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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330986/use-of-psychoactive-drugs-among-medical-undergraduates-in-abbottabad
#1
Haq Nawaz, Aftab Alam Khan, Saima Bukhari
BACKGROUND: Psychoactive substance abuse is prevalent among medical undergraduates of Pakistan, India & Western countries which can adversely affect the physical & psychological grooming of a medical undergraduate thus threatening to compromise their role as future physicians & health-care providers in the society. The objective of the present cross-sectional study was to explore the prevalence and patterns of psychoactive substance/drug consumption among undergraduate students of a public sector medical college in Abbottabad...
October 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329891/medical-use-of-cannabis-and-cannabinoids-containing-products-regulations-in-europe-and-north-america
#2
REVIEW
Ran Abuhasira, Liat Shbiro, Yuval Landschaft
In 1937, the United States of America criminalized the use of cannabis and as a result its use decreased rapidly. In recent decades, there is a growing interest in the wide range of medical uses of cannabis and its constituents; however, the laws and regulations are substantially different between countries. Laws differentiate between raw herbal cannabis, cannabis extracts, and cannabinoid-based medicines. Both the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) do not approve the use of herbal cannabis or its extracts...
January 10, 2018: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325791/the-therapeutic-effects-of-cannabis-and-cannabinoids-an-update-from-the-national-academies-of-sciences-engineering-and-medicine-report
#3
REVIEW
Donald I Abrams
The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine conducted a rapid turn-around comprehensive review of recent medical literature on The Health Effects of Cannabis and Cannabinoids. The 16-member committee adopted the key features of a systematic review process, conducting an extensive search of relevant databases and considered 10,000 recent abstracts to determine their relevance. Primacy was given to recently published systematic reviews and primary research that studied one of the committee's 11 prioritized health endpoints- therapeutic effects; cancer incidence; cardiometabolic risk; respiratory disease; immune function; injury and death; prenatal, perinatal and postnatal outcomes; psychosocial outcomes; mental health; problem Cannabis use; and Cannabis use and abuse of other substances...
January 8, 2018: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325182/-cannabis-in-parkinson-s-disease-hype-or-help
#4
Tina Mainka, Jan Stork, Ute Hidding, Carsten Buhmann
Cannabis buds and extracts as well as synthetic cannabinoids have been available on prescription to patients with severe diseases since March 2017, with the costs covered by health insurance companies.The prescription of medical marihuana is not restricted to specific symptoms and is therefore also valid for patients with Parkinson's disease. From a legal perspective, patients who are seriously ill even have the right to be treated with cannabis if standard treatment methods are unsuccessful or result in unbearable side effects...
January 11, 2018: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321937/marijuana-bong-pseudomonas-lung-infection-a-detrimental-recreational-experience
#5
Agni Nhirmal Kumar, Chun Ian Soo, Boon Hau Ng, Tidi Hassan, Andrea Yu-Lin Ban, Roslina Abdul Manap
The use of Cannabis sativa, also known as marijuana, is believed to have dated back to thousands of years B.C. More than 200 decades later, it remains a popular recreational psychoactive substance that can be smoked through a water pipe. We report a case of marijuana smoking via a "bong" device, which has resulted in severe Pseudomonas aeruginosa necrotizing pneumonia treated with conservative medical therapy. This case highlights the importance of recognizing that life-threatening pneumonia can potentially be linked to marijuana and "bong" usage...
February 2018: Respirology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317112/cannabinoid-disposition-after-human-intraperitoneal-use-an-insight-into-intraperitoneal-pharmacokinetic-properties-in-metastatic-cancer
#6
Catherine J Lucas, Peter Galettis, Shuzhen Song, Nadia Solowij, Stephanie E Reuter, Jennifer Schneider, Jennifer H Martin
BACKGROUND: Medicinal cannabis is prescribed under the provision of a controlled drug in the Australian Poisons Standard. However, multiple laws must be navigated in order for patients to obtain access and imported products can be expensive. Dose-response information for both efficacy and toxicity pertaining to medicinal cannabis is lacking. The pharmacokinetic properties of cannabis administered by traditional routes has been described but to date, there is no literature on the pharmacokinetic properties of an intraperitoneal cannabinoid emulsion...
January 6, 2018: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310960/cannabinoid-hyperemesis-syndrome-pathophysiology-and-treatment-in-the-emergency-department
#7
John R Richards
BACKGROUND: Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS) is a challenging clinical disorder. CHS patients frequently present to the emergency department and may require treatment for intractable emesis, dehydration, and electrolyte abnormalities. Thought to be a variant of cyclic vomiting syndrome, CHS has become more prevalent with increasing cannabis potency and use, as enabled by various states having legalized the recreational use of cannabis. OBJECTIVE: This aim of this review is to investigate the pathophysiology of CHS and evaluate the published literature on pharmacologic treatment in the emergency department...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310049/-positive-urine-testing-for-cannabis-is-associated-with-increased-risk-of-traffic-crashes
#8
Giovanna Del Balzo, Rossella Gottardo, Silvia Mengozzi, Romolo M Dorizzi, Federica Bortolotti, Svetlana Appolonova, Franco Tagliaro
Although recent Cannabis use is widely reported to be associated with drug-related traffic accidents, the evidence that Cannabis users show an increased risk of being involved in road crashes is still not unequivocally proved. The purpose of the present work is to provide an objective assessment of this hypothesis, by comparing the frequency of occurrence of positive urine analyses in drivers involved in traffic accidents (n = 1406) with that observed in a control population undergoing mandatory urine drug testing (n = 1953)...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307505/practical-considerations-in-medical-cannabis-administration-and-dosing
#9
REVIEW
Caroline A MacCallum, Ethan B Russo
Cannabis has been employed medicinally throughout history, but its recent legal prohibition, biochemical complexity and variability, quality control issues, previous dearth of appropriately powered randomised controlled trials, and lack of pertinent education have conspired to leave clinicians in the dark as to how to advise patients pursuing such treatment. With the advent of pharmaceutical cannabis-based medicines (Sativex/nabiximols and Epidiolex), and liberalisation of access in certain nations, this ignorance of cannabis pharmacology and therapeutics has become untenable...
January 4, 2018: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302228/cannabis-cannabinoids-and-health
#10
Genevieve Lafaye, Laurent Karila, Lisa Blecha, Amine Benyamina
Cannabis (also known as marijuana) is the most frequently used illicit psychoactive substance in the world. Though it was long considered to be a "soft" drug, studies have proven the harmful psychiatric and addictive effects associated with its use. A number of elements are responsible for the increased complications of cannabis use, including the increase in the potency of cannabis and an evolution in the ratio between the two primary components, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) and cannabidiol (toward a higher proportion of Δ9-THC), Synthetic cannabinoid (SC) use has rapidly progressed over the last few years, primarily among frequent cannabis users, because SCs provide similar psychoactive effects to cannabis...
September 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301427/does-medical-cannabis-reduce-use-of-prescription-opioids
#11
Dennis McCarty
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300122/characterizing-blunt-smokers-by-their-acquisition-of-cannabis
#12
David S Timberlake
BACKGROUND: Ethnographers have reported that young, urban males embraced blunt smoking in response to the crack cocaine epidemic that ravaged their neighborhoods in the 1980s. But, recent survey data has indicated high rates of other illicit drug use among blunt smokers. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to examine the association between blunt smoking and cannabis acquisition as a potential explanation for the correlation with other illicit drug use. METHODS: The sample consisted of participants from the 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) who reported use of cannabis or blunts in the prior month (n = 6,040)...
January 4, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287224/the-three-betrayals-of-the-medical-cannabis-growing-activist-from-multiple-victimhood-to-reconstruction-redemption-and-activism
#13
Axel Klein, Gary R Potter
While cannabis has been widely used in the UK for over 50 years, it is only in recent decades that domestic cultivation has become established. Public concern, media reporting and policing policy has emphasised the role of profit motivated criminal organisations often working on a large scale and with coerced labour. However, increasingly, another population are growing for medical reasons, to help themselves and others treat or manage difficult, poorly understood, or incurable conditions. Our study sought to further understand the motives, techniques and interactions of cannabis cultivators through interviews with 48 growers and supplementary ethnographic work...
December 26, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285308/decisive-role-of-p42-44-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-in-%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-induced-migration-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#14
Ellen Lüder, Robert Ramer, Kirsten Peters, Burkhard Hinz
In past years, medical interest in Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major psychoactive ingredient of the Cannabis plant, has been renewed due to the elucidation of the endocannabinoid system and diverse other receptor targets involved in biological cannabinoid effects. The present study therefore investigates the impact of THC on the migration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) which are known to be involved in various regenerative processes such as bone healing. Using Boyden chamber assays, THC was found to increase the migration of adipose-derived MSCs...
December 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284546/medical-emergencies-related-to-ethanol-and-illicit-drugs-at-an-annual-nocturnal-indoor-electronic-dance-music-event
#15
Paul Calle, Nora Sundahl, Kristof Maudens, Sarah Mr Wille, Diederik Van Sassenbroeck, Koen De Graeve, Stefan Gogaert, Peter De Paepe, Dieter Devriese, Geert Arno, Peter Blanckaert
Introduction Medical problems are frequently encountered during electronic dance music (EDM) events. Problem There are uncertainties about the frequencies and severity of intoxications with different types of recreational drugs: ethanol, "classical" illicit party drugs, and new psychoactive substances (NPS). METHODS: Statistical data on the medical problems encountered during two editions of an indoor electronic dance event with around 30,000 attendants were retrieved from the Belgian Red Cross (Mechelen, Belgium) database...
December 29, 2017: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284197/the-associations-between-psychotic-experiences-and-substance-use-and-substance-use-disorders-findings-from-the-world-health-organisation-world-mental-health-surveys
#16
Louisa Degenhardt, Sukanta Saha, Carmen C W Lim, Sergio Aguilar-Gaxiola, Ali Al-Hamzawi, Jordi Alonso, Laura H Andrade, Evelyn J Bromet, Ronny Bruffaerts, José M Caldas-de-Almeida, Giovanni de Girolamo, Silvia Florescu, Oye Gureje, Josep M Haro, Elie G Karam, Georges Karam, Viviane Kovess-Masfety, Sing Lee, Jean-Pierre Lepine, Victor Makanjuola, Maria E Medina-Mora, Zeina Mneimneh, Fernando Navarro-Mateu, Marina Piazza, José Posada-Villa, Nancy A Sampson, Kate M Scott, Juan C Stagnaro, Margreet Ten Have, Kenneth S Kendler, Ronald C Kessler, John J McGrath
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Prior research has found bidirectional associations between psychotic experiences (PEs), and selected substance use disorders. We aimed to extend this research by examining the bidirectional association between PEs, and various types of substance use (SU), and substance use disorders (SUDs), and the influence of antecedent mental disorders on these associations. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS AND MEASUREMENTS: We used data from the World Health Organisation World Mental Health surveys...
December 28, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250737/a-prospective-observational-study-of-problematic-oral-cannabinoid-use
#17
Mark A Ware, Marc O Martel, Roman Jovey, Mary E Lynch, Joel Singer
BACKGROUND: Despite evidence supporting the benefits of cannabinoids for symptom control across a wide range of medical conditions, concerns have been raised regarding the potential misuse and/or problematic use of cannabinoids (CBs). OBJECTIVE: The first objective of this study was to examine the incidence of problematic prescription cannabinoid use (PPCBU) over a 12-month period among patients initiating cannabinoid therapy. The second objective was to examine the factors associated with PPCBU...
December 17, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248905/primary-addictive-substances-used-among-patients-treated-in-a-hospital-based-addiction-medicine-service
#18
Daniel Feingold, Shaul Lev-Ran
INTRODUCTION: This study sought to explore the differences in primary addictive substances used among individuals referred to an ambulatory hospital-based addiction service in Israel according to sex, age and source of referral. METHOD: Data were drawn from all referral forms received during a two-year period (N=140). Categories of primary addictive substances included alcohol, drugs (cannabis, synthetic cannabinoids, illicit stimulants and heroin) and medications (prescription opioids, prescription stimulants and benzodiazepines)...
2017: Israel Journal of Psychiatry and related Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248863/the-efficacy-of-computerized-interventions-to-reduce-cannabis-use-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
REVIEW
Alexandre Olmos, Judit Tirado-Muñoz, Magí Farré, Marta Torrens
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cannabis is the most widely consumed illicit drug. Although it is too early to confirm the impact of legalization, the use of cannabis appears to be on the rise in some countries due to its authorization for medical/recreational purposes. Among different types of therapeutic approaches to reduce cannabis use, computerized interventions are becoming a new treatment option. To assess their efficacy, a systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed employing randomized controlled clinical trials indexed in MEDLINE and PsycINFO...
December 7, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247961/comprehensive-quality-evaluation-of-medical-cannabis-sativa-l-inflorescence-and-macerated-oils-based-on-hs-spme-coupled-to-gc-ms-and-lc-hrms-q-exactive-orbitrap%C3%A2-approach
#20
Lorenzo Calvi, Daniela Pentimalli, Sara Panseri, Luca Giupponi, Fabrizio Gelmini, Giangiacomo Beretta, Davide Vitali, Massimo Bruno, Emanuela Zilio, Radmila Pavlovic, Annamaria Giorgi
There are at least 554 identified compounds in C. sativa L., among them 113 phytocannabinoids and 120 terpenes. Phytocomplex composition differences between the pharmaceutical properties of different medical cannabis chemotype have been attributed to strict interactions, defined as 'entourage effect', between cannabinoids and terpenes as a result of synergic action. The chemical complexity of its bioactive constituents highlight the need for standardised and well-defined analytical approaches able to characterise the plant chemotype, the herbal drug quality as well as to monitor the quality of pharmaceutical cannabis extracts and preparations...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
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