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Myelin repair

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331024/combination-therapy-of-lovastatin-and-ampk-activator-improves-mitochondrial-and-peroxisomal-functions-and-clinical-disease-in-eae-model
#1
Inderjit Singh, Devadoss J Samuvel, Seungho Choi, Nishant Saxena, Avtar K Singh, Jeseong Won
Recent studies report that loss and dysfunction of mitochondria and peroxisomes contribute to the myelin and axonal damage in multiple sclerosis (MS). In this study, we investigated the efficacy of lovastatin and AMPK activator (AICAR) combination on the loss and dysfunction of mitochondria and peroxisomes and myelin and axonal damage in the spinal cords, relative to the clinical disease symptoms, using a mouse model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, a model for MS). We observed that lovastatin and AICAR treatments individually provided partial protection of mitochondria/peroxisomes, myelin/axons, and thus partial attenuation of clinical disease in EAE mice...
January 13, 2018: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323053/roles-of-neural-stem-cells-in-the-repair-of-peripheral-nerve-injury
#2
REVIEW
Chong Wang, Chang-Feng Lu, Jiang Peng, Cheng-Dong Hu, Yu Wang
Currently, researchers are using neural stem cell transplantation to promote regeneration after peripheral nerve injury, as neural stem cells play an important role in peripheral nerve injury repair. This article reviews recent research progress of the role of neural stem cells in the repair of peripheral nerve injury. Neural stem cells can not only differentiate into neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, but can also differentiate into Schwann-like cells, which promote neurite outgrowth around the injury...
December 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323026/the-contribution-of-oligodendrocytes-and-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cells-to-central-nervous-system-repair-in-multiple-sclerosis-perspectives-for-remyelination-therapeutic-strategies
#3
REVIEW
Adriana Octaviana Dulamea
Oligodencrocytes (OLs) are the main glial cells of the central nervous system involved in myelination of axons. In multiple sclerosis (MS), there is an imbalance between demyelination and remyelination processes, the last one performed by oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) and OLs, resulting into a permanent demyelination, axonal damage and neuronal loss. In MS lesions, astrocytes and microglias play an important part in permeabilization of blood-brain barrier and initiation of OPCs proliferation. Migration and differentiation of OPCs are influenced by various factors and the process is finalized by insufficient acummulation of OLs into the MS lesion...
December 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309860/effects-of-total-saponins-from-trillium-tschonoskii-rhizome-on-grey-and-white-matter-injury-evaluated-by-quantitative-multiparametric-mri-in-a-rat-model-of-ischemic-stroke
#4
Manzhong Li, Junyao Ouyang, Yi Zhang, Brian Chi Yan Cheng, Yu Zhan, Le Yang, Haiyan Zou, Hui Zhao
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Trillium tschonoskii rhizome (TTR), a medicinal herb, has been traditionally used to treat traumatic brain injury and headache in China. Although the potential neuroprotective efficacy of TTR has gained increasing interest, the pharmacological mechanism remains unclear. Steroid saponins are the main bioactive components of the herb. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the protective and repair-promoting effects of the total saponins from TTR (TSTT) on grey and white matter damages in a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assay...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307300/epigenetic-modifications-in-brain-and-immune-cells-of-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#5
Kamilah Castro, Patrizia Casaccia
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a debilitating neurological disease whose onset and progression are influenced by the interplay of genetic and environmental factors. Epigenetic modifications, which include post-translational modification of the histones and DNA, are considered mediators of gene-environment interactions and a growing body of evidence suggests that they play an important role in MS pathology and could be potential therapeutic targets. Since epigenetic events regulate transcription of different genes in a cell type-specific fashion, we caution on the distinct functional consequences that targeting the same epigenetic modifications might have in distinct cell types...
January 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307265/epigenetic-control-of-schwann-cells
#6
Ki H Ma, John Svaren
The journey of Schwann cells from their origin in the neural crest to their ensheathment and myelination of peripheral nerves is a remarkable one. Their apparent static function in enabling saltatory conduction of mature nerve is not only vital for long-term health of peripheral nerve but also belies an innate capacity of terminally differentiated Schwann cells to radically alter their differentiation status in the face of nerve injury. The transition from migrating neural crest cells to nerve ensheathment, and then myelination of large diameter axons has been characterized extensively and several of the transcriptional networks have been identified...
January 1, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300019/a-bloody-brake-on-myelin-repair
#7
Klaus-Armin Nave, Hannelore Ehrenreich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 4, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286075/genome-expression-profiling-predicts-the-molecular-mechanism-of-peripheral-myelination
#8
Xiaoming Wu
The present study aimed to explore the molecular mechanism of myelination in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) based on genome expression profiles. Microarray data (GSE60345) was acquired from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were integrated and subsequently subjected to pathway and term enrichment analysis. A protein‑protein interaction network was constructed and the top 200 DEGs according to their degree value were further subjected to pathway enrichment analysis...
December 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285954/clinical-implications-of-myelin-regeneration-in-the-central-nervous-system
#9
Christopher E McMurran, Srikirti Kodali, Adam Young, Robin Jm Franklin
Amongst strategies to repair the brain, myelin repair offers genuine cause for optimism. Myelin, which sheaths most axons in the central nervous system (CNS), is vital for normal neurological function, as demonstrated by the functional deficits that accrue when it is absent in a range of debilitating myelin diseases. Following demyelination, post-mortem and imaging studies have shown that extensive regeneration of myelin is possible in the human brain. Over recent decades preclinical research has given us a strong understanding of the biology of myelin regeneration, opening up several exciting therapeutic opportunities that are on the cusp of clinical translation...
December 29, 2017: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283028/cxcl12-cxcr4-cxcr7-chemokine-axis-in-the-central-nervous-system-therapeutic-targets-for-remyelination-in-demyelinating-diseases
#10
Tianci Chu, Lisa B E Shields, Yi Ping Zhang, Shi-Qing Feng, Christopher B Shields, Jun Cai
The chemokine CXCL12 plays a vital role in regulating the development of the central nervous system (CNS) by binding to its receptors CXCR4 and CXCR7. Recent studies reported that the CXCL12/CXCR4/CXCR7 axis regulates both embryonic and adult oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) in their proliferation, migration, and differentiation. The changes in the expression and distribution of CXCL12 and its receptors are tightly associated with the pathological process of demyelination in multiple sclerosis (MS), suggesting that modulating the CXCL12/CXCR4/CXCR7 axis may benefit myelin repair by enhancing OPC recruitment and differentiation...
December 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280192/igfbp-7-inhibits-the-differentiation-of-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells-via-regulation-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#11
Nan Li, Jinfeng Han, Jing Tang, Yanqin Ying
Oligodendrocytes (OLs) are glial cells that form myelin sheaths in the central nervous system. Myelin sheath plays important role in nervous system and loss of it in neurodegenerative diseases can lead to impairment of movement. Understanding the signals and factors that regulate OL differentiation can help to address novel strategies for improving myelin repair in neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins 7 (IGFBP-7) in differentiating OL precursor cells (OPCs)...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251594/lrp1-regulates-peroxisome-biogenesis-and-cholesterol-homeostasis-in-oligodendrocytes-and-is-required-for-proper-cns-myelin-development-and-repair
#12
Jing-Ping Lin, Yevgeniya A Mironova, Peter Shrager, Roman J Giger
Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1) is a large endocytic and signaling molecule broadly expressed by neurons and glia. In adult mice, global inducible (Lrp1flox/flox;CAG-CreER) or oligodendrocyte (OL)-lineage specific ablation (Lrp1flox/flox;Pdgfra-CreER) of Lrp1 attenuates repair of damaged white matter. In oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), Lrp1 is required for cholesterol homeostasis and differentiation into mature OLs. Lrp1 deficient OPC/OLs show a strong increase in the sterol-regulatory element-binding protein-2, yet are unable to maintain normal cholesterol levels, suggesting more global metabolic deficits...
December 18, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224279/-overexpression-of-trpv1-after-periphery-nerve-injury-attenuates-nerve-regeneration-in-rats
#13
J Bai, Y Zhang, Y F Wang, J Lan, X Q Li
Objective: To observe the effect of the expressive or functional blockage of TRPV1 on nerve regeneration after sciatic trans-section injury. Methods: AMG-517, a kind of TRPV1 inhibitor, was injected into the surrounding area of the ipsilateral lumbar dorsal root ganglia while unilateral sciatic nerve was transected. A total of 24 healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups: control group, injury only group, injury+ AMG-517 150 μg/kg group, injury+ AMG-517 300 μg/kg group. The injury only group was injected the same volume of medium...
December 8, 2017: Zhonghua Bing Li Xue za Zhi Chinese Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222780/oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cell-cultures-a-model-to-screen-neurotrophic-compounds-for-myelin-repair
#14
Massimo Barbierato, Stephen D Skaper, Laura Facci
The protocol presented in this chapter covers the application of rat cortical oligodendrocyte progenitor cells cultured under conditions of differentiation for the evaluation of agents with potential trophic activity, that is, which are capable of promoting maturation under such conditions. As an example we have chosen a co-ultramicronized N-palmitoylethanolamine/luteolin composite, a formulation described in the literature as possessing anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and neuroregenerative actions.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220373/can-nerve-regeneration-on-an-artificial-nerve-conduit-be-enhanced-by-ethanol-induced-cervical-sympathetic-ganglion-block
#15
Yoshiki Shionoya, Katsuhisa Sunada, Keiji Shigeno, Akira Nakada, Michitaka Honda, Tatsuo Nakamura
This study aimed to determine whether nerve regeneration by means of an artificial nerve conduit is promoted by ethanol-induced cervical sympathetic ganglion block (CSGB) in a canine model. This study involved two experiments-in part I, the authors examined the effect of CSGB by ethanol injection on long-term blood flow to the orofacial region; part II involved evaluation of the effect of CSGB by ethanol injection on inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) repair using polyglycolic acid-collagen tubes. In part I, seven Beagles were administered left CSGB by injection of 99...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217688/sustained-mapk-erk-activation-in-adult-schwann-cells-impairs-nerve-repair
#16
Ilaria Cervellini, Jorge Galino, Ning Zhu, Shannen Allen, Carmen Birchmeier, David L Bennett
The MAPK/ERK pathway has a critical role in PNS development. It is required for Schwann cell (SC) differentiation and myelination; sustained embryonic MAPK/ERK activation in SCs enhances myelin growth overcoming signals that normally end myelination. Excess activation of this pathway can be maladaptive as in adulthood acute strong activation of MAPK/ERK has been shown to cause SC dedifferentiation and demyelination. We used a mouse model (including male and female animals) in which gain of function Mek1DD allele produces sustained MAPK/ERK activation in adult SCs and we determined the impact of such activation on nerve repair...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216454/fibrinogen-in-the-nervous-system-glia-beware
#17
Erin H Norris, Sidney Strickland
Re-myelination of CNS nerves after injury is ineffective. Here, Petersen et al. (2017) show that the blood clotting protein fibrinogen inhibits nerve repair by preventing oligodendrocyte progenitor cells from differentiating into myelinating oligodendrocytes. Targeting fibrinogen or its downstream BMP signaling pathway may help with CNS repair.
December 6, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171436/end-to-side-neurorrhaphy-repairs-peripheral-nerve-injury-sensory-nerve-induces-motor-nerve-regeneration
#18
Qing Yu, She-Hong Zhang, Tao Wang, Feng Peng, Dong Han, Yu-Dong Gu
End-to-side neurorrhaphy is an option in the treatment of the long segment defects of a nerve. It involves suturing the distal stump of the disconnected nerve (recipient nerve) to the side of the intimate adjacent nerve (donor nerve). However, the motor-sensory specificity after end-to-side neurorrhaphy remains unclear. This study sought to evaluate whether cutaneous sensory nerve regeneration induces motor nerves after end-to-side neurorrhaphy. Thirty rats were randomized into three groups: (1) end-to-side neurorrhaphy using the ulnar nerve (mixed sensory and motor) as the donor nerve and the cutaneous antebrachii medialis nerve as the recipient nerve; (2) the sham group: ulnar nerve and cutaneous antebrachii medialis nerve were just exposed; and (3) the transected nerve group: cutaneous antebrachii medialis nerve was transected and the stumps were turned over and tied...
October 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167725/transdifferentiation-of-human-dental-pulp-stem-cells-into-oligoprogenitor-cells
#19
Ardeshir Moayeri, Maryam Nazm Bojnordi, Sara Haratizadeh, Amir Esmaeilnejad-Moghadam, Rafieh Alizadeh, Hatef Ghasemi Hamidabadi
Introduction: The nerve fibers in central nervous system are surrounded by myelin sheet which is formed by oligodendrocytes. Cell therapy based on oligodendrocytes and their precursors transplantation can hold a promising alternative treatment for myelin sheet repair in demyelinating diseases. Methods: Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells (hDPSCs) are noninvasive, autologous and easy available source with multipotency characteristics, so they are in focus of interest in regenerative medicine...
September 2017: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157398/new-advances-in-disease-modifying-therapies-for-relapsing-and-progressive-forms-of-multiple-sclerosis
#20
REVIEW
Angela Vidal-Jordana
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease of the central nervous system in which inflammation, demyelination, and axonal loss occurs from early stages of the disease. It mainly affects people between 20 and 40 years old, with a female predominance. Treatment options have been increasingly growing in the past years and newer drugs, some with novel mechanisms of action, are being developed for treating patients with MS. There is an increasing interest in developing new drugs that will promote neuroprotection and/or myelin repair through different mechanisms of action that may target the most degenerative component of the disease...
February 2018: Neurologic Clinics
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