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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445570/medical-marijuana-laws-and-cannabis-use-intersections-of-health-and-policy
#1
Wilson M Compton, Nora D Volkow, Marsha F Lopez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 26, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445557/us-adult-illicit-cannabis-use-cannabis-use-disorder-and-medical-marijuana-laws-1991-1992-to-2012-2013
#2
Deborah S Hasin, Aaron L Sarvet, Magdalena Cerdá, Katherine M Keyes, Malka Stohl, Sandro Galea, Melanie M Wall
Importance: Over the last 25 years, illicit cannabis use and cannabis use disorders have increased among US adults, and 28 states have passed medical marijuana laws (MML). Little is known about MML and adult illicit cannabis use or cannabis use disorders considered over time. Objective: To present national data on state MML and degree of change in the prevalence of cannabis use and disorders. Design, Participants, and Setting: Differences in the degree of change between those living in MML states and other states were examined using 3 cross-sectional US adult surveys: the National Longitudinal Alcohol Epidemiologic Survey (NLAES; 1991-1992), the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC; 2001-2002), and the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III (NESARC-III; 2012-2013)...
April 26, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440191/cannabis-a-neurological-remedy-or-a-drug-of-abuse-in-india
#3
Pronit Biswas, Pooja Mishra, Devasish Bose, Abhilasha Durgbanshi
Since ancient times it is well documented the use of cannabis as a medicine due to its potential therapeutic activity while subsequently its use as drug of abuse spread increasingly. The present review sought to give an insight in the history of medical and recreational use of cannabis in India. Indian use of cannabis dates back to Vedic time, mostly for the ritualistic and religious purposed, as documented in the ancient literature. It was India that introduced the medical use of cannabis to neighboring countries...
April 23, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430385/significant-reductions-in-alcohol-use-after-hepatitis-c-treatment-results-from-the-french-anrs-co13-hepavih-cohort
#4
Rod Knight, Perrine Roux, Antoine Vilotitch, Fabienne Marcellin, Eric Rosenthal, Laure Esterle, François Boué, David Rey, Lionel Piroth, Stéphanie Dominguez, Philippe Sogni, Dominique Salmon-Ceron, Bruno Spire, Maria Patrizia Carrieri
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Few data exist on changes to substance use patterns before and after hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment. We used longitudinal data of HIV-HCV co-infected individuals to examine whether receiving Peg-interferon (Peg-IFN)-based therapy irrespective of HCV clearance could modify tobacco, cannabis and alcohol use. DESIGN: A prospective cohort of HIV-HCV co-infected individuals was enrolled from 2006. Participants' clinical data were retrieved from medical records and socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics were collected by yearly self-administered questionnaires...
April 21, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422803/marijuana-use-and-self-reported-quality-of-eyesight
#5
Obinna F Akano
PURPOSE: There is increasing use of marijuana among young adults and more states in the United States are legalizing medical marijuana use. A number of studies have revealed both the beneficial and harmful effects of marijuana to the human system. Despite some beneficial effects, studies have shown marijuana to have a lot of deleterious effects on the visual system, which subsequently reduces the quality of eyesight. The aim of this study was to investigate if heavy marijuana smoking is associated with a poor quality of eyesight compared with light/no use of marijuana...
May 2017: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422145/compromised-external-validity-federally-produced-cannabis-does-not-reflect-legal-markets
#6
Daniela Vergara, L Cinnamon Bidwell, Reggie Gaudino, Anthony Torres, Gary Du, Travis C Ruthenburg, Kymron deCesare, Donald P Land, Kent E Hutchison, Nolan C Kane
As the most widely used illicit drug worldwide, and as a source of numerous under-studied pharmacologically-active compounds, a precise understanding of variability in psychological and physiological effects of Cannabis varieties is essential. The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) is designated as the sole legal producer of Cannabis for use in US research studies. We sought to compare the chemical profiles of Cannabis varieties that are available to consumers in states that have state-legalized use versus what is available to researchers interested in studying the plant and its effects...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412920/neuropsychiatric-and-general-interactions-of-natural-and-synthetic-cannabinoids-with-drugs-of-abuse-and-medicines
#7
Ana Lucia Arellano, Esther Papaseit, Anna Romaguera, Marta Torrens, Magi Farré
Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug. The two most important natural cannabinoids are delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). The THC content of cannabis has been increasing during the last years and recently appeared in the market a series of synthetic cannabinoids with potent agonist activity. Recreational users frequently combine cannabis with other drugs of abuse as alcohol, amphetamines and derivatives, nicotine and cocaine. In addition these subjects can be taking medicines for acute and chronic medical conditions...
April 13, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412919/neurological-disorders-in-medical-use-of-cannabis-an-update
#8
Renata Solimini, Maria Concetta Rotolo, Simona Pichini, Roberta Pacifici
Medical cannabis is increasingly used as a treatment or adjunct treatment with different levels of efficacy in several neurological disorders or related symptoms (such as multiple sclerosis, autism, Parkinson and Alzheimer disease, Tourette's syndrome, Huntington's disease, neuropathic pain, epilepsy, headache), as well as in other medical conditions (e.g. nausea and vomiting, glaucoma, appetite stimulation, cancer, inflammatory conditions, asthma). Nevertheless, a number of neurological adverse effects from use of medical cannabis on the short- and on the long- term have been reported, in addition to other adverse health events...
April 13, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412918/neurological-aspects-of-medical-use-of-cannabidiol
#9
Carmen Mannucci, Michele Navarra, Fabrizio Calapai, Elvira Ventura Spagnolo, Francesco Paolo Busardò, Roberto Da Cas, Francesca Menniti Ippolito, Gioacchino Calapai
BACKGROUND: Cannabidiol (CBD) is among the major secondary metabolites of Cannabis devoid of the delta-9-tetra-hydrocannabinol psychoactive effects. It is a resorcinol-based compound with a broad spectrum of potential therapeutic properties, including neuroprotective effects in numerous pathological conditions. CBD neuroprotection is due to its antioxidant and antiinflammatory activi-ties and the modulation of a large number of brain biological targets (receptors, channels) involved in the development and maintenance of neurodegenerative diseases...
April 13, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412575/the-role-of-illicit-licit-and-designer-drugs-in-the-traffic-in-hungary
#10
László Institóris, Előd Hidvégi, Adrienn Dobos, Éva Sija, Éva M Kereszty, László Balázs Tajti, Gábor Pál Somogyi, Tibor Varga
The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and pattern of psychoactive substances among suspected DUID (Driving Under the Influence of Drugs) drivers in Hungary in 2014 and 2015. Blood and/or urine samples of 1252 suspected drivers (600 in 2014 and 652 in 2015) were analyzed for classical illicit and licit drugs, stimulant designer drugs (SDDs), and for synthetic cannabinoids, with 78.3% and 79.6% positive cases for at least one substance in 2014, and 2015, respectively. Impairment was proven in 39...
April 3, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406351/substance-use-in-undergraduate-students-with-histories-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-the-role-of-impulsivity
#11
Theresa E Egan, Anne E Dawson, Brian T Wymbs
BACKGROUND: Emerging adulthood (18-25 years old) is regarded as a time of identity exploration that includes a peak in risky behaviors, such as substance use and misuse. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is also associated with greater levels of risky behaviors, including substance use and misuse; however, there is a lack of research on substance use by emerging adults with ADHD, in particular the potential mechanisms that may facilitate this risk. OBJECTIVES: The present study builds on the existing research regarding the association between ADHD and substance use by examining roles of multiple facets of impulsivity in facilitating this association during emerging adulthood...
April 13, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403953/risk-factors-of-preterm-birth-in-france-in-2010-and-changes-since-1995-results-from-the-french-national-perinatal-surveys
#12
C Prunet, M Delnord, M-J Saurel-Cubizolles, F Goffinet, B Blondel
OBJECTIVES: To investigate risk factors of total, spontaneous and induced preterm birth in 2010 and differences between 1995 and 2010. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The national perinatal surveys are based on a representative sample of births in France. We selected live-born singletons (n=14,326 in 2010 and 12,885 in 1995) and used multiple regression analyses to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) for maternal sociodemographic characteristics, obstetric history, prenatal care and smoking...
January 2017: J Gynecol Obstet Hum Reprod
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397674/-self-medication-with-cannabidiol-oil-in-a-patient-with-primary-lateral-sclerosis
#13
Merete Karlsborg, Anette Kvindebjerg Christophersen, Caroline Pontoppidan, Jens Peter Kampmann
Many patients with neurological disorders have symptoms which are difficult to treat with conventional medication. In this case report we present a 40-year-old male patient with primary lateral sclerosis who used cannabidiol oil as therapy. We discuss the evidence of the effects of cannabidiol in the treatment of patients with neurological disease, and we raise the question: "Should patients who use illegal cannabis products as self-medication be diagnosed as drug abusers?"
February 13, 2017: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377052/from-toques-to-tokes-two-challenges-facing-nationwide-legalization-of-cannabis-in-canada
#14
Daniel Bear
BACKGROUND: In 2015, a new Liberal Government came to power in Canada, elected on a platform that included legalization and regulation of cannabis for recreational purposes. Their legislation, based on recommendations from a Federal Task Force on Marijuana Legalization and Regulation, is due in early April 2017. METHODS: This commentary utilizes Canadian Federal policy papers, previous literature, and internal and international agreements to examine two key areas critical to the development of a nationwide regulated market for cannabis in Canada; the need to overcome restrictions to legalizing cannabis in United Nations' drug control treaties, and the unique challenges that non-medical cannabis creates for navigating interprovincial trade policies in Canada...
April 1, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376639/the-effect-of-symptom-controlling-medication-on-gait-outcomes-in-people-with-multiple-sclerosis-a-systematic-review
#15
Kate Behm, Prue Morgan
PURPOSE: To synthesise and critically appraise randomised controlled trials examining the effect of symptom-controlling medication on gait outcomes in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). METHOD: The literature search examined five databases (Medline, Embase, AMED, Cochrane (CENTRAL), and CINAHL until the end of November 2016. Eligible studies included medication to address symptoms associated with MS and an objective gait outcome measure. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed study quality using structured data extraction forms and the PEDro scale...
April 4, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372506/substitution-of-medical-cannabis-for-pharmaceutical-agents-for-pain-anxiety-and-sleep
#16
Brian J Piper, Rebecca M DeKeuster, Monica L Beals, Catherine M Cobb, Corey A Burchman, Leah Perkinson, Shayne T Lynn, Stephanie D Nichols, Alexander T Abess
A prior epidemiological study identified a reduction in opioid overdose deaths in US states that legalized medical cannabis (MC). One theory to explain this phenomenon is a potential substitution effect of MC for opioids. This study evaluated whether this substitution effect of MC for opioids also applies to other psychoactive medications. New England dispensary members ( n = 1,513) completed an online survey about their medical history and MC experiences. Among respondents that regularly used opioids, over three-quarters (76...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357832/prevalence-of-consumption-of-addictive-substances-amongst-moroccan-fishermen
#17
Omar Laraqui, Salwa Laraqui, Nadia Manar, Tarik Ghailan, Frederic Deschamps, Chakib H Laraqui
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of toxic habits is constantly increasing in developing countries and all professional sectors are concerned. Seafarers are a particular target because of the dangerousness and complexity of their work. However, few studies have investigated toxic habits in this population. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of the use and misuse of addictive substances in seafarers and to appreciate poly-consumptions according to socio-demographic and occupational characteristics...
2017: International Maritime Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351544/comparing-the-effect-of-clozapine-and-risperidone-on-cue-reactivity-in-male-patients-with-schizophrenia-and-a-cannabis-use-disorder-a-randomized-fmri-study
#18
Marise W J Machielsen, Dick J Veltman, Wim van den Brink, Lieuwe de Haan
OBJECTIVE: Cannabis use disorders (CUDs) are highly comorbid in patients with schizophrenia and associated with poor outcome. Clozapine has been put forward as the first choice antipsychotic in this patient group. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying the assumed superiority of clozapine. METHODS: A total of 38 patients with DSM-IV schizophrenia (30 with and 8 without a DSM-IV CUD) and 20 healthy comparison subjects were included between April 2009 and June 2012...
March 25, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344554/cannabis-in-chinese-medicine-are-some-traditional-indications-referenced-in-ancient-literature-related-to-cannabinoids
#19
REVIEW
E Joseph Brand, Zhongzhen Zhao
Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae) has a long history of utilization as a fiber and seed crop in China, and its achenes ("seeds") as well as other plant parts have been recorded in Chinese medical texts for nearly 2000 years. While the primary applications of cannabis in Chinese medicine center around the use of the achenes, ancient indications for the female inflorescence, and other plant parts include conditions such as pain and mental illness that are the subject of current research into cannabinoids such as cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343385/development-of-a-rapid-lc-ms-ms-method-for-the-quantification-of-cannabidiol-cannabidivarin-%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabivarin-and-cannabigerol-in-mouse-peripheral-tissues
#20
Fabiana Piscitelli, Ester Pagano, Anna Lauritano, Angelo A Izzo, Vincenzo Di Marzo
Cannabis has been known as a medicine for several thousand years across many cultures and its beneficial effects are mostly due to the presence of cannabinoids, unique natural products, whose pharmacology is going to gain increasing interest in the scientific community. The discovery of the main psychoactive constituent of Cannabis sativa L., Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC), led to the identification of at least 100 additional phytocannabinoids, including cannabidiol (CBD), cannabidivarin (CBDV), Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabivarin (Δ(9)-THCV), and cannabigerol (CBG)...
April 3, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
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