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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791949/the-global-neurological-burden-of-tuberculosis
#1
Kiran Thakur, Mitashee Das, Kelly E Dooley, Amita Gupta
Central nervous system (CNS) involvement of tuberculosis (TB) is the most severe manifestation of TB and accounts for approximately 5 to 10% of all extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) cases and approximately 1% of all TB cases. TB meningitis (TBM) is the most common form of CNS TB, though other forms occur, often in conjunction with TBM, including intracranial tuberculomas, tuberculous brain abscesses, and spinal tubercular arachnoiditis. CNS TB often presents with nonspecific clinical features that mimic symptoms of other neurological conditions, often making diagnosis difficult...
April 2018: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790968/-macrovascular-decompression-of-dolichoectatic-vertebral-artery-causing-hemifacial-spasm-using-goretex-sling-2-dimensional-operative-video
#2
Stephan A Munich, Jacques J Morcos
Hemifacial spasm is characterized by painless and involuntary spasms of the muscles supplied by the facial nerve, most commonly involving the orbicularis oculi. The most common cause of hemifacial spasm is compression of the facial nerve's root by the anterior inferior, or posterior inferior, cerebellar arteries (AICA or PICA). However, in <1% of cases, the compression can be due to a dolichoectatic vertebral artery. Microvascular decompression using Teflon patties may be sufficient when the offending artery is small (eg, AICA or PICA)...
May 22, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789719/selective-vulnerability-of-the-primitive-meningeal-layer-to-prenatal-smo-activation-for-skull-base-meningothelial-meningioma-formation
#3
Julien Boetto, Caroline Apra, Franck Bielle, Matthieu Peyre, Michel Kalamarides
Somatic activating mutations of smoothened (SMO), a component of the embryonic sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling pathway, are found in 3-5% of grade I meningiomas, most of them corresponding to meningothelial meningiomas located at the anterior skull base. By generating different developmental stage-specific conditional activations in mice, we define a restricted developmental window during which conditional activation of Smo in Prostaglandin D2-synthase-positive mesoderm-derived meningeal layer of the skull base results in meningothelial meningioma formation...
May 22, 2018: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788460/general-principles-for-pial-synangiosis-in-pediatric-moyamoya-patients-2-dimensional-operative-video
#4
David L Penn, Kyle C Wu, Kayla R Presswood, Coleman P Riordan, R Michael Scott, Edward R Smith
Pial synangiosis is a method of indirect surgical revascularization developed at our institution for the treatment of moyamoya disease in pediatric patients. Similar surgical principles are employed in adult cases, often performed because of lack of an adequate donor vessel. Standardized protocols, including preadmission for preoperative intravenous hydration and aspirin administration, as well as intraoperative electroencephalography, are routinely employed to minimize operative risk. Perioperative heparinization is not required...
May 18, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788336/microsurgical-resection-of-posterior-third-ventricular-pineal-region-papillary-tumor-via-supracerebellar-infratentorial-approach-3-dimensional-operative-video
#5
Sima Sayyahmelli, Ihsan Dogan, Mustafa K Baskaya
The posterior third ventricle and pineal region can harbor different pathologies. The supracerebellar infratentorial approach allows a direct access to the pineal region and posterior third ventricle and provides wide exposure of the arachnoid planes and deep venous system. In this 3-dimensional video, we present a patient with posterior third ventricular/pineal region tumor who underwent microsurgical resection via supracerebellar infratentorial approach. The patient is a 28-year-old woman with history of hydrocephalus who underwent endoscopic third ventriculostomy and biopsy at an outside hospital...
May 18, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788188/importance-of-fenestration-size-for-definitive-treatment-of-a-quadrigeminal-arachnoid-cyst-endoscopic-inspection-of-the-cyst-and-surrounding-anatomy-2-dimensional-operative-video
#6
François Lechanoine, Pietro Spennato, Claudio Ruggiero, Giuseppe Cinalli
Arachnoid cysts are fluid-filled sacs, located between the brain or spinal cord and the arachnoid membrane. Their prevalence in children is between 1% and 3%. Quadrigeminal arachnoid cysts represent 1% to 10% of them and are often associated with hydrocephalus, mostly by an obstructive mechanism, explained by compression of the tectum of the midbrain. When an indication for treatment is retained, 3 surgical options are available: microsurgical excision/fenestration, endoscopic fenestration, and shunt placement...
May 18, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787500/evaluation-of-the-communication-between-arachnoid-cysts-and-neighboring-cerebrospinal-fluid-spaces-by-t2w-3d-space-with-variant-flip-angle-technique-at-3-t
#7
Oktay Algin
PURPOSE: Phase-contrast cine magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) is a widely used technique for determination of possible communication of arachnoid cysts (ACs). Three-dimensional (3D) sampling perfection with application-optimized contrasts using different flip-angle evolutions (3D-SPACE) technique is a relatively new method for 3D isotropic scanning of the entire cranium within a short time. In this research, the usage of the 3D-SPACE technique in differentiation of communicating or noncommunicating type ACs was evaluated...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777892/surgically-treated-de-novo-cervico-medullary-arachnoid-cyst-in-a-symptomatic-adult-patient
#8
William Clifton, Gazanfar Rahmathulla, Kourosh Tavanaiepour, Dunbar Alcindor, George Jakubek, Daryoush Tavanaiepour
Arachnoid cysts are a relatively common finding in adult patients, especially with the advent of advanced imaging techniques. The overall incidence ranges from 1-2%, and the majority are clinically silent1,2 . Arachnoid cysts are postulated to arise by congenital anomalies or trauma1 . De novo formation of arachnoid cysts has been reported, but is exceptionally rare and mostly found in the pediatric population after head trauma3-5 . There have only been two reported cases of symptomatic de novo arachnoid cyst formation in adult patients to date, both with histories of head trauma6,7 ...
May 16, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776944/giant-left-parietal-lobe-arachnoid-cyst-presenting-as-early-onset-dementia
#9
Rishi Raj, Ajay Venkatanarayan, Ahmad Sharayah, Douglas Ross
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 18, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774198/a-rare-cause-of-thoracic-spinal-cord-compression-by-multiple-large-tarlov-cysts
#10
Ahmed-Salem Kleib, Sidi-Mohamed Salihy, Hussein Hamdi, Romain Carron, Outouma Soumaré
Spinal extradural arachnoid cyst (SEAC) is a rare cause of spinal cord compression. Bifocal location of thoracic and sacral SEACs is rarely reported in the literature. We report a case of thoracic spinal cord compression by SEAC associated with asymptomatic multiple sacral Tarlov cysts (TC). The surgical management and postoperative outcome of the patient are discussed. A 34-year-old woman was referred to the hospital for acute thoracic pain with a history of chronic long-standing back pain. She complained of walking difficulties...
April 2018: Korean Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770929/two-cases-of-sarcoidosis-presenting-as-longitudinally-extensive-transverse-myelitis
#11
REVIEW
Amanda Mary Scott, Janeth Yinh, Timothy McAlindon, Robert Kalish
Neurosarcoidosis is uncommon with an incidence of approximately 5 to 15%. Central nervous system involvement can be divided into brain and spinal cord neurosarcoidosis. Spinal cord sarcoidosis is extremely rare, occurring in less than 1% of all sarcoidosis cases. Its manifestations may include cauda equina syndrome, radiculopathy, syringomyelia, cord atrophy, arachnoiditis, and myelopathy or transverse myelitis. We highlight two cases of spinal cord sarcoidosis, each presenting with longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis, that demonstrate the dilemmas that physicians face with regard to diagnosis and treatment...
May 17, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749239/a-novel-fetal-sequence-patogenesis-resulting-in-oral-meningoencephalocele
#12
M Gabor, P Papcun, Jr M Krizko, Z Cierna, V Ferianec
OBJECTIVES: To analyze a rare triad of intracranial fetal pathologies and clinical study of the novel defined sequence pathogenesis based on prenatal and postmortem findings. METHODS: Complex multidisciplinary clinical analysis and review of up-to-date literature. RESULTS: In an 18-gestational-week fetus the screening ultrasound scan resembled the semilobar type of holoprosencephaly and oral tumor. After the indicated termination of pregnancy, the histopathology results confirmed another pathologies - oral meningoencephalocele, teratoma of the sellar area and large arachnoidal cyst of the anterior cerebral fossa...
2018: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747017/a-novel-association-between-intrathecal-drug-administration-and-arachnoiditis-ossificans
#13
Max Ward, Antonios Mammis, Maureen T Barry, Robert F Heary
We present a case of delayed progression of adhesive arachnoiditis to arachnoiditis ossificans (AO) in a patient being treated with a high dose polypharmaceutical intrathecal regimen. The patient is a 39-year-old Caucasian male who was implanted with an intrathecal pump in 2006 to control severe low back pain and administered intrathecal pain medication for a period of 10 years. In 2016, he developed new onset radicular pain and worsened sensation in his lower extremities. A CT scan of the lumbar spine at that time demonstrated profound calcification of the arachnoid consistent with a diagnosis of AO...
May 7, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745258/-transient-reactionary-physiological-asystole-trap-phenomenon-cause-of-fall-or-loss-of-consciousness-after-sub-arachnoid-hemorrhage-sah
#14
Krishan Kumar Bansal, Parshant Kumar Singh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 10, 2018: British Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742719/cauda-equina-syndrome-following-an-uneventful-spinal-anesthesia-in-a-patient-undergoing-drainage-of-the-bartholin-abscess-a-case-report
#15
Waldo Merino-Urrutia, Milca Villagrán-Schmidt, Priscilla Ulloa-Vásquez, Rubén Carrasco-Moyano, Alberto Uribe, Nicoleta Stoicea, Sergio D Bergese
RATIONALE: Neuraxial anesthesia is a commonly used type of regional anesthesia. Cauda equina syndrome is an unusual and severe complication of neuraxial anesthesia, and is caused by damage to the sacral roots of the neural canal. We present a case of cauda equina syndrome following spinal anesthesia in a patient who underwent Bartholin abscess drainage. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 23-year old female scheduled to undergo surgical drainage of Bartholin abscess. Spinal anesthesia was performed with bupivacaine and fentanyl...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721359/acute-cauda-equina-syndrome-following-orthopedic-procedures-as-a-result-of-epidural-anesthesia
#16
Lisa B E Shields, Vasudeva G Iyer, Yi Ping Zhang, Christopher B Shields
Background: Cauda equina syndrome (CES) is a rare complication of spinal or epidural anesthesia. It is attributed to direct mechanical injury to the spinal roots of the cauda equina that may result in saddle anesthesia and paraplegia with bowel and bladder dysfunction. Case Description: The first patient underwent a hip replacement and received 5 mL of 1% lidocaine epidural anesthesia. Postoperatively, when the patient developed an acute CES, the lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan demonstrated clumping/posterior displacement of nerve roots of the cauda equina consistent with adhesive arachnoiditis attributed to the patient's previous L4-L5 lumbar decompression/fusion...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719742/toxic-myelitis-and-arachnoiditis-after-intrathecal-delivery-of-bupivacaine-via-an-implanted-drug-delivery-system-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#17
Meng Huang, Brian Dalm, Richard K Simpson
The off-label usage of amino-amide anesthetics in intrathecal drug delivery systems (IDDS) for the treatment of chronic non-malignant and malignant pain is supported in the polyanalgesic consensus guidelines as a second-line adjunctive therapy. Although strong evidence for its clinical efficacy is lacking, its clinical safety profile has been well established within established dosing parameters. Despite the rarity of neurological adverse reactions to intrathecal bupivacaine, whether given as regional anesthesia or intrathecal therapy, neurologic morbidity associated with its administration is well documented...
February 27, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713402/pathophysiology-and-grading-of-the-ventral-displacement-of-dorsal-spinal-cord-spectrum
#18
Amarnath Chellathurai, Suhasini Balasubramaniam, Sathyan Gnanasihamani, Sukumar Ramasamy, Jayamani Durairajan
Study Design: A retrospective study of the ventral displacement of dorsal spinal cord (VDDSC) spectrum pathophysiology and grading. Purpose: This study aimed at examining the pathophysiology of VDDSC between D3 and D7, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) correlation and severity grading. Overview of Literature: The pathologies that lead to VDDSC were previously discussed in various articles. We attempted to group these pathological conditions under a single spectrum, and grade them according to their severity...
April 2018: Asian Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709844/lumbar-pseudomeningocele-presenting-as-decerebrate-rigidity-a-rare-case-entity
#19
Satish Rudrappa, Ramachandran Govindasamy, Venkata Ramakrishna Tukkapuram, Swaroop Gopal
INTRODUCTION: Spinal pseudomeningoceles are extradural collections of cerebrospinal fluid that result following a breach in the dural-arachnoid layer and is reported as one of the complications of lumbar disc surgery. Although they are often self subsiding and asymptomatic, they may occasionally cause low-back pain, headaches, and even nerve root entrapment. The purpose of this case report is to present an unreported presentation of pseudomeningocele PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 34 year obese male presented one month post lumbar discectomy with symptoms suggestive of raised intra cranial pressure presenting as repetitive decerebrate rigidity and altered sensorium lasting for few minutes when there is pressure on the pseudomeningocele sac and subsiding with change in position of the patient...
April 22, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701570/letter-to-the-editor-radiographic-differentiation-of-idiopathic-spinal-cord-herniation-versus-dorsal-arachnoid-webs
#20
Osmond C Wu, Manish K Kasliwal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 27, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
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