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A L Guarnieri, C G Towers, D J Drasin, M U J Oliphant, Z Andrysik, T J Hotz, R L Vartuli, E S Linklater, A Pandey, S Khanal, J M Espinosa, H L Ford
Tumor-initiating cells (TIC) represent a subset of tumor cells with increased self-renewal capability. TICs display resistance to frontline cancer treatment and retain the ability to repopulate a tumor after therapy, leading to cancer relapse. NOTCH signaling has been identified as an important driver of the TIC population, yet mechanisms governing regulation of this pathway in cancer remain to be fully elucidated. Here we identify a novel mechanism of NOTCH regulation and TIC induction in breast cancer via the miR-106b-25 miRNA cluster...
April 17, 2018: Oncogene
Tobias G Boatman, Niall M Mangan, Tracy Lawson, Richard J Geider
We established the relationship between photosynthetic carbon fixation rates and pH, CO2 and HCO3- concentrations in the diazotroph Trichodesmium erythraeum IMS101. Inorganic 14C-assimilation was measured in TRIS-buffered ASW medium where the absolute and relative concentrations of CO2, pH and HCO3- were manipulated. First, we varied the total dissolved inorganic carbon concentration (TIC) (< 0 to ~ 5 mM) at constant pH, so ratios of CO2 and HCO3- remained relatively constant. Second, we varied pH (~ 8.54 to 7...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Tiago V Maia, Vasco A Conceição
Tourette syndrome (TS) is thought to involve dopaminergic disturbances, but the nature of those disturbances remains controversial. Existing hypotheses suggest that TS involves 1) supersensitive dopamine receptors, 2) overactive dopamine transporters that cause low tonic but high phasic dopamine, 3) presynaptic dysfunction in dopamine neurons, or 4) dopaminergic hyperinnervation. We review evidence that contradicts the first two hypotheses; we also note that the last two hypotheses have traditionally been considered too narrowly, explaining only small subsets of findings...
March 9, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Hafsteinn Ingi Pétursson, Anikó Kovács, Jan Mattsson, Roger Olofsson Bagge
BACKGROUND: Intraoperative evaluation of the axillary sentinel lymph node (SLN) in patients with breast carcinoma reduces the need of re-operations in cases where an axillary completion lymph node dissection (CLND) is indicated. Different methods have been used to determine the SLN status intraoperatively, e.g. frozen section histology (FS) and touch imprint cytology (TIC). The sensitivity of intraoperative TIC examination on SLN is not consistent between different studies and varies according to different tumor histologic subtypes, tumor size and the age of the patient...
2018: PloS One
Hang Wen, Zezhen Pan, Daniel E Giammar, Li Li
Phosphate amendment has shown promise for enhancing uranium immobilization. The mechanism of the enhancement however has remained unclear with contrasting observations under different geochemical conditions. A dual-domain reactive transport model (RTM) is developed here based on batch and column experimental data to understand the mechanisms and to explore the effectiveness of enhanced U(VI) immobilization under variable geochemical and flow conditions. Modeling results indicate that under low U(VI) conditions in natural waters, phosphate addition promotes immobilization through the formation of U(VI)-phosphate ternary surface complexes and the precipitation of calcium phosphate, both decreasing the concentrations of mobile U(VI)-Ca-CO3 aqueous complexes...
April 12, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Kenji Amemiya, Yosuke Hirotsu, Toshio Oyama, Masao Omata
It is critical to determine the mutational status in cancer before administration and treatment of specific molecular targeted drugs for cancer patients. In the clinical setting, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues are widely used for genetic testing. However, FFPE DNA is generally damaged and fragmented during the fixation process with formalin. Therefore, FFPE DNA is sometimes not adequate for genetic testing because of low quality and quantity of DNA. Here we present a method of touch imprint cytology (TIC) to obtain genomic DNA from cancer cells, which can be observed under a microscope...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Alexandra Sturm, Michelle Rozenman, Susanna Chang, James J McGough, James T McCracken, John C Piacentini
Deficits in social communication are a core feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), yet significant social problems have been observed in youth with many neurodevelopmental disorders. In this preliminary investigation, we aimed to explore whether domains of social reciprocity (i.e., social communication, social cognition, social awareness, social motivation, and restricted and repetitive behaviors) represent transdiagnostic traits. These domains were compared across youth ages 7-17 with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD; N = 32), tic disorders (TD; N = 20), severe mood dysregulation (N = 33) and autism spectrum disorder (N = 35)...
March 29, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Nadia van der Spek, Femke Jansen, Karen Holtmaat, Joël Vos, William Breitbart, Cornelia F van Uden-Kraan, Rob A E M Tollenaar, Pim Cuijpers, Veerle M H Coupé, Irma M Verdonck-de Leeuw
BACKGROUND: Meaning-centered group psychotherapy for cancer survivors (MCGP-CS) improves meaning, psychological well-being, and mental adjustment to cancer and reduces psychological distress. This randomized controlled trial was conducted to investigate the cost-utility of MCGP-CS compared to supportive group psychotherapy (SGP) and care-as-usual (CAU). METHODS: In total, 170 patients were randomized to MCGP-CS, SGP, or CAU. Intervention costs, direct medical and non-medical costs, productivity losses and health-related quality of life were measured until six months follow-up, using the TIC-P, PRODISQ, data from the hospital information system, and the EQ-5D...
April 6, 2018: Psycho-oncology
Takenori Ogawa, Ikuho Kojima, Ryo Ishii, Maya Sakamoto, Takaki Murata, Takahiro Suzuki, Kengo Kato, Ayako Nakanome, Akira Ohkoshi, Eiichi Ishida, Seiji Kakehata, Kiyoto Shiga, Yukio Katori
PURPOSE: To improve the diagnoses of the salivary gland tumors, a dynamic-enhanced MRI (dMRI) was investigated. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of 93 cases of salivary gland tumors. The histological diagnoses were obtained from all patients using a surgical specimen and/or an open biopsy specimen. The dMRI as well as fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and intraoperative frozen section (IFS) were analyzed. This study focused on the time-intensity curve (TIC) after injection, peak time (Tpeak), washout ratio (WR) as well as the gradient of enhancement and washout profile...
April 6, 2018: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Camilla Groth
Tourette syndrome (TS) is a childhood onset neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by motor and vocal tics and frequent associated comorbidities. The developmental trajectory of tic shows tic-onset in the age of 4-6, peak in the age of 10-12 and decline during adolescence, although only few and small longitudinal studies form the basis of this evidence. Recent studies suggest that comorbid obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and coexisting psychopathologies tend to persist and become more dominant in adolescence...
April 2018: Danish Medical Journal
A Hartmann, B Millet
Repetitive movements are the hallmark of chronic tic disorders such as Tourette disorder (TD), whereas repetitive behaviors are characteristic of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Both disorders tend to frequently co-occur, as a substantial number of patients with TD also suffer from OCD and vice versa. While the clinical distinction between tics and OCD is usually easy, there are borderline forms, and correct symptom recognition is vital for choosing the appropriate treatment modalities for each disorder, be they pharmacological, psychotherapeutic (behavioral therapy) or brain stimulation (deep brain stimulation, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation)...
March 29, 2018: Revue Neurologique
Yusuke Shono, Michael C Edwards, Susan L Ames, Alan W Stacy
Indirect tests of memory associations relevant to cannabis have been shown to be useful in explaining and predicting adolescent cannabis use habits. This study sought to increase the understanding of adolescent cannabis-related associative memory and cannabis use behavior over time. A longitudinal sample of alternative high school students (N = 775) was assessed yearly for 3 years. The study first conducted extensive longitudinal measurement analyses of the cannabis-related word association test (WAT) applying contemporary psychometric models...
March 29, 2018: Developmental Psychology
Michal Novotny, Martin Valis, Blanka Klimova
The purpose of this mini-review is to provide the latest information on epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of Tourette syndrome (TS). The authors conducted a literature search of available sources describing the issue of tic disorders with special focus on TS and made a comparison and evaluation of relevant findings. The results of this mini-review indicate that TS is a complex disorder, which has a significant impact on the quality of life of both the patients and his/her family. Therefore, early and proper diagnosis and treatment are necessary in order to reduce or even eliminate both symptoms and social burden of the patient...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Jeffrey Sallen, Florian Hirschmann, Christian Herrmann
The demands of a career in competitive sports can lead to chronic stress perception among athletes if there is a non-conformity of requirements and available coping resources. The Trier Inventory for Chronic Stress (TICS) (Schulz et al., 2004) is said to be thoroughly validated. Nevertheless, it has not yet been subjected to a confirmatory factor analysis. The present study aims (1) to evaluate the factorial validity of the TICS within the context of competitive sports and (2) to adapt a short version (TICS-36)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Yingchun Li, Jonathan A Hickson, Dominic J Ambrosi, Deanna L Haasch, Kelly D Foster-Duke, Lucia J Eaton, Enrico L Digiammarino, Sanjay C Panchal, Fang Jiang, Sarah R Mudd, Catherine Zhang, Surekha S Akella, Wenqing Gao, Sherry L Ralston, Louie Naumovski, Jijie Gu, Susan E Morgan-Lappe
Anti-angiogenic therapy is a clinically validated modality in cancer treatment. To date, all approved anti-angiogenic drugs primarily inhibit the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway. Delta-like ligand 4 (DLL4) has been identified as a potential drug target in VEGF-independent angiogenesis and tumor initiating cell (TIC) survival. A dual-specific biologic targeting both VEGF and DLL4 could be an attractive strategy to improve the effectiveness of anti-VEGF therapy. ABT-165 was uniquely engineered using a proprietary dual-variable domain immunoglobulin (DVD-Ig) technology based on its ability to bind and inhibit both DLL4 and VEGF...
March 28, 2018: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
Alessia Carocci, Filomena Corbo, Giovanni Lentini, Maria Maddalena Cavalluzzi, Carlo Franchini, Alessia Catalano
BACKGROUND Tocainide is an antiarrhythmic agent belonging to class IB that was primarily used for suppression of symptomatic ventricular arrhythmias. Tocainide was also reported to relieve pain such as tic douloureux, trigemina neuralgia in humans and tinnitus. Significant antinociception, as assayed on the hot-plate test, was observed after intraperitoneal injection of tocainide, too. By the mid-1980s tocainide was emerging as a more consistently effective treatment for myotonic disorders. Numerous reports of serious adverse reactions led to the use of tocainide being discontinued, even though research on tocainide and its analogues, endowed with a better pharmacological profile, is still in progress for their potential usefulness in the treatment of myotonias...
March 26, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Andrés J Muñoz Martín, Israel Ortega, Carme Font, Vanesa Pachón, Victoria Castellón, Virginia Martínez-Marín, Mercedes Salgado, Eva Martínez, Julia Calzas, Ana Rupérez, Juan C Souto, Miguel Martín, Eduardo Salas, Jose M Soria
BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a leading cause of death among patients with cancer. Outpatients with cancer should be periodically assessed for VTE risk, for which the Khorana score is commonly recommended. However, it has been questioned whether this tool is sufficiently accurate at identifying patients who should receive thromboprophylaxis. The present work proposes a new index, TiC-Onco risk score to be calculated at the time of diagnosis of cancer, that examines patients' clinical and genetic risk factors for thrombosis...
March 28, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
Zhenzhen Chen, Yating Liu, Lintong Yao, Shiying Guo, Yanfeng Gao, Pingping Zhu
Liver tumor-initiating cells (TICs) form small subsets of cells in hepatocellular tumors and account for tumorigenesis, metastasis, recurrence, and drug resistance. Recently, we found that the transcription factor Zic family member 2 (ZIC2) is highly expressed in liver TICs and required for their self-renewal. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying self-renewal of liver TICs remains unclear. Here, using expression profiling and CRISPR-interference assays with clinical samples of human liver cancers, we identified a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), lncZic2, that is located near the ZIC2 locus and was highly expressed in liver cancer and liver TICs...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Carlotta Olivero, Huw Morgan, Girish K Patel
Epithelia are under constant threat from environmental carcinogens and none more so than squamous epithelia, which form the outermost linings of our bodies. Hence malignancies of squamous epithelia are collectively the most common cancer type and with the highest mortality, despite a constant cell turnover and only relatively rare long-lived adult tissue stem cells. Genetic analysis from SCC whole genome sequencing reveals commonality in mutated genes, despite various etiological factors. Most SCC types have been shown to exhibit hierarchical growth, in which a high frequency of cancer stem cells is associated with poor prognosis...
March 27, 2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Jiandong Yin, Jiawen Yang, Zejun Jiang
Purpose: To investigate the performance of a new semi-automatic method for analyzing the signal time-intensity curve (TIC) obtained by breast dynamic contrast enhancement (DCE)-MRI. Methods: In the conventional method, a circular region of interest was drawn manually onto the map reflecting the maximum slope of increase (MSI) to delineate the suspicious lesions. The mean TIC was determined subjectively as one of three different wash-out patterns. In the new method, the lesion area was identified semi-automatically...
2018: Journal of Cancer
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