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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330217/a-systematic-review-of-network-meta-analyses-for-pharmacological-treatment-of-common-mental-disorders
#1
REVIEW
Taryn Williams, Dan J Stein, Jonathan Ipser
QUESTION: Network meta-analyses (NMAs) of treatment efficacy across different pharmacological treatments help inform clinical decision-making, but their methodological quality may vary a lot depending also on the quality of the included primary studies. We therefore conducted a systematic review of NMAs of pharmacological treatment for common mental disorders in order to assess the methodological quality of these NMAs, and to relate study characteristics to the rankings of efficacy and tolerability...
January 12, 2018: Evidence-based Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330044/effects-of-acupuncture-on-the-heart-rate-variability-cortisol-levels-and-behavioural-response-induced-by-thunder-sound-in-beagles
#2
Carolina Elisabetta Martins Maccariello, Carla Caroline Franzini de Souza, Laura Morena, Daniel Penteado Martins Dias, Magda Alves de Medeiros
Sound stimuli such as fireworks, firearms, and claps of thunder have been used as a stress reactivity model for dogs. Acupuncture has been widely used to treat and prevent physiological and behavioural disorders induced by stress. Our study aims to evaluate the effects of acupuncture on cardiac autonomic modulation (heart rate variability - HRV), behavioural (reactivity) and endocrine (cortisol levels) responses in dogs exposed to sounds of thunder. Twenty-four laboratory beagles (12 males and 12 females, 1-6years old) with no history of phobia to thunder were subjected to a sound stimulus that consisted of a standardized recording of thunder over a 150s period with a maximum intensity of 103-104dB...
January 9, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328795/emerging-changing-fashion-trends-and-their-impact-on-conduct-of-anaesthesia
#3
Nadeem Zaidi
One of the innate features of human behaviour is to enhance personal image in order to look different from the rest of the crowd and to satisfy a need for individualism. People use different dress codes, body makeup and artificial gadgets to improve their personal and physical appearance. The main motive behind all these efforts is personal satisfaction, to appear attractive to others and to overcome phobias and complexes.
November 2017: Journal of Perioperative Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321077/social-anxiety-disorder-looking-back-and-moving-forward
#4
Matthew P Hyett, Peter M McEvoy
Fifty years have passed since social anxiety disorder (SAD) was first differentiated from other phobias. In the years since research has largely aligned with the zeitgeist of categorical classificatory frameworks, and has spanned identifying causes, maintenance factors and innovative interventions. Despite significant advances in the field, the capacity to conceptualise SAD as an independent entity is limited given the heterogeneity and dimensionality of diagnostic criteria, high rates of comorbidity, and non-specificity of aetiological mechanisms, maintaining factors and approaches to treatment...
January 11, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316807/cost-efficient-designs-for-three-arm-trials-with-treatment-delivered-by-health-professionals-sample-sizes-for-a-combination-of-nested-and-crossed-designs
#5
Mirjam Moerbeek
Background This article studies the design of trials that compare three treatment conditions that are delivered by two types of health professionals. The one type of health professional delivers one treatment, and the other type delivers two treatments, hence, this design is a combination of a nested and crossed design. As each health professional treats multiple patients, the data have a nested structure. This nested structure has thus far been ignored in the design of such trials, which may result in an underestimate of the required sample size...
January 1, 2018: Clinical Trials: Journal of the Society for Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313580/presenting-research-paper-learning-the-steps
#6
Sandeep B Bavdekar, Varun Anand, Shruti Vyas
For a beginner, presenting a research paper at a conference as a podium presentation can be a daunting task. She is required to choose an appropriate conference for presentation, prepare an abstract, prepare slides and the speech that goes parallel with the slides and train oneself to answer questions posed by the audience. She has also got to overcome the fear of speaking in public and conquer the phobia of encountering a hostile audience ready to shred her paper to pieces. This communication intends to provide useful tips on how to go about preparing and presenting a research paper...
September 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306023/short-versions-of-two-specific-phobia-measures-the-snake-and-the-spider-questionnaires
#7
Andras N Zsido, Nikolett Arato, Orsolya Inhof, Jozsef Janszky, Gergely Darnai
Zoophobias are the most prevalent form of specific phobia worldwide. Two of the most widely used measures, the Snake Questionnaire (SNAQ) and Spider Questionnaire (SPQ) are good indicators of specific fears, but researchers have recognised that shorter, yet nevertheless reliable measures are needed. Hence the aims of this research were to develop short forms of the SNAQ and SPQ using item response theory and to use receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses to determine cut-offs for use in future research...
December 30, 2017: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303037/placebo-effects-in-spider-phobia-an-eye-tracking-experiment
#8
Andreas Gremsl, Daniela Schwab, Carina Höfler, Anne Schienle
Several eye-tracking studies have revealed that spider phobic patients show a typical hypervigilance-avoidance pattern when confronted with images of spiders. The present experiment investigated if this pattern can be changed via placebo treatment. We conducted an eye-tracking experiment with 37 women with spider phobia. They looked at picture pairs (a spider paired with a neutral picture) for 7 s each in a retest design: once with and once without a placebo pill presented along with the verbal suggestion that it can reduce phobic symptoms...
January 5, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302525/association-of-social-anxiety-disorder-with-depression-and-quality-of-life-among-medical-undergraduate-students
#9
Imran Jahangirali Ratnani, Ashok Ukabhai Vala, Bharat Navinchandra Panchal, Deepak Sachchidanand Tiwari, Smruti S Karambelkar, Milankumar G Sojitra, Nidhi N Nagori
Objective: Social anxiety disorder (SAD), (also known as social phobia), is characterized by intense fear of social interaction and often associated with social avoidance and impairments. There is high risk for depression, substance use disorder, and suicide among them. Subjects and Methods: It is an observational, cross-sectional, single centered, questionnaire-based study assessing the frequency of SAD and depression and their possible association with quality of life among 290 consenting medical undergraduate students...
April 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301475/frequency-of-psychological-alterations-in-primary-antiphospholipid-syndrome-preliminary-study
#10
M Sadetski, M L Tourinho Moretto, R P Correia de Araujo, J F de Carvalho
Objectives To detect the frequency of psychological alterations in primary antiphospholipid syndrome patients. Methods Thirty-six primary antiphospholipid syndrome patients were analyzed by a psychological interview using a standard protocol and review of medical charts. Clinical manifestations, associated comorbidities, antiphospholipid antibodies, and treatment were also evaluated. Results The mean age was 44.2 ± 10.8 years, 29 (80%) were women and 29 (80%) were of Caucasian race. The mean duration of disease was 7...
January 1, 2018: Lupus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281096/relating-experimentally-induced-fear-to-pre-existing-phobic-fear-in-the-human-brain
#11
Seth M Levine, Michael Pfaller, Jonas Reichenberger, Youssef Shiban, Andreas Mühlberger, Rainer Rupprecht, Jens V Schwarzbach
While prior work has demonstrated that fear-conditioning changes the neural representation of previously neutral stimuli, it remains unknown to what extent this new representation abstracts away from specific fears and which brain areas are involved therein. To investigate this question, we sought commonalities between experimentally-induced fear via electric shocks and pre-existing phobia. Using functional MRI, we tested the effect of fear-conditioning pictures of dogs in 21 spider-fearful participants across three phases: baseline, post-conditioning, and extinction...
December 21, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277320/phenomenology-epidemiology-co-morbidity-and-treatment-of-a-specific-phobia-of-vomiting-a-systematic-review-of-an-understudied-disorder
#12
REVIEW
Alexandra Keyes, Helen R Gilpin, David Veale
Specific Phobia of Vomiting (SPOV) is an under-researched disorder compared to other Specific Phobias. A systematic review was conducted to synthesise existing research across areas of phenomenology, aetiology, epidemiology, co-morbidity, assessment measures and treatment. Online databases (Psychinfo, Embase, Medline, Pubmed and Cochrane Library) were searched using terms related to SPOV and 'emetophobia'. A manual search of reference lists of included papers was also conducted. In total, 385 articles were found and 24 were included in the review...
December 12, 2017: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276896/outcome-of-depressive-and-anxiety-disorders-among-young-adults-results-from-the-longitudinal-finnish-health-2011-study
#13
Teija Kasteenpohja, Mauri Marttunen, Terhi Aalto-Setälä, Jonna Perälä, Samuli I Saarni, Jaana Suvisaari
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: We investigated the outcomes and outcome predictors of depressive and anxiety disorders in a general population sample of young adults with a lifetime history of these disorders. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study sample was derived from a nationally representative two-stage cluster sample of Finns aged 19-34 years. The original study was carried out in 2003-2005, and the follow-up in 2011. We investigated participants diagnosed with a depressive or anxiety disorder based on a SCID interview (excluding those with only a single specific phobia) (DAX-group, N = 181)...
December 25, 2017: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273344/the-effects-of-oxytocin-on-social-cognition-in-borderline-personality-disorder
#14
A Servan, J Brunelin, E Poulet
INTRODUCTION: Deficits in social cognition and interpersonal difficulties are key features in borderline personality disorder. Social cognition refers to the function of perceiving and adequately dealing with social signals, leading to the establishment and maintenance of healthy and positive social relationships. Evidence suggests that oxytocin (OT) may improve social cognition and human social behavior. Recently, several studies have highlighted the beneficial effects of oxytocin in several psychiatric conditions involving social cognition deficits such as schizophrenia, autism or social phobia...
December 19, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250000/social-fear-conditioning-paradigm-in-virtual-reality-social-vs-electrical-aversive-conditioning
#15
Jonas Reichenberger, Sonja Porsch, Jasmin Wittmann, Verena Zimmermann, Youssef Shiban
In a previous study we could show that social fear can be induced and extinguished using virtual reality (VR). In the present study, we aimed to investigate the belongingness effect in an operant social fear conditioning (SFC) paradigm which consisted of an acquisition and an extinction phase. Forty-three participants used a joystick to approach different virtual male agents that served as conditioned stimuli. Participants were randomly allocated to one of two experimental conditions. In the electroshock condition, the unconditioned stimulus (US) used during acquisition was an electric stimulation...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243289/examining-the-content-and-moderators-of-women-s-fears-for-giving-birth-a-meta-synthesis
#16
REVIEW
Kayleigh Sheen, Pauline Slade
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: This meta-synthesis aimed to identify key elements contributing to FOC derived from women's own reports. BACKGROUND: Fear of childbirth (FOC) encompasses fear or anxiety about giving birth, which can resemble a phobic response. FOC holds implications for women's antenatal and postnatal wellbeing, and decisions made about the birth but a clear definition of the construct does not exist. METHOD: A meta-synthesis was conducted by searching databases (Web of Knowledge, CINAHL, EBSCO, Medline, PsychInfo, and PsychArticles) for qualitative studies describing women's perspectives with respect to fear, anxiety, concerns, phobia or stress about birth...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241430/past-year-treatment-utilization-among-individuals-meeting-dsm-5-ptsd-criteria-results-from-a-nationally-representative-sample
#17
Andrew C Hale, Rebecca K Sripada, Kipling M Bohnert
OBJECTIVE: Little is known regarding treatment utilization among individuals meeting DSM-5 criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). METHODS: Data were analyzed from the third wave of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a nationally representative sample using DSM-5 criteria. RESULTS: Factors related to increased odds of PTSD treatment utilization for individuals meeting lifetime criteria included some college education versus less than a high school degree (odds ratio [OR]=3...
December 15, 2017: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233727/a-mathematic-model-and-experimental-verification-of-optimal-nozzle-diameter-in-needle-free-injection
#18
Dongping Zeng, Yong Kang, Lu Xie, Xiaoxiao Xia, Zefeng Wang, Wenchuan Liu
Needle-free injection, as an alternative drug delivery strategy, owns great potential. It is able to reduce complaints about needle phobia and avoid the occurring of accidental needle stick injuries. The nozzle diameter is inherently important in determining the injection dose, injection depth and pain associated with needle-free injections. In this work, needle-free injectors with nozzle diameters of 0.17 mm, 0.20 mm, 0.30 mm, 0.40mm, 0.50 mm were studied in the simulation and experiment. This paper optimizes the mathematical model for spring powered needle-free injection by considering the hydraulic loss due to the abrupt change in the nozzle exit area and the friction force between the piston and ampoule...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223798/self-reported-volitional-control-in-adolescents-and-young-adults-from-a-community-cohort-associations-with-current-past-and-future-mental-disorders
#19
Eva Asselmann, Kevin Hilbert, Jana Hoyer, Hans-Ulrich Wittchen, Roselind Lieb, Gerhard Bühringer, Katja Beesdo-Baum
Alterations in volitional control have been found for various mental disorders. However, it remains unclear to which degree such alterations vary by type of psychopathology and constitute preceding vulnerabilities or correlates of mental disorders. DSM-IV mental disorders were assessed among adolescents and young adults from the community at baseline (age 14-24) and in up to 3 follow-up assessments over 10 years (n = 2515) using a standardized diagnostic interview (DIA-X/M-CIDI). Self-reported volitional control was assessed at second follow-up (T2) when subjects were aged 17-28 using the German version of the Short Form of the Volitional Components Inventory...
November 21, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213247/mediating-effects-of-global-negative-effect-expectancies-on-the-association-between-problematic-cannabis-use-and-social-anxiety
#20
Maria Di Blasi, Paola Cavani, Laura Pavia, Crispino Tosto, Sabina La Grutta, Rosa Lo Baido, Cecilia Giordano, Adriano Schimmenti
The relationship between social anxiety (SA) and cannabis use among adolescents and young adults is a highly debated topic. In this cross-sectional study, we tested whether cannabis use expectancies mediated the association between SA and cannabis use severity in a sample of 343 young adults (74.3% male) who used cannabis. They completed self-report measures for the screening of problematic cannabis use (Cannabis Use Problems Identification Test) and SA symptoms (Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and Social Phobia Scale)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
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