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TBI Military

James M Bjork, Thomas K Burroughs, Laura M Franke, Treven C Pickett, Sade E Johns, F Gerard Moeller, William C Walker
In military populations, traumatic brain injury (TBI) also holds potential to increase impulsivity and impair mood regulation due to blast injury effects on ventral frontal cortex - to put military personnel at risk for suicide or substance abuse. We assessed a linkage between depression and impaired behavioral inhibition in 117 blast-exposed service members (SM) and veterans with post-concussion syndrome (PCS), where PCS was defined using a Rivermead Postconcussive Symptom Questionnaire (RPQ) modified to clarify whether each symptom worsened compared to pre-blast...
October 7, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Garen A Collett, Kangwon Song, Carlos A Jaramillo, Jennifer S Potter, Erin P Finley, Mary Jo Pugh
BACKGROUND: The increase in the quantities of central nervous system (CNS)-acting medications prescribed has coincided with increases in overdose mortality, suicide-related behaviors, and unintentional deaths in military personnel deployed in support of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Data on the extent and impact of prescribing multiple CNS drugs among Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans (IAVs) are sparse. OBJECTIVES: We sought to identify the characteristics of IAVs with CNS polypharmacy and examine the association of CNS polypharmacy with drug overdose and suicide-related behaviors controlling for known risk factors...
March 2016: Drugs—Real World Outcomes
Ian H Stanley, Thomas E Joiner, Craig J Bryan
Research has demonstrated a robust link between traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) and suicide risk. Yet, few studies have investigated factors that account for this link. Utilizing a clinical sample of deployed military personnel, this study aimed to examine a serial meditation model of anger and depression in the association of mild TBI and suicide risk. A total of 149 military service members referred for evaluation/treatment of a suspected head injury at a military hospital participated in the present study (92...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Christina Devoto, Lindsay Arcurio, Joseph Fetta, Mary Ley, Tamar Rodney, Rebekah Kanefsy, Jessica Gill
Studies have shown that the presence of acute inflammation during recovery is indicative of poor outcomes after a traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, the role of chronic inflammation in predicting post-TBI related symptoms remains poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to compare inflammatory biomarkers (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10) in active duty personnel who either sustained or did not sustain a TBI. Service members were also assessed for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and quality-of-life (QOL) through self-reported measures...
October 12, 2016: Cell Transplantation
Marquitta Smith, Thuvan Piehler, Richard Benjamin, Karen L Farizatto, Morgan C Pait, Michael F Almeida, Vladimir V Ghukasyan, Ben A Bahr
Explosives create shockwaves that cause blast-induced neurotrauma, one of the most common types of traumatic brain injury (TBI) linked to military service. Blast-induced TBIs are often associated with reduced cognitive and behavioral functions due to a variety of factors. To study the direct effects of military explosive blasts on brain tissue, we removed systemic factors by utilizing rat hippocampal slice cultures. The long-term slice cultures were briefly sealed air-tight in serum-free medium, lowered into a 37°C water-filled tank, and small 1...
October 5, 2016: Experimental Neurology
David V Walsh, José E Capó-Aponte, Thomas Beltran, Wesley R Cole, Ashley Ballard, Joseph Y Dumayas
OBJECTIVES: The Department of Defense reported that 344,030 cases of traumatic brain injury (TBI) were clinically confirmed from 2000 to 2015, with mild TBI (mTBI) accounting for 82.3% of all cases. Unfortunately, warfighters with TBI are often identified only when moderate or severe head injuries have occurred, leaving more subtle mTBI cases undiagnosed. This study aims to identify and validate an eye-movement visual test for screening acute mTBI. METHODS: Two-hundred active duty military personnel were recruited to perform the King-Devick® (KD) test...
September 11, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Robert L Ruff, Kayla Blake
This article reviews possible ways that traumatic brain injury (TBI) can induce migraine-type post-traumatic headaches (PTHs) in children, adults, civilians, and military personnel. Several cerebral alterations resulting from TBI can foster the development of PTH, including neuroinflammation that can activate neural systems associated with migraine. TBI can also compromise the intrinsic pain modulation system and this would increase the level of perceived pain associated with PTH. Depression and anxiety disorders, especially post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), are associated with TBI and these psychological conditions can directly intensify PTH...
2016: F1000Research
Pamela J VandeVord, Alessandra Dal Cengio Leonardi, David Ritzel
Recent military combat has heightened awareness to the complexity of blast-related traumatic brain injuries (bTBI). Experiments using animal, cadaver, or biofidelic physical models remain the primary measures to investigate injury biomechanics as well as validate computational simulations, medical diagnostics and therapies, or protection technologies. However, blast injury research has seen a range of irregular and inconsistent experimental methods for simulating blast insults generating results which may be misleading, cannot be cross-correlated between laboratories, or referenced to any standard for exposure...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Michael N Dretsch, Kathy Williams, Tara Staver, Geoffrey Grammer, Joseph Bleiberg, Thomas DeGraba, Rael T Lange
The objective of this study was to compare the Validity-10 scale with the PAI Negative Impression Management Scale (PAI-NIM) for detecting exaggerated symptom reporting in active-duty military service members (SMs) admitted with unremitting mild TBI symptoms and comorbid psychological health conditions (mTBI/PH). Data were analyzed from 254 SMs who completed the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory (NSI) and Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) as a part of a larger battery of self-report symptom scales upon admission to the intensive-outpatient TBI treatment program at a military medical center...
August 24, 2016: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
Hailong Song, Jiankun Cui, Agnes Simonyi, Catherine E Johnson, Graham K Hubler, Ralph G DePalma, Zezong Gu
Blast exposures are associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and blast-induced TBIs are common injuries affecting military personnel. Department of Defense and Veterans Administration (DoD/VA) reports for TBI indicated that the vast majority (82.3%) has been mild TBI (mTBI)/concussion. mTBI and associated posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD) have been called "the invisible injury" of the current conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. These injuries induce varying degrees of neuropathological alterations and, in some cases, chronic cognitive, behavioral and neurological disorders...
August 20, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Elham Abbasloo, Fatemeh Dehghan, Mohammad Khaksari, Hamid Najafipour, Reza Vahidi, Shahriar Dabiri, Gholamreza Sepehri, Golamreza Asadikaram
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major health concern affecting the general public as well as military personnel. However, there is no FDA-approved therapy for the treatment of TBIs. In this work, we investigated the neurotherapeutic effects of the well-known natural Iranian medicine Satureja Khuzistanica Jamzad (SKJ) essential oil (SKEO) on the outcomes of diffused experimental TBI, with particular attention paid to its anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects. Male Wistar rats were treated with doses of 50, 100 and 200 (mg/kg, i...
2016: Scientific Reports
Eun Hyuk Chang, Istvan Adorjan, Mayara V Mundim, Bin Sun, Maria L V Dizon, Francis G Szele
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is common in both civilian and military life, placing a large burden on survivors and society. However, with the recognition of neural stem cells in adult mammals, including humans, came the possibility to harness these cells for repair of damaged brain, whereas previously this was thought to be impossible. In this review, we focus on the rodent adult subventricular zone (SVZ), an important neurogenic niche within the mature brain in which neural stem cells continue to reside. We review how the SVZ is perturbed following various animal TBI models with regards to cell proliferation, emigration, survival, and differentiation, and we review specific molecules involved in these processes...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Vincent P Beswick-Escanlar, Terrence Lee, Zheng Hu, Leslie L Clark
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common injury in the U.S. Compared to the general population, military service members can be at increased risk for TBI because of the nature of their work. Sequelae of TBI, such as headache or migraine, can lead to military duty limitations or separation from service. To determine whether the severity of TBI is associated with the risk of these sequelae, this 2006-2015 retrospective cohort study compared the incidence of diagnosed headache or migraine among all service members with a first-time mild or moderate/severe TBI (N=111,018) against a matched sample without any history of TBI...
July 2016: MSMR
Wayne B Jonas, Dawn M Bellanti, Charmagne F Paat, Courtney C Boyd, Alaine Duncan, Ashley Price, Weimin Zhang, Louis M French, Heechin Chae
Background: Headaches are prevalent among Service members with traumatic brain injury (TBI); 80% report chronic or recurrent headache. Evidence for nonpharmacologic treatments, such as acupuncture, are needed. Objective: The aim of this research was to determine if two types of acupuncture (auricular acupuncture [AA] and traditional Chinese acupuncture [TCA]) were feasible and more effective than usual care (UC) alone for TBI-related headache. Materials and Methods: Design: This was a three-armed, parallel, randomized exploratory study...
June 1, 2016: Medical Acupuncture
Peter B Walker, Jacob N Norris, Anna E Tshiffiley, Melissa L Mehalick, Craig A Cunningham, Ian N Davidson
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the most common forms of neurotrauma that has affected more than 250,000 military service members over the last decade alone. While in battle, service members who experience TBI are at significant risk for the development of normal TBI symptoms, as well as risk for the development of psychological disorders such as Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). As such, these service members often require intense bouts of medication and therapy in order to resume full return-to-duty status...
July 21, 2016: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
Renato Polimanti, Chia-Yen Chen, Robert J Ursano, Steven G Heeringa, Sonia Jain, Ronald C Kessler, Matthew K Nock, Jordan Smoller, Xiaoying Sun, Joel Gelernter, Murray B Stein
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) contributes to the increased rates of suicide and post-traumatic stress disorder in military personnel and veterans; and it is also associated with the risk of neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. A cross-phenotype high-resolution polygenic risk score (PRS) analysis of persistent post-concussive symptoms (PCS) was conducted in 845 U.S. Army soldiers who sustained TBI during their deployment. We used a prospective longitudinal survey of three Brigade Combat Teams to assess deployment-acquired TBI and persistent physical, cognitive, and emotional PCS...
July 20, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Keisuke Takahata, Hajime Tabuchi, Masaru Mimura
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disease, which is associated with mild repetitive traumatic brain injury (TBI). This long-term and progressive symptom due to TBI was initially called punch-drunk syndrome or dementia pugilistica, since it was believed to be associated with boxing. However, serial neuropathological studies of mild repetitive TBI in the last decade have revealed that CTE occurs not only in boxers but also in a wider population including American football players, wrestlers, and military personnel...
July 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
Tracey A Brickell, Sara Lippa, Louis M French, Jan Kennedy, Jason Bailie, Rael T Lange
Females are often excluded from military-related mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) research due to their relatively low prevalence in this population. The purpose of this study was to focus on outcome from mild TBI in female service members, compared to males. Participants were 172 U.S. military service members selected from a larger sample that had sustained a mild TBI, and were evaluated within 24 months of injury (Age: M=28.9, SD=8.1) at one of six military medical centers. Eighty six women were matched to 86 men on nine key variables: TBI severity, mechanism of injury, bodily injury severity, days post-injury, age, number of deployments, theater where wounded, branch of service, and rank...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Natalia I Ossetrova, Patrick H Ney, Donald P Condliffe, Katya Krasnopolsky, Kevin P Hieber
Radiation accidents or terrorist attacks can result in serious consequences for the civilian population and for military personnel responding to such emergencies. The early medical management situation requires quantitative indications for early initiation of cytokine therapy in individuals exposed to life-threatening radiation doses and effective triage tools for first responders in mass-casualty radiological incidents. Previously established animal (Mus musculus, Macaca mulatta) total-body irradiation (γ-exposure) models have evaluated a panel of radiation-responsive proteins that, together with peripheral blood cell counts, create a multiparametic dose-predictive algorithm with a threshold for detection of ~1 Gy from 1 to 7 d after exposure as well as demonstrate the acute radiation syndrome severity score systems created similar to the Medical Treatment Protocols for Radiation Accident Victims developed by Fliedner and colleagues...
August 2016: Health Physics
Suzanne McGarity, Scott D Barnett, Greg Lamberty, Tracy Kretzmer, Gail Powell-Cope, Nitin Patel, Risa Nakase-Richardson
OBJECTIVES: To examine community reintegration problems among Veterans and military service members with mild or moderate/severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) at 1 year postinjury and to identify unique predictors that may contribute to these difficulties. SETTING: VA Polytrauma Rehabilitation Centers. PARTICIPANTS: Participants were 154 inpatients enrolled in the VA TBI Model Systems Program with available injury severity data (mild = 28.6%; moderate/severe = 71...
June 17, 2016: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
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