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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088616/patient-agency-and-contested-notions-of-disability-in-social-assistance-applications-in-south-africa
#1
Gabrielle Kelly
Problems in fairly allocating welfare and health resources are very often located in the spaces where citizens interact directly with state workers. This study draws on observations of doctor-patient encounters in disability assessments for the South African disability grant (DG) to examine how doctor-patient interactions and patient agency shape social welfare allocation in a context of high poverty and inequality. Data were gathered via interviews with healthcare workers and observations of doctor-patient interactions in twelve clinics and three hospitals in the Western Cape province between October 2013 and August 2014...
January 9, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088374/fibrinogen-in-traumatic-haemorrhage-a-narrative-review
#2
REVIEW
James Winearls, Don Campbell, Catherine Hurn, Jeremy Furyk, Glenn Ryan, Melita Trout, James Walsham, Anthony Holley, Megan Suttleworth, Wayne Dyer, Gerben Keijzers, Jeff Presneill, John F Fraser, Martin Wullschleger
Haemorrhage in the setting of severe trauma is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. There is increasing awareness of the important role fibrinogen plays in traumatic haemorrhage. Fibrinogen levels fall precipitously in severe trauma and the resultant hypofibrinogenaemia is associated with poor outcomes. Hence, it has been postulated that early fibrinogen replacement in severe traumatic haemorrhage may improve outcomes, although, to date there is a paucity of high quality evidence to support this hypothesis...
December 26, 2016: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088199/strategies-to-reduce-the-stigma-toward-people-with-mental-disorders-in-iran-stakeholders-perspectives
#3
Arsia Taghva, Zahra Farsi, Yavar Javanmard, Afsaneh Atashi, Ahmad Hajebi, Ahmad Ali Noorbala
BACKGROUND: Stigma affects all aspects of mental disorders, and is the most important risk factor for promoting mental health. The aim of this study was to explore strategies effective in reducing the stigma toward people with mental disorders in Iran. METHODS: This qualitative study was conducted from 2013 to 2016. All participants were recruited by purposive sampling method. The majority of them were stakeholders of mental health in Iran. Data were collected through eight individual interviews, two focus groups, and six written narratives...
January 14, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088166/impact-of-home-care-versus-alternative-locations-of-care-on-elder-health-outcomes-an-overview-of-systematic-reviews
#4
Laura Boland, France Légaré, Maria Margarita Becerra Perez, Matthew Menear, Mirjam Marjolein Garvelink, Daniel I McIsaac, Geneviève Painchaud Guérard, Julie Emond, Nathalie Brière, Dawn Stacey
BACKGROUND: Many elders struggle with the decision to remain at home or to move to an alternative location of care. A person's location of care can influence health and wellbeing. Healthcare organizations and policy makers are increasingly challenged to better support elders' dwelling and health care needs. A summary of the evidence that examines home care compared to other care locations can inform decision making. We surveyed and summarized the evidence evaluating the impact of home care versus alternative locations of care on elder health outcomes...
January 14, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087727/bioethics-and-imagination-towards-a-narrative-bioethics-committed-to-social-action-and-justice
#5
Camilo Hernán Manchola Castillo, Jan Helge Solbakk
Recently, the involvement of various authors coming from the social sciences and the arts has reinforced the humanistic component of bioethics. Their contributions vary from very theoretical perspectives to rather practical ones. In this paper, Martha Nussbaum's books, The Fragility of Goodness (1986), Love's Knowledge (1990), Cultivating Humanity (1997) and Creating Capabilities (2011) are analysed from the vantage point of narrative bioethics. It is argued that Nussbaum's notions of 'Narrative', 'Imagination' and 'Cultivation' open up the possibility of developing an action-oriented form of narrative bioethics, that is, a bioethics committed to social action and justice...
January 13, 2017: Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087554/how-prepared-are-uk-medical-graduates-for-practice-a-rapid-review-of-the-literature-2009-2014
#6
Lynn V Monrouxe, Lisa Grundy, Mala Mann, Zoe John, Eleni Panagoulas, Alison Bullock, Karen Mattick
OBJECTIVE: To understand how prepared UK medical graduates are for practice and the effectiveness of workplace transition interventions. DESIGN: A rapid review of the literature (registration #CRD42013005305). DATA SOURCES: Nine major databases (and key websites) were searched in two timeframes (July-September 2013; updated May-June 2014): CINAHL, Embase, Educational Resources Information Centre, Health Management Information Consortium, MEDLINE, MEDLINE in Process, PsycINFO, Scopus and Web of Knowledge...
January 13, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087544/children-s-experiences-of-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-myalgic-encephalomyelitis-cfs-me-a-systematic-review-and-meta-ethnography-of-qualitative-studies
#7
Roxanne M Parslow, Sarah Harris, Jessica Broughton, Adla Alattas, Esther Crawley, Kirstie Haywood, Alison Shaw
OBJECTIVE: To synthesis the qualitative studies of children's experiences of chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME). DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-ethnography. BACKGROUND: CFS/ME is an important disabling illness, with uncertain cause and prognosis. As a result, children with CFS/ME can find themselves living with greater uncertainty and stigma, exacerbating the impact of the condition. There is a growing body of qualitative research in CFS/ME, yet there has been no attempt to systematically synthesis the studies involving children...
January 13, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087421/physiology-anaerobes-and-the-origin-of-mitosing-cells-50-years-on
#8
William F Martin
Endosymbiotic theory posits that some organelles or structures of eukaryotic cells stem from free-living prokaryotes that became endosymbionts within a host cell. Endosymbiosis has a long and turbulent history of controversy and debate going back over 100 years. The 1967 paper by Lynn Sagan (later Lynn Margulis) forced a reluctant field to take endosymbiotic theory seriously and to incorporate it into the fabric of evolutionary thinking. Margulis envisaged three cellular partners associating in series at eukaryotic origin: the host (an engulfing bacterium), the mitochondrion (a respiring bacterium), and the flagellum (a spirochaete), with lineages descended from that flagellated eukaryote subsequently acquiring plastids from cyanobacteria, but on multiple different occasions in her 1967 account...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086924/treating-infants-with-frigg-linking-disease-aetiologies-medicinal-plant-use-and-care-seeking-behaviour-in-southern-morocco
#9
Irene Teixidor-Toneu, Gary J Martin, Rajindra K Puri, Ahmed Ouhammou, Julie A Hawkins
BACKGROUND: Although most Moroccans rely to some extent on traditional medicine, the practice of frigg to treat paediatric ailments by elderly women traditional healers known as ferraggat, has not yet been documented. We describe the role of these specialist healers, document the medicinal plants they use, and evaluate how and why their practice is changing. METHODS: Ethnomedicinal and ethnobotanical data were collected using semi-structured interviews and observations of medical encounters...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081032/a-systematic-review-of-the-factors-influencing-ethnic-minority-women-s-cervical-cancer-screening-behavior-from-intrapersonal-to-policy-level
#10
Dorothy N S Chan, Winnie K W So
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer can be prevented by effective screening using Papanicolaou tests, but the utilization rate is lower among ethnic minorities than in the general population. Understanding the factors influencing minorities' use of such screening can aid the design of an appropriate intervention to increase their uptake rate. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to examine the factors that influence ethnic minority women in using cervical cancer screening and the similarities and differences in associated factors across different groups and to explore the interrelationships between the factors identified...
January 9, 2017: Cancer Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079419/what-do-we-know-about-emotional-labour-in-nursing-a-narrative-review
#11
Sondra Badolamenti, Alessandro Sili, Rosario Caruso, Roberta FidaFida
Nurses have to manage their emotions and the expression of emotion to perform best care, and their behaviours pass through emotional labour (EL). However, EL seems to be an under-appreciated aspect of caring work and there is no synthetic portrait of literature about EL in the nursing profession. This review was conducted to synthesise and to critically analyse the literature in the nursing field related to EL. Twenty-seven papers were included and analysed with a narrative approach, where two main themes were found: EL strategies and EL antecedents and consequences...
January 12, 2017: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078997/lipoprotein-a-and-cardiovascular-risk-the-show-must-go-on
#12
Niki Katsiki, Khalid Al-Rasadi, Dimitri P Mikhailidis
Lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] is an independent but moderate, predictor for coronary heart disease (CHD) prevalence and severity. Several established and emerging cardiovascular (CV) risk factors including age, gender, ethnicity, smoking, dyslipidemia, hypertension, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, alcohol consumption, arterial stiffness and hyperuricemia have been linked to Lp(a) metabolism. Apart from CHD, Lp(a) has been also associated with non-cardiac vascular diseases and diseases associated with increased CV risk such as chronic kidney disease, metabolic syndrome, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, erectile dysfunction, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, inflammatory bowel diseases and human immunodeficiency virus infection...
January 12, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078987/role-of-proinflammatory-cytokines-in-dopaminergic-system-disturbances-implications-for-anhedonic-features-of-mdd
#13
Zihang Pan, Joshua D Rosenblat, Walter Swardfager, Roger S McIntyre
Anhedonia, characterized by a loss of interest and/or pleasure in previously enjoyable activities, is an important diagnostic criterion of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Converging evidence implicates a behaviouralcausal relationship between proinflammatory cytokines and disturbances that characterize anhedonia in the context of MDD. Additionally, anhedonia has been implicated in disturbances of key central dopaminergic modulatory pathways. Emerging research into the roles of tetrahydrobiopterin, a cytokine-targeted co-enzyme in the synthesis of dopamine, and kynurenine, a product of inflammation-sensitive breakdown of tryptophan via indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase, have shed new light into the role of inflammation in mediating anhedonic behaviours...
January 11, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078803/why-do-they-care-narratives-of-physician-volunteers-on-motivations-for-participation-in-short-term-medical-missions-abroad
#14
Paul H Caldron, Ann Impens, Milena Pavlova, Wim Groot
BACKGROUND: Short-term medical missions (STMMs) refer to the provision of direct pro bono medical services in lower and middle income countries for periods ranging from days to a few weeks by physicians from rich countries. Survey data have provided limited information on demographic and professional profiles of physicians as well as monetary and manpower inputs. Understanding why physicians participate, however, remains incomplete. The study's objective was to elicit physicians' motivations directly...
January 12, 2017: International Journal of Health Planning and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078766/lost-in-transformation-reviving-ethics-of-care-in-hospital-cultures-of-evidence-based-healthcare
#15
Annelise Norlyk, Anita Haahr, Pia Dreyer, Bente Martinsen
Drawing on previous empirical research, we provide an exemplary narrative to illustrate how patients have experienced hospital care organized according to evidence-based fast-track programmes. The aim of this paper was to analyse and discuss if and how it is possible to include patients' individual perspectives in an evidence-based practice as seen from the point of view of nursing theory. The paper highlights two conflicting courses of development. One is a course of standardization founded on evidence-based recommendations, which specify a set of rules that the patient must follow rigorously...
January 12, 2017: Nursing Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078316/covert-narrative-capacity-mental-life-in-patients-thought-to-lack-consciousness
#16
Lorina Naci, Mackenzie Graham, Adrian M Owen, Charles Weijer
Despite the apparent absence of external signs of consciousness, a significant proportion of behaviorally nonresponsive patients can respond to commands by willfully modulating their brain activity. However, little is known about the mental life of these patients. We discuss a recent innovative approach, which sheds light on the preserved cognitive capacities of these patients, including executive function, theory of mind, and the experience of affective states. This research represents a fundamental shift in our understanding of these patients, and has important implications for both their continued treatment and care...
January 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077036/mass-media-narratives-of-women-s-cardiovascular-disease-a-qualitative-meta-synthesis
#17
Christine A Gonsalves, Kerry R McGannon, Robert J Schinke, Ann Pegoraro
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death and disability among women world-wide. Narratives circulated by the media regarding women's identities and health constitute one source of meanings by which conceptualizations about risk, risk reduction, and disease prevention are formed and framed. An interpretive and integrative meta-synthesis of qualitative research was done to examine the representations of women's cardiovascular disease in traditional and user-generated Canadian and U.S. media narratives, and explore the implications of these for gendered identities and health promotion for women...
January 11, 2017: Health Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076986/utilising-exhaled-nitric-oxide-information-to-enhance-diagnosis-and-therapy-of-respiratory-disease-current-evidence-for-clinical-practice-and-proposals-to-improve-the-methodology
#18
Marieann Högman, Lauri Lehtimäki, Anh Tuan Dinh-Xuan
A non-invasive tool to diagnose respiratory diseases and to follow treatment has long been looked-for. Exhaled nitric oxide (NO) is a promising marker of inflammation in asthma but nearly 25-years of research has shown that it works in only certain endotypes of asthma. The modelling of NO dynamics of the lung can give more information than a single FENO value. Areas covered: The estimation of the NO production in the conducting airways and in the gas exchange area has given new insight of the NO production in diseases beyond asthma...
January 11, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076863/adverse-renal-effects-of-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-a-narrative-review
#19
Rimda Wanchoo, Sabine Karam, Nupur N Uppal, Valerie S Barta, Gilbert Deray, Craig Devoe, Vincent Launay-Vacher, Kenar D Jhaveri
BACKGROUND: Cancer immunotherapy, such as anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) and anti-programmed death 1 (PD-1), has revolutionized the treatment of malignancies by engaging the patient's own immune system against the tumor rather than targeting the cancer directly. These therapies have demonstrated a significant benefit in the treatment of melanomas and other cancers. SUMMARY: In order to provide an extensive overview of the renal toxicities induced by these agents, a Medline search was conducted of published literature related to ipilimumab-, pembrolizumab-, and nivolumab-induced kidney toxicity...
January 12, 2017: American Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076703/a-systematic-review-to-assess-the-adherence-and-persistence-with-statins
#20
Sohan Deshpande, Ruben G W Quek, Carol A Forbes, Shelley de Kock, Jos Kleijnen, Shravanthi R Gandra, Ross J Simpson
OBJECTIVE: To identify and assess studies published over a 10-year period up to February 2016 which measure adherence or persistence with statins, to summarise their methods, strengths and weaknesses and to summarise evidence linking statin adherence/persistence with risk of cardiovascular events. METHODS: Electronic databases and abstracts from four major cardiovascular disease conferences were searched from January 2005 to February 2016. The study selection process was performed by two reviewers working independently...
January 11, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
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