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Maria Oliveira, James Fraser McConnell, Thomas W Maddox, Daniel Sanchez-Masian, Rita Gonçalves
The constructive interference in steady state (CISS) sequence has been widely used in human neuroimaging. It has been shown to be advantageous in the evaluation of intra-axial and extra-axial cystic abnormalities, arteriovenous and dysraphic malformations and disturbances of cerebrospinal fluid circulation. To assess the utility of this technique in small animals, interpretations based on this sequence were compared with those based on T2-weighted (T2W) sequences in 145 dogs that underwent MRI of the spine for suspected spinal cord disease...
March 14, 2018: Veterinary Record
Rimal H Dossani, Devi P Patra, Hai Sun, Anil Nanda, Hugo Cuellar
Spinal arachnoiditis (SA) is a rare and delayed complication of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). We present a case of delayed SA associated with thoracic and lumbar arachnoid cysts in a patient with aSAH secondary to a ruptured vertebral artery aneurysm. The patient underwent a thoracic laminectomy for decompression of the spinal cord, lysis of arachnoid adhesions, and fenestration of an arachnoid cyst. We present the pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, and management of spinal arachnoiditis as a rare complication of aSAH...
January 6, 2018: Curēus
Anna Tauro, Jelena Jovanovik, Colin John Driver, Clare Rusbridge
OBJECTIVE:  Abnormalities within the spinal arachnoid space are often treated surgically, but they can be challenging to detect with conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences. 3D-CISS sequences are considered superior in evaluating structures surrounded by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) due to the high signal-to-noise ratio, high contrast-to-noise ratio and intrinsic insensitivity to motion with minimal signal loss due to CSF pulsations. Our objective was to describe findings and advantages in adding 3D-CISS sequences to routine MRI in patients affected by spinal arachnoid diverticula (SAD) or arachnoid adhesions...
February 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology: V.C.O.T
Nancy E Epstein
Background: Spinal meningiomas are found in patients typically between the ages of 75 and 84: some report the average age to be 50. They occur with an incidence of approximately 1000 patients per year in the US, are mostly single (90%) rather than multiple (10%), and arise from the spinal meninges (arachnoid/dura). Tumors are typically posterior/posterolateral (70%) in location, leaving the remaining 30% in the anterior/anterolateral spinal canal. They produce symptoms and signs of radiculopathy (nerve root) and/or myelopathy (cord compression) depending on their site of origin...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
Mitchell Schertz, Shlomi Constantini, Rina Eshel, Adi Hannah Sela, Jonathan Roth, Aviva Fattal-Valevski
OBJECTIVE Management of children with large temporal arachnoid cysts (TACs) remains controversial, with limited data available on their neurodevelopmental outcome. The aim of this study was to examine neurodevelopmental outcomes in children with large TACs. METHODS In this medical center-based cohort study, 25 patients (19 males) who were diagnosed in childhood with large TACs (9 patients [36%] with a Galassi type II and 16 patients [64%] with a Galassi type III TAC) were examined. The mean ± SD age at assessment was 11...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Hani Aljohani, A Romano, C Iaccarino, M Ganau, P Diemidio, S Chibbaro
Arachnoid cysts (ACs) within the fourth ventricle are rare, and only a few cases have been reported in the literature. These are benign lesions within the arachnoid membrane, and they have been reported to occur in almost all locations where arachnoid is present. Different procedures have been performed to restore a normal cerebrospinal fluid dynamic and/or pressure, including shunting and partial or complete excision of the cyst by open microsurgery or endoscopic fenestration. We report the case of a fourth ventricle AC successfully treated using only endoscopic anterior trans-frontal cyst fenestration/marsupialization and standard third ventriculostomy...
January 2018: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
Megan Christine Kaszuba, Lee Ang Tan, Roham Moftakhar, Manish Kumar Kasliwal
Intracranial arachnoid cysts (ACs) are relatively common findings that can be seen in up to 2% of patients. They are generally found incidentally with a benign clinical course and can be usually managed by observation. We report an unusual case of a middle fossa AC presenting with spontaneous intracystic hemorrhage along with subdural hematoma (SDH) causing significant mass effect and midline shift requiring surgical treatment. Even though the risk of hemorrhage in patients with AC is very low, the presence of AC is a known risk factor for SDH...
January 2018: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
Kiona Sharon de Nies, Ralph Alexander Edwards, Niklas Bergknut, Martijn Beukers, Björn Petrus Meij
BACKGROUND: Spinal cysts are rare findings in veterinary medicine, but they are increasingly recognized due to the availability of advanced imaging techniques. Extradural meningeal cysts in French Bulldogs have not been reported previously and arachnoid cysts (diverticula) have not been reported at the caudal lumbar (L6-L7) region in dogs. CASE PRESENTATION: Two French Bulldogs, aged 5 and 8 years, were referred for evaluation of lower back pain and bilateral hind limb neurological deficits...
March 1, 2018: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Jehad Zakaria, Michael Wemhoff, Douglas Anderson
Vascular compression of neural structures has long been established as an etiology for dysfunction of multiple cranial nerves. Classically, as is the case of trigeminal neuralgia, vascular compression by an offending artery and sometimes vein exerting pressure at the root entry zone of the trigeminal nerve can lead to the characteristic pain syndrome. In these cases, microvascular decompression is an effective, durable surgical intervention to relieve the neuralgia. In this report, we present a unique case of a patient with direct compression of the medulla oblongata by an arachnoid cyst and associated vascular loops, with subsequent resolution of the patient's symptoms following fenestration of cyst and microvascular decompression...
February 24, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Bojana Zivkovic, Mirko Micovic, Vladimir Bascarevic, Andrija Savic, Lukas Rasulic
The most common location for intracranial arachnoid cysts is the region of the Sylvian fissure, where they can be found in 49% of cases. Management of these cysts is still quite controversial. We present our surgical technique for the treatment of large Sylvian fissure arachnoid cysts which involves cyst decompression and simultaneous calvarial remodeling. After decreasing cyst size, remodeling of the frontal, temporal, and parietal bones follows. The cyst itself is treated with a cystoperitoneal shunt. In immediate postoperative period, correction of the deformity is observed...
February 21, 2018: Neurosurgical Review
Michiari Umakoshi, Takao Yasuhara, Atsuhiko Toyoshima, Susumu Sasada, Akira Kusumegi, Jun Morimoto, Kyohei Kin, Yousuke Tomita, Isao Date
The spinal extradural arachnoid cyst is a rare entity. Obtaining the correct diagnosis and detecting the fistula location are critical for providing effective treatment. A 41-year-old man had numbness in the soles of his feet for 2 years with accompanying gait disturbance, and a defecation disorder. Computed tomography myelography performed at another hospital revealed an epidural arachnoid cyst from Th11 to L2. He received a subarachnoid-cyst shunt at the rostral part of the cyst. However, his symptoms worsened and he was admitted to our hospital...
February 2018: Acta Medica Okayama
Yoji Ogura, Shoji Yabuki, Shunsuke Fujibayashi, Eijiro Okada, Akio Iwanami, Kota Watanabe, Masaya Nakamura, Morio Matsumoto, Ken Ishii, Shiro Ikegawa
BACKGROUND: Spinal extradural arachnoid cyst (SEDAC) is a cystic lesion that protrudes into the epidural space from a small dural defect. Early diagnosis of SEDAC is important because its expansion causes neurological damage. Two types of SEDAC, syndromic and sporadic, are present. Syndromic SEDAC is inherited as a part of lymphedema-distichiasis syndrome caused by mutations in the FOXC2 gene; however, it is often mistaken as sporadic because of low penetrance. It is not reasonable to conduct a genetic testing for all SEDAC patients and their family members...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Science: Official Journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association
Thiébaud Picart, Timothée Jacquesson, Emmanuel Jouanneau, Moncef Berhouma
BACKGROUND: Traumatic spinal subarachnoid hematoma, associated or not to a concurrent subdural hematoma has rarely been described. The evolution of such hematomas is heterogeneous. This study aims at defining the most accurate management which is currently not standardized. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 20-year-old man, victim of a high kinetic road accident five days before, suffering from several non-neurologic non-surgical vertebral fractures, complained of a sudden dorso-lumbar pain irradiating to his lower limbs...
February 14, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Kazuaki Morizane, Shunsuke Fujibayashi, Bungo Otsuki, Takeshi Sakamoto, Ryosuke Tsutsumi, Seiichi Odate, Akira Kusuba, Shuichi Matsuda
BACKGROUND: Although a valve-like mechanism has been proposed for expansion of spinal extradural arachnoid cysts (SEACs), the detailed mechanism remains unclear. Moreover, closure of the communication site is essential during surgery, but the method to identify the communication site remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the detailed mechanism of expanding SEACs through retrospective analysis of SEAC cases undergoing surgery and to elucidate the characteristics of the communication sites...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Science: Official Journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association
Kunio Yokoyama, Masahiro Kawanishi, Yutaka Ito, Makoto Yamada, Hidekazu Tanaka, Masashi Yamashita, Akira Sugie, Yoji Tamura, Toshihiko Kuroiwa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: No Shinkei Geka. Neurological Surgery
Andrea R Gilbert, Patricia Chévez-Barrios, Matthew D Cykowski
The suprachoroidal region of the eye comprises vascular channels, melanocytes, and thin fibroblasts with elongated cytoplasm that are positioned directly adjacent to the densely collagenous sclera. Morphological similarities between these suprachoroidal fibroblasts and arachnoid cells and perineurial cells have been recognized, but whether these fibroblasts have a perineurial cell-like immunophenotype is not known. To further examine the relationship of these three cell types, we investigated the comparative expression of epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), the tight junction protein claudin-1, glucose transporter-1 (Glut-1), and CD34 in suprachoroidal fibroblasts, arachnoid of the optic nerve sheath, and perineurium of ciliary nerves in eight human eye specimens...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
Zhengyu Zhang, Masanori Tachikawa, Yasuo Uchida, Tetsuya Terasaki
Although arachnoid mater epithelial cells form the blood-arachnoid barrier (BAB) acting as blood-CSF interfaces, it has been considered that it is impermeable to water-soluble substances and plays a largely passive role. Here, we aimed to clarify the function of transporters at the BAB in regulating CSF clearance of water-soluble organic anion drugs, based on quantitative targeted absolute proteomics (QTAP) and in vivo analyses. Protein expression levels of 61 molecules, including 19 ATP-binding-cassette (ABC) transporters and 32 solute-carrier (SLC) transporters, were measured in plasma membrane fraction of rat leptomeninges, using QTAP...
February 13, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Océane Perdaens, Guus Koerts, Marie-Cécile Nassogne
The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical history and prognosis of children with early-onset hydrocephalus. The retrospective study's inclusion criteria were hydrocephalus diagnosis before the age of 5 years, independent of aetiology, and birth details, January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2014. Overall, 142 children were entered into the study, divided into 11 aetiological groups: premature-birth post-intraventricular haemorrhage (16%), brain tumours (16%), spina bifida (15%), aqueductal stenosis (8%), post-meningitis (8%), post-haemorrhage (8%), Dandy-Walker malformation (6%), unknown origin (6%), arachnoid cyst (5%), miscellaneous obstruction (4%), and various causes (8%)...
February 12, 2018: Acta Neurologica Belgica
J Todeschi, S Chibbaro, A Gubian, R Pop, F Proust, H Cebula
BACKGROUND: The rupture of an isolated spinal aneurysm is an exceptional occurrence. It might be responsible for a spinal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SSAH) that in rare cases can be complicated by arachnoiditis. Among the former the adhesive type is the most severe leading to the formation of a cyst and/or a syrinx. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The literature review was performed via a PubMed search using the following keywords. Adhesive arachnoiditis; spinal subarachnoid haemorrhage; spinal arachnoiditis; spinal arachnoid cyst; arachnoid cyst ...
February 9, 2018: Neuro-Chirurgie
Ziev B Moses, Gabriel N Friedman, David L Penn, Isaac H Solomon, John H Chi
OBJECTIVE Optimal diagnosis and management strategies for intradural spinal arachnoid cysts (SACs) are still unresolved given the rare nature of this entity, with few large case series and virtually no statistical analyses of patient characteristics in the literature. Here, the authors studied a large patient cohort with these lesions to determine whether pre- or postoperative attributes could be used to aid in either diagnosis or prognosis. METHODS A chart review was completed at a single institution for the period from 2002 to 2016 to determine the preoperative characteristics and postoperative outcomes of 21 patients with exclusively intradural SACs...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
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