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Myelin repair

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509260/rapid-serum-free-isolation-of-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cells-from-adult-rat-spinal-cord
#1
John Bianco, Dario Carradori, Ronald Deumens, Anne des Rieux
Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) play a pivotal role in both health and disease within the central nervous system, with oligodendrocytes, arising from resident OPCs, being the main myelinating cell type. Disruption in OPC numbers can lead to various deleterious health defects. Numerous studies have described techniques for isolating OPCs to obtain a better understanding of this cell type and to open doors for potential treatments of injury and disease. However, the techniques used in the majority of these studies involve several steps and are time consuming, with current culture protocols using serum and embryonic or postnatal cortical tissue as a source of isolation...
May 16, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506533/schwann-cell-precursors-from-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-as-a-potential-therapeutic-target-for-myelin-repair
#2
Han-Seop Kim, Jungwoon Lee, Da Yong Lee, Young-Dae Kim, Jae Yun Kim, Hyung Jin Lim, Sungmin Lim, Yee Sook Cho
Schwann cells play a crucial role in successful nerve repair and regeneration by supporting both axonal growth and myelination. However, the sources of human Schwann cells are limited both for studies of Schwann cell development and biology and for the development of treatments for Schwann cell-associated diseases. Here, we provide a rapid and scalable method to produce self-renewing Schwann cell precursors (SCPs) from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), using combined sequential treatment with inhibitors of the TGF-β and GSK-3 signaling pathways, and with neuregulin-1 for 18 days under chemically defined conditions...
May 11, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460598/circulating-igf-1-igfb-3-gh-and-tsh-levels-in-multiple-sclerosis-and-their-relationship-with-treatment
#3
Aylin Akcali, Berrin Bal, Binnur Erbagci
OBJECTIVES: Improving the proficiency of oligodendrocytes in their ability to repair myelin damage is one of the major goals of multiple sclerosis treatment. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is one of several polypeptides that are considered to have potential benefits in that sense. In the present study, we aimed to determine serum levels of IGF-1 and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and growth hormone (GH) among treated and non-treated patients with Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS) and a healthy control group...
May 1, 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452182/local-injection-of-lenti-olig2-at-lesion-site-promotes-functional-recovery-of-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats
#4
Bo-Tao Tan, Long Jiang, Li Liu, Ying Yin, Ze-Ru-Xin Luo, Zai-Yun Long, Sen Li, Le-Hua Yu, Ya-Min Wu, Yuan Liu
AIMS: Olig2 is one of the most critical factors during CNS development, which belongs to b-HLH transcription factor family. Previous reports have shown that Olig2 regulates the remyelination processes in CNS demyelination diseases models. However, the role of Olig2 in contusion spinal cord injury (SCI) and the possible therapeutic effects remain obscure. This study aims to investigate the effects of overexpression Olig2 by lentivirus on adult spinal cord injury rats. METHODS: Lenti-Olig2 expression and control Lenti-eGFP vectors were prepared, and virus in a total of 5 μL (10(8) TU/mL) was locally injected into the injured spinal cord 1...
April 27, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442994/egf-enhances-oligodendrogenesis-from-glial-progenitor-cells
#5
Junlin Yang, Xuejun Cheng, Jiajun Qi, Binghua Xie, Xiaofeng Zhao, Kang Zheng, Zunyi Zhang, Mengsheng Qiu
Emerging evidence indicates that epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling plays a positive role in myelin development and repair, but little is known about its biological effects on the early generation and differentiation of oligodendrocyte (OL) lineage cells. In this study, we investigated the role of EGF in early OL development with isolated glial restricted precursor (GRP) cells. It was found that EGF collaborated with Platelet Derived Growth Factor-AA (PDGFaa) to promote the survival and self-renewal of GRP cells, but predisposed GRP cells to develop into O4(-) early-stage oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) in the absence of or PDGFaa...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440805/cell-transplantation-therapy-for-spinal-cord-injury
#6
REVIEW
Peggy Assinck, Greg J Duncan, Brett J Hilton, Jason R Plemel, Wolfram Tetzlaff
Spinal cord injury can lead to severe motor, sensory and autonomic dysfunction. Currently, there is no effective treatment for the injured spinal cord. The transplantation of Schwann cells, neural stem cells or progenitor cells, olfactory ensheathing cells, oligodendrocyte precursor cells and mesenchymal stem cells has been investigated as potential therapies for spinal cord injury. However, little is known about the mechanisms through which these individual cell types promote repair and functional improvements...
April 25, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423529/pif-promotes-brain-re-myelination-locally-while-regulating-systemic-inflammation-clinically-relevant-multiple-sclerosis-m-smegmatis-model
#7
Giuseppe Migliara, Martin Mueller, Alessia Piermattei, Chaya Brodie, Michael J Paidas, Eytan R Barnea, Francesco Ria
Neurologic disease diagnosis and treatment is challenging. Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating autoimmune disease with few clinical forms and uncertain etiology. Current studies suggest that it is likely caused by infection(s) triggering a systemic immune response resulting in antigen/non-antigen-related autoimmune response in central nervous system (CNS). New therapeutic approaches are needed. Secreted by viable embryos, PreImplantation Factor (PIF) possesses a local and systemic immunity regulatory role...
March 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422748/therapeutic-inhibition-of-soluble-brain-tnf-promotes-remyelination-by-increasing-myelin-phagocytosis-by-microglia
#8
Maria Karamita, Christopher Barnum, Wiebke Möbius, Malú G Tansey, David E Szymkowski, Hans Lassmann, Lesley Probert
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory CNS demyelinating disease in which remyelination largely fails. Transmembrane TNF (tmTNF) and TNF receptor 2 are important for remyelination in experimental MS models, but it is unknown whether soluble TNF (solTNF), a major proinflammatory factor, is involved in regeneration processes. Here, we investigated the specific contribution of solTNF to demyelination and remyelination in the cuprizone model. Treatment with XPro1595, a selective inhibitor of solTNF that crosses the intact blood-brain barrier (BBB), in cuprizone-fed mice did not prevent toxin-induced oligodendrocyte loss and demyelination, but it permitted profound early remyelination due to improved phagocytosis of myelin debris by CNS macrophages and prevented disease-associated decline in motor performance...
April 20, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421195/role-of-demyelination-efficiency-within-acellular-nerve-scaffolds-during-nerve-regeneration-across-peripheral-defects
#9
Meiqin Cai, Tengchao Huang, Bo Hou, Ying Guo
Hudson's optimized chemical processing method is the most commonly used chemical method to prepare acellular nerve scaffolds for the reconstruction of large peripheral nerve defects. However, residual myelin attached to the basal laminar tube has been observed in acellular nerve scaffolds prepared using Hudson's method. Here, we describe a novel method of producing acellular nerve scaffolds that eliminates residual myelin more effectively than Hudson's method through the use of various detergent combinations of sulfobetaine-10, sulfobetaine-16, Triton X-200, sodium deoxycholate, and peracetic acid...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396177/consistent-induction-of-chronic-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-in-c57bl-6-mice-for-the-longitudinal-study-of-pathology-and-repair
#10
Jonathan P C Hasselmann, Hawra Karim, Anna J Khalaj, Subir Ghosh, Seema K Tiwari-Woodruff
BACKGROUND: While many groups use experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) as a model to uncover therapeutic targets and understand the pathology underlying multiple sclerosis (MS), EAE protocol variability introduces discrepancies in central nervous system (CNS) pathogenesis and clinical disease, limiting the comparability between studies and slowing much-needed translational research. OPTIMIZED METHOD: Here we describe a detailed, reliable protocol for chronic EAE induction in C57BL/6 mice utilizing two injections of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (35-55) peptide mixed with complete Freund's adjuvant and paired with pertussis toxin...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392287/blocked-delayed-or-obstructed-what-causes-poor-white-matter-development-in-intrauterine-growth-restricted-infants
#11
REVIEW
Mary Tolcos, Steven Petratos, Jonathan J Hirst, Flora Wong, Sarah J Spencer, Aminath Azhan, Ben Emery, David W Walker
Poor white matter development in intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) babies remains a major, untreated problem in neonatology. New therapies, guided by an understanding of the mechanisms that underlie normal and abnormal oligodendrocyte development and myelin formation, are required. Much of our knowledge of the mechanisms that underlie impaired myelination come from studies in adult demyelinating disease, preterm brain injury, or experimental models of hypoxia-ischemia. However relatively less is known for IUGR which is surprising because IUGR is a leading cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity, second only to premature birth...
April 6, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391036/design-and-optimization-of-a-biodegradable-porous-zein-conduit-using-microtubes-as-a-guide-for-rat-sciatic-nerve-defect-repair
#12
Guo-Wu Wang, Hui Yang, Wei-Feng Wu, Ping Zhang, Jin-Ye Wang
Various degradable biomaterials have been used to bridge injured peripheral nerve defect; however, drawbacks such as poor mechanical properties, inappropriate degradation rate, and toxic degradation products continue to limit the application of them in nerve repair. Considering the unique properties of zein, such as its biocompatibility, biodegradability and ease of fabrication, we report the use of zein conduits to repair injured rat sciatic nerves with a 10-mm defect. Three-dimensional zein conduits were designed with/without pores, and with/without microtubes including in the lumen of conduits...
July 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387110/femoral-nerve-repair-using-an-h-type-nerve-regeneration-chamber-in-rats
#13
X Y Hong, X Hong, W W Gu, J Lin, W T Yin
Peripheral nerve injury in surgical trauma patients is very common. The femoral nerve can be divided into two branches: one regarding the quadricep muscles, and one the skin. After nerve transection and suture, the motor axons have an equal opportunity to regenerate into the original muscle branch, or regenerate into the sensory skin nerves. These anatomical features of femoral nerve have made it important in nerve regeneration research. Thus, this study was designed to examine the effects of an H-type nerve regeneration chamber on motor nerve regeneration after femoral nerve injury...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385597/ester-to-amide-rearrangement-of-ethanolamine-derived-prodrugs-of-sobetirome-with-increased-blood-brain-barrier-penetration
#14
Skylar J Ferrara, J Matthew Meinig, Andrew T Placzek, Tapasree Banerji, Peter McTigue, Meredith D Hartley, Hannah S Sanford-Crane, Tania Banerji, Dennis Bourdette, Thomas S Scanlan
Current therapeutic options for treating demyelinating disorders such as multiple sclerosis (MS) do not stimulate myelin repair, thus creating a clinical need for therapeutic agents that address axonal remyelination. Thyroid hormone is known to play an important role in promoting developmental myelination and repair, and CNS permeable thyromimetic agents could offer an increased therapeutic index compared to endogenous thyroid hormone. Sobetirome is a clinical stage thyromimetic that has been shown to have promising activity in preclinical models related to MS and X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD), a genetic disease that involves demyelination...
May 15, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377695/transplantation-of-pdgf-aa-overexpressing-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells-promotes-recovery-in-rat-following-spinal-cord-injury
#15
Zong-Feng Yao, Ying Wang, Yu-Hong Lin, Yan Wu, An-You Zhu, Rui Wang, Lin Shen, Jin Xi, Qi Qi, Zhi-Quan Jiang, He-Zuo Lü, Jian-Guo Hu
Our previous study showed that Schwann cells (SCs) promote survival, proliferation and migration of co-transplanted oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) and neurological recovery in rats with spinal cord injury (SCI). A subsequent in vitro study confirmed that SCs modulated OPC proliferation and migration by secreting platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-AA and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF)-2. We also found that PDGF-AA stimulated OPC proliferation and their differentiation into oligodendrocytes (OLs) at later stages...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375547/demyelination-induced-by-oxidative-stress-is-regulated-by-sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptors
#16
Sinead A O'Sullivan, Maria Velasco-Estevez, Kumlesh K Dev
Oxidative stress is a pathological condition defined as an imbalance between production and removal of reactive oxygen species. This process causes structural cell damage, disrupts DNA repair and induces mitochondrial dysfunction. Many in vitro studies have used direct bolus application of H2 O2 to investigate the role of oxidative stress in cell culture. In this study, using mouse organotypic cerebellar slice cultures, the effects of H2 O2 -induced oxidative stress on myelination state were examined, using bolus concentrations of H2 O2 (0...
April 4, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363754/intrathecal-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-but-not-insulin-enhances-myelin-repair-in-young-and-aged-rats
#17
Martin Hlavica, Aro Delparente, Andrin Good, Nicolas Good, Patricia S Plattner, Maryam S Seyedsadr, Martin E Schwab, Dianne P Figlewicz, Benjamin V Ineichen
One main pathological hallmark of multiple sclerosis (MS) is demyelination. Novel therapies which enhance myelin repair are urgently needed. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) have strong functional relationships. Here, we addressed the potential capacity of IGF-1 and insulin to enhance remyelination in an animal demyelination model in vivo. We found that chronic intrathecal infusion of IGF-1 enhanced remyelination after lysolecithin-induced demyelination in the spinal cord of young and aged rats...
March 29, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362971/stabilization-rolling-and-addition-of-other-extracellular-matrix-proteins-to-collagen-hydrogels-improve-regeneration-in-chitosan-guides-for-long-peripheral-nerve-gaps-in-rats
#18
Francisco Gonzalez-Perez, Stefano Cobianchi, Claudia Heimann, James B Phillips, Esther Udina, Xavier Navarro
BACKGROUND: Autograft is still the gold standard technique for the repair of long peripheral nerve injuries. The addition of biologically active scaffolds into the lumen of conduits to mimic the endoneurium of peripheral nerves may increase the final outcome of artificial nerve devices. Furthermore, the control of the orientation of the collagen fibers may provide some longitudinal guidance architecture providing a higher level of mesoscale tissue structure. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the regenerative capabilities of chitosan conduits enriched with extracellular matrix-based scaffolds to bridge a critical gap of 15 mm in the rat sciatic nerve...
March 1, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362931/outcome-of-finger-extension-after-nerve-transfer-to-repair-c7-t1-brachial-plexus-palsy-in-rats-comparative-study-of-the-supinator-motor-branch-transfer-to-the-posterior-interosseous-nerve-and-the-contralateral-c7-transfer-to-the-lower-trunk
#19
Lei Zhang, Chun-Lin Zhang, Zhen Dong, Yu-Dong Gu
BACKGROUND: Functional recovery following supinator motor branch transfer requires further investigation. OBJECTIVE: To compare the outcome of finger extension after supinator motor branch transfer or contralateral C7 (cC7) transfer in C7-T1 brachial plexus palsies in rats. METHODS: In this study, 120 adult rats underwent C7-T1 nerve root avulsion and received different nerve transfer repairs: group A, cC7 nerve transfer to the lower trunk; group B, supinator motor branch nerve transfer to the posterior interosseous nerve (PIN); and group C, no repair...
April 1, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358726/local-delivery-of-thyroid-hormone-enhances-oligodendrogenesis-and-myelination-after-spinal-cord-injury
#20
Robert B Shultz, Zhicheng Wang, Jia Nong, Zhiling Zhang, Yinghui Zhong
OBJECTIVE: Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) causes apoptosis of myelin-forming oligodendrocytes (OLs) and demyelination of surviving axons, resulting in conduction failure. Remyelination of surviving denuded axons provides a promising therapeutic target for spinal cord repair. While cell transplantation has demonstrated efficacy in promoting remyelination and functional recovery, the lack of ideal cell sources presents a major obstacle to clinical application. The adult spinal cord contains oligodendrocyte precursor cells and multipotent neural stem/progenitor cells that have the capacity to differentiate into mature, myelinating OLs...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
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