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Myelin repair

Ying Dai, Caitlin E Hill
Adult Schwann cells (SCs) can provide both a permissive substrate for axonal growth and a source of cells to ensheath and myelinate axons when transplanted into the injured spinal cord. Multiple studies have demonstrated that SC transplants can be used as part of a combinatorial approach to repairing the injured spinal cord. Here, we describe the protocols for collection and transplantation of adult rat primary SCs into the injured spinal cord. Protocols are included for the tissue culture procedures necessary for collection, quantification, and suspension of the cells for transplantation and for the surgical procedures for spinal cord injury at thoracic level nine (T9), reexposure of the injury site for delayed transplantation, and injection of the cells into the spinal cord...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Peter Bond, David B Parkinson
The use of electron microscopy allows analysis of the microarchitecture of peripheral nerves both during development and in the processes of nerve regeneration and repair.We describe a novel method for the rapid analysis and quantification of myelin in peripheral nerve using a low vacuum scanning electron microscopy protocol. For this methodology, excised nerves are prepared for traditional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging, but at the stage where semi-thin sections would be taken, the resin block is instead imaged at low vacuum in the scanning electron microscope (SEM) using the backscattered electron signal...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Peter Göttle, Anastasia Manousi, David Kremer, Laura Reiche, Hans-Peter Hartung, Patrick Küry
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neuroinflammatory autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS) which in most cases initially presents with episodes of transient functional deficits (relapsing-remitting MS; RRMS) and eventually develops into a secondary progressive form (SPMS). Aside from neuroimmunological activities, MS is also characterized by neurodegenerative and regenerative processes. The latter involve the restoration of myelin sheaths-electrically insulating structures which are the primary targets of autoimmune attacks...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Kevin C Kemp, Kelly Hares, Juliana Redondo, Amelia J Cook, Harry R Haynes, Bronwen R Burton, Mark A Pook, Claire M Rice, Neil J Scolding, Alastair Wilkins
OBJECTIVES: Friedreich's ataxia is an incurable inherited neurological disease caused by frataxin deficiency. Here we report the neuro-reparative effects of myeloablative allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in a humanised murine model of the disease. METHODS: Mice received a transplant of fluorescently-tagged sex mis-matched bone marrow cells expressing wild-type frataxin and were assessed at monthly intervals using a range of behavioural motor performance tests...
March 13, 2018: Annals of Neurology
Reza Naeimi, Fatemeh Safarpour, Mona Hashemian, Hamed Tashakorian, Seyed Raheleh Ahmadian, Manouchehr Ashrafpour, Maryam Ghasemi-Kasman
Curcumin has been introduced as effective anti-inflammatory agent in treatment of several inflammatory disorders. Despite the wide range pharmacological activities, clinical application of curcumin is restricted mainly due to the low water solubility of this substance. More recently, we could remarkably improve the aqueous solubility of curcumin by its encapsulation in chitosan-alginate-sodium tripolyphosphate nanoparticles (CS-ALG-STPP NPs). In this study, the anti-inflammatory and myelin protective effects of curcumin-loaded NPs were evaluated in lysolecithin (LPC)-induced focal demyelination model...
March 9, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Anna Kovalchuk, Yaroslav Ilnytskyy, Rafal Woycicki, Rocio Rodriguez-Juarez, Gerlinde A S Metz, Olga Kovalchuk
Recent advances in cancer treatments have led to significant increases in cure rates. Most cancer patients are treated with various cytotoxic chemotherapy regimens. These treatment modalities are mutagenic and genotoxic and cause a wide array of late-occurring health problems, and even exert a deleterious influence on future offspring. The adverse effects from exposed parents on offspring are referred to as transgenerational effects, and currently little is known about chemotherapy-induced transgenerational effects...
February 9, 2018: Oncotarget
Andrew P Lieberman, Joel A Swanson
Phagolysosome membrane rupture can trigger a maladaptive immune response that promotes tissue damage. In Science, Cantuti-Castelvetri et al. (2018) report that cholesterol-rich myelin debris overwhelms reverse cholesterol transport in aged phagocytes, leading to cholesterol crystal formation, damaged phagolysosomes, and limited tissue repair.
March 6, 2018: Cell Metabolism
Takakuni Maki, Anna Morancho, Pablo Martinez-San Segundo, Kazuhide Hayakawa, Hajime Takase, Anna C Liang, Marina Gabriel-Salazar, Esperanza Medina-Gutiérrez, Kazuo Washida, Joan Montaner, Josephine Lok, Eng H Lo, Ken Arai, Anna Rosell
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have been extensively investigated as a therapeutic approach for repairing the vascular system in cerebrovascular diseases. Beyond vascular regeneration per se, EPCs may also release factors that affect the entire neurovascular unit. Here, we aim to study the effects of the EPC secretome on oligovascular remodeling in a mouse model of white matter injury after prolonged cerebral hypoperfusion. METHODS: The secretome of mouse EPCs was analyzed with a proteome array...
March 6, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Antonio Merolli, Maria Lucia Manunta, Yong Mao, Gerolamo Masala, Giovanni Mario Careddu, Francesca Cubeddu, Maria Antonietta Evangelisti, Maria Letizia Guida, Caroline Antonia Verardi, Claudio Proietti, Andrea Manunta, Giuseppe Falvo D'Urso Labate, Gerardo Catapano, Marianne Polunas, Pedro Louro, Eraldo Sanna Passino
BACKGROUND:  We describe the development of a new surgical procedure to be used in the treatment of disruptive brachial plexus (BP) lesions. It is centered on an artificial device designed to assist nerve regeneration by providing a confined and protected environment. Nerve fibers can repair inside the device, while the adverse massive scar-tissue formation is limited to the outside of the device. METHODS:  Steps in the development of the procedure were (1) definition of the rationale, (2) design of the device, (3) choice of an in vivo translational model, (4)refinement of the surgical procedure, and (5) performance of an in vivo pilot study as a proof of concept...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery
Reza Naeimi, Saeideh Baradaran, Manouchehr Ashrafpour, Ali Akbar Moghadamnia, Maryam Ghasemi-Kasman
Although the beneficial effects of quercetin on oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPCs) population has been evaluated in-vitro, there are few studies about the effects of quercetin on myelin repair in the context of demyelination. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of querectin on functional recovery and myelin repair of optic chiasm in lysolecithin (LPC)-induced demyelination model. Demyelination was induced by local injection of LPC 1% (2 μl) into rat optic chiasm. Querectin at doses 25 or 50 mg/kg was administrated daily by oral gavage for 7 or 14 days post LPC...
March 1, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Victor S C Wong, Cristina Picci, Michelle Swift, Max Levinson, Dianna Willis, Brett Langley
Damage to the CNS results in neuronal and axonal degeneration, and subsequent neurological dysfunction. Endogenous repair in the CNS is impeded by inhibitory chemical and physical barriers, such as chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) and myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), which prevent axon regeneration. Previously, it has been demonstrated that the inhibition of axonal histone deacetylase-6 (HDAC6) can promote microtubule α-tubulin acetylation and restore the growth of CSPGs- and MAG-inhibited axons...
January 2018: ENeuro
Andrew V Caprariello, Peter K Stys
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 26, 2018: Lancet Neurology
Melissa R Wrobel, Harini G Sundararaghavan
Following peripheral nerve injury (PNI), inflammatory cues impede repair. We have previously demonstrated that spinal cord matrix (SCM) proteins and hyaluronic acid (HA) nanofibers mitigate chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) inhibition and promote growth in peripheral neurons. In this study, we evaluated the effects of a characteristic CSPG, Chondroitin sulfate A (CSA), SCM, and HA fibers on macrophages and Schwann Cells (SCs). We hypothesized that our cues would accelerate the macrophages return to rest following classical activation (M1/pro-inflammatory) with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 1μg/mL) and would accelerate the transformation of SCs from an immature state following injury to a mature/pro-myelinating phenotype...
February 17, 2018: Neuroscience
Estibaliz González-Fernández, Hey-Kyeong Jeong, Masahiro Fukaya, Hyukmin Kim, Rabia R Khawaja, Isha N Srivastava, Ari Waisman, Young-Jin Son, Shin H Kang
Oligodendrocytes (OLs), the myelin-forming CNS glia, are highly vulnerable to cellular stresses, and a severe myelin loss underlies numerous CNS disorders. Expedited OL regeneration may prevent further axonal damage and facilitate functional CNS repair. Although adult OL progenitors (OPCs) are the primary players for OL regeneration, targetable OPC-specific intracellular signaling mechanisms for facilitated OL regeneration remain elusive. Here, we report that OPC-targeted PTEN inactivation in the mouse, in contrast to OL-specific manipulations, markedly promotes OL differentiation and regeneration in the mature CNS...
February 20, 2018: ELife
Maria K Perwein, John A Smestad, Arthur E Warrington, Robin M Heider, Mark W Kaczor, Louis J Maher, Bharath Wootla, Ahmad Kunbaz, Moses Rodriguez
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic and progressive inflammatory demyelinating disease of the human central nervous system (CNS) and is the most common disabling neurological condition in young adults, resulting in severe neurological defects. No curative or long-term progression-inhibiting therapy has yet been developed. However, recent investigation has revealed potential strategies that do not merely modulate potentially pathogenic autoimmune responses, but stimulate remyelination within CNS lesions. Areas Covered: We discuss the history and development of natural human IgM-isotype immunoglobulins (HIgMs) and recently-identified aptamer-conjugates that have been shown to enhance endogenous myelin repair in animal models of demyelination by acting on myelin-producing oligodendrocytes (OLs) or oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) within CNS lesions...
February 20, 2018: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
Jian-Ping Wu, Zhen-Huan Jiang, Xiao-Jun Feng, Jian-Nong Jiang, Mao-Hua Cheng
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of negative pressure therapy in the regeneration of the rabbit sciatic nerve using vacuum assisted closure (VAC). MATERIAL AND METHODS Thirty male New Zealand white rabbits underwent surgical injury of the sciatic nerve, followed by negative pressure therapy using vacuum assisted closure (VAC), in three treatment groups: Group A: 0 kPa; Group B: -20 kPa; Group C: -40 kPa. At 12 weeks following surgery, the following factors were studied: motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV); the number of myelinated nerve fibers; the wet weight of the gastrocnemius muscle...
February 19, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
NaRi Seo, Sung-Ho Lee, Kyung Won Ju, JaeMan Woo, BongJu Kim, SoungMin Kim, Jeong Won Jahng, Jong-Ho Lee
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have been shown to promote the regeneration of injured peripheral nerves. Pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) reportedly promotes the proliferation and neuronal differentiation of BMSCs. Low-frequency PEMF can induce the neuronal differentiation of BMSCs in the absence of nerve growth factors. This study was designed to investigate the effects of low-frequency PEMF pretreatment on the proliferation and function of BMSCs and the effects of low-frequency PEMF pre-treated BMSCs on the regeneration of injured peripheral nerve using in vitro and in vivo experiments...
January 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Marcela Fernandes, Sandra Gomes Valente, Rodrigo Guerra Sabongi, João Baptista Gomes Dos Santos, Vilnei Mattioli Leite, Henning Ulrich, Arthur Andrade Nery, Maria José da Silva Fernandes
Studies have confirmed that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be used for treatment of several nervous system diseases. However, isolation of bone marrow-derived MSCs (BMSCs) is an invasive and painful process and the yield is very low. Therefore, there is a need to search for other alterative stem cell sources. Adipose-derived MSCs (ADSCs) have phenotypic and gene expression profiles similar to those of BMSCs. The production of ADSCs is greater than that of BMSCs, and ADSCs proliferate faster than BMSCs...
January 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Kai-Ming Gao, Jie Lao, Wen-Jie Guan, Jing-Jing Hu
If a partial contralateral C 7 nerve is transferred to a recipient injured nerve, results are not satisfactory. However, if an entire contralateral C 7 nerve is used to repair two nerves, both recipient nerves show good recovery. These findings seem contradictory, as the above two methods use the same donor nerve, only the cutting method of the contralateral C 7 nerve is different. To verify whether this can actually result in different repair effects, we divided rats with right total brachial plexus injury into three groups...
January 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Damiana Pieragostino, Ilaria Cicalini, Paola Lanuti, Eva Ercolino, Maria di Ioia, Mirco Zucchelli, Romina Zappacosta, Sebastiano Miscia, Marco Marchisio, Paolo Sacchetta, Marco Onofrj, Piero Del Boccio
Multiple Sclerosis (MuS) is a complex multifactorial neuropathology, resulting in heterogeneous clinical presentation. A very active MuS research field concerns the discovery of biomarkers helpful to make an early and definite diagnosis. The sphingomyelin pathway has emerged as a molecular mechanism involved in MuS, since high levels of ceramides in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were related to axonal damage and neuronal dysfunction. Ceramides are the hydrolysis products of sphingomyelins through a reaction catalyzed by a family of enzymes named sphingomyelinases, which were recently related to myelin repair in MuS...
February 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
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