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Thibaud Kuca, Thomas Passler, Benjamin W Newcomer, John D Neill, Patricia K Galik, Kay P Riddell, Yijing Zhang, Paul H Walz
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an economically important pathogen of cattle that can also infect a wide range of domestic and wild species including sheep, goats, deer, camelids, and pigs. BVDV isolates are genetically highly diverse and previous work demonstrated that many substitutions were introduced in the viral genome during acute infections in cattle. In contrast, only limited information exists regarding changes occurring during BVDV infections in species other than cattle. The purpose of this study was to determine the changes introduced in the open reading frame (ORF) of the BVDV genome during serial infection of pregnant cattle and sheep with an isolate of bovine origin...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Seyed Reza Banihashemi, Ahmad Zavaran Hosseini, Fatemeh Rahbarizadeh, Davoud Ahmadvand
Objectives: CD19 is a transmembrane glycoprotein of immunoglobulin superfamily. In order to treat lymphoma, monoclonal antibodies (mAb) can target different antigens, including CD19, CD20 and CD22 on the surface of B-cells. Along with biotechnology progress, a new generation of antibodies is introduced, with the purpose of eliminating the defects of the previous generation. Among the most developed one are nanobodies (Nb). Nbs are a unique kind of camelid single domain antibody fragments with a broad range of medical applications...
May 2018: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Kevin A Henry, C Roger MacKenzie
Single-domain antibodies (sdAbs), the autonomous variable domains of heavy chain-only antibodies produced naturally by camelid ungulates and cartilaginous fishes, have evolved to bind antigen using only three complementarity-determining region (CDR) loops rather than the six present in conventional VH :VL antibodies. It has been suggested, based on limited evidence, that sdAbs may adopt paratope structures that predispose them to preferential recognition of recessed protein epitopes, but poor or non-recognition of protuberant epitopes and small molecules...
June 19, 2018: MAbs
Dominik P Buser, Kai D Schleicher, Cristina Prescianotto-Baschong, Martin Spiess
Retrograde transport of membranes and proteins from the cell surface to the Golgi and beyond is essential to maintain homeostasis, compartment identity, and physiological functions. To study retrograde traffic biochemically, by live-cell imaging or by electron microscopy, we engineered functionalized anti-GFP nanobodies (camelid VHH antibody domains) to be bacterially expressed and purified. Tyrosine sulfation consensus sequences were fused to the nanobody for biochemical detection of trans -Golgi arrival, fluorophores for fluorescence microscopy and live imaging, and APEX2 (ascorbate peroxidase 2) for electron microscopy and compartment ablation...
June 18, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Dan David, Ditza Rotenberg, Evgeny Khinich, Oran Erster, Svetlana Bardenstein, Michael van Straten, Nisreen M A Okba, Stalin V Raj, Bart L Haagmans, Marcelo Miculitzki, Irit Davidson
Thus far, no human MERS-CoV infections have been reported from Israel. Evidence for the circulation of MERS-CoV in dromedaries has been reported from almost all the countries of the Middle East, except Israel. Therefore, we aimed to analyze MERS-CoV infection in Israeli camelids, sampled between 2012 and 2017. A total of 411 camels, 102 alpacas and 19 llamas' sera were tested for the presence of antibodies to MERS-CoV. Our findings indicate a lower MERS-CoV seropositivity among Israeli dromedaries than in the surrounding countries, and for the first time naturally infected llamas were identified...
June 2018: One Health
Paulina R Lezama-Núñez, Dídac Santos-Fita, José R Vallejo
Understanding both domestication processes and agricultural practices is an interdisciplinary endeavor. Ethnographic research is potentially helpful for reconstructing past events. Such knowledge is also crucial for documenting the links between biological and cultural diversity, as well as for future purposes such as innovation in food production and sustainability. Here, we review six ethnographic case studies in different pastoral socioecological systems of the American continent. The livestock species involved include the native South American camelids and Arctic reindeer, as well as some Old World species (mainly goats, sheep, and cattle)...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
J P Dubey
Camelids (llamas, alpacas, vicuñas, guanacos) are important for the economy of South America and Eimeria infections are important as cause of mortality in camelids. Of the five most prevalent species of Eimeria in South American camelids, Eimeria macusaniensis, Eimeria lamae, Eimeria alpacae, Eimeria punoensis, and Eimeria ivitaensis, E. macusaniensis is considered the most pathogenic. There is considerable confusion concerning the endogenous developmental stages of Eimeria spp. in camelids. Many papers on camelid coccidiosis were published in local Peruvian journals, not easily accessible to wider audience...
May 26, 2018: Parasitology Research
Andrew W Woodham, Ross W Cheloha, Jingjing Ling, Mohammad Rashidian, Stephen C Kolifrath, Maia Mesyngier, Joao N Duarte, Justin M Bader, Joseph G Skeate, Diane M Da Silva, W Martin Kast, Hidde L Ploegh
High-risk human papillomavirus-associated cancers express viral oncoproteins (e.g., E6 and E7) that induce and maintain the malignant phenotype. The viral origin of these proteins makes them attractive targets for development of a therapeutic vaccine. Camelid-derived single-domain antibody fragments (nanobodies or VHHs) that recognize cell surface proteins on antigen-presenting cells (APCs) can serve as targeted delivery vehicles for antigens attached to them. Such VHHs were shown to induce CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses against model antigens conjugated to them via sortase, but antitumor responses had not yet been investigated...
May 23, 2018: Cancer Immunology Research
Julian A Fernandez, Mireia N Hidalgo, Emir Hodzic, Santiago S Diab, Francisco A Uzal
Coccidioidomycosis is a fungal disease caused by either Coccidioides immitis or Coccidioides posadasii. Anecdotal evidence suggests that camelids are particularly susceptible to this disease and that a relatively large percentage of pneumonias in these animals are caused by Coccidioides spp. In a search of 21 y (1992-2013) of records from the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory, we found 79 cases of coccidioidomycosis diagnosed in camelids; 66 (84%) had pneumonia and 13 (16%) had lesions only in organs other than the lungs...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Patrick Kunz, Katinka Zinner, Norbert Mücke, Tanja Bartoschik, Serge Muyldermans, Jörg D Hoheisel
Nanobodies represent the variable binding domain of camelid heavy-chain antibodies and are employed in a rapidly growing range of applications in biotechnology and biomedicine. Their success is based on unique properties including their reported ability to reversibly refold after heat-induced denaturation. This view, however, is contrasted by studies which involve irreversibly aggregating nanobodies, asking for a quantitative analysis that clearly defines nanobody thermoresistance and reveals the determinants of unfolding reversibility and aggregation propensity...
May 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Lucas Ferguson, Kaijian Luo, Alicia K Olivier, Fred L Cunningham, Sherry Blackmon, Katie Hanson-Dorr, Hailiang Sun, John Baroch, Mark W Lutman, Bianca Quade, William Epperson, Richard Webby, Thomas J DeLiberto, Xiu-Feng Wan
Influenza D virus (IDV) has been identified in domestic cattle, swine, camelid, and small ruminant populations across North America, Europe, Asia, South America, and Africa. Our study investigated seroprevalence and transmissibility of IDV in feral swine. During 2012-2013, we evaluated feral swine populations in 4 US states; of 256 swine tested, 57 (19.1%) were IDV seropositive. Among 96 archived influenza A virus-seropositive feral swine samples collected from 16 US states during 2010-2013, 41 (42.7%) were IDV seropositive...
June 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Daniela E Barraza, Renato Zampini, Silvana A Apichela, Joel I Pacheco, Martin E Argañaraz
South American Camelids (SAC) have unique reproductive features, one of which is that 98% of the pregnancies develop in the left uterine horn. Furthermore, early pregnancy is an uncharacterized process in these species, especially in regard to the ultrastructural, biochemical and genetic changes that the uterine epithelial surface undergoes to allow embryo implantation. The present study describes the uterine horn luminal surface and the characteristics of the mucinous glycocalyx in non-pregnant and early pregnant (15 days) female alpacas...
May 14, 2018: Acta Histochemica
Ralph Kobera, Henrik Wagner
Bone sequestration is relatively unknown in New-world camelids in Germany and is frequently wrongly addressed as neoplasia by veterinary practitioners. This clinical case report describes diagnosis and treatment for bone sequestration in alpacas based on 12 cases. The main symptom of the presented alpacas was moderate to severe lameness in one limb. Some of the patients had been treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs by the referring veterinarian. In eight alpacas, palpation of the swelling in the affected leg was painful and in five animals, exudation was observed...
April 2018: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere
Christina Torres-Rouff, Mark Hubbe, William J Pestle
OBJECTIVES: In this article, we present analyses of traumatic injury data from the Middle Period Coyo Oriental cemetery in northern Chile. We test a series of hypotheses about the role of sex, foreign contact, ritual access, and temporal shifts, in the patterning of cranial trauma in this cemetery. METHODS: Two hundred and twenty-seven crania from Coyo Oriental were analyzed using standard bioarcheological methods to determine sex and age as well as the presence of cranial fractures...
May 2, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Ting He, Jiang Zhu, Yao Nie, Rui Hu, Ting Wang, Peiwu Li, Qi Zhang, Yunhuang Yang
Mycotoxins, which are toxic, carcinogenic, and/or teratogenic, have posed a threat to food safety and public health. Sensitive and effective determination technologies for mycotoxin surveillance are required. Immunoassays have been regarded as useful supplements to chromatographic techniques. However, conventional antibodies involved in immunoassays are difficult to be expressed recombinantly and are susceptible to harsh environments. Nanobodies (or VHH antibodies) are antigen-binding sites of the heavy-chain antibodies produced from Camelidae...
April 29, 2018: Toxins
Neja Samec, Ivana Jovcevska, Jure Stojan, Alja Zottel, Mirjana Liovic, Michael P Myers, Serge Muyldermans, Jernej Šribar, Igor Križaj, Radovan Komel
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and lethal form of brain tumor. The prognosis for patients remains poor, despite the combination of new preoperative and intraoperative neuroimaging, radical surgery, and recent advances in radiotherapy and chemotherapy. To improve GBM therapy and patient outcome, sustained drug delivery to glioma cells is needed, while minimizing toxicity to adjacent neurons and glia cells. This might be achieved through an anti-proteomic approach based on nanobodies, the single-domain antigen-binding fragments of heavy-chain antibodies of the camelid adaptive immune system...
April 3, 2018: Oncotarget
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0056222.].
2018: PloS One
Michael R Pranzatelli
The concept and recognized components of "neuroinflammation" are expanding at the intersection of neurobiology and immunobiology. Chemokines (CKs), no longer merely necessary for immune cell trafficking and positioning, have multiple physiologic, developmental, and modulatory functionalities in the central nervous system (CNS) through neuron-glia interactions and other mechanisms affecting neurotransmission. They issue the "help me" cry of neurons and astrocytes in response to CNS injury, engaging invading lymphoid cells (T cells and B cells) and myeloid cells (dendritic cells, monocytes, and neutrophils) (adaptive immunity), as well as microglia and macrophages (innate immunity), in a cascade of events, some beneficial (reparative), others destructive (excitotoxic)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
F Cawez, E Duray, Y Hu, J Vandenameele, E Romão, C Vincke, M Dumoulin, M Galleni, S Muyldermans, M Vandevenne
Recent advances in transcriptome sequencing and analysis have revealed the complexity of the human genome. The majority (≈ 98%) of cellular transcripts is not translated into proteins and represents a vast, unchartered world of functional non-coding RNAs. Most of them adopt a well-defined three-dimensional structure to achieve their biological functions. However, only very few RNA structures are currently available which reflects the challenges associated with RNA crystallization. Nevertheless, these structures would represent a critical step in understanding functions of non-coding RNAs and their molecular mechanisms in the cell...
May 25, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
J P Dubey
Camelids (llama, alpaca, vicunãs, guanacos) are important for the economy of South America and Eimeria infections are an important cause of mortality in camelids. Of the six species of Eimeria in camelids, Eimeria macusaniensis, considered the most pathogenic, is distinctive; its oocysts are the largest among all Eimeria species in animals, its prepatent period is more than 1 month, and its oocysts have been found in mummies from prehistoric times. Although, E. macusaniensis gametogonic stages are found associated with enteritis in naturally infected camelids, the schizogonic stages are unknown and clinical disease has been reported in some camelids with no oocysts in feces...
April 12, 2018: Parasitology
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