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James A Shayman
Prostaglandins have been characterized as the metabolic products of arachidonic acid released from glycerophospholipids following hydrolysis by phospholipase A2s and enzymatic oxidation by the COX1 and COX2. In this issue of Cell Chemical Biology, Liu et al. (2016) examine the metabolism of 2-arachidonoyl-lyso-phosphatidylcholine and 2-arachidonoyl-lyso-phosphatidylethanolamine by COX2 and conversion to glycerolipid linked prostanoids, raising a series of interesting and important questions.
October 20, 2016: Cell Chemical Biology
Joohwee Kim, Vivek Vaish, Mingxiao Feng, Kevin Field, Ioulia Chatzistamou, Minsub Shim
Cyclooxygenase (COX) is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of prostanoids, lipid signaling molecules that regulate various physiological processes. COX2, one of the isoforms of COX, is highly inducible in response to a wide variety of cellular and environmental stresses. Increased COX2 expression is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of many age-related diseases. COX2 expression is also reported to be increased in the tissues of aged humans and mice, which suggests the involvement of COX2 in the aging process...
October 7, 2016: Aging
Ching-Hsiao Lee, Yuh-Shuen Chen, Chien-Wei Hou, Kee-Ching Jeng, Kuo-Shu Chen
OBJECTIVES: Longan seeds have been used as a folk medicine in China. Longan seed extract (LSE) is known for antioxidative, antiproliferative, hypoglycemic, and hypouremic effects. However, its anti-inflammatory effect has not been shown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were given LSE orally (vehicle, 10, and 30 mg/kg) for 3 days to its test anti-inflammatory effect by injecting λ-carrageenan (CARR) in the right hind paw or lipopolysaccharide (LPS), IP...
August 2016: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Sergio Montserrat-de la Paz, Beatriz Bermudez, Sergio Lopez, Maria C Naranjo, Yolanda Romero, Maria J Bando-Hidalgo, Rocio Abia, Francisco Jg Muriana
Niacin activates HCA2 receptor that results in the release of PGD2. However, little is known on PGD2-producing cells and the role of fatty acids. Notably M-CSF macrophages exhibited a timely dependent PGD2 production upon niacin challenge. Short pretreatment of M-CSF macrophages with autologous postprandial TRLs induced the down-regulation of HCA2 gene and up-regulation of genes encoding COX1 and COX2 enzymes in a fatty acid-dependent manner. These effects were paralleled by a higher PGD2 production with postprandial TRL-SFAs...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
L Antonio González-Grajales, Laura A Favetta, W Allan King, Gabriela F Mastromonaco
BACKGROUND: Successful development of iSCNT (interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer) embryos depends on complex interactions between ooplasmic and nuclear components, which can be compromised by genetic divergence. Transfer of ooplasm matching the genetic background of the somatic cell in iSCNT embryos is a valuable tool to study the degree of incompatibilities between nuclear and ooplasmic components. This study investigated the effects of ooplasm transfer (OT) on cattle (Bos taurus) and plains bison (Bison bison bison) embryos produced by iSCNT and supplemented with or without ooplasm from cattle or plains bison oocytes...
October 13, 2016: BMC Developmental Biology
Thanh Hoa Le, Nga Thi Bich Nguyen, Khue Thi Nguyen, Huong Thi Thanh Doan, Do Trung Dung, David Blair
The complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of the trematode Echinochasmus japonicus Tanabe, 1926 was fully determined and annotated. The circular mt molecule of this species is 15,865bp in length, containing 12 protein-coding genes (arranged in the following order: cox3-cob-nad4L-nad4-atp6-nad2-nad1-nad3-cox1-cox2-nad6-nad5), two ribosomal RNA genes (rrnL and rrnS) and 22 transfer RNA genes (trnH; trnQ; trnF; trnM; trnV; trnA; trnD; trnN; trnP; trnI; trnK; trnS1(AGN); trnW; trnT; trnC; trnL1(CUN); trnS2(UCN); trnL2(UUN); trnG; and trnE)...
October 1, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Edouard Lecarpentier, Anthony Atallah, Jean Guibourdenche, Marylise Hebert-Schuster, Sarah Vieillefosse, Audrey Chissey, Bassam Haddad, Guillaume Pidoux, Daniele Evain-Brion, Abdul Barakat, Thierry Fournier, Vassilis Tsatsaris
The effects of fluid shear stress (FSS) on the human syncytiotrophoblast and its biological functions have never been studied. During pregnancy, the syncytiotrophoblast is the main source of placental growth factor (PlGF), a proangiogenic factor involved in the placental angiogenesis and the vascular adaptation to pregnancy. The role of FSS in regulating PlGF expression in syncytiotrophoblasts is unknown. We investigated the impact of FSS on the production and secretion of the PlGF by the human syncytiotrophoblasts in primary cell culture...
October 3, 2016: Hypertension
Ying Zhang, Juan Wang, Zhongying Lv, Dong Zhao, Mei Luo
Coronary heart disease and various cardiomyopathys may cause myocardial damage, reducing the number of myocardial cells with complete functions. Cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox-2) has been reported participating in a variety of pathological processes, including tumor invasion and metastasis. In this study, we sought to explore the correlation of Cox-2 with MSCs proliferation, and migration. MSCs were transfected with pcDNA-Cox2 and NS-398 to promote or inhibit the expression of Cox2. Then, MTT, transwell, qRT-PCR and western blot were used to test the influence of Cox2 on cells proliferation, cells migration and cell viability of mesenchymal stem...
September 30, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Hai M Nguyen, Eva M Grössinger, Makoto Horiuchi, Kyle W Davis, Lee-Way Jin, Izumi Maezawa, Heike Wulff
Microglia are highly plastic cells that can assume different phenotypes in response to microenvironmental signals. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) promote differentiation into classically activated M1-like microglia, which produce high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide and are thought to contribute to neurological damage in ischemic stroke and Alzheimer's disease. IL-4 in contrast induces a phenotype associated with anti-inflammatory effects and tissue repair. We here investigated whether these microglia subsets vary in their K(+) channel expression by differentiating neonatal mouse microglia into M(LPS) and M(IL-4) microglia and studying their K(+) channel expression by whole-cell patch-clamp, quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry...
October 3, 2016: Glia
Mohammad Mehdi Heidari, Mehri Khatami, Amirhossein Danafar, Tahere Dianat, Ghazaleh Farahmand, Ali Reza Talebi
BACKGROUND: Several recent studies have shown that mitochondrial DNA mutations lead to major disabilities and premature death in carriers. More than 150 mutations in human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genes have been associated with a wide spectrum of disorders. Varicocele, one of the causes of infertility in men wherein abnormal inflexion and distension of veins of the pampiniform plexus is observed within spermatic cord, can increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in semen and cause oxidative stress and sperm dysfunction in patients...
October 2016: International Journal of Fertility & Sterility
Xing-Shi Gu, Li Ma, Xing Wang, Guo-Hua Huang
The bombycid moth, Andraca theae (Matsumura) (Lepidoptera: Bombycoidea) is an important pest of tea in southeastern China. In the present study, the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of A. theae was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. The complete mitogenome of A. theae, encoding 37 genes, was 15,737 bp in length (Genbank no. KX365419), and consisted of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and an adenine (A) + thymine (T)-rich region (AT-rich region). The gene order of A...
2016: Journal of Insect Science
Jin-Yu Zhao, Wen-Ting Zhao, Atheer H Ali, Hui-Xia Chen, Liang Li
Hysterothylacium reliquens (Norris & Overstreet, 1975), a common ascaridoid nematode parasitic in the marine fishes in the Indian and Atlantic Oceans, has been reported to exhibit remarkable morphological variability in the lengths of body, oesophagus and spicules, and the number and arrangement of postcloacal papillae. In order to determine whether H. reliquens with a broad range of morphological variability in the above-mentioned respects, represents a complex of sibling species or a single species, and to evaluate if the specimens of H...
September 24, 2016: Parasitology International
Ki-Young Kim, Hee Kang
Sakuranetin is flavonoid phytoalexin that serves as a plant antibiotic and exists in Prunus and several other plant species. Recently, we identified the anti-inflammatory effect of Prunus yedoensis and found that there were few studies on the potential anti-inflammatory activity of sakuranetin, one of the main constituents of Prunus yedoensis. Here, we isolated peritoneal macrophages from thioglycollate-injected mice and examined whether sakuranetin affected the response of the macrophages in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plus interferon- (IFN-) γ or LPS only...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Jason W Ashley, William D Hancock, Alexander J Nelson, Robert N Bone, Hubert M Tse, Mary Wohltmann, John Turk, Sasanka Ramanadham
Macrophages are important in innate and adaptive immunity. Macrophage participation in inflammation or tissue repair is directed by various extracellular signals and mediated by multiple intracellular pathways. Activation of group VIA phospholipase A2 (iPLA2β) causes accumulation of arachidonic acid, lysophospholipids, and eicosanoids that can promote inflammation and pathologic states. We examined the role of iPLA2β in peritoneal macrophage immune function by comparing WT and iPLA2β-/- mouse macrophages...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Yoon Kyung Choi, Joon Ha Park, Yi-Yong Baek, Moo-Ho Won, Dooil Jeoung, Hansoo Lee, Kwon-Soo Ha, Young-Guen Kwon, Young-Myeong Kim
Carbon monoxide (CO), derived by the enzymatic reaction of heme oxygenase (HO), is a cellular regulator of energy metabolism and cytoprotection; however, its underlying mechanism has not been clearly elucidated. Astrocytes pre-exposed to the CO-releasing compound CORM-2 increased mitochondrial biogenesis, mitochondrial electron transport components (cytochrome c, Cyt c; cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2, COX2), and ATP synthesis. The increased mitochondrial function was correlated with activation of AMP-activated protein kinase α and upregulation of HO-1, peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor γ-coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), and estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα)...
October 14, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Ajaikumar B Kunnumakkara, Devivasha Bordoloi, Ganesan Padmavathi, Javadi Monisha, Nand Kishor Roy, Sahdeo Prasad, Bharat B Aggarwal
Curcumin, a yellow pigment in the Indian spice Turmeric (Curcuma longa), which is chemically called as diferuloylmethane was first isolated exactly two centuries ago in 1815 by two German Scientists, Vogel and Pelletier. According to pubmed database, however, the first paper was published on its biological activity in 1949 in Nature as an antibacterial agent, and the first clinical trial reported in Lancet in 1937. Although the current database indicates almost 9000 publications on curcumin but until 1990 there were less than 100 papers published on this nutraceutical...
September 17, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Valentina Salvi, Xenia Vaira, Veronica Gianello, William Vermi, Mattia Bugatti, Silvano Sozzani, Daniela Bosisio
PGE2 is a lipid mediator abundantly produced in inflamed tissues that exerts relevant immunoregulatory functions. Dendritic cells (DCs) are key players in the onset and shaping of the inflammatory and immune responses and, as such, are well known PGE2 targets. By contrast, the precise role of human DCs in the production of PGE2 is poorly characterized. Here, we asked whether different ligands of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), a relevant family of pathogen-sensing receptors, could induce PGE2 in human DCs. The only active ligands were LPS (TLR4 ligand) and R848 (TLR7-8 ligand) although all TLRs, but TLR9, were expressed and functional...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
Marie Claude Denis, Denis Roy, Pantea Rahmani Yeganeh, Yves Desjardins, Thibault Varin, Nour Haddad, Devendra Amre, Alain Théophile Sané, Carole Garofalo, Alexandra Furtos, Natalie Patey, Edgard Delvin, Eric Tremblay, Andre Marette, Jean François Beaulieu, Emile Levy
Diets rich in fruits and vegetables may reduce oxidative stress and inflammation via several mechanisms. These beneficial effects may be due to their high polyphenol content. The aims of the present study are to evaluate the preventive and therapeutic aspects of polyphenols in dried apple peel extract (DAPP) on intestinal inflammation while elucidating the underlying mechanisms and clinical benefits. Induction of intestinal inflammation in mice was performed by oral administration of the inflammatory agent DSS at 2...
September 14, 2016: Clinical Science (1979-)
Rosemary Millen, Jordane Malaterre, Ryan S Cross, Sandra Carpinteri, Jayesh Desai, Ben Tran, Phillip Darcy, Peter Gibbs, Oliver Sieber, Nikolajs Zeps, Paul Waring, Stephen Fox, Lloyd Pereira, Robert G Ramsay
The presence of tumor immune infiltrating cells (TILs), particularly CD8(+) T-cells, is a robust predictor of outcome in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). We revisited TIL abundance specifically in patients with microsatellite stable (MSS) CRC without evidence of lymph node or metastatic spread. Examination of the density of CD8(+) T-cells in primary tumors in the context of other pro-oncogenic markers was performed to investigate potential regulators of TILs. Two independent cohorts of patients with MSS T2-4N0M0 CRC, enriched for cases with atypical relapse, were investigated...
July 2016: Oncoimmunology
Maria Giovanna Marini, Claudia Perrini, Paola Esposti, Bruna Corradetti, Davide Bizzaro, Pietro Riccaboni, Eleonora Fantinato, Giuseppe Urbani, Giorgio Gelati, Fausto Cremonesi, Anna Lange-Consiglio
BACKGROUND: Endometritis reduces fertility and is responsible for major economic losses in beef and dairy industries. The aim of this study was to evaluate an alternative therapy using platelet-rich plasma (PRP). PRP was tested in vivo, after bovine intrauterine administration, and in vitro on endometrial cells. METHODS: Bovine endometrial cells were cultured until passage (P) 10 with 5 % or 10 % PRP. Effect of PRP on endometrial cell proliferation and on the expression of genes [prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (COX2), tumor protein p53 (TP53), oestrogen receptors (ER-α and ER-β), progesterone receptor (PR) and c-Myc] involved in the regulation of oestrus cycle and fetal-maternal interaction were evaluated...
2016: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
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