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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931783/reduced-p3b-brain-response-during-sustained-visual-attention-is-associated-with-remote-blast-mtbi-and-current-ptsd-in-u-s-military-veterans
#1
Casey S Gilmore, Craig A Marquardt, Seung Suk Kang, Scott R Sponheim
Approximately 275,000 American service members deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan have sustained a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), with 75% of these incidents involving an explosive blast. Combat-related mTBI is frequently associated with comorbid mental health disorders, especially posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Attention problems, including sustained attention, are common cognitive complaints of veterans with TBI and PTSD. The present study sought to examine neural correlates of sustained attention in veterans with blast mTBI and/or current PTSD...
December 5, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903275/cell-cycle-inhibition-reduces-inflammatory-responses-neuronal-loss-and-cognitive-deficits-induced-by-hypobaria-exposure-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#2
Jacob W Skovira, Junfang Wu, Jessica J Matyas, Alok Kumar, Marie Hanscom, Shruti V Kabadi, Raymond Fang, Alan I Faden
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients in military settings can be exposed to prolonged periods of hypobaria (HB) during aeromedical evacuation. Hypobaric exposure, even with supplemental oxygen to prevent hypoxia, worsens outcome after experimental TBI, in part by increasing neuroinflammation. Cell cycle activation (CCA) after TBI has been implicated as a mechanism contributing to both post-traumatic cell death and neuroinflammation. Here, we examined whether hypobaric exposure in rats subjected to TBI increases CCA and microglial activation in the brain, as compared to TBI alone, and to evaluate the ability of a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor (CR8) to reduce such changes and improve behavioral outcomes...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901414/cognitive-deficits-and-inflammatory-response-resulting-from-mild-to-moderate-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rats-are-exacerbated-by-repeated-pre-exposure-to-an-innate-stress-stimulus
#3
Michaël Ogier, Amor Belmeguenai, Thomas Lieutaud, Béatrice Georges, Sandrine Bouvard, Emilie Carré, Frédéric Canini, Laurent Bezin
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is common in both military and civilian populations, and often results in neurobehavioral sequelae that impair quality of life in both patients and their family. Although individuals who are chronically exposed to stress are more likely to experience TBI, it is still unknown whether pre-injury stress influences the outcome after TBI. The present study tested whether behavioral and cognitive long-term outcome after TBI in rats is affected by prior exposure to an innate stress stimulus...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863701/the-many-wounds-of-war-the-association-of-service-related-and-clinical-characteristics-with-problems-with-the-law-in-iraq-and-afghanistan-veterans
#4
Autumn Backhaus, Shadi Gholizadeh, Kathryn M Godfrey, James Pittman, Niloofar Afari
Previous research has demonstrated that veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are at higher risk for aggression, hostility, and anger, potentially leading to problems with the law or disciplinary action while in the military. There have been calls for increased consideration of the unique aspects of the judicial system in legal matters with veterans involved. The bulk of the research so far has considered the link between PTSD, traumatic brain injury (TBI), and combat exposure, but little is known about the potential role of chronic pain and Military Sexual Trauma (MST) in a veteran's experience of anger, aggression, and discipline while in the military and legal concerns...
November 2016: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834544/active-duty-service-members-who-sustain-a-traumatic-brain-injury-have-chronically-elevated-peripheral-concentrations-of-a%C3%AE-40-and-lower-ratios-of-a%C3%AE-42-40
#5
Natasha Lejbman, Anlys Olivera, Morgan Heinzelmann, Rebekah Feng, Sijung Yun, Hyung-Suk Kim, Jessica Gill
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: Excessive accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) and tau have been observed in older individuals with chronic neurological symptoms related to a traumatic brain injury (TBI), yet little is known about the possible role of Aβ in younger active duty service members following a TBI. The purpose of the study was to determine if Aβ 40 or 42 related to sustaining a TBI or to chronic neurological symptoms in a young cohort of military personnel. RESEARCH DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study of active duty service members who reported sustaining a TBI and provided self-report of neurological and psychological symptoms and provided blood...
2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799776/hyperbaric-oxygen-therapy-as-a-potential-treatment-for-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-associated-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#6
REVIEW
David J Eve, Martin R Steele, Paul R Sanberg, Cesar V Borlongan
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) describes the presence of physical damage to the brain as a consequence of an insult and frequently possesses psychological and neurological symptoms depending on the severity of the injury. The recent increased military presence of US troops in Iraq and Afghanistan has coincided with greater use of improvised exploding devices, resulting in many returning soldiers suffering from some degree of TBI. A biphasic response is observed which is first directly injury-related, and second due to hypoxia, increased oxidative stress, and inflammation...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794484/prospective-tracking-and-analysis-of-traumatic-brain-injury-in-veterans-and-military-personnel
#7
Nytzia E Licona, Joyce S Chung, John Poole, Rose M Salerno, Nancy Laurenson, Odette A Harris
OBJECTIVE: Describe the ongoing Clinical Tracking Form (CTF) study of the Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center (DVBIC). DESIGN: Prospective longitudinal study. Data at baseline and post-injury are collected on participants through interview and questionnaire, review of medical records and periodic follow-ups throughout their lifetime. SETTING: A regional DVBIC site located at a Veterans Affairs Medical Center. PARTICIPANTS: 211 participants (age range, 18-75y) were enrolled between 2005 and 2012 at a regional DVBIC site...
October 26, 2016: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750113/laboratory-impulsivity-and-depression-in-blast-exposed-military-personnel-with-post-concussion-syndrome
#8
James M Bjork, Thomas K Burroughs, Laura M Franke, Treven C Pickett, Sade E Johns, F Gerard Moeller, William C Walker
In military populations, traumatic brain injury (TBI) also holds potential to increase impulsivity and impair mood regulation due to blast injury effects on ventral frontal cortex - to put military personnel at risk for suicide or substance abuse. We assessed a linkage between depression and impaired behavioral inhibition in 117 blast-exposed service members (SM) and veterans with post-concussion syndrome (PCS), where PCS was defined using a Rivermead Postconcussive Symptom Questionnaire (RPQ) modified to clarify whether each symptom worsened compared to pre-blast...
October 7, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747799/prevalence-of-central-nervous-system-polypharmacy-and-associations-with-overdose-and-suicide-related-behaviors-in-iraq-and-afghanistan-war-veterans-in-va-care-2010-2011
#9
Garen A Collett, Kangwon Song, Carlos A Jaramillo, Jennifer S Potter, Erin P Finley, Mary Jo Pugh
BACKGROUND: The increase in the quantities of central nervous system (CNS)-acting medications prescribed has coincided with increases in overdose mortality, suicide-related behaviors, and unintentional deaths in military personnel deployed in support of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Data on the extent and impact of prescribing multiple CNS drugs among Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans (IAVs) are sparse. OBJECTIVES: We sought to identify the characteristics of IAVs with CNS polypharmacy and examine the association of CNS polypharmacy with drug overdose and suicide-related behaviors controlling for known risk factors...
March 2016: Drugs—Real World Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743528/mild-traumatic-brain-injury-and-suicide-risk-among-a-clinical-sample-of-deployed-military-personnel-evidence-for-a-serial-mediation-model-of-anger-and-depression
#10
Ian H Stanley, Thomas E Joiner, Craig J Bryan
Research has demonstrated a robust link between traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) and suicide risk. Yet, few studies have investigated factors that account for this link. Utilizing a clinical sample of deployed military personnel, this study aimed to examine a serial meditation model of anger and depression in the association of mild TBI and suicide risk. A total of 149 military service members referred for evaluation/treatment of a suspected head injury at a military hospital participated in the present study (92...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737725/inflammation-relates-to-chronic-behavioral-and-neurological-symptoms-in-military-with-traumatic-brain-injuries
#11
Christina Devoto, Lindsay Arcurio, Joseph Fetta, Mary Ley, Tamar Rodney, Rebekah Z Kanefsky, Jessica Gill
Studies have shown that the presence of acute inflammation during recovery is indicative of poor outcomes after a traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, the role of chronic inflammation in predicting post-TBI related symptoms remains poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to compare inflammatory biomarkers (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10) in active duty personnel who either sustained or did not sustain a TBI. Service members were also assessed for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and quality-of-life (QOL) through self-reported measures...
October 12, 2016: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720798/blast-waves-from-detonated-military-explosive-reduce-glur1-and-synaptophysin-levels-in-hippocampal-slice-cultures
#12
Marquitta Smith, Thuvan Piehler, Richard Benjamin, Karen L Farizatto, Morgan C Pait, Michael F Almeida, Vladimir V Ghukasyan, Ben A Bahr
Explosives create shockwaves that cause blast-induced neurotrauma, one of the most common types of traumatic brain injury (TBI) linked to military service. Blast-induced TBIs are often associated with reduced cognitive and behavioral functions due to a variety of factors. To study the direct effects of military explosive blasts on brain tissue, we removed systemic factors by utilizing rat hippocampal slice cultures. The long-term slice cultures were briefly sealed air-tight in serum-free medium, lowered into a 37°C water-filled tank, and small 1...
October 5, 2016: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646958/assessment-of-the-king-devick%C3%A2-kd-test-for-screening-acute-mtbi-concussion-in-warfighters
#13
David V Walsh, José E Capó-Aponte, Thomas Beltran, Wesley R Cole, Ashley Ballard, Joseph Y Dumayas
OBJECTIVES: The Department of Defense reported that 344,030 cases of traumatic brain injury (TBI) were clinically confirmed from 2000 to 2015, with mild TBI (mTBI) accounting for 82.3% of all cases. Unfortunately, warfighters with TBI are often identified only when moderate or severe head injuries have occurred, leaving more subtle mTBI cases undiagnosed. This study aims to identify and validate an eye-movement visual test for screening acute mTBI. METHODS: Two-hundred active duty military personnel were recruited to perform the King-Devick® (KD) test...
September 11, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635228/pathophysiological-links-between-traumatic-brain-injury-and-post-traumatic-headaches
#14
REVIEW
Robert L Ruff, Kayla Blake
This article reviews possible ways that traumatic brain injury (TBI) can induce migraine-type post-traumatic headaches (PTHs) in children, adults, civilians, and military personnel. Several cerebral alterations resulting from TBI can foster the development of PTH, including neuroinflammation that can activate neural systems associated with migraine. TBI can also compromise the intrinsic pain modulation system and this would increase the level of perceived pain associated with PTH. Depression and anxiety disorders, especially post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), are associated with TBI and these psychological conditions can directly intensify PTH...
2016: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604715/bridging-the-gap-of-standardized-animals-models-for-blast-neurotrauma-methodology-for-appropriate-experimental-testing
#15
Pamela J VandeVord, Alessandra Dal Cengio Leonardi, David Ritzel
Recent military combat has heightened awareness to the complexity of blast-related traumatic brain injuries (bTBI). Experiments using animal, cadaver, or biofidelic physical models remain the primary measures to investigate injury biomechanics as well as validate computational simulations, medical diagnostics and therapies, or protection technologies. However, blast injury research has seen a range of irregular and inconsistent experimental methods for simulating blast insults generating results which may be misleading, cannot be cross-correlated between laboratories, or referenced to any standard for exposure...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27556139/evaluating-the-clinical-utility-of-the-validity-10-for-detecting-amplified-symptom-reporting-for-patients-with-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-and-comorbid-psychological-health-conditions
#16
Michael N Dretsch, Kathy Williams, Tara Staver, Geoffrey Grammer, Joseph Bleiberg, Thomas DeGraba, Rael T Lange
The objective of this study was to compare the Validity-10 scale with the PAI Negative Impression Management Scale (PAI-NIM) for detecting exaggerated symptom reporting in active-duty military service members (SMs) admitted with unremitting mild TBI symptoms and comorbid psychological health conditions (mTBI/PH). Data were analyzed from 254 SMs who completed the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory (NSI) and Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) as a part of a larger battery of self-report symptom scales upon admission to the intensive-outpatient TBI treatment program at a military medical center...
August 24, 2016: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27555538/linking-blast-physics-to-biological-outcomes-in-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-narrative-review-and-preliminary-report-of-an-open-field-blast-model
#17
Hailong Song, Jiankun Cui, Agnes Simonyi, Catherine E Johnson, Graham K Hubler, Ralph G DePalma, Zezong Gu
Blast exposures are associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and blast-induced TBIs are common injuries affecting military personnel. Department of Defense and Veterans Administration (DoD/VA) reports for TBI indicated that the vast majority (82.3%) has been mild TBI (mTBI)/concussion. mTBI and associated posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD) have been called "the invisible injury" of the current conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. These injuries induce varying degrees of neuropathological alterations and, in some cases, chronic cognitive, behavioral and neurological disorders...
August 20, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27535591/the-anti-inflammatory-properties-of-satureja-khuzistanica-jamzad-essential-oil-attenuate-the-effects-of-traumatic-brain-injuries-in-rats
#18
Elham Abbasloo, Fatemeh Dehghan, Mohammad Khaksari, Hamid Najafipour, Reza Vahidi, Shahriar Dabiri, Gholamreza Sepehri, Golamreza Asadikaram
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major health concern affecting the general public as well as military personnel. However, there is no FDA-approved therapy for the treatment of TBIs. In this work, we investigated the neurotherapeutic effects of the well-known natural Iranian medicine Satureja Khuzistanica Jamzad (SKJ) essential oil (SKEO) on the outcomes of diffused experimental TBI, with particular attention paid to its anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects. Male Wistar rats were treated with doses of 50, 100 and 200 (mg/kg, i...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27531972/traumatic-brain-injury-activation-of-the-adult-subventricular-zone-neurogenic-niche
#19
REVIEW
Eun Hyuk Chang, Istvan Adorjan, Mayara V Mundim, Bin Sun, Maria L V Dizon, Francis G Szele
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is common in both civilian and military life, placing a large burden on survivors and society. However, with the recognition of neural stem cells in adult mammals, including humans, came the possibility to harness these cells for repair of damaged brain, whereas previously this was thought to be impossible. In this review, we focus on the rodent adult subventricular zone (SVZ), an important neurogenic niche within the mature brain in which neural stem cells continue to reside. We review how the SVZ is perturbed following various animal TBI models with regards to cell proliferation, emigration, survival, and differentiation, and we review specific molecules involved in these processes...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27501937/increasing-severity-of-traumatic-brain-injury-is-associated-with-an-increased-risk-of-subsequent-headache-or-migraine-a-retrospective-cohort-study-of-u-s-active-duty-service-members-2006-2015
#20
Vincent P Beswick-Escanlar, Terrence Lee, Zheng Hu, Leslie L Clark
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common injury in the U.S. Compared to the general population, military service members can be at increased risk for TBI because of the nature of their work. Sequelae of TBI, such as headache or migraine, can lead to military duty limitations or separation from service. To determine whether the severity of TBI is associated with the risk of these sequelae, this 2006-2015 retrospective cohort study compared the incidence of diagnosed headache or migraine among all service members with a first-time mild or moderate/severe TBI (N=111,018) against a matched sample without any history of TBI...
July 2016: MSMR
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