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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656530/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-after-solid-organ-transplantation-a-review-of-more-than-2000-cases
#1
Cybele Lara R Abad, Raymund R Razonable
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) is a common pathogen worldwide, and it may cause significant infection after solid organ transplantation (SOT). We reviewed all reported TB cases to provide an update on its epidemiology, clinical presentation, management and outcome after SOT. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and OVID were reviewed from January 1, 1998 to Dec 31, 2016 using key words tuberculosis and solid organ transplant or transplantation. RESULTS: There were 187 publications reporting 2082 cases of TB among kidney (n=1719), liver (n=253), heart (n=77), lung (n=25), and kidney-pancreas (n=8) recipients...
April 15, 2018: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652661/combined-brain-and-heart-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-systemic-vasculitides-fiction-or-real-need
#2
REVIEW
Sophie I Mavrogeni, George Kitas, Hildo J Lamb, Klearchos Psychoyios, Theodoros Dimitroulas, Loukia Koutsogeorgopoulou, Kyriaki Boki, Vasiliki Vartela, Genovefa Kolovou, George Markousis-Mavrogenis, Cees G Kallenberg, Loic Guillevin, Dimitrios Vassilopoulos
Systemic vasculitides (SVs) is a group of diseases characterised by inflammation/necrosis of the blood vessel wall in various organs. Simultaneous brain and heart involvement is a cause of increased morbidity/mortality in SV. We aimed to present evidence of concurrent brain/heart involvement in SV and the role of a combined brain/heart magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in their risk stratification. Cerebral vasculitis (CV) can be presented as focal deficits, seizures, headache, neuropsychiatric manifestations or cognitive dysfunction and cardiovascular disease (CVD) as myocardial/vascular inflammation, perfusion/function defects and fibrosis...
April 10, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619223/respiratory-exacerbation-in-a-young-adult-with-cystic-fibrosis-and-tricuspid-atresia
#3
Jamie Wood, Abbey Sawyer, Siobhain Mulrennan, Andrew Bullock
Tricuspid atresia (TAt) is a complex congenital heart defect (CHD) characterized by the absence of the tricuspid valve and right ventricular hypoplasia requiring surgery in childhood, the Fontan procedure. We present a case of a 21-year-old male with TAt and cystic fibrosis (CF), who underwent a Fontan procedure in childhood, presenting to an adult CF clinic with severe deterioration in his respiratory status and multi-organ dysfunction associated with CF. This report describes problems associated with the management of a CF respiratory exacerbation and extrapulmonary manifestations of CF in the unique situation of a Fontan circulation, a circulation with absence of a subpulmonary ventricle and pulsatile pulmonary arterial blood flow where maintenance of systemic cardiac output is totally dependent on good respiratory function and low pulmonary artery pressures...
July 2018: Respirology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29613958/the-impact-of-age-on-the-innate-immune-response-and-outcomes-after-severe-sepsis-septic-shock-in-trauma-and-surgical-intensive-care-unit-patients
#4
Scott C Brakenridge, Philip A Efron, Julie A Stortz, Teczan Ozrazgat-Baslanti, Gabriela Ghita, Zhongkai Wang, Azra Bihorac, Alicia M Mohr, Babette A Brumback, Lyle L Moldawer, Frederick A Moore
INTRODUCTION: Advancing age is a strong risk factor for adverse outcomes across multiple disease processes. However, septic surgical and trauma patients are unique in they incur two or more inflammatory insults. The effects of advanced age on sepsis pathophysiology and outcomes remain unclear. METHODS: We performed a single center, prospective observational cohort study of Surgical ICU patients with severe sepsis/septic shock. Peripheral blood was collected for genomic, cytokine and biomarker analysis at 0...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609280/-advances-in-the-research-of-relationship-between-brown-or-beige-fat-and-hypermetabolism-after-severe-burn
#5
M Zhang, Y Liu, X Zhang
Hypermetabolism is one of the remarkable characteristics of burn injury. Prolonged hypermetabolism causes insufficient energy supply, which leads to delayed wound healing, immune system dysfunction, increased infection rate, and multi-organ failure. In recent years, it is concerned that the activation of brown or beige adipose tissue may be related to hypermetabolism in severe burn patients. Brown or beige adipose tissue could be regulated by stress hormones and some cytokines which increase and persist in high level for several months after severe burn...
March 20, 2018: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599080/exosomes-from-endothelial-progenitor-cells-improve-the-outcome-of-a-murine-model-of-sepsis
#6
Yue Zhou, Pengfei Li, Andrew J Goodwin, James A Cook, Perry V Halushka, Eugene Chang, Hongkuan Fan
Microvascular dysfunction leads to multi-organ failure and mortality in sepsis. Our previous studies demonstrated that administration of exogenous endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) confers protection in sepsis as evidenced by reduced vascular leakage, improved organ function, and increased survival. We hypothesize that EPCs protect the microvasculature through the exosomes-mediated transfer of microRNAs (miRNAs). Mice were rendered septic by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), and EPC exosomes were administered intravenously at 4 hr after CLP...
February 27, 2018: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596409/distinct-inflammatory-profile-underlies-pathological-increases-in-creatinine-levels-associated-with-plasmodium-vivax-malaria-clinical-severity
#7
Luís A B Cruz, Manoel Barral-Netto, Bruno B Andrade
BACKGROUND: Although Plasmodium vivax infection is a frequent cause of malaria worldwide, severe presentations have been more regularly described only in recent years. In this setting, despite clinical descriptions of multi-organ involvement, data associating it with kidney dysfunction are relatively scarce. Here, renal dysfunction is retrospectively analyzed in a large cohort of vivax malaria patients with an attempt to dissect its association with disease severity and mortality, and to determine the role of inflammation in its progression...
March 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579546/role-of-selective-blocking-of-bradykinin-b1-receptor-in-attenuating-immune-liver-injury-in-trichloroethylene-sensitized-mice
#8
Jiaxiang Zhang, Na Li, Ling Yang, Dandan Zang, Peng Yang, Hui Wang, Tong Shen, Qi-Xing Zhu
Trichloroethylene (TCE) is able to induce trichloroethylene hypersensitivity syndrome (THS) with multi-system immune injuries. In our previous study, we found kallikrein-kinin system (KKS) activation, including the bradykinin B1 receptor (B1R), which contributed to immune organ injury in TCE sensitized mice. However, the mechanism of B1R mediating immune dysfunction is not clarified. The present study initiates to investigate the potential mechanism of B1R on liver injury. We establish a TCE sensitized BALB/c mouse model to explore the mechanism with or without a B1R inhibitor R715...
March 23, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571116/the-critically-ill-patient-with-tuberculosis-in-intensive-care-clinical-presentations-management-and-infection-control
#9
REVIEW
Akaninyene Otu, Madiha Hashmi, Ahmed M Mukhtar, Arthur Kwizera, Simon Tiberi, Bruce Macrae, Alimudin Zumla, Martin W Dünser, Mervyn Mer
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the top ten causes of death worldwide. In 2016, there were 490,000 cases of multi-drug resistant TB globally. Over 2 billion people have asymptomatic latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. TB represents an important, but neglected management issue in patients presenting to intensive care units. Tuberculosis in intensive care settings may present as the primary diagnosis (active drug sensitive or resistant TB disease). In other patients TB may be an incidental co-morbid finding as previously undiagnosed sub-clinical or latent TB which may re-activate under conditions of stress and immunosuppression...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553143/zebrafish-as-models-to-study-ciliopathies-of-the-eye-and-kidney
#10
Yi Shi, Yanhui Su, Joshua H Lipschutz, Glenn P Lobo
Cilia are highly-conserved organelles projecting from the cell surface of nearly every cell type in vertebrates. Ciliary proteins have essential functions in human physiology, particularly in signaling and organ development. As cilia are a component of almost all vertebrate cells, cilia dysfunction can manifest as a constellation of features that characteristically include, retinal degeneration, renal disease and cerebral anomalies. The terminology "Ciliopathies" refers to inherited human disorders caused by genetic mutations in ciliary genes, leading to cilia dysfunctions that form an important and ever expanding multi-organ disease spectrum...
December 2017: Clinical nephrology and research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549040/lamins-and-lamin-associated-proteins-in-gastrointestinal-health-and-disease
#11
REVIEW
Graham F Brady, Raymond Kwan, Juliana Bragazzi Cunha, Jared S Elenbaas, M Bishr Omary
The nuclear lamina is a multi-protein lattice composed of A- and B-type lamins and their associated proteins. This protein lattice associates with heterochromatin and integral inner nuclear membrane proteins, providing a link between the genome, nucleoskeleton, and cytoskeleton. In the 1990s, mutations in EMD and LMNA were linked to Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy. Since then, the number of diseases attributed to nuclear lamina defects, including laminopathies and other disorders, has increased to include more than 20 distinct genetic syndromes...
March 13, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544682/intermittent-hypoxia-suppression-of-growth-hormone-and-insulin-like-growth-factor-i-in-the-neonatal-rat-liver
#12
Charles Cai, Taimur Ahmad, Gloria B Valencia, Jacob V Aranda, Jiliu Xu, Kay D Beharry
OBJECTIVES: Extremely low gestational age neonates with chronic lung disease requiring oxygen therapy frequently experience fluctuations in arterial oxygen saturation or intermittent hypoxia (IH). These infants are at risk for multi-organ developmental delay, reduced growth, and short stature. The growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-1) system, an important hormonal regulator of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, promotes neonatal growth and development. We tested the hypothesis that increasing episodes of IH delay neonatal growth by influencing the GH/IGF-I axis...
March 8, 2018: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534263/-ciliopathies
#13
Christina Gerth-Kahlert, Samuel Koller
Ciliopathies are disorders caused by ciliary dysfunction and can affect an organ system or tissues. Isolated or syndromic retinal dystrophies are the most common ocular manifestation of ciliopathies. The photoreceptor connecting cilium plays a leading role in these ciliopathy-related retinal dystrophies. Dysfunctional photoreceptor cilia cause the most severe type of retinal dystrophy: Leber's congenital amaurosis (LCA). The most common syndromic ciliopathies with an ocular manifestation are Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) and Usher syndrome...
March 2018: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531659/light-chain-amyloidosis
#14
REVIEW
Paolo Milani, Giampaolo Merlini, Giovanni Palladini
Light chain (AL) amyloidosis is caused by a usually small plasma-cell clone that is able to produce the amyloidogenic light chains. They are able to misfold and aggregate, deposit in tissues in the form of amyloid fibrils and lead to irreversible organ dysfunction and eventually death if treatment is late or ineffective. Cardiac damage is the most important prognostic determinant. The risk of dialysis is predicted by the severity of renal involvement, defined by the baseline proteinuria and glomerular filtration rate, and by the response to therapy...
2018: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527328/targeting-il-2-an-unexpected-effect-in-treating-immunological-diseases
#15
Congxiu Ye, David Brand, Song G Zheng
Regulatory T cells (Treg) play a crucial role in maintaining immune homeostasis since Treg dysfunction in both animals and humans is associated with multi-organ autoimmune and inflammatory disease. While IL-2 is generally considered to promote T-cell proliferation and enhance effector T-cell function, recent studies have demonstrated that treatments that utilize low-dose IL-2 unexpectedly induce immune tolerance and promote Treg development resulting in the suppression of unwanted immune responses and eventually leading to treatment of some autoimmune disorders...
2018: Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521220/kidney-on-a-chip-a-new-technology-for-predicting-drug-efficacy-interactions-and-drug-induced-nephrotoxicity
#16
Jeonghwan Lee, Sejoong Kim
The kidneys play a pivotal role in most drug-removal processes and are important when evaluating drug safety. Kidney dysfunction resulting from various drugs is an important issue in clinical practice and during the drug development process. Traditional in vivo animal experiments are limited with respect to evaluating drug efficacy and nephrotoxicity due to discrepancies in drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics between humans and animals, and static cell culture experiments cannot fully reflect the actual microphysiological environment in humans...
March 8, 2018: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29519245/molecular-mechanisms-underlying-therapeutic-potential-of-pericytes
#17
REVIEW
C Randall Harrell, Bojana Simovic Markovic, Crissy Fellabaum, Aleksandar Arsenijevic, Valentin Djonov, Vladislav Volarevic
BACKGROUND: Pericytes are multipotent cells present in every vascularized tissue in the body. Despite the fact that they are well-known for more than a century, pericytes are still representing cells with intriguing properties. This is mainly because of their heterogeneity in terms of definition, tissue distribution, origin, phenotype and multi-functional properties. The body of knowledge illustrates importance of pericytes in the regulation of homeostatic and healing processes in the body...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510896/the-prevalence-of-major-drug-drug-interactions-in-older-adults-with-cancer-and-the-role-of-clinical-decision-support-software
#18
Ginah Nightingale, Laura T Pizzi, Ashley Barlow, Brooke Barlow, Timothy Jacisin, Matthew McGuire, Kristine Swartz, Andrew Chapman
OBJECTIVES: Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) represent an escalating concern for older adults attributed to polypharmacy, multi-morbidity and organ dysfunction. Few studies have evaluated the prevalence of major DDIs and the variability between DDI detection software which confuses management. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prevalence of major DDIs was examined as a secondary analysis of outpatients aged ≥65 years. Demographic and clinical information was collected from electronic health records including age, sex, race, cancer type, comorbidities, and medications...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Geriatric Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508673/driving-for-successful-change-processes-in-healthcare-by-putting-staff-at-the-wheel
#19
Gudbjörg Erlingsdottir, Anders Ersson, Jonas Borell, Christofer Rydenfält
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe five salient factors that emerge in two successful change processes in healthcare. Organizational changes in healthcare are often characterized by problems and solutions that have been formulated by higher levels of management. This top-down management approach has not been well received by the professional community. As a result, improvement processes are frequently abandoned, resulting in disrupted and dysfunctional organizations. This paper presents two successful change processes where managerial leadership was used to coach the change processes by distributing mandates and resources...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Health Organization and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29477026/a-case-series-of-closed-head-trauma-with-pituitary-stalk-disruption-resulting-in-hypopituitarism
#20
Khuram Khan, Saqib Saeed, Alexius Ramcharan, Sanjiv Gray
INTRODUCTION: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in young trauma patients with resultant multi-organ effects. Hypopituitarism following TBI can be debilitating and life threatening. TBI which causes hypopituitarism may be characterized by a single head injury, such as from a motor vehicle accident, or by chronic repetitive head trauma, as seen in combative supports including boxing, kick-boxing, and football. In the majority of cases, a diagnosis of hypopituitarism can be entirely missed resulting in severe neuro-endocrine dysfunction...
2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
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