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Giovanni Cossu, Carlo Colosimo
A movement disorder emergency has been defined by Fahn and Frucht as "any neurological disorder evolving acutely or subacutely, in which the clinical presentation is dominated by a primary movement disorder, and in which failure to accurately diagnose and manage the patient may result in significant morbidity or even mortality." In this review, we discuss the most common situations in which hyperkinetic movement disorders, including chorea, ballism, dystonia, myoclonus, tics, as well as psychogenic disorders, can present as emergencies...
January 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Zsila S Sadighi, Jennifer Zabrowski, Frederick A Boop, Alberto Broniscer, Amar Gajjar, Raja B Khan
BACKGROUND: We studied the outcomes of movement disorders that were associated with childhood thalamic tumors. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 83 children with thalamic tumors treated at our institution from 1996 to 2013 to document the incidence and outcome of movement disorders. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to analyze the involvement of thalamic nuclei, and three instruments were used to rate the severity of the disorders. RESULTS: Nine (11%) patients had one or more of the following movement disorders: postural tremor, resting tremor, ballism, dystonia, myoclonus, and athetosis...
December 2016: Pediatric Neurology
Ujjawal Roy, Shyamal Kumar Das, Adreesh Mukherjee, Debsadhan Biswas, Koushik Pan, Atanu Biswas, Ajay Panwar
BACKGROUND: Hemichorea-hemiballism (HCHB) is a hyperkinetic movement disorder with features of both chorea and ballism occurring on the same side. CASE REPORT: We present a case of HCHB due to nonketotic hyperglycemia (NKH) that was the initial presentation of diabetes and was irreversible clinically even after 6 months of optimal blood sugar control. DISCUSSION: Although HCHB due to hyperglycemia is a potentially reversible condition in the majority of patients, prolonged uncontrolled hyperglycemia may cause ischemic insult and persistent symptoms...
2016: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
Bi-Chun Duan, Wen-Chin Weng, Kuang-Lin Lin, Lee Chin Wong, Sung-Tse Li, Mei-Hsin Hsu, Jainn-Jim Lin, Pi-Chaun Fan, Ming-I Lin, Nan-Chang Chiu, Yu-Ching Lin, Huei-Shyong Wang, Kun-Long Hung, Wang-Tso Lee
Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is one of the most common autoimmune encephalitis that presents with a wide variety of movement disorders. The purpose of our study is to review the manifestations and duration of movement disorders in different ages with NMDAR encephalitis.A retrospective cohort of 28 patients (20 females and 8 males) with positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) anti-NMDAR antibody in a 5-year period from major hospitals in Taiwan was enrolled. They were categorized into 3 age groups: 7 patients were ≤10 years, 14 patients were 10 to 18 years, and 7 patients were >18 years...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Carlos Cosentino, Luis Torres, Yesenia Nuñez, Rafael Suarez, Miriam Velez, Martha Flores
BACKGROUND: Hemichorea/hemiballism associated with nonketotic hyperglycemia is a well-recognized syndrome, but few case series have been reported in the literature. CASE REPORT: We describe 20 patients with hemichorea/hemiballism associated with hyperglycemia (9 males and 11 females) with mean age of 67.8 years. Ten patients had a previous diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and one had type 1 diabetes mellitus. Six of them had documentation of poor diabetic control over at least the last 3 months...
2016: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
José Luiz Pedroso, Thiago Cardoso Vale, Marcos Knobel, Rodrigo Meirelles Massaud, Elias Knobel
Poststroke movement disorders may manifest as parkinsonism, dystonia, chorea, ballism, athetosis, tremor, myoclonus, stereotypies, and akathisia. In this article, we describe a patient with clonic perseveration 2 days after an acute ischemic stroke. We discuss the phenomenology and provide insights on possible pathophysiological mechanisms involved.
August 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
A-S Seigneurie, F Sauvanaud, F Limosin
INTRODUCTION: Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a movement disorder of tongue, jawbone, trunk and/or limbs that may appear after a prolonged use of dopamine receptor blocking agents (after 3 months of treatment or after 1 month for patients over 60), and that are present during at least four consecutive weeks. TD is a frequent side effect of both classical neuroleptics and new generation antipsychotic drugs. The prevalence of iatrogenic TD is between 24 and 32 % after treatment with classical neuroleptics and about 13 % after treatment with a new generation antipsychotic...
June 2016: L'Encéphale
Angelika Richter, Melanie Hamann, Jörg Wissel, Holger A Volk
Dystonia is defined as a neurological syndrome characterized by involuntary sustained or intermittent muscle contractions causing twisting, often repetitive movements, and postures. Paroxysmal dyskinesias are episodic movement disorders encompassing dystonia, chorea, athetosis, and ballism in conscious individuals. Several decades of research have enhanced the understanding of the etiology of human dystonia and dyskinesias that are associated with dystonia, but the pathophysiology remains largely unknown. The spontaneous occurrence of hereditary dystonia and paroxysmal dyskinesia is well documented in rodents used as animal models in basic dystonia research...
2015: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
A Barbey, J Bloch, F J G Vingerhoets
The diagnosis and appropriate treatment of hyperkinetic movement disorders require a work up of potentially reversible metabolic, infectious and structural disorders as well as side effects of current medication. In pharmacoresistant movement disorders with a disabling impact on quality of life, deep brain stimulation (DBS) should be considered. At different targets, DBS has become an established therapy for Parkinson's disease (GPi-STN), tremor (VIM) and primary dystonia (GPi) with reasonable perioperative risks and side effects, established guidelines and some clinical and radiological predictive factors...
September 2015: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Kara M Smith, Meredith A Spindler
BACKGROUND: In addition to the established indications of tremor and dystonia, deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been utilized less commonly for several hyperkinetic movement disorders, including medication-refractory myoclonus, ballism, chorea, and Gilles de la Tourette (GTS) and tardive syndromes. Given the lack of adequate controlled trials, it is difficult to translate published reports into clinical use. We summarize the literature, draw conclusions regarding efficacy when possible, and highlight concerns and areas for future study...
2015: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
Andreas Holstein, Ahmad Hassan, Olaf M Patzer, Matthias Rohde
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2015: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
Chunli Chen, Haiping Zheng, Li Yang, Zhiping Hu
Chorea-ballism is a rare movement disorder characterized by irregular, poorly patterned, and involuntary movements, which are usually unilateral but may be bilateral or involve the extremities. The most common metabolic cause of transient chorea-ballism is nonketotic or ketotic hyperglycemia (NKHG or KHG, respectively). A meta-analysis and several reviews have identified clinical characteristics of NKHG-associated chorea-ballism; however, the characteristics of KHG-associated chorea-ballism remain unknown. We performed a search for studies of patients with KHG-associated chorea-ballism, published in MEDLINE between 1960 and May 2014, and identified 13 studies of 15 patients...
December 2014: Neurological Sciences
Christopher W Beatty, Ping-Ru Ko, Jason Nixon, Sidney M Gospe
We present the case of a 14-year-old girl with a biphasic course after oxycodone ingestion. Clinically, she had a rapid return to baseline after initial ingestion and presented a week later with new-onset ballism, akathisia, and encephalopathy. Neuroimaging demonstrated bilateral globi pallidi and cerebellar lesions with a relative decrease of metabolite peaks on magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Her movement disorder was treated successfully with valproic acid and clonidine. Her cognitive functioning returned to baseline 3 months after ingestion...
June 2014: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
Jin-Mo Park, Jin-Sung Park, Yong-Won Kim, Ho-Won Lee, Da-In Lee, Sung-Pa Park, Hyun Seok Song
Various neurologic manifestations of herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis have been reported on the literatures. Chorea, ballism, choreoathetosis and myoclonus were reported as movement disorders which might be related with brain lesion by HSV encephalitis, but negative myoclonus (NM) has never been reported before. NM can be characterized as a shock-like involuntary jerky movement caused by a sudden, brief interruption of muscle activity. We experienced a case of HSV encephalitis with NM in unilateral arm and leg...
May 2011: Journal of Movement Disorders
Yoo Hwan Kim, Ju Yeon Kim, Hung Youl Seok, Seong-Beom Koh
Chorea and ballism are movement disorders that result from a variety of conditions. They are an uncommon manifestation of diabetes mellitus. We report a 52-year-old diabetic man who presented with acute onset chorea-ballism with a putaminal high-signal-intensity lesion on T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
May 2010: Journal of Movement Disorders
Mario Álvarez, Nelson Quintanal, Amado Díaz, José Prince, Ivan García, Maylen Carballo, Rafael Rodríguez, Carlos Maragoto, Ivonne Pedroso, Raul Macías
BACKGROUND: Focal thalamic lesions have been associated with a variety of involuntary movements such as tremor, dystonia, and chorea-ballism. METHODS: We describe a patient with severe hyperkinesias of the right arm secondary to a thalamic infarction in the left postero-ventral region of the thalamus. RESULTS: The dystonia and tremor of the right upper limb were subsequently controlled with another surgical lesion of the ventralis intermedius nucleus of the thalamus...
August 2014: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Hami Ramani, Gary L Bernardini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2013: Neurohospitalist
Raja Mehanna, Joseph Jankovic
Movement disorders can occur as primary (idiopathic) or genetic disease, as a manifestation of an underlying neurodegenerative disorder, or secondary to a wide range of neurological or systemic diseases. Cerebrovascular diseases represent up to 22% of secondary movement disorders, and involuntary movements develop after 1-4% of strokes. Post-stroke movement disorders can manifest in parkinsonism or a wide range of hyperkinetic movement disorders including chorea, ballism, athetosis, dystonia, tremor, myoclonus, stereotypies, and akathisia...
June 2013: Lancet Neurology
Raja Mehanna, Joseph Jankovic
Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system characterized by dissemination of the lesions in time and space. While tremor is frequently seen in patients with multiple sclerosis, other movement disorders such as parkinsonism, dystonia, chorea, ballism, paroxysmal dystonia, paroxysmal chorea, myoclonus, tourettism, restless leg syndrome and hemifacial spasm are less frequently reported. In this systematic review of the literature, we describe the different movement disorders reported in patients with multiple sclerosis and attempt to characterize their relation with the underlying demyelinating process...
May 15, 2013: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Waldo R Guerrero, Michael S Okun, Nikolaus R McFarland
BACKGROUND: Hypo/hyperglycemia is a known cause of chorea and hemiballism. The temporallobes, hippocampus, basal ganglia, and substantia nigra are most susceptible to hypoglycemic changes. METHODS: We present a caseof bilateral chorea and bi-ballism accompanied by encephalopathyin the setting of severe hypoglycemia and diabetic ketoacidosis. The patient had brain MRI changes involving both caudate nuclei, temporal lobes, and hippocampi. DISCUSSION: This case demonstrates the basal ganglia's vulnerability to hypoglycemia and the need for cautious evaluation of involuntary movements when they occur in the setting of encephalopathy...
2012: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
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