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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342446/the-impact-of-happy-and-angry-faces-on-working-memory-in-depressed-adolescents
#1
Laura Wante, Sven C Mueller, Sofie Cromheeke, Caroline Braet
Recent cognitive models suggest that the ability to control emotional information in working memory (WM) may be implicated in the etiology and maintenance of depression. However, few studies have examined the effects of processing relevant and irrelevant emotional stimuli on WM performance in depressed adolescents. In the current study, depressed adolescents (n = 27) and healthy adolescents (n = 49) completed two versions of an emotional n-back task: a low WM load (0-back) task and a high WM load (2-back) task...
January 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342407/vitamin-d-and-iron-deficiencies-in-children-and-adolescents-with-cerebral-palsy
#2
C Le Roy, S Barja, C Sepúlveda, M L Guzmán, M Olivarez, M J Figueroa, M Alvarez
INTRODUCTION: Children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) are at a greater risk of malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies. Two deficiencies that we can study and treat are vitaminD (VD) and iron deficiencies; however, no studies have described these deficiencies in Chile. OBJECTIVE: To describe the status of VD and iron in patients with CP and evaluate the relationship with certain factors associated with deficiencies of these micronutrients. PATIENTS AND METHOD: We performed a descriptive, cross-sectional study including 69 patients aged between 2 and 21years, from two public hospitals...
January 13, 2018: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342369/added-sugar-consumption-and-chronic-oral-disease-burden-among-adolescents-in-brazil
#3
C D S Carmo, M R C Ribeiro, J X P Teixeira, C M C Alves, M M Franco, A K T C França, B B Benatti, J Cunha-Cruz, C C C Ribeiro
Chronic oral diseases are rarely studied together, especially with an emphasis on their common risk factors. This study examined the association of added sugar consumption on "chronic oral disease burden" among adolescents, with consideration of obesity and systemic inflammation pathways through structural equation modeling. A cross-sectional study was conducted of a complex random sample of adolescent students enrolled at public schools in São Luís, Brazil ( n = 405). The outcome was chronic oral disease burden, a latent variable based on the presence of probing depth ≥4 mm, bleeding on probing, caries, and clinical consequences of untreated caries...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342218/cross-lagged-structural-equation-models-for-the-relationship-between-health-related-state-and-behaviours-and-body-bullying-in-adolescence-findings-from-longitudinal-study-elana
#4
Viviane S Straatmann, Ylva B Almquist, Aldair J Oliveira, Mikael Rostila, Claudia S Lopes
We investigated the stability and the directionality of being body bullied and a set of four variables- 1) Body Mass Index (BMI), 2) moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA), 3) television time (TV) and 4) video game/computer time (VG)-, termed in the present study as 'health-related state and behaviours (HRSB)'-across adolescence. The Adolescent Nutritional Assessment Longitudinal Study (ELANA) is a cohort study conducted among middle school students from two public and four private schools in Rio de Janeiro-Brazil...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342210/effects-of-theory-of-mind-performance-training-on-reducing-bullying-involvement-in-children-and-adolescents-with-high-functioning-autism-spectrum-disorder
#5
Meng-Jung Liu, Le-Yin Ma, Wen-Jiun Chou, Yu-Min Chen, Tai-Ling Liu, Ray C Hsiao, Huei-Fan Hu, Cheng-Fang Yen
Bullying involvement is prevalent among children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study examined the effects of theory of mind performance training (ToMPT) on reducing bullying involvement in children and adolescents with high-functioning ASD. Children and adolescents with high-functioning ASD completed ToMPT (n = 26) and social skills training (SST; n = 23) programs. Participants in both groups and their mothers rated the pretraining and posttraining bullying involvement of participants on the Chinese version of the School Bullying Experience Questionnaire...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342171/health-behavior-associated-with-liver-enzymes-among-obese-korean-adolescents-2009-2014
#6
Eun-Young Lee, Hwa Young Choi, Hyunsoon Cho, Bo Hyun Kim, Moran Ki
AIMS: Obesity is major risk factor for liver health. This study aimed to clarify whether specific health behaviors were associated with liver function in obese adolescents in Korea. METHODS: Based on national school health examination data from 2009 to 2014, 25,142 obese or overweight students were examined for aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase levels, and health behaviors. Multiple logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratio for liver enzyme elevation...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342109/sources-of-added-sugars-in-young-children-adolescents-and-adults-with-low-and-high-intakes-of-added-sugars
#7
Regan L Bailey, Victor L Fulgoni, Alexandra E Cowan, P Courtney Gaine
High intake of added sugars is associated with excess energy intake and poorer diet quality. The objective of this cross-sectional study (n = 16,806) was to estimate usual intakes and the primary food sources of added sugars across the range of intakes (i.e., deciles) among U.S. children (2-8 years), adolescents and teens (9-18 years), and adults (≥19 years) using the National Health and Nutrition Examination (NHANES) data from 2009-2012. The percent energy contributed by added sugars was 14.3 ± 0.2% (2-8 years), 16...
January 17, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341884/acute-stress-persistently-alters-locus-coeruleus-function-and-anxiety-like-behavior-in-adolescent-rats
#8
Olga Borodovitsyna, Matthew D Flamini, Daniel J Chandler
Stress is a physiological state characterized by altered neuroendocrine signaling, behavioral arousal, and anxiety. Chronic or traumatic stress may predispose individuals for multiple somatic and psychiatric illnesses. The locus coeruleus (LC) is a major node in the stress response that integrates input from multiple stress responsive neural circuits and releases norepinephrine throughout the central nervous system to promote vigilance and anxiety. Many mood disorders associated with prior stress are characterized by chronically altered noradrenergic signaling, yet the long-term impact of an acute stressor on LC function is not clear...
January 13, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341786/unscheduled-adolescents-return-to-the-emergency-department-following-acute-concussion
#9
Dana Baron Shahaf, Sapir Bar, Ronit Leiba, Vered Dvir, Itai Shavit
OBJECTIVE: Emergency department (ED) visits due to concussion have increased over recent years. We aimed to identify variables associated with unscheduled adolescents return to the ED. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted. All children aged 11 to 18 years who were admitted to the ED due to concussion between 2011 and 2016 were included. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify predictors of ED return. RESULTS: Overall, 616 adolescents were admitted to the ED due to concussion...
January 17, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341329/violence-and-child-mental-health-in-brazil-the-itabora%C3%A3-youth-study-methods-and-findings
#10
I A Bordin, C S Duarte, W S Ribeiro, C S Paula, E S F Coutinho, A Sourander, J A Rønning
OBJECTIVES: To demonstrate a study design that could be useful in low-resource and violent urban settings and to estimate the prevalence of child violence exposure (at home, community, and school) and child mental health problems in a low-income medium-size city. METHODS: The Itaboraí Youth Study is a Norway-Brazil collaborative longitudinal study conducted in Itaboraí city (n = 1409, 6-15 year olds). A 3-stage probabilistic sampling plan (random selection of census units, eligible households, and target child) generated sampling weights that were used to obtain estimates of population prevalence rates...
January 17, 2018: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341314/chronic-sleep-reduction-in-adolescents-clinical-cut-off-scores-for-the-chronic-sleep-reduction-questionnaire-csrq
#11
Julia F Dewald-Kaufmann, Eduard J Bruin, Marcel Smits, Bonne J H Zijlstra, Frans J Oort, Anne Marie Meijer
The Chronic Sleep Reduction Questionnaire is a validated questionnaire that measures symptoms of prolonged insufficient and/or poor sleep and therefore accounts for individuals' sleep need and sleep debt. This study extends its psychometric properties by providing cut-off scores, using a matched sample of 298 healthy adolescents (15.38 ± 1.63 years, 37.9% male, mean Chronic Sleep Reduction Questionnaire score: 32.98 ± 6.51) and 298 adolescents with insomnia/delayed sleep-wake phase disorder (15.48 ± 1...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341248/are-kidney-transplantation-outcomes-improved-in-children-weighting-15-kilograms-or-less-in-the-last-decades
#12
George S Reusz, Miklos Z Molnar
As perinatal and postnatal care of neonates with impaired kidney function is constantly improving, the number of infants needing renal replacement therapy is increasing. Consequently, the general attitude of clinicians to offer renal replacement therapy (RRT) during the first year of life is changing gradually. The ideal renal replacement modality for children and adolescents is renal transplantation (RTX), as both the short-term and long-term medical complications of hemo- and peritoneal dialysis confer inferior survival rates compared to RTX to this patent group...
January 16, 2018: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341246/risk-factors-for-disordered-weight-control-behaviors-among-korean-adolescents-multilevel-analysis-of-the-korea-youth-risk-behavior-survey
#13
Yongjoo Kim, S Bryn Austin, S V Subramanian, Jennifer J Thomas, Kamryn T Eddy, Debra L Franko, Rachel F Rodgers, Ichiro Kawachi
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and risk factors for disordered weight control behaviors (DWCB) in South Korean adolescents at multiple levels, including individual, family, school, and geographic area. METHOD: We drew participants from the 11th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey, conducted in 2015, with 65,529 adolescents (31,687 girls, 33,842 boys) aged 12-18 years. DWCB was defined as engaging in any of the following behaviors for weight control over the past month: fasting, one-food diet (eating only one food over an extended period of time for weight control), vomiting, and taking laxatives/diuretics/unprescribed diet pills...
January 17, 2018: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341204/gender-parental-education-and-experiences-of-bullying-victimization-by-australian-adolescents-with-and-without-a-disability
#14
A Kavanagh, N Priest, E Emerson, A Milner, T King
BACKGROUND: This study sought to compare the prevalence of bullying victimization between adolescents with and without a disability and between adolescents with and without borderline intellectual functioning or intellectual disability (BIF/ID). We also sought to assess whether the relationships between either disability or BIF/ID and bullying victimization vary by gender and parental education. METHODS: The sample included 3,956 12- to 13-year-old adolescents who participated in Wave 5 of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children...
January 16, 2018: Child: Care, Health and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341057/-suicidal-adolescents-can-benefit-from-family-group-conferences
#15
J A Koudstaal, G Schout, R H B Simons-Van Alphen, R R J M Vermeiren
A risk factor among suicidal adolescents is generally their inability to form and maintain relationships with other people. In the case that we investigated, the technique known as Family Group Conference (FGC) was used successfully to break through the adolescent's passivity and social isolation. The FGC also helped to alter the adolescent's conviction of being a burden to relatives, friends and other people. The results are in line with additional studies that used FGC with other target groups. This case study suggests that FGC is a promising type of intervention that can reduce the passivity and isolation of suicidal adolescents, strengthening their relationships and boosting a feeling of belonging...
2018: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341049/-long-term-outcome-after-prenatal-drug-exposure
#16
Ludwig Gortner, Sascha Meyer
Although prenatal exposure to opioids, cannabinoids and cocaine is a frequent problem, only scarce data have been published on the long-term outcome in affected children and adolescents. While opioid-exposed children up to the age of 2 years show a reduced motor developmental pattern, data from meta-analyses up to adolescence show a strong trend for reduced performance with regard to cognitive function and behavior. Follow-up data after intrauterine cannabinoid exposure indicate reduced cognitive and reading abilities as well as abnormal findings in complex planning tests...
January 16, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Geburtshilfe und Neonatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341046/reduced-growth-hormone-secretion-is-associated-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-obese-children
#17
Shuang Liang, Zhen Yu, Xiaobo Song, Yu Wang, Meng Li, Jiang Xue
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relationship between arginine-levodopa-induced growth hormone (GH) secretion and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in obese children. This study includes a total of 84 obese and 43 normal weight children. The obese subjects are divided into two groups based on the presence or absence of NAFLD. Clinical examination, anthropometric and laboratory examinations, and liver ultrasonography are assessed for all participants. The obese group had significantly lower peak stimulated GH (p<0...
January 16, 2018: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340943/a-prospective-investigation-of-rumination-and-executive-control-in-predicting-overgeneral-autobiographical-memory-in-adolescence
#18
Tracy M Stewart, Simon C Hunter, Sinéad M Rhodes
The CaR-FA-X model (Williams et al., 2007), or capture and rumination (CaR), functional avoidance (FA), and impaired executive control (X), is a model of overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM). Two mechanisms of the model, rumination and executive control, were examined in isolation and in interaction in order to investigate OGM over time. Across two time points, six months apart, a total of 149 adolescents (13-16 years) completed the minimal-instruction autobiographical memory test, a measure of executive control with both emotional and nonemotional stimuli, and measures of brooding rumination and reflective pondering...
January 16, 2018: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340791/treatment-of-disabling-headache-with-greater-occipital-nerve-injections-in-a-large-population-of-childhood-and-adolescent-patients-a-service-evaluation
#19
Francesca Puledda, Peter J Goadsby, Prab Prabhakar
BACKGROUND: Pediatric headache disorders can be extremely disabling, with marked reduction in the quality of life of children and their carers. Evidenced-based options for the treatment of primary headache disorders with preventive medication is limited and clinical outcomes are often unsatisfactory. Greater occipital nerve injections represent a rapid and well-tolerated therapeutic option, which is widely used in clinical practice in adults, and has previously shown a good outcome in a pediatric population...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340781/suicidal-thoughts-and-behaviors-among-college-students-and-same-aged-peers-results-from-the-world-health-organization-world-mental-health-surveys
#20
Philippe Mortier, Randy P Auerbach, Jordi Alonso, William G Axinn, Pim Cuijpers, David D Ebert, Jennifer G Green, Irving Hwang, Ronald C Kessler, Howard Liu, Matthew K Nock, Stephanie Pinder-Amaker, Nancy A Sampson, Alan M Zaslavsky, Jibril Abdulmalik, Sergio Aguilar-Gaxiola, Ali Al-Hamzawi, Corina Benjet, Koen Demyttenaere, Silvia Florescu, Giovanni De Girolamo, Oye Gureje, Josep Maria Haro, Chiyi Hu, Yueqin Huang, Peter De Jonge, Elie G Karam, Andrzej Kiejna, Viviane Kovess-Masfety, Sing Lee, John J Mcgrath, Siobhan O'neill, Vladimir Nakov, Beth-Ellen Pennell, Marina Piazza, José Posada-Villa, Charlene Rapsey, Maria Carmen Viana, Miguel Xavier, Ronny Bruffaerts
PURPOSE: The primary aims are to (1) obtain representative prevalence estimates of suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STB) among college students worldwide and (2) investigate whether STB is related to matriculation to and attrition from college. METHODS: Data from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys were analyzed, which include face-to-face interviews with 5750 young adults aged 18-22 spanning 21 countries (weighted mean response rate = 71.4%). Standardized STB prevalence estimates were calculated for four well-defined groups of same-aged peers: college students, college attriters (i...
January 16, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
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