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Myelin repair

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713821/comparative-analysis-of-the-cell-fates-of-induced-schwann-cells-from-subcutaneous-fat-tissue-and-na%C3%A3-ve-schwann-cells-in-the-sciatic-nerve-injury-model
#1
Mingzi Zhang, Mei Hua Jiang, Dae-Wook Kim, Woosung Ahn, Eunkyung Chung, Youngsook Son, Guangfan Chi
PURPOSE: The fate and function of the induced Schwann cells (iSCs) like cells from adipose tissue have not been critically evaluated in vivo after transplantation. The objective of this study is to compare the fate of iSCs with naïve SCs (nSCs) after transplantation into the lesion sites of sciatic nerve, respectively. METHODS: Adipose-derived stem cells from eGFP-expressing transgenic rat's subcutaneous fat were induced to iSCs in vitro. iSCs were injected to the sciatic nerve lesion area after crush injury and the cells fate was comparatively analyzed with that of nSCs from the same rat...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696010/myelin-as-an-inflammatory-mediator-myelin-interactions-with-complement-macrophages-and-microglia-in-spinal-cord-injury
#2
REVIEW
Timothy J Kopper, John C Gensel
Spinal cord injury (SCI) triggers chronic intraspinal inflammation consisting of activated resident and infiltrating immune cells (especially microglia/macrophages). The environmental factors contributing to this protracted inflammation are not well understood; however, myelin lipid debris is a hallmark of SCI. Myelin is also a potent macrophage stimulus and target of complement-mediated clearance and inflammation. The downstream effects of these neuroimmune interactions have the potential to contribute to ongoing pathology or facilitate repair...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687442/increased-bace1-activity-inhibits-peripheral-nerve-regeneration-after-injury
#3
Carolyn Tallon, Edward Rockenstein, Eliezer Masliah, Mohamed H Farah
Axons of the peripheral nervous system possess the capacity to regenerate following injury. Previously, we showed that genetically knocking out Beta-Site APP-Cleaving Enzyme 1 (BACE1) leads to increased nerve regeneration. Two cellular components, macrophages and neurons, contribute to enhanced nerve regeneration in BACE1 knockout mice. Here, we utilized a transgenic mouse model that overexpresses BACE1 in its neurons to investigate whether neuronal BACE1 has an inverse effect on regeneration following nerve injury...
July 5, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685761/remyelination-therapies-a-new-direction-and-challenge-in-multiple-sclerosis
#4
REVIEW
Jason R Plemel, Wei-Qiao Liu, V Wee Yong
Multiple sclerosis is characterized by inflammatory activity that results in destruction of the myelin sheaths that enwrap axons. The currently available medications for multiple sclerosis are predominantly immune-modulating and do not directly promote repair. White matter regeneration, or remyelination, is a new and exciting potential approach to treating multiple sclerosis, as remyelination repairs the damaged regions of the central nervous system. A wealth of new strategies in animal models that promote remyelination, including the repopulation of oligodendrocytes that produce myelin, has led to several clinical trials to test new reparative therapies...
July 7, 2017: Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685533/femoral-nerve-repair-using-an-h-type-nerve-regeneration-chamber-in-rats
#5
X Y Hong, X Hong, W W Gu, J Lin, W T Yin
Peripheral nerve injury in surgical trauma patients is very common. The femoral nerve can be divided into two branches: one regarding the quadricep muscles and one the skin. After nerve transection and suture, the motor axons have an equal opportunity to regenerate into the original muscle branch, or regenerate into the sensory skin nerves. These anatomical features of femoral nerve have made it important in nerve regeneration research. Thus, this study was designed to examine the effects of an H-type nerve regeneration chamber on motor nerve regeneration after femoral nerve injury...
April 2017: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674983/multiple-sclerosis-basic-and-clinical
#6
Katherine Buzzard, Wing Hei Chan, Trevor Kilpatrick, Simon Murray
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common neurodegenerative disease affecting young adults in our community. It is a complex disease influenced by gender, genetic and environmental factors. MS is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system caused by aberrant immune activation resulting in damage to myelin sheaths within the brain and spinal cord and axonal loss. The demyelinating insult initially impairs the speed and efficiency of nerve cell function. In the majority of cases, this is followed by an innate endogenous repair response that can restore the myelin sheath and nerve cell function to relatively normal levels...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668379/design-and-optimization-of-plga-microparticles-for-controlled-and-local-delivery-of-neuregulin-1-in-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury
#7
Kallivalappil T Santhosh, Arsalan Alizadeh, Soheila Karimi-Abdolrezaee
Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in significant tissue damage that underlies functional impairments. Pharmacological interventions to confer neuroprotection and promote cell replacement are essential for SCI repair. We previously reported that Neuregulin-1 (Nrg-1) is acutely and permanently downregulated after SCI. Nrg-1 is a critical growth factor for differentiation of neural precursor cells (NPCs) into myelinating oligodendrocytes. We showed that intrathecal delivery of Nrg-1 enhances oligodendrocyte replacement following SCI...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668079/effects-of-bu-shen-yi-sui-capsule-on-nogoa-ngr-and-its-signaling-pathways-rhoa-rock-in-mice-with-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#8
Ling Fang, Yongqiang Wang, Qi Zheng, Tao Yang, Peiyuan Zhao, Hui Zhao, Qiuxia Zhang, Yuanyuan Zhao, Fang Qi, Kangning Li, Zhenzhen Chen, Junling Li, Nan Zhang, Yongping Fan, Lei Wang
BACKGROUND: Axon growth inhibitory factors NogoA/Nogo receptor (NgR) and its signaling pathways RhoA/Rho kinase (ROCK) play a critical role in the repair of nerve damage in multiple sclerosis (MS). Bu Shen Yi Sui Capsule (BSYSC) is an effective Chinese formula utilized to treat MS in clinical setting and noted for its potent neuroprotective effects. In this study, we focus on the effects of BSYSC on promoting nerve repair and the underlying mechanisms in mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS...
July 1, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658635/adipose-derived-stem-cell-sheets-functionalized-by-hybrid-baculovirus-for-prolonged-gdnf-expression-and-improved-nerve-regeneration
#9
Mu-Nung Hsu, Han-Tsung Liao, Kuei-Chang Li, Hwei-Hsien Chen, Tzu-Chen Yen, Pavel Makarevich, Yelena Parfyonova, Yu-Chen Hu
Peripheral nerve regeneration requires coordinated functions of supporting cells (e.g. Schwann cells) and neurotrophic factors such as glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), but nerve regeneration is usually far from complete. Here we constructed a Cre/loxP-based hybrid baculovirus (BV) vector which enabled intracellular formation of episomal DNA minicircle for effective transduction of rat adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and prolonged expression of functional GDNF capable of recruiting Schwann cells...
May 3, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646336/nogo-a-antibodies-enhance-axonal-repair-and-remyelination-in-neuro-inflammatory-and-demyelinating-pathology
#10
Benjamin V Ineichen, Sandra Kapitza, Christiane Bleul, Nicolas Good, Patricia S Plattner, Maryam S Seyedsadr, Julia Kaiser, Marc P Schneider, Björn Zörner, Roland Martin, Michael Linnebank, Martin E Schwab
Two hallmarks of chronic multiple sclerosis lesions are the absence of significant spontaneous remyelination and primary as well as secondary neurodegeneration. Both characteristics may be influenced by the presence of inhibitory factors preventing myelin and neuronal repair. We investigated the potential of antibodies against Nogo-A, a well-known inhibitory protein for neuronal growth and plasticity, to enhance neuronal regeneration and remyelination in two animal models of multiple sclerosis. We induced a targeted experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) lesion in the dorsal funiculus of the cervical spinal cord of adult rats resulting in a large drop of skilled forelimb motor functions...
June 23, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638124/expression-of-the-human-herpesvirus-6a-latency-associated-transcript-u94a-disrupts-human-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-migration
#11
Andrew Campbell, Jessica M Hogestyn, Christopher J Folts, Brittany Lopez, Christoph Pröschel, David Mock, Margot Mayer-Pröschel
Progression of demyelinating diseases is caused by an imbalance of two opposing processes: persistent destruction of myelin and myelin repair by differentiating oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs). Repair that cannot keep pace with destruction results in progressive loss of myelin. Viral infections have long been suspected to be involved in these processes but their specific role remains elusive. Here we describe a novel mechanism by which HHV-6A, a member of the human herpesvirus family, may contribute to inadequate myelin repair after injury...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629798/proteomic-analysis-of-mesenchymal-to-schwann-cell-transdifferentiation
#12
Anup D Sharma, Jayme Wiederin, Metin Uz, Pawel Ciborowski, Surya K Mallapragada, Howard E Gendelman, Donald S Sakaguchi
While transplantation of Schwann cells facilitates axon regeneration, remyelination and repair after peripheral nerve injury clinical use is limited by cell bioavailability. We posit that such limitation in cell access can be overcome by the use of autologous bone-marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). As MSCs can transdifferentiate to Schwann cell-phenotypes and accelerate nerve regeneration we undertook proteomic evaluation of the cells to uncover the protein contents that affects Schwann cell formulation...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629387/an-updated-assessment-of-microglia-depletion-current-concepts-and-future-directions
#13
REVIEW
Jinming Han, Robert A Harris, Xing-Mei Zhang
Microglia are the principal resident immune cells in the central nervous system and are believed to be versatile players in both inflammatory and physiological contexts. On the one hand, in order to safeguard the microenvironment microglia can be rapidly activated by contact with microbial products or cell debris, thereby exerting the functions of innate immunity via phagocytosis and secretion of cytokines and chemokines. Conversely, microglia can also assist in brain development, synaptic plasticity and neural repair through the production of neurotrophic factors and clearance of myelin debris...
June 19, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624802/heparin-based-coacervate-of-bfgf-facilitates-peripheral-nerve-regeneration-by-inhibiting-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-following-sciatic-nerve-injury
#14
Rui Li, Shuang Zou, Yanqing Wu, Yiyang Li, Sinan Khor, Yuqin Mao, Huacheng He, Ke Xu, Hongyu Zhang, Xiaokun Li, Jian Wang, Huai Jiang, Qike Jin, Qingsong Ye, Zhouguang Wang, Jian Xiao
Creating a microenvironment at the injury site that favors axonal regrowth and remyelinationis pivotal to the success of therapeutic reinnervation. The mature myelin sheath of the peripheral nervous system depends on active participation of Schwann cells to form new cytoskeletal components and tremendous amounts of relevant neurotrophic factors. In this study, we utilized a new biomaterial for growth factor delivery consisting of a biocompatible polycation, poly(ethylene argininylaspartatediglyceride) and heparin...
May 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622711/curcumin-accelerates-the-repair-of-sciatic-nerve-injury-in-rats-through-reducing-schwann-cells-apoptosis-and-promoting-myelinization
#15
Zhiwei Zhao, Xiaoling Li, Qing Li
BACKGROUND: Schwann cells (SCs) play an indispensable role in the repair and regeneration of injured peripheral nerve. Curcumin can reduce SCs apoptosis, and promote the regeneration and functional recovery of injured peripheral nerves. However, the corresponding mechanisms are not clear. OBJECTIVE: The article was aimed to explore the effect and corresponding mechanisms of curcumin on the repair of sciatic nerve injury in rats. METHODS: After surgery induced sciatic nerve injury, the model rats were divided into three groups and treated with curcumin, curcumin+PD98059 and curcumin+IGF-1 respectively for 4days...
August 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606714/effect-of-physical-exercise-on-brain-and-lipid-metabolism-in-mouse-models-of-multiple-sclerosis
#16
REVIEW
Léo Houdebine, Cristina Anna Gallelli, Marialetizia Rastelli, Nirmal Kumar Sampathkumar, Julien Grenier
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a central nervous demyelinating disease characterized by cyclic loss and repair of myelin sheaths associated with chronic inflammation and neuronal loss. This degenerative pathology is accompanied by modified levels of oxysterols (oxidative derivatives of cholesterol, implicated in cholesterol metabolism), highlighted in the brain, blood and cerebrospinal fluid of MS patients. The pathological accumulation of such derivatives is thought to participate in the onset and progression of the disease through their implication in inflammation, oxidative stress, demyelination and neurodegeneration...
June 9, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604632/experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-eae-induced-elevated-expression-of-the-e1-isoform-of-methyl-cpg-binding-protein-2-mecp2e1-implications-in-multiple-sclerosis-ms-induced-neurological-disability-and-associated-myelin-damage
#17
Tina Khorshid Ahmad, Ting Zhou, Khaled AlTaweel, Claudia Cortes, Ryan Lillico, Ted Martin Lakowski, Kiana Gozda, Michael Peter Namaka
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neurological disease characterized by the destruction of central nervous system (CNS) myelin. At present, there is no cure for MS due to the inability to repair damaged myelin. Although the neurotrophin brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has a beneficial role in myelin repair, these effects may be hampered by the over-expression of a transcriptional repressor isoform of methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) called MeCP2E1. We hypothesize that following experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)-induced myelin damage, the immune system induction of the pathogenic MeCP2E1 isoform hampers the myelin repair process by repressing BDNF expression...
June 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600955/parp-activity-and-inhibition-in-fetal-and-adult-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells-effect-on-cell-survival-and-differentiation
#18
Vito A Baldassarro, Alessandra Marchesini, Luciana Giardino, Laura Calzà
Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) family members are ubiquitously expressed and play a key role in cellular processes, including DNA repair and cell death/survival balance. Accordingly, PARP inhibition is an emerging pharmacological strategy for cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. Consistent evidences support the critical involvement of PARP family members in cell differentiation and phenotype maturation. In this study we used an oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) enriched system derived from fetal and adult brain to investigate the role of PARP in OPCs proliferation, survival, and differentiation...
May 30, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598297/the-neuronal-differentiation-microenvironment-is-essential-for-spinal-cord-injury-repair
#19
Yannan Zhao, Zhifeng Xiao, Bing Chen, Jianwu Dai
Spinal cord injury (SCI) often leads to substantial disability due to loss of motor function and sensation below the lesion. Neural stem cells (NSCs) are a promising strategy for SCI repair. However, NSCs rarely differentiate into neurons; they mostly differentiate into astrocytes because of the adverse microenvironment present after SCI. We have shown that myelin-associated inhibitors (MAIs) inhibited neuronal differentiation of NSCs. Given that MAIs activate epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling, we used a collagen scaffold-tethered anti-EGFR antibody to attenuate the inhibitory effects of MAIs and create a neuronal differentiation microenvironment for SCI repair...
June 9, 2017: Organogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594400/the-role-of-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells-expressing-the-gpr17-receptor-in-brain-remodeling-after-stroke
#20
Elisabetta Bonfanti, Paolo Gelosa, Marta Fumagalli, Leda Dimou, Francesca Viganò, Elena Tremoli, Mauro Cimino, Luigi Sironi, Maria P Abbracchio
Following stroke-induced neuronal damage, quiescent oligodendrocyte precursors (OPCs) are activated to proliferate and later to differentiate to myelin-producing cells. GPR17, a receptor transiently expressed on early OPCs, has emerged as a target to implement stroke repair through stimulation of OPC maturation. However, being GPR17 completely downregulated in myelin-producing oligodendrocytes, its actual role in determining the final fate of OPCs after cerebral ischemia is still uncertain. Here, to univocally define the spatiotemporal changes and final fate of GPR17-expressing OPCs, we induced ischemia by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) in reporter GPR17iCreER(T2):CAG-eGreen florescent protein (GFP) mice, in which, upon tamoxifen treatment, cells expressing GPR17 become green and traceable for their entire life...
June 8, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
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