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TBI Military

Bridget M Smith, Rachael N Martinez, Charlesnika T Evans, Karen L Saban, Salva Balbale, Eric J Proescher, Kevin Stroupe, Timothy P Hogan
BACKGROUND: Veterans who experience traumatic brain injury (TBI) may have long-term needs placing a premium on well-coordinated care. This study aimed to (1) identify barriers to care coordination for Veterans with TBI; and (2) describe strategies used by VA polytrauma care team members to coordinate care for Veterans with TBI. METHODS: We utilised a mixed method design, including an online survey of VA polytrauma care team members (N = 236) and subsequent semi-structured interviews (N = 25)...
March 14, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Martha A Combs, Edan A Critchfield, Jason R Soble
OBJECTIVE: This preliminary, pilot study assessed the effectiveness of a group-based, mindfulness intervention in a residential, rehabilitation setting with specific focus on assessing participants' self-report of perceived benefit of the intervention on overall health, pain, sleep, mood/anxiety, attention, and self-awareness, as well as implementing modifications needed for successful intervention application among a diverse, clinical military population. METHOD/DESIGN: Participants were 19 veterans and active duty service members with a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI; 63% severe) who completed a mindfulness-based group intervention during inpatient admission at a Veterans Affairs Polytrauma Transitional Rehabilitation Program (PTRP)...
March 12, 2018: Rehabilitation Psychology
Hailong Song, Landry M Konan, Jiankun Cui, Catherine E Johnson, Martin Langenderfer, DeAna Grant, Tina Ndam, Agnes Simonyi, Tommi White, Utkan Demirci, David R Mott, Doug Schwer, Graham K Hubler, Ibolja Cernak, Ralph G DePalma, Zezong Gu
Explosive blast-induced mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), a "signature wound" of recent military conflicts, commonly affects service members. While past blast injury studies have provided insights into TBI with moderate- to high-intensity explosions, the impact of primary low-intensity blast (LIB)-mediated pathobiology on neurological deficits requires further investigation. Our prior considerations of blast physics predicted ultrastructural injuries at nanoscale levels. Here, we provide quantitative data using a primary LIB injury murine model exposed to open field detonation of 350 grams of high-energy explosive C4...
March 8, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Shannon M Blakey, H Ryan Wagner, Jennifer Naylor, Mira Brancu, Ilana Lane, Meghann Sallee, Nathan A Kimbrel, Eric B Elbogen
The polytrauma clinical triad refers to the co-occurrence of chronic pain, traumatic brain injury (TBI), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Despite research implicating dyadic relationships between these conditions and adverse outcomes, scant research has examined the polytrauma clinical triad's relation to suicide or violence. The present cross-sectional study was designed to examine whether this complex clinical presentation increases risk of suicidal ideation and violent impulses after accounting for other established risk factors...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
Tracey A Brickell, Louis M French, Sara M Lippa, Rael T Lange
OBJECTIVES: To (a) characterize a sample of post-9/11 caregivers providing help to service members and veterans (SMV) following traumatic brain injury (TBI), (b) examine the level of support provided, and (c) determine caregiver health and well-being outcomes. SETTING: Military treatment facility. PARTICIPANTS: Caregivers (N = 278) of SMVs who sustained a mild, moderate, severe, or penetrating TBI (96.0% female; 86.0% spouse/partner; age: M = 38...
March 2018: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
Rebecca A Johnson, David L Albright, James R Marzolf, Jessica L Bibbo, Hayley D Yaglom, Sandra M Crowder, Gretchen K Carlisle, Amy Willard, Cynthia L Russell, Karen Grindler, Steven Osterlind, Marita Wassman, Nathan Harms
BACKGROUND: Large numbers of post-deployment U.S. veterans are diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and/or traumatic brain injury (TBI), leading to an urgent need for effective interventions to reduce symptoms and increase veterans' coping. PTSD includes anxiety, flashbacks, and emotional numbing. The symptoms increase health care costs for stress-related illnesses and can make veterans' civilian life difficult. METHODS: We used a randomized wait-list controlled design with repeated measures of U...
January 19, 2018: Military Medical Research
Arnab Chanda, Christian Callaway
Blast injuries affect millions of lives across the globe due to its traumatic after effects on the brain and the whole body. To date, military grade armour materials are designed to mitigate ballistic and shrapnel attacks but are less effective in resisting blast impacts. In order to improve blast absorption characteristics of armours, the first key step is thoroughly understands the effects of blasts on the human body itself. In the last decade, a plethora of experimental and computational work has been carried out to investigate the mechanics and pathophysiology of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
Victoria C Merritt, Alexandra L Clark, Scott F Sorg, Nicole D Evangelista, Madeleine Werhane, Mark W Bondi, Dawn M Schiehser, Lisa Delano-Wood
Since few studies have examined the relationship between the APOE gene and clinical outcomes following military-related traumatic brain injury (TBI), we aimed to determine whether the ε4 allele of the APOE gene influences neuropsychiatric symptoms in Veterans with a history of mild to moderate TBI. Participants included 133 Veterans (TBI=79, military controls [MC]=54) who underwent APOE genotyping and were divided into ε4+ (TBI=18, MC=15) and ε4- (TBI=61, MC=39) groups. All participants underwent evaluation of psychological distress using the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and PTSD Checklist-Military Version (PCL-M)...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Nicole Hausser, Kathia Johnson, Margaret A Parsley, Jutatip Guptarak, Heidi Spratt, Stacy L Sell
With the increasing incidence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in both civilian and military populations, TBI is now considered a chronic disease; however, few studies have investigated the long-term effects of injury in rodent models of TBI. Shown here are behavioral measures that are well-established in TBI research for times early after injury, such as two weeks, until two months. Some of these methods have previously been used at later times after injury, up to one year, but by very few laboratories. The methods demonstrated here are a short neurological assessment to test reflexes, a Beam-Balance to test balance, a Beam-Walk to test balance and motor coordination, and a working memory version of the Morris water maze that can be sensitive to deficits in reference memory...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Chun-Yang Liang, Yang Yang, Chun-Sen Shen, Hai-Jiang Wang, Nai-Ming Liu, Zhi-Wen Wang, Feng-Lei Zhu, Ru-Xiang Xu
Introduction: Secondary brain injury is the main cause of mortality from traumatic brain injury (TBI). One hallmark of TBI is intracranial hemorrhage, which occurs in 40-50% of severe TBI cases. Early identification of intracranial hematomas in TBI patients allows early surgical evacuation and can reduce the case fatality rate of TBI. As pre-hospital care is the weakest part of Chinese emergency care, there is an urgent need for a capability to detect brain hematomas early. In China, in addition to preventing injuries and diseases in military staff and in enhancing the military armed forces during war, military medicine participates in actions such as emergency public health crises, natural disasters, emerging conflicts, and anti-terrorist campaigns during peacetime...
February 6, 2018: Military Medicine
Laraine Winter, Helene J Moriarty, Thomas H Short
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: Patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) often present with emotion dysregulation. Most TBI rehabilitation has addressed this impairment primarily in relation to anger, irritability and aggressiveness. Yet, emotion regulation (ER) may have broader ramifications for psychological well-being. The present study examined ER's association to several aspects of social connectedness. RESEARCH DESIGN: Cross-sectional study Methods and procedures: 83 veterans with TBI who were outpatients at a VA medical rehabilitation service were interviewed in their homes...
February 2, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Noelle E Carlozzi, Rael T Lange, Louis M French, Angelle M Sander, Jenna Freedman, Tracey A Brickell
OBJECTIVE: To identify barriers and supports that caregivers of individuals with military-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) encounter when navigating the military healthcare system; this information will be used as the foundation of a new patient-reported outcome measure. SETTING: Community. PARTICIPANTS: Forty-five caregivers of service members and veterans (SMV) who sustained a medically documented mild, moderate, severe, or penetrating TBI...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
Donald C Olsen, Chelsea C Hays, Henry J Orff, Amy J Jak, Elizabeth W Twamley
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: About 20% of Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans have sustained a traumatic brain injury (TBI), which can result in postconcussive symptoms and difficulty transitioning from the military to civilian employment and postsecondary education. To better inform programs help Veterans transition back into civilian life, we evaluated correlates of employment and postsecondary education enrolment among treatment-seeking Veterans with a history of TBI. RESEARCH DESIGN: A cross-sectional design, using an archival database of VA medical records, was used to answer these research questions...
January 25, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Matthew Wade Reid, Douglas Cooper, Lisa H Lu, Grant L Iverson, Jan Kennedy
The objective of this study was to assess the associations between resilience, adversity, post-concussion symptoms, and posttraumatic stress symptom reporting following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). We hypothesized that resilience would be associated with less symptom reporting and adversity would be associated with greater symptom reporting. This was a cross-sectional study of retrospective data collected for an ongoing TBI repository. US military service members who screened positive for mTBI during a primary care visit completed the Trauma History Screen (THS), Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory (NSI), and PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C)...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Mark L Vickers, C P Coorey, G J Milinovich, L Eriksson, M Assoum, M C Reade
INTRODUCTION: Bibliometric tools can be used to identify the authors, topics and research institutions that have made the greatest impact in a field of medicine. The aim of this research was to analyse military trauma publications over the last 16 years of armed conflict in order to highlight the most important lessons that have translated into civilian practice and military doctrine as well as identify emerging areas of importance. METHODS: A systematic search of research published between January 2000 and December 2016 was conducted using the Thompson Reuters Web of Science database...
January 13, 2018: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
Julie A Bytnar, Shauna Stahlman, Saixia Ying
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a known risk factor for seizures. Evidence also shows that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with seizures, but the relationship in the absence of TBI remains unclear. This retrospective study spanning 2007-2016 separately quantifies the rates of seizures diagnosed among deployed and non-deployed active component military service members to understand the factors associated with seizures and whether they differ in deployed settings. Higher rates of seizures were associated with service members who were in the Army or Marine Corps; female; black; younger; lower enlisted; in a combat-specific, armor/motor transport, or healthcare occupation; and who had no more than one previous deployment...
December 2017: MSMR
Andrea D Spadoni, Mingxiong Huang, Alan N Simmons
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and traumatic brain injury (TBI) commonly co-occur in general and military populations and have a number of overlapping symptoms. While research suggests that TBI is risk factor for PTSD and that PTSD may mediate TBI-related outcomes, the mechanisms of these relationships are not well understood. Neuroimaging may help elucidate patterns of neurocircuitry both specific and common to PTSD and TBI and thus help define the nature of their interaction, refine diagnostic classification, and may potentially yield opportunities for targeted treatments...
December 29, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Philip A Cook, Thomas M Johnson, Suzanne G Martin, Philip R Gerhman, Seema Bhatnagar, James C Gee
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI), has been described as the "signature injury" of the Global War on Terror. Explosive blast TBI has become a leading cause of injury as a result of the widespread use of improvised explosive devices in Iraq and Afghanistan. We present a retrospective cross-sectional study of patients with blast-related mild TBI (N=303) seen at the Intrepid Spirit Concussion Recovery Center at Naval Medical Center Camp Lejeune. The objective was to predict outcomes of return to duty (RTD) vs. medical retirement via medical evaluation board (MEB), based on brain imaging, neuropsychological data and history of mTBI...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
Jennifer J Vasterling, Mihaela Aslan, Lewina O Lee, Susan P Proctor, John Ko, Shawna Jacob, John Concato
OBJECTIVES: Military deployment is associated with increased risk of adverse emotional and cognitive outcomes. Longitudinal associations involving posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), relatively mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), and neurocognitive compromise are poorly understood, especially with regard to long-term outcomes, and rigorous research is necessary to better understand the corresponding relationships. The objective of this study was to examine short-term and long-term (>5 years) longitudinal associations among PTSD, neurocognitive performance, and TBI following military deployment...
December 4, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
Lauren J Radigan, Regina E McGlinchey, William P Milberg, Catherine Brawn Fortier
OBJECTIVE: To compare the diagnosis of positive versus negative for mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) using the Boston Assessment of TBI-Lifetime (BAT-L), a validated forensic clinical interview used to identify TBI in research, to the diagnosis of mTBI in the clinical polytrauma service using the Comprehensive TBI Evaluation (CTBIE). PARTICIPANTS: Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation New Dawn Veterans who were enrolled in the Translational Research Center for TBI and Stress Disorders longitudinal cohort study and received a CTBIE at a Veterans Health Administration healthcare facility (n = 104)...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
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