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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228773/import-of-soluble-proteins-into-chloroplasts-and-potential-regulatory-mechanisms
#1
REVIEW
Inga Sjuts, Jürgen Soll, Bettina Bölter
Chloroplasts originated from an endosymbiotic event in which a free-living cyanobacterium was engulfed by an ancestral eukaryotic host. During evolution the majority of the chloroplast genetic information was transferred to the host cell nucleus. As a consequence, proteins formerly encoded by the chloroplast genome are now translated in the cytosol and must be subsequently imported into the chloroplast. This process involves three steps: (i) cytosolic sorting procedures, (ii) binding to the designated receptor-equipped target organelle and (iii) the consecutive translocation process...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226560/biomechanical-analysis-of-a-fall-velocities-at-impact
#2
Norbert Noury, Julien Poujaud, Pierre Cousin, Nicolas Poujaud, Norbert Noury, Julien Poujaud, Pierre Cousin, Nicolas Poujaud, Nicolas Poujaud, Norbert Noury, Julien Poujaud, Pierre Cousin
There are numerous research works focusing on falls of the elderly, proposing various technologies for its detection; however, few research works attempted to describe the mechanical phenomenon itself. In this study, we analyzed the kine(ma)tics of human falls with a simplified biomechanical model of human segments. We present some results based on data found in the literature and in our own laboratory experiments, to conclude that fall velocities at impact can reach values from 3.78 m.s(-1) (center of mass) to 6...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225022/core-shell-nanoparticle-arrays-double-the-strength-of-steel
#3
J-B Seol, S-H Na, B Gault, J-E Kim, J-C Han, C-G Park, D Raabe
Manipulating structure, defects and composition of a material at the atomic scale for enhancing its physical or mechanical properties is referred to as nanostructuring. Here, by combining advanced microscopy techniques, we unveil how formation of highly regular nano-arrays of nanoparticles doubles the strength of an Fe-based alloy, doped with Ti, Mo, and V, from 500 MPa to 1 GPa, upon prolonged heat treatment. The nanoparticles form at moving heterophase interfaces during cooling from the high-temperature face-centered cubic austenite to the body-centered cubic ferrite phase...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223858/the-therapeutic-usage-of-botulinum-toxin-botox-in-non-cosmetic-head-and-neck-conditions-an-evidence-based-review
#4
REVIEW
Kamran Habib Awan
Botulinum toxin (Botox) is an exotoxin produced from Clostridium botulinum. It blocks the release of acetylcholine from the cholinergic nerve end plates resulting in inactivity of the muscles or glands innervated. The efficacy of Botox in facial aesthetics is well established; however, recent literature has highlighted its utilization in multiple non-cosmetic medical and surgical conditions. The present article reviews the current evidence pertaining to Botox use in the non-cosmetic head and neck conditions...
January 2017: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223311/single-tumor-initiating-cells-evade-immune-clearance-by-recruiting-type-ii-macrophages
#5
Xiaocan Guo, Yang Zhao, Huan Yan, Yingcheng Yang, Shuying Shen, Xiaoming Dai, Xinyan Ji, Fubo Ji, Xing-Guo Gong, Li Li, Xueli Bai, Xin-Hua Feng, Tingbo Liang, Junfang Ji, Lei Chen, Hongyang Wang, Bin Zhao
Tumor infiltrated type II (M2) macrophages promote tumorigenesis by suppressing immune clearance, promoting proliferation, and stimulating angiogenesis. Interestingly, macrophages were also found to enrich in small foci of altered hepatocytes containing liver tumor-initiating cells (TICs). However, whether and how TICs specifically recruit macrophages and the function of these macrophages in tumor initiation remain unknown due to technical difficulties. In this study, by generating genetically defined liver TICs, we demonstrate that TICs actively recruit M2 macrophages from as early as the single-cell stage...
February 21, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222068/inhibition-of-cdk5-induces-cell-death-of-tumor-initiating-cells
#6
Melanie M Mandl, Siwei Zhang, Melanie Ulrich, Elisa Schmoeckel, Doris Mayr, Angelika M Vollmar, Johanna Liebl
BACKGROUND: Tumour-initiating cells (TICs) account for chemoresistance, tumour recurrence and metastasis, and therefore represent a major problem in tumour therapy. However, strategies to address TICs are limited. Recent studies indicate Cdk5 as a promising target for anti-cancer therapy and Cdk5 has recently been associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, a role of Cdk5 in TICs has not been described yet. METHODS: Expression of Cdk5 in human cancer tissue was analysed by staining of a human tissue microarray (TMA)...
February 21, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219085/fibrinolysis-in-trauma-myth-reality-or-something-in-between
#7
Mark Walsh, Jacob Shreve, Scott Thomas, Ernest Moore, Hunter Moore, Daniel Hake, Tim Pohlman, Patrick Davis, Victoria Ploplis, Andres Piscoya, Julie Wegner, John Bryant, Anton Crepinsek, James Lantry, Forest Sheppard, Francis Castellino
The emphasis on fibrinolysis as an important contributor to trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC) has led to a debate regarding the relative clinical significance of fibrinolysis in the setting of trauma. The debate has centered on two camps. The one camp defines fibrinolysis in trauma by standard coagulation tests as well as fibrin split products, D-dimers, and plasmin/antiplasmin levels. This camp favors a more liberal use of tranexamic acid and attributes more significance to hyperfibrinolysis in TIC. The other camp favors a definition of fibrinolysis based on the viscoelastic tests (VET), rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM), and thromboelastography (TEG)...
February 20, 2017: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218524/general-fabrication-of-boride-carbide-and-nitride-nanocrystals-via-a-metal-hydrolysis-assisted-process
#8
Ling Zhou, Lishan Yang, Li Shao, Bo Chen, Fanhui Meng, Yitai Qian, Liqiang Xu
Metal boride, carbide, and nitride materials are useful owing to their wide variety of interesting chemical and physical properties. However, the synthesis of these materials with nano or mesoscale sizes is challenging due to the usually required high temperatures and long reaction durations. To our knowledge, the exploration of a number of simultaneous chemical reactions through rapid synthesis still remains a great challenge. In this study, a general route for the reduction and transformation of metal oxides into related metal boride (TiB2, MoB2, DyB4, ErB4, YB4, LaB6, CeB6, SmB6, EuB6), carbide (SiC, TiC, VC, WC, W2C, ZrC, MoC, NbC), and nitride (TiN, VN, BN, AlN, CrN, MgSiN2) nanocrystals were achieved at 150 °C...
February 20, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209178/tumor-initiating-cells-a-critical-review-of-isolation-approaches-and-new-challenges-in-targeting-strategies
#9
REVIEW
Komal Qureshi-Baig, Pit Ullmann, Serge Haan, Elisabeth Letellier
Most cancers contain a subpopulation of highly tumorigenic cells, known as cancer stem cells (CSCs) or tumor-initiating cells (TICs). Targeting TICs may be essential to achieve cure, because of their self-renewal and tumorigenic properties as well as their resistance to conventional therapies. Despite significant advances in TIC biology, their isolation and identification remain largely disputed and incompletely established. In this review, we discuss the latest developments in isolation and culturing approaches of TICs, with focus on colorectal cancer (CRC)...
February 16, 2017: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202705/moderators-and-predictors-of-response-to-behavior-therapy-for-tics-in-tourette-syndrome
#10
Denis G Sukhodolsky, Douglas W Woods, John Piacentini, Sabine Wilhelm, Alan L Peterson, Lily Katsovich, James Dziura, John T Walkup, Lawrence Scahill
OBJECTIVE: To examine moderators and predictors of response to behavior therapy for tics in children and adults with Tourette syndrome and chronic tic disorders. METHODS: Data from 2 10-week, multisite studies (1 in children and 1 in adults; total n = 248) comparing comprehensive behavioral intervention for tics (CBIT) to psychoeducation and supportive therapy (PST) were combined for moderator analyses. Participants (177 male, 71 female) had a mean age of 21.5 ± 13...
February 15, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193239/buformin-inhibits-the-stemness-of-erbb-2-overexpressing-breast-cancer-cells-and-premalignant-mammary-tissues-of-mmtv-erbb-2-transgenic-mice
#11
Amanda B Parris, Qingxia Zhao, Erin W Howard, Ming Zhao, Zhikun Ma, Xiaohe Yang
BACKGROUND: Metformin, an FDA-approved drug for the treatment of Type II diabetes, has emerged as a promising anti-cancer agent. Other biguanide analogs, including buformin and phenformin, are suggested to have similar properties. Although buformin was shown to reduce mammary tumor burden in carcinogen models, the anti-cancer effects of buformin on different breast cancer subtypes and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effects of buformin on erbB-2-overexpressing breast cancer with in vitro and in vivo models...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193110/pontine-tegmental-cap-dysplasia-in-an-extremely-preterm-infant-and-review-of-the-literature
#12
Sylvie Picker-Minh, Sebastian Hartenstein, Hans Proquitté, Sebastian Fröhler, Vera Raile, Nadine Kraemer, Sarah Apeshiotis, Michael Leipoldt, Karim D Kalache, Deborah Morris-Rosendahl, Eugen Boltshauser, Wei Chen, Angela M Kaindl
Pontine tegmental cap dysplasia is a rare hindbrain malformation syndrome with a hypoplastic pons, a tissue protrusion into the fourth ventricle, and cranial nerve dysfunction. We here report clinical, imaging, and genetic findings of the first extremely low-birth-weight preterm infant with pontine tegmental cap dysplasia born at 25 weeks of gestation and provide an overview of 29 sporadic cases. A prenatally diagnosed hypoplastic and rostrally shifted cerebellum was indicative of a hindbrain defect and later identified as an early sign of pontine tegmental cap dysplasia in our patient...
March 2017: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188632/tic-triggering-and-tearing-from-ctn-to-sunha
#13
R Benoliel, Y Sharav, Y Haviv, G Almoznino
PREMISE: Classical trigeminal neuralgia (CTN) and the short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks (SUNHA) are clinically similar. PROBLEM: The SUNHAs include short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks with conjunctival injection and tearing (SUNCT) and short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks with cranial autonomic symptoms (SUNA). Shared clinical signs with CTN include severe, unilateral trigeminal pain that is often triggered by innocuous stimuli and accompanied by a dull persistent background pain...
February 11, 2017: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183397/impact-of-anxiety-and-or-depressive-disorders-and-chronic-somatic-diseases-on-disability-and-work-impairment
#14
Wicher A Bokma, Neeltje M Batelaan, Anton J L M van Balkom, Brenda W J H Penninx
OBJECTIVE: Anxiety and/or Depressive Disorders (ADDs) and Chronic Somatic Diseases (CSDs) are associated with substantial levels of health-related disability and work impairment. However, it is unclear whether comorbid ADDs and CSDs additively affect functional outcomes. This paper examines the impact of ADDs, CSDs, and their comorbidity on disability, work absenteeism and presenteeism. METHODS: Baseline data from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (n=2371) were used...
March 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183072/alternative-therapies-for-excoriation-skin-picking-disorder-a-brief-update
#15
Julio Torales, Iván Barrios, Jorge Villalba
Context • Excoriation (skin picking) disorder is characterized by the need or urge to pick, scratch, pinch, touch, rub, scrub, squeeze, bite, or dig the skin, and it can be a perplexing condition for the inexperienced physician. Treatments include pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, and alternative therapies. Alternative therapies for excoriation disorder and other body-focused repetitive behaviors include yoga, aerobic exercise, acupuncture, biofeedback, hypnosis, and inositol and N-acetylcysteine, among others...
January 2017: Advances in Mind-body Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168537/hyperkinetic-movement-disorder-emergencies
#16
REVIEW
Giovanni Cossu, Carlo Colosimo
A movement disorder emergency has been defined by Fahn and Frucht as "any neurological disorder evolving acutely or subacutely, in which the clinical presentation is dominated by a primary movement disorder, and in which failure to accurately diagnose and manage the patient may result in significant morbidity or even mortality." In this review, we discuss the most common situations in which hyperkinetic movement disorders, including chorea, ballism, dystonia, myoclonus, tics, as well as psychogenic disorders, can present as emergencies...
January 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160520/explicit-optimization-of-plan-quality-measures-in-intensity-modulated-radiation-therapy-treatment-planning
#17
Lovisa Engberg, Anders Forsgren, Kjell Eriksson, Björn Hardemark
PURPOSE: To formulate convex planning objectives of treatment plan multicriteria optimization with explicit relationships to the dose-volume histogram (DVH) statistics used in plan quality eval-uation. METHODS: Conventional planning objectives are designed to minimize the violation of DVH statis-tics thresholds using penalty functions. Although successful in guiding the DVH curve towards these thresholds, conventional planning objectives offer limited control of the individual points on the DVH curve (doses-at-volume) used to evaluate plan quality...
February 4, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160010/the-effect-of-sacral-neuromodulation-on-pregnancy-a-systematic-review
#18
Amr Mahran, Alex Soriano, Ahmed S Safwat, Adonis Hijaz, Sangeeta T Mahajan, Emanuel C Trabuco, Steven W Siegel, Sherif A El-Nashar
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: To evaluate the effects of sacral neuromodulation (SNM) on pregnancy and the impact of delivery on SNM function. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted through January 2016. We selected studies including women who had SNM and a subsequent pregnancy. RESULTS: Out of 2,316, eight studies were included, comprising 22 patients (26 pregnancies). SNM indications were Fowler's syndrome in 11, urinary retention in 6, fecal incontinence in 1, fecal and urinary urgency in 1, overactive bladder in 1, intractable interstitial cystitis in 1, and myelodysplasia in 1...
February 3, 2017: International Urogynecology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158167/the-rare-painful-phenomena-chronic-paroxysmal-hemicrania-tic-syndrome-as-a-clinically-isolated-syndrome-of-the-central-nervous-system
#19
Srdjan Ljubisavljevic, Ana Prazic, Miodrag Lazarevic, Dragan Stojanov, Dejan Savic, Slobadan Vojinovic
The association of paroxysmal hemicrania with trigeminal neuralgia (TN) has been described and called paroxysmal hemicrania-tic syndrome (PH-tic). We report the case of a patient diagnosed as having chronic PH-tic (CPH-tic) syndrome as a clinically isolated syndrome of the central nervous system (CNS) (CIS).A forty year old woman was admitted to our hospital suffering from right facial pain for the last 2 years. The attacks were paroxysmal, neuralgiform, consisting of throb-like sensations, which developed spontaneously or were triggered by different stimuli in right facial (maxilar and mandibular) areas...
February 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157934/surface-roughness-and-morphology-evolution-of-optical-glass-with-micro-cracks-during-chemical-etching
#20
Huapan Xiao, Hairong Wang, Guanglong Fu, Zhi Chen
Chemical etching is usually utilized to measure, reduce, and remove the subsurface micro-cracks in optical components, which makes it significant to study the surface evolution of optical components during the etching process. Etching experiments were carried out for glass with artificial cracks and micro-cracks under different etching conditions. The etching rate was obtained, which is linear with the hydrofluoric acid (HF) concentration and greatly affected by etching temperature. By measuring the surface roughness (SR) and morphology of glasses after etching, it is found that the crack width always increases with etching time, while the crack depth remains unchanged after the crack is completely exposed...
January 20, 2017: Applied Optics
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