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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792474/obsessive-compulsive-disorder-in-the-veterans-health-administration
#1
Terri L Barrera, Elizabeth McIngvale, Jan A Lindsay, Annette M Walder, Michael R Kauth, Tracey L Smith, Nathaniel Van Kirk, Ellen J Teng, Melinda A Stanley
Little is known about the diagnosis and treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). This study examined diagnostic rates of OCD in a national sample of veterans as well as clinical comorbidities and mental health service use following an OCD diagnosis. This study used administrative data extracted from VHA medical records to identify patients with an OCD diagnosis between 2010 and 2011 (N = 20,364). Descriptive analyses examined demographic, clinical, and system-level variables associated with OCD diagnosis as well as mental health service use in a subset of patients newly diagnosed with OCD (n = 5,229)...
May 24, 2018: Psychological Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791934/discrepancies-between-nomenclature-and-indications-of-psychotropics
#2
Fusaka Minami, Joseph Zohar, Takefumi Suzuki, Teruki Koizumi, Masaru Mimura, Gohei Yagi, Hiroyuki Uchida
INTRODUCTION: While the current nomenclature of psychotropic drugs is disease-based, their approved indications do not always match their classifications. METHODS: Information on approved indications of "second-generation antipsychotics" and "newer antidepressants" that are available in the United States (US), the United Kingdom (UK), France, Germany, and Japan were extracted from their packet inserts. RESULTS: A significant proportion of "atypical antipsychotics" were approved for psychiatric conditions other than psychotic disorders (i...
May 23, 2018: Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791514/high-prevalence-of-syndemic-health-problems-in-patients-seeking-post-exposure-prophylaxis-for-sexual-exposures-to-hiv
#3
Steven A Morrison, Deborah Yoong, Trevor A Hart, Paul MacPherson, Isaac Bogoch, Vishalini Sivarajah, Kevin Gough, Mark Naccarato, Darrell H S Tan
INTRODUCTION: The standard clinical approach to non-occupational HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (nPEP) focuses on biomedical aspects of the intervention, but may overlook co-occurring or 'syndemic' psychosocial problems that reinforce future vulnerability to HIV. We therefore sought to determine the prevalence of syndemic health problems in a cohort of Ontario nPEP patients, and explored the relationship between syndemic burden and HIV risk. METHODS: Between 07/2013-08/2016, we distributed a self-administered questionnaire to patients presenting to three clinics in Toronto and Ottawa seeking nPEP for sexual HIV exposures...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789775/pathological-internet-use-an-important-comorbidity-in-child-and-adolescent-psychiatry-prevalence-and-correlation-patterns-in-a-naturalistic-sample-of-adolescent-inpatients
#4
Martin Fuchs, David Riedl, Astrid Bock, Gerhard Rumpold, Kathrin Sevecke
Background: Few studies have examined the prevalence of problematic internet use (PIU) in young people undergoing inpatient treatment in child and adolescent psychiatry centers. The aims of our study were thus (a) to assess the frequency of comorbid PIU in a sample of adolescent psychiatric inpatients and compare it with a control group of nonreferred adolescents and (b) to gain insights into correlations between PIU and psychiatric comorbidities. Methods: 111 child and adolescent psychiatry inpatients (CAP-IP, mean age 15...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788748/the-impact-of-comorbid-impulsive-compulsive-disorders-in-problematic-internet-use
#5
Samuel R Chamberlain, Konstantinos Ioannidis, Jon E Grant
Background and aims Problematic Internet use (PIU) is commonplace but is not yet recognized as a formal mental disorder. Excessive Internet use could result from other conditions such as gambling disorder. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of impulsive-compulsive comorbidities on the presentation of PIU, defined using Young's Diagnostic Questionnaire. Methods A total of 123 adults aged 18-29 years were recruited using media advertisements, and attended the research center for a detailed psychiatric assessment, including interviews, completion of questionnaires, and neuropsychological testing...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787293/compulsive-sexual-behavior-a-twelve-step-therapeutic-approach
#6
Yaniv Efrati, Mateusz Gola
Background and aims Sexuality is natural to human life and inseparable from it, yet some individuals develop compulsive sexual behavior (CSB). Many individuals with CSB seek treatment in free self-support groups based on the twelve-step program. This program was extensively studied in substance abuse disorders (e.g., Alcoholics Anonymous), but little is known about its efficiency in CSB. Methods We "assesed" questionnaire data on sociodemographical-, psychological-, and recovery-related factors from 97 male participants of Sexaholics Anonymous (SA) programs in Israel...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785111/association-of-serotonin-receptor-2a-haplotypes-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-and-its-treatment-response-in-iranian-patients-a-genetic-and-pharmacogenetic-study
#7
Marzie Sina, Abolhassan Ahmadiani, Sareh Asadi, Jamal Shams
Introduction: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a debilitating psychiatric disorder causing intrusive thoughts or repetitive behaviors. Serotonin reuptake inhibitors are used for OCD treatment, but 40%-60% of patients do not respond to them adequately. In this study, the associations of serotonin receptor 2a polymorphisms rs6311 and rs6313 with OCD, its familial form and fluvoxamine treatment response in Iranian population were investigated. Patients and methods: Association analyses were conducted in 293 OCD cases fulfilling the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV-TR and 245 controls...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783276/somnophilia-and-sexual-abuse-through-the-administration-of-ghb-and-gbl
#8
Mark Pettigrew
Somnophilia, the desire to have sex with an unconscious, sleeping, or comatose person who is unable to respond, is a sexual paraphilia that is seldom reported. The underlying desire is often overshadowed by the act of sexual violation and when using GHB or GBL to induce unconsciousness, as in the case presented here, the victim might not even be able to recall, for certain, that they have been sexually violated. A case study is offered of a somnophile who adulterated drinks to render young men unconscious, so he could rape them in that state, before progressing to administering drugs anally on the pretext of applying lubrication to the anus to facilitate sexual intercourse...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783186/-1-h-nmr-and-uplc-ms-metabolomics-functional-tools-for-exploring-chemotypic-variation-in-sceletium-tortuosum-from-two-provinces-in-south-africa
#9
Jianping Zhao, Ikhlas A Khan, Sandra Combrinck, Maxleene Sandasi, Weiyang Chen, Alvaro M Viljoen
Sceletium tortuosum (Aizoaceae) is widely recognised for the treatment of stress, anxiety and depression, as well as for obsessive compulsive disorders. A comprehensive intraspecies chemotypic variation study, using samples harvested from two distinct regions of South Africa, was done using both proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1 H-NMR) spectroscopy of methanol extracts (N = 145) and ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) of acid/base extracts (N = 289). Chemometric analysis of the 1 H-NMR data indicated two main clusters that were region-specific (Northern Cape and Western Cape provinces)...
May 17, 2018: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781408/gilles-de-la-tourette-syndrome-as-a-paradigmatic-neuropsychiatric-disorder
#10
Andrea E Cavanna
Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is a chronic and complex tic disorder accompanied by specific behavioral problems in the majority of patients. With its multifaceted interplay between motion and emotion, this condition is a paradigmatic example of the science and art of clinical neuropsychiatry. This review article encompasses the clinical phenomenology of motor and vocal tics and associated sensory experiences (premonitory urges), as well as the behavioral spectrum of the most common comorbidities, including obsessive-compulsive disorder, attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder, affective symptoms, and impulsivity...
May 21, 2018: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781133/inhibition-is-impaired-in-children-with-obsessive-compulsive-symptoms-but-not-in-those-with-tics
#11
Christian Mancini, Francesco Cardona, Valentina Baglioni, Sara Panunzi, Patrizia Pantano, Antonio Suppa, Giovanni Mirabella
BACKGROUND: Impaired inhibitory control is thought to be a core deficit in psychiatric disorders where patients exhibit problems with controlling urges. These problems include the urge to perform movements typical of Tourette syndrome and the urge to execute compulsive actions typical of obsessive-compulsive disorder. However, the picture emerging from studies that address this issue is controversial. Furthermore, most studies have only focused on reactive control (the ability of subjects to react to a stop signal), but not on proactive control (the ability of patients to shape their response strategies in anticipation of known task demands)...
May 21, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780877/disgust-and-the-rubber-hand-illusion-a-registered-replication-report-of-jalal-krishnakumar-and-ramachandran-2015
#12
Hiroshi Nitta, Haruto Tomita, Yi Zhang, Xinxin Zhou, Yuki Yamada
Heightened experience of disgust is a feature of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), particularly contamination-related OCD (C-OCD). Previous studies of the rubber hand illusion (RHI) reported that the sense of body ownership is related to the interaction between vision, touch, and proprioception. One recent study demonstrated a link between the RHI and disgust, suggesting that there is an interaction between these three perceptual modalities and disgust (Jalal et al., PLOS ONE 10:e0139159, 2015). However, there have been no direct replications of this initial study...
2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779439/descriptive-phenotype-of-obsessive-compulsive-symptoms-in-males-with-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#13
Angela J Lee, Edward T Buckingham, Aaron J Kauer, Katherine D Mathews
Increased rates of clinically significant internalizing disorders (obsessive compulsive disorder, anxiety, and depression) have been demonstrated in males with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and a Duchenne muscular dystrophy neuropsychiatric syndrome has been suggested. Although symptoms of depression are widely recognized, some of the other internalizing symptoms are less frequently identified. Through a retrospective chart review of 107 males with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, we identified 15 patients with obsessive compulsive disorder spectrum symptoms; 11 of those also had anxiety symptoms...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779065/digital-technologies-in-the-treatment-of-anxiety-recent-innovations-and-future-directions
#14
REVIEW
Joseph Firth, John Torous, Rebekah Carney, Jill Newby, Theodore D Cosco, Helen Christensen, Jerome Sarris
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the efficacy, limitations, and future of e-health treatments for anxiety. Within this, we provide detail on "first-generation" e-health approaches, such as computerized therapies. Additionally, we assess the emergence and early efficacy of newer methods of treatment delivery, including smartphone apps and virtual reality interventions, discussing the potential and pitfalls for each. RECENT FINDINGS: There is now substantial clinical research demonstrating the efficacy of internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy in the treatment of anxiety...
May 19, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778712/validation-reliability-and-specificity-of-clinicom%C3%A2-psychiatric-assessment-software
#15
Nelson Handal, James LePage, Philip Dayley, Barbara Baldwin, Amellia Roeser, Joni Kay, Heather Ann Theobald, Michael Nellamattathil, Scott Drotar, Connor Weir, Neil Tindell, Kevin Tice
The purpose of this study was to determine the specificity and reproducibility of CliniCom™ Psychiatric Assessment Software to appropriately diagnose five prevalent mental health disorders. This online assessment tool incorporates proprietary algorithms for its propensity assessment. Unlike other questionnaires, which require a survey per specific mental disorder, CliniCom can simultaneously assess multiple mental disorders for an individual. CliniCom was concordant with other commonly used assessment tools in diagnosing five prevalent disorders including: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Major Depressive Disorder, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, and Social Phobia...
May 12, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778276/dissociable-frontostriatal-connectivity-mechanism-and-predictor-of-the-clinical-efficacy-of-capsulotomy-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#16
Dazhi Yin, ChenCheng Zhang, Qiming Lv, Xiaoyu Chen, Kristina Zeljic, Hengfen Gong, Shikun Zhan, Haiyan Jin, Zheng Wang, Bomin Sun
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the neural mechanism and response variability underlying neurosurgical interventions for intractable obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). METHODS: Of 81 OCD patients screened for capsulotomy identified in our institutional database, 36 patients with clinical assessment before and after capsulotomy and imaging data (9 of 36 patients without postoperative imaging data used as an independent test group), and 29 healthy control subjects were retrospectively recruited...
April 22, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775078/effects-of-a-parent-implemented-developmental-reciprocity-treatment-program-for-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#17
Grace W Gengoux, Salena Schapp, Sarah Burton, Christina M Ardel, Robin A Libove, Gina Baldi, Kari L Berquist, Jennifer M Phillips, Antonio Y Hardan
Developmental approaches to autism treatment aim to establish strong interpersonal relationships through joint play. These approaches have emerging empirical support; however, there is a need for further research documenting the procedures and demonstrating their effectiveness. This pilot study evaluated changes in parent behavior and child autism symptoms following a 12-week Developmental Reciprocity Treatment parent-training program. A total of 22 children with autism spectrum disorder between 2 and 6 years (mean age = 44...
May 1, 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774005/the-bergen-4-day-ocd-treatment-delivered-in-a-group-setting-12-month-follow-up
#18
Bjarne Hansen, Kristen Hagen, Lars-Göran Öst, Stian Solem, Gerd Kvale
The Bergen 4-day concentrated exposure treatment (cET) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has proven highly acceptable; with practically no drop-out and a 6 month remission rate of nearly 70%. The aim of the present study was to evaluate long term gains of the approach, and to compare the results to findings from our recent meta-analysis. Sixty-nine of 95 patients consecutively referred to an outpatient clinic in the specialist health care, were offered the Bergen 4-day treatment. Among the 65 who initiated treatment, 60...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773244/are-anxiety-disorders-publications-continuing-on-a-trajectory-of-growth-a-look-at-boschen-s-2008-predictions-and-beyond
#19
Gordon J G Asmundson, Aleiia J N Asmundson
The relative health of a field of research can be approximated by assessing peer-reviewed journal publication trends for articles pertinent to that field. The most recent comprehensive assessment of publication trends in the anxiety disorders indicated that the field was on a continuing trajectory of growth (Boschen, 2008). We conducted an updated search of Medline for publications on each of the anxiety disorders from 2006 to 2016. Results indicated that there was continuing growth in anxiety disorders research overall and, particularly, for posttraumatic stress disorder, social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and obsessive compulsive disorder...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772560/impact-of-sugar-on-the-body-brain-and-behavior
#20
Clara R Freeman, Amna Zehra, Veronica Ramirez, Corinde E Wiers, Nora D Volkow, Gene-Jack Wang
Sugar is highly palatable and rewarding, both in its taste and nutritive input. Excessive sugar consumption, however, may trigger neuroadaptations in the reward system that decouple eating behavior from caloric needs and leads to compulsive overeating. Excessive sugar intake is in turn associated with adverse health conditions, including obesity, metabolic syndrome, and inflammatory diseases. This review aims to use recent evidence to connect sugar's impact on the body, brain, and behavior to elucidate how and why sugar consumption has been implicated in addictive behaviors and poor health outcomes...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
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