual annotation of rhythms is time-consuming and infeasible for large datasets. Our objective was to develop ECG-based algorithms for the retrospective and automatic classification of resuscitation cardiac rhythms. METHODS: The dataset consisted of 1631 3- second ECG segments with clinical rhythm annotations, obtained from 298 out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients...
March 30, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361319/making-a-kidney-organoid-using-the-directed-differentiation-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#9
Minoru Takasato, Melissa H Little
An organoid can be defined as a three-dimensional organ-like structure formed from organ-specific progenitor cells. Organ progenitor cells were empirically found to self-organize three-dimensional tissues when they were aggregated and cultivated in vitro. While this nature power of progenitor cells has an amazing potential to recreate artificial organs in vitro, there had been difficulty to apply this technology to human organs due to the inaccessibility to human progenitor cells until human-induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) was invented by Takahashi and Yamanaka in 2007...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341771/small-chromosomal-regions-position-themselves-autonomously-according-to-their-chromatin-class
#10
Harmen Jan George van de Werken, Josien C de Haan, Yana Feodorova, Dominika Bijos, An Weuts, Koen Theunis, Sjoerd Holwerda, Wouter Meuleman, Ludo Pagie, Katharina Thanisch, Parveen Kumar, Heinrich Leonhardt, Peter Marynen, Bas van Steesel, Thierry Voet, Wouter de Laat, Irina Solovei, Boris Joffe
The spatial arrangement of chromatin is linked to the regulation of nuclear processes. One striking aspect of nuclear organization is the spatial segregation of heterochromatic and euchromatic domains. The mechanisms of this chromatin segregation are still poorly understood. In this work we investigated the link between the primary genomic sequence and chromatin domains. We analyzed the spatial intranuclear arrangement of a human artificial chromosome (HAC) in a xenospecific mouse background in comparison to an orthologous region of native mouse chromosome...
March 24, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333343/centromere-destiny-in-dicentric-chromosomes-new-insights-from-the-evolution-of-human-chromosome-2-ancestral-centromeric-region
#11
Giorgia Chiatante, Giuliana Giannuzzi, Francesco Maria Calabrese, Evan E Eichler, Mario Ventura
Dicentric chromosomes are products of genomic rearrangements that place two centromeres on the same chromosome. Due to the presence of two primary constrictions, they are inherently unstable and overcome their instability by epigenetically inactivating and/or deleting one of the two centromeres, thus resulting in functionally monocentric chromosomes that segregate normally during cell division. Our understanding to date of dicentric chromosome formation, behavior and fate has been largely inferred from observational studies in plants and humans as well as artificially produced de novo dicentrics in yeast and in human cells...
March 15, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332822/screening-of-wolbachia-endosymbiont-infection-in-aedes-aegypti-mosquitoes-using-attenuated-total-reflection-mid-infrared-spectroscopy
#12
Aazam Khoshmanesh, Dale Christensen, David Perez-Guaita, Iñaki Iturbe-Ormaetxe, Scott L O'Neill, Don McNaughton, Bayden R Wood
Dengue fever is the most common mosquito transmitted viral infection afflicting humans, estimated to generate around 390 million infections each year in over 100 countries. The introduction of the endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia into Aedes aegypti mosquitoes has the potential to greatly reduce the public health burden of the disease. This approach requires extensive PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) testing of the Wolbachia-infection status of mosquitoes in areas where Wolbachia-A. aegypti are released. Here we report the first example of small organism mid-infrared spectroscopy where we have applied Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and multivariate modelling methods to determine sex, age and the presence of Wolbachia (wMel strain) in laboratory mosquitoes and sex and age in field mosquitoes...
March 23, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326171/large-scale-isolation-and-cytotoxicity-of-extracellular-vesicles-derived-from-activated-human-natural-killer-cells
#13
Ambrose Y Jong, Chun-Hua Wu, Jingbo Li, Jianping Sun, Muller Fabbri, Alan S Wayne, Robert C Seeger
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been the focus of great interest, as they appear to be involved in numerous important cellular processes. They deliver bioactive macromolecules such as proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids, allowing intercellular communication in multicellular organisms. EVs are secreted by all cell types, including immune cells such as natural killer cells (NK), and they may play important roles in the immune system. Currently, a large-scale procedure to obtain functional NK EVs is lacking, limiting their use clinically...
2017: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281283/artificial-organs-2016-a-year-in-review
#14
REVIEW
Angela T Hadsell, Paul S Malchesky
In this Editor's Review, articles published in 2016 are organized by category and briefly summarized. We aim to provide a brief reflection of the currently available worldwide knowledge that is intended to advance and better human life while providing insight for continued application of technologies and methods of organ Replacement, Recovery, and Regeneration. As the official journal of The International Federation for Artificial Organs, The International Faculty for Artificial Organs, the International Society for Mechanical Circulatory Support, the International Society for Pediatric Mechanical Cardiopulmonary Support, and the Vienna International Workshop on Functional Electrical Stimulation, Artificial Organs continues in the original mission of its founders "to foster communications in the field of artificial organs on an international level...
March 2017: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273622/mercury-critical-concentrations-to-enchytraeus-crypticus-annelida-oligochaeta-under-normal-and-extreme-conditions-of-moisture-in-tropical-soils-reproduction-and-survival
#15
Andressa Cristhy Buch, Rüdiger M Schmelz, Cintia Carla Niva, Maria Elizabeth Fernandes Correia, Emmanoel Vieira Silva-Filho
Soil provides many ecosystem services that are essential to maintain its quality and healthy development of the flora, fauna and human well-being. Environmental mercury levels may harm the survival and diversity of the soil fauna. In this respect, efforts have been made to establish limit values of mercury (Hg) in soils to terrestrial fauna. Soil organisms such as earthworms and enchytraeids have intimate contact with trace metals in soil by their oral and dermal routes, reflecting the potentially adverse effects of this contaminant...
May 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252135/t-cell-immunoengineering-with-advanced-biomaterials
#16
Derfogail Delcassian, Susanne Sattler, Iain E Dunlop
Recent advances in biomaterials design offer the potential to actively control immune cell activation and behaviour. Many human diseases, such as infections, cancer, and autoimmune disorders, are partly mediated by inappropriate or insufficient activation of the immune system. T cells play a central role in the host immune response to these diseases, and so constitute a promising cell type for manipulation. In vivo, T cells are stimulated by antigen presenting cells (APC), therefore to design immunoengineering biomaterials that control T cell behaviour, artificial interfaces that mimic the natural APC-T cell interaction are required...
March 1, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249010/tfap2-paralogs-regulate-melanocyte-differentiation-in-parallel-with-mitf
#17
Hannah E Seberg, Eric Van Otterloo, Stacie K Loftus, Huan Liu, Greg Bonde, Ramakrishna Sompallae, Derek E Gildea, Juan F Santana, J Robert Manak, William J Pavan, Trevor Williams, Robert A Cornell
Mutations in the gene encoding transcription factor TFAP2A result in pigmentation anomalies in model organisms and premature hair graying in humans. However, the pleiotropic functions of TFAP2A and its redundantly-acting paralogs have made the precise contribution of TFAP2-type activity to melanocyte differentiation unclear. Defining this contribution may help to explain why TFAP2A expression is reduced in advanced-stage melanoma compared to benign nevi. To identify genes with TFAP2A-dependent expression in melanocytes, we profile zebrafish tissue and mouse melanocytes deficient in Tfap2a, and find that expression of a small subset of genes underlying pigmentation phenotypes is TFAP2A-dependent, including Dct, Mc1r, Mlph, and Pmel...
March 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248996/evaluation-of-stiffness-feedback-for-hard-nodule-identification-on-a-phantom-silicone-model
#18
Min Li, Jelizaveta Konstantinova, Guanghua Xu, Bo He, Vahid Aminzadeh, Jun Xie, Helge Wurdemann, Kaspar Althoefer
Haptic information in robotic surgery can significantly improve clinical outcomes and help detect hard soft-tissue inclusions that indicate potential abnormalities. Visual representation of tissue stiffness information is a cost-effective technique. Meanwhile, direct force feedback, although considerably more expensive than visual representation, is an intuitive method of conveying information regarding tissue stiffness to surgeons. In this study, real-time visual stiffness feedback by sliding indentation palpation is proposed, validated, and compared with force feedback involving human subjects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248570/the-diacetyl-exposed-human-airway-epithelial-secretome-new-insights-into-flavoring-induced-airways-disease
#19
David M Brass, William M Gwinn, Ashlee M Valente, Francine L Kelly, Christie D Brinkley, Andrew E Nagler, M Arthur Moseley, Daniel L Morgan, Scott M Palmer, Matthew W Foster
Bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) is an increasingly important lung disease characterized by fibroproliferative airway lesions and decrements in lung function. Occupational exposure to the artificial food flavoring ingredient diacetyl, commonly used to impart a buttery flavor to microwave popcorn, has been associated with BO development. In the occupational setting, diacetyl vapor is first encountered by the airway epithelium. To better understand the effects of diacetyl vapor on the airway epithelium we used an unbiased proteomic approach to characterize both the apical and basolateral secretomes of air liquid interface cultures of primary human airway epithelial cells from four unique donors after exposure to an occupationally relevant ~1100 ppm of diacetyl vapor or PBS as a control on alternating days...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243228/plasmid-replicons-from-pseudomonas-are-natural-chimeras-of-functional-exchangeable-modules
#20
Leire Bardaji, Maite Añorga, José A Ruiz-Masó, Gloria Del Solar, Jesús Murillo
Plasmids are a main factor for the evolution of bacteria through horizontal gene exchange, including the dissemination of pathogenicity genes, resistance to antibiotics and degradation of pollutants. Their capacity to duplicate is dependent on their replication determinants (replicon), which also define their bacterial host range and the inability to coexist with related replicons. We characterize a second replicon from the virulence plasmid pPsv48C, from Pseudomonas syringae pv. savastanoi, which appears to be a natural chimera between the gene encoding a newly described replication protein and a putative replication control region present in the widespread family of PFP virulence plasmids...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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