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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943975/mental-misrepresentation-in-non-human-psychopathology
#1
Krystyna Bielecka, Mira Marcinów
In this paper, we defend a representational approach to at least some kinds of non-human psychopathology. Mentally-ill non-human minds, in particular in delusions, obsessive-compulsive disorders and similar cognitive states, are traditionally understood in purely behavioral terms. In contrast, we argue that non-human mental psychopathology should be at least sometimes not only ascribed contentful mental representation but also understood as really having these states. To defend this view, we appeal to the interactivist account of mental representation, which is a kind of a constructive approach to meaning...
2017: Biosemiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943860/bumetanide-as-a-candidate-treatment-for-behavioral-problems-in-tuberous-sclerosis-complex
#2
Chantal Vlaskamp, Simon-Shlomo Poil, Floor Jansen, Klaus Linkenkaer-Hansen, Sarah Durston, Bob Oranje, Hilgo Bruining
BACKGROUND: Recent studies indicate excitatory GABA action in and around tubers in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). This may contribute to recurrent seizures and behavioral problems that may be treated by agents that enhance GABAergic transmission by influencing chloride regulation. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we used the chloride transporter antagonist bumetanide to treat a female adolescent TSC patient with refractory seizures, sensory hyper-reactivity, and a variety of repetitive and compulsive behaviors...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941812/enhanced-error-related-negativity-amplitude-in-medication-na%C3%A3-ve-comorbidity-free-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#3
Hema Nawani, Janardhanan C Narayanaswamy, Shrinivasa Basavaraju, Anushree Bose, Sri Mahavir Agarwal, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian, Y C Janardhan Reddy
Error monitoring and response inhibition is a key cognitive deficit in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Frontal midline regions such as the cingulate cortex and pre-supplementary motor area are considered critical brain substrates of this deficit. Electrophysiological equivalent of the above dysfunction is a fronto-central event related potential (ERP) which occurs after an error called the error related negativity (ERN). In this study, we sought to compare the ERN parameters between medication-naïve, comorbidity-free subjects with OCD and healthy controls (HC)...
September 12, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938712/invited-commentary-the-need-for-cognitive-science-in-methodology
#4
Sander Greenland
There is no complete solution for the problem of abuse of statistics, but methodological training needs to cover cognitive biases and other psychosocial factors affecting inferences. The present paper discusses 3 common cognitive distortions: 1) dichotomania, the compulsion to perceive quantities as dichotomous even when dichotomization is unnecessary and misleading, as in inferences based on whether a P value is "statistically significant"; 2) nullism, the tendency to privilege the hypothesis of no difference or no effect when there is no scientific basis for doing so, as when testing only the null hypothesis; and 3) statistical reification, treating hypothetical data distributions and statistical models as if they reflect known physical laws rather than speculative assumptions for thought experiments...
September 15, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938221/-1-h-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-suggests-neural-membrane-alteration-in-specific-regions-involved-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#5
Laura Hatchondo, Nematollah Jaafari, Nicolas Langbour, Sylvie Maillochaud, Guillaume Herpe, Rémy Guillevin, Carole Guillevin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 14, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933869/do-alcohol-use-reasons-and-contexts-differentiate-adolescent-high-intensity-drinking-data-from-u-s-high-school-seniors-2005-2016
#6
Yvonne M Terry-McElrath, Stephanie A Stern, Megan E Patrick
The purpose of this study was to examine associations between (a) self-reported reasons for and contexts of alcohol use and (b) high-intensity drinking (i.e., having 10+ drinks in a row in the past 2 weeks) among national samples of U.S. 12th grade students. Data were obtained from 16,902 students who reported any past 12-month alcohol use from nationally representative annual 12th grade student samples from 2005-2016. When asked about drinking behavior during the past 2 weeks, 72% reported consuming less than 5 drinks at most during 1 drinking occasion; 14% reported 5-9 drinks, 7% reported 10-14 drinks, and 7% reported 15+ drinks...
September 21, 2017: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933310/socialization-alleviates-burden-of-oxidative-stress-in-hippocampus-and-prefrontal-cortex-in-morphine-addiction-period-in-male-rats
#7
Hamidreza Famitafreshi, Morteza Karimian
INTRODUCTION: Addiction is a compulsive drug-seeking and drug-taking behavior. Reduction of high-risk behaviors can reduce the burden of addiction in society and can improve the overall prognosis of drug addiction. The aim of this study is to show that reduction of oxidative stress with socialization will reduce occurrence of high-risk behavior during addiction period. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Fifty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: socialized, isolated, addicted socialized and addicted isolated...
September 19, 2017: Current Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930612/genetic-addiction-risk-score-gars-%C3%A2-a-predictor-of-vulnerability-to-opioid-dependence
#8
Kenneth Blum, Amanda L C Chen, Panayotis K Thanos, Marcelo Febo, Zsolt Demetrovics, Kristina Dushaj, Abraham Kovoor, David Baron, David E Smith, Alphonso Kenison Roy Iii, Lyle Fried, Thomas J H Chen, Edwin Chapman, Edward Modestino, Bruce Steinberg, Rajendra D Badgaiyan
The interaction of neurotransmitters and genes that control the release of dopamine is the Brain Reward Cascade (BRC). Variations within the BRC, whether genetic or epigenetic, may predispose individuals to addictive behaviors and altered pain tolerance. This discussion authored by a group of concerned scientists and clinicians examines the Genetic Addiction Risk Score (GARS), the first test to accurately predict vulnerability to pain, addiction, and other compulsive behaviors, defined as Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS)...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930542/deep-brain-stimulation-foundations-and-future-trends
#9
David J Aum, Travis S Tierney
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has emerged as a revolutionary treatment option for essential tremor (ET), Parkinson's disease (PD), idiopathic dystonia, and severe obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This article reviews the historical foundations of DBS including basal ganglia pathophysiological models, classic principles of electrical stimulation, technical components of the DBS system, treatment risks, and future directions for DBS. Chronic high frequency stimulation induces a number of functional changes from fast physiological to slower metabolic effects and ultimately leads to structural reorganization of the brain, so-called neuroplasticity...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929944/increasing-body-image-flexibility-in-a-residential-eating-disorder-facility-correlates-with-symptom-improvement
#10
Eric B Lee, Clarissa W Ong, Michael P Twohig, Tera Lensegrav-Benson, Benita Quakenbush-Roberts
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of changes in body image psychological flexibility over the course of treatment on various outcome variables. METHOD: Participants included 103 female, residential patients diagnosed with an eating disorder. Pretreatment and posttreatment data were collected that examined body image psychological flexibility, general psychological flexibility, symptom severity, and other outcome variables. RESULTS: Changes in body image psychological flexibility significantly predicted changes in all outcome measures except for obsessive-compulsive symptoms after controlling for body mass index, depression, and anxiety...
September 20, 2017: Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928693/the-dimensional-obsessive-compulsive-scale-development-and-validation-of-a-short-form-docs-sf
#11
Thomas Eilertsen, Bjarne Hansen, Gerd Kvale, Jonathan S Abramowitz, Silje E H Holm, Stian Solem
Accurately and reliably measuring the presence and severity of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) symptoms is essential for both routine clinical work and research. The current study investigated psychometric properties of the dimensional obsessive-compulsive scale-short form (DOCS-SF). DOCS-SF was developed and validated in Norwegian. DOCS-SF contains a checklist with four symptom categories and five severity items scored on a zero to eight scale yielding a total score of 0-40. Data were collected from adults with a current diagnosis of OCD (n = 204) and a community comparison group (n = 211)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928194/diagnostic-validity-of-early-onset-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-in-the-danish-psychiatric-central-register-findings-from-a-cohort-sample
#12
Judith Nissen, Shelagh Powell, Susanne V Koch, James J Crowley, Manuel Matthiesen, Dorothy E Grice, Per H Thomsen, E Parner
OBJECTIVES: Employing national registers for research purposes depends on a high diagnostic validity. The aim of the present study was to examine the diagnostic validity of recorded diagnoses of early-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in the Danish Psychiatric Central Register (DPCR). DESIGN: Review of patient journals selected randomly through the DPCR. METHOD: One hundred cases of OCD were randomly selected from DPCR. Using a predefined coding scheme based on the Children's Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CYBOCS), experienced research nurse or child and adolescent psychiatrists assessed each journal to determine the presence/absence of OCD diagnostic criteria...
September 18, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927961/clinical-and-electrophysiological-outcomes-of-deep-tms-over-the-medial-prefrontal-and-anterior-cingulate-cortices-in-ocd-patients
#13
Lior Carmi, Uri Alyagon, Noam Barnea-Ygael, Joseph Zohar, Reuven Dar, Abraham Zangen
BACKGROUND: Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a chronic and disabling disorder with poor response to pharmacological treatments. Converging evidences suggest that OCD patients suffer from dysfunction of the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) circuit, including in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). OBJECTIVE: To examine whether modulation of mPFC-ACC activity by deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (DTMS) affects OCD symptoms...
September 6, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927446/neurochemical-and-behavioral-characterization-of-neuronal-glutamate-transporter-eaat3-heterozygous-mice
#14
Luis F González, Francisca Henríquez-Belmar, Claudia Delgado-Acevedo, Marisol Cisternas-Olmedo, Gloria Arriagada, Ramón Sotomayor-Zárate, Dennis L Murphy, Pablo R Moya
BACKGROUND: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a severe neuropsychiatric condition affecting 1-3% of the worldwide population. OCD has a strong genetic component, and the SLC1A1 gene that encodes neuronal glutamate transporter EAAT3 is a strong candidate for this disorder. To evaluate the impact of reduced EAAT3 expression in vivo, we studied male EAAT3 heterozygous and wild-type littermate mice using a battery of behavioral paradigms relevant to anxiety (open field test, elevated plus maze) and compulsivity (marble burying), as well as locomotor activity induced by amphetamine...
September 19, 2017: Biological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922559/quarantine-isolation-and-the-duty-of-easy-rescue-in-public
#15
Alberto Giubilini, Thomas Douglas, Hannah Maslen, Julian Savulescu
We address the issue of whether, why and under what conditions, quarantine and isolation are morally justified, with a particular focus on measures implemented in the developing world. We argue that the benefits of quarantine and isolation justify some level of coercion or compulsion by the state, but that the state should be able to provide the strongest justification possible for implementing such measures. While a constrained form of consequentialism might provide a justification for such public health interventions, we argue that a stronger justification is provided by a principle of State Enforced Easy Rescue: a state may permissibly compel individuals to engage in activities that entail a small cost to them but a large benefit to others, because individuals have a moral duty of easy rescue to engage in those activities...
September 18, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922290/effectiveness-of-low-dose-aripiprazole-monotherapy-in-the-treatment-for-an-adolescent-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#16
Merve Sertdemir, Ömer Faruk Akça
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Clinical Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922069/glutamatergic-agents-in-the-treatment-of-compulsivity-and-impulsivity-in-child-and-adolescent-psychiatry-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#17
Konstantin Mechler, Alexander Häge, Nina Schweinfurth, Jeffrey C Glennon, Rick M Dijkhuizen, Declan Murphy, Sarah Durston, Steven Williams, Jan K Buitelaar, Tobias Banaschewski, Ralf W Dittmann, The Tactics Consortium
OBJECTIVE: Research has implicated glutamatergic projections between the various frontal subregions in the pathogenesis of compulsivity and impulsivity. Reducing striatal glutamate release, or antagonising the action of glutamate at its receptors, may therefore represent viable treatment strategies. Several glutamatergic agents with regulatory approval for other indications are available and may be of potential benefit in the treatment of compulsivity/impulsivity in psychiatric disorders in paediatric patients...
September 18, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie und Psychotherapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919875/psychological-support-for-young-adults-with-down-syndrome-dohsa-hou-program-for-maladaptive-behaviors-and-internalizing-problems
#18
Haruo Fujino
Psychological and psychiatric dysfunction is a major problem in a substantial proportion of young adults with Down syndrome. Some patients develop psychiatric issues, such as depressive, obsessive-compulsive, or psychotic-like disorders, in their late adolescence or young adulthood. Furthermore, these individuals may experience moderate to severe emotional and psychological distress. Development of a psychosocial treatment to address these issues is needed in addition to psychotropic medication. The current study reports two cases of young adults with Down syndrome, who presented psychiatric symptoms and marked disruption in their daily lives...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919236/biomarkers-for-diagnosis-of-pediatric-acute-neuropsychiatric-syndrome-pans-sensitivity-and-specificity-of-the-cunningham-panel
#19
Eva Hesselmark, Susanne Bejerot
OBJECTIVE: Pediatric Acute Neuropsychiatric Syndrome (PANS) and pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS) are conditions marked by sudden onset of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), tics, or avoidant/restrictive food intake in combination with multiple psychiatric symptoms. A diagnosis of PANS or PANDAS may be supported by the Cunningham Panel, a commercially available set of immunologic assays currently in clinical use. However, the relationship between Cunningham Panel results and patient symptoms remains unclear...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918693/cognitive-control-networks-in-ocd-a-resting-state-connectivity-study-in-unmedicated-patients-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-and-their-unaffected-relatives
#20
Froukje E de Vries, Stella J de Wit, Odile A van den Heuvel, Dick J Veltman, Danielle C Cath, Anton J L M van Balkom, Ysbrand D van der Werf
OBJECTIVES: Executive network deficits are putative neurocognitive endophenotypes for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Yet, unlike alterations in fronto-striatal and limbic connectivity, connectivity in the fronto-parietal (FPN) and cingulo-opercular (CON) networks involved in cognitive control has received little attention. METHODS: The coherence of FPN, CON and fronto-limbic networks was investigated in 39 unmedicated OCD patients, 16 of their unaffected siblings and 36 healthy controls using resting-state functional-connectivity MRI and a seed-based analysis approach...
September 18, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
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