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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213476/editing-of-mitochondrial-transcripts-nad3-and-cox2-by-dek10-is-essential-for-mitochondrial-function-and-maize-plant-development
#1
Weiwei Qi, Zhongrui Tian, Lei Lu, Xiuzu Chen, Xinze Chen, Wei Zhang, Rentao Song
Respiration, the core of mitochondrial metabolism, depends on the function of five respiratory complexes. Many respiratory chain related proteins are encoded by the mitochondrial genome and their RNAs undergo post-transcriptional modifications by nuclear genome expressed factors, including pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins. Maize defective kernel 10 (dek10) is a classic mutant with small kernels and delayed development. Through positional cloning we found that Dek10 encodes an E-subgroup PPR protein localized in mitochondria...
February 17, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212885/epinephrine-promotes-cox-2-dependent-immune-suppression-in-myeloid-cells-and-cancer-tissues
#2
Ravikumar Muthuswamy, Nana J Okada, Frank J Jenkins, Kandace McGuire, Priscilla F McAuliffe, Herbert J Zeh, David L Bartlett, Callen Wallace, Simon Watkins, Jill D Henning, Dana H Bovbjerg, Pawel Kalinski
Activation of the sympathetic nervous system (e.g., due to stress) has been implicated in cancer progression and recurrence, but its cancer-promoting effects have been variable between different studies. Here, we report that although catecholamines, mediators of systemic sympathetic activity, display only weak immunosuppressive impact on their own, their combination with inflammatory signals leads to the induction of COX-2 and multiple COX-2-dependent suppressive factors in human myeloid cells and cancer tissues...
February 14, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202054/increase-of-urinary-malondialdehyde-level-by-bisphenol-a-exposure-a-longitudinal-panel-study
#3
Jin Hee Kim, Yun-Chul Hong
BACKGROUND: To verify oxidative stress as a possible mechanism that establishes a relationship between exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) and adverse health outcomes in the elderly Korean population, we evaluated the relation between visit-to-visit variations in urinary BPA and oxidative stress biomarker. METHODS: To assess the relation between BPA and urinary malondialdehyde (MDA) as an oxidative stress biomarker, we used a mixed effect model after controlling for age, sex, BMI, drinking status, exercise, urinary cotinine level, PM10 on lag day 2, and mean temperature and dew point on the day...
February 15, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194647/cofilin-mediates-lps-induced-microglial-cell-activation-and-associated-neurotoxicity-through-activation-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-jak-stat-pathway
#4
Qasim Alhadidi, Zahoor A Shah
Microglial cells are activated in response to different types of injuries or stress in the CNS. Such activation is necessary to get rid of the injurious agents and restore tissue homeostasis. However, excessive activation of microglial cells is harmful and contributes to secondary injury. Pertinently, microglial cell activity was targeted in many preclinical and clinical studies but such strategy failed in clinical trials. The main reason behind the failed attempts is the complexity of the injury mechanisms which needs either a combination therapy or targeting a process that is involved in multiple pathways...
February 13, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193316/polydatin-improves-the-developmental-competence-of-bovine-embryos-in-vitro-via-induction-of-sirtuin-1-sirt1
#5
Imran Khan, Sung Woo Kim, Kyung-Lim Lee, Seok-Hwan Song, Ayman Mesalam, M M R Chowdhury, Zia Uddin, Ki Hun Park, Il-Keun Kong
The aim of the present study was to investigate the beneficial effect of polydatin (PD), the glycoside form of resveratrol, on embryo development in vitro. Oocytes were aspirated from ovaries of Korean Hanwoo cows and cultured until Day 8 in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2 in air at 38.5°C. Protein and gene expression levels were determined through confocal microscopy and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction respectively, whereas the number of total and apoptotic cells in Day 8 blastocysts was determined using Hoechst 33342 staining and terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-digoxigenin nick end-labelling...
February 14, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192862/long-term-dietary-quercetin-enrichment-as-a-cardioprotective-countermeasure-in-mdx-mice
#6
Christopher Ballmann, Thomas Denney, Ronald J Beyers, Tiffany Quindry, Matthew Romero, Joshua T Selsby, John C Quindry
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) causes declines in cardiac health resulting in premature mortality. As a potential countermeasure, quercetin is a polyphenol possessing inherent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects that activate proliferator-activated γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) increasing mitochondrial biogenesis protein abundance. We investigated the extent to which lifelong 0.2% dietary quercetin enrichment attenuates dystrophic cardiopathology in mdx mice. Dystrophic animals were fed quercetin or control diet for 12 months while control C57 mice were fed a control diet...
February 13, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181858/evaluation-of-immunomodulatory-properties-of-feline-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#7
Maciej Parys, John M Kruger, Vilma Yuzbasiyan-Gurkan
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) offer a novel approach to treatment of inflammatory disorders in humans and companion animals. Cats spontaneously develop a wide variety of inflammatory disorders and may potentially benefit from MSC-based therapies. Multiple genes are involved in immunomodulation by MSC and interspecies differences between expressions of these genes exist. The goals of the study were to characterize the expression of genes known to be involved in MSC-based immunomodulation and determine the effect of MSC on proliferation of T-cells in co-culture experiments with PBMC...
February 9, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181685/effects-of-estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-stimulation-in-a-rat-model-of-non-bacterial-prostatic-inflammation
#8
Shinsuke Mizoguchi, Kenichi Mori, Zhou Wang, Teresa Liu, Yasuhito Funahashi, Fuminori Sato, Donald B DeFranco, Naoki Yoshimura, Hiromitsu Mimata
BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence showing that chronic non-bacterial prostatic inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). It has also been reported that estrogen receptor β (ERβ) could have an immunoprotective role in prostatic tissue. Therefore, we investigated the effect of ERβ-activation on not only prostatic inflammation, but also bladder overactive conditions in a rat model with nonbacterial prostatic inflammation...
February 9, 2017: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181416/preventive-effects-of-ophiocordyceps-sinensis-mycelium-on-the-liver-fibrosis-induced-by-thioacetamide
#9
Yi-Hsieng Samuel Wu, Jung-Kai Tseng, Chung-Hsi Chou, Chih-Hsien Chiu, Yi-Ling Lin, Yi-Chen Chen
Thioacetamide (TAA), usually used as a fungicide to control the decay of citrus products, itself is not toxic to the liver, but its intermediates are able to increase oxidative stress in livers and further cause fibrosis. Ophiocordyceps sinensis mycelium (OSM) which contains 10% polysaccharides and 0.25% adenosine decreased (P < 0.05) the lipid accumulation and increased (P < 0.05) antioxidative capacity in livers of thioacetamide (TAA) injected rats. Meanwhile, the increased (P < 0.05) liver sizes, serum alanine transaminase (AST) and aspartate transaminase (ALT) values in thioacetamide (TAA)-injected rats were ameliorated (P < 0...
February 9, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181347/biomechanical-forces-promote-immune-regulatory-function-of-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stromal-cells
#10
Miguel F Diaz, Abishek B Vaidya, Siobahn M Evans, Hyun J Lee, Benjamin M Aertker, Alexander J Alexander, Katherine M Price, Joyce A Ozuna, George P Liao, Kevin R Aroom, Hasen Xue, Liang Gu, Rui Omichi, Supinder Bedi, Scott D Olson, Charles S Cox, Pamela L Wenzel
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are believed to mobilize from the bone marrow in response to inflammation and injury, yet the effects of egress into the vasculature on MSC function are largely unknown. Here we show that wall shear stress (WSS) typical of fluid frictional forces present on the vascular lumen stimulates antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mediators, as well as chemokines capable of immune cell recruitment. WSS specifically promotes signaling through NFκB-COX2-prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) to suppress tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) production by activated immune cells...
February 9, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177614/syntheses-of-families-of-enantiopure-and-diastereopure-cobalt-catalysts-derived-from-trications-of-the-formula-co-nh2charcharnh2-3-3
#11
Subrata K Ghosh, Kyle G Lewis, Anil Kumar, John A Gladysz
Aerobic reactions of CoX2 (X = OAc, Cl) or Co(ClO4)2 with (S,S)-1,2-diphenylethylenediamine [(S,S)-dpen] in CH3OH, followed by HCl or HClO4 additions, give the diastereomeric lipophobic salts Λ-[Co((S,S)-dpen)3](3+)3Cl(-) [Λ-(S,S)-1(3+)3Cl(-)] or Δ-(S,S)-1(3+)3ClO4(-) (60-65%) with high degrees of selectivity. Anion metatheses (room temperature) and equilibrations (charcoal, CH3OH, 70 °C) show that the former is more stable than Δ-(S,S)-1(3+)3Cl(-), and the latter is more stable than Λ-(S,S)-1(3+)3ClO4(-)...
February 20, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168795/nonylphenol-increases-tumor-formation-and-growth-by-suppressing-gender-independent-lymphocyte-proliferation-and-macrophage-activation
#12
Jae-Wook Lee, Hae-Kyoung Han, Sojin Park, Eun-Yi Moon
Nonylphenol (NP) is a well-known endocrine disruptor that influences sexual and reproductive development. Here, we investigated whether NP affects immune responses that are associated with tumor initiation and progression. When spleen cells were incubated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and concanavalin A in the presence of 10(-4) M NP, the proliferation of B and T lymphocytes was reduced compared with that in controls, in a gender-independent fashion. While 10(-4) M NP also decreased the production of nitric oxide (NO) in LPS-stimulated bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs), no changes in NO production were detected following treatment with 10(-5) M NP...
February 7, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151974/assessment-of-a-prognostic-model-psa-metrics-and-toxicities-in-metastatic-castrate-resistant-prostate-cancer-using-data-from-project-data-sphere-pds
#13
Bethany Pitcher, Leila Khoja, Robert J Hamilton, Kald Abdallah, Melania Pintilie, Anthony M Joshua
BACKGROUND: Prognostic models in metastatic castrate resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) may have clinical utility. Using data from PDS, we aimed to 1) validate a contemporary prognostic model (Templeton et al., 2014) 2) evaluate prognostic impact of concomitant medications and PSA decrease 3) evaluate factors associated with docetaxel toxicity. METHODS: We accessed data on 2,449 mCRPC patients in PDS. The existing model was validated with a continuous risk score, time-dependent receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, and corresponding time-dependent Area under the Curve (tAUC)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132925/combined-nadph-and-the-nox-inhibitor-apocynin-provides-greater-anti-inflammatory-and-neuroprotective-effects-in-a-mouse-model-of-stroke
#14
Yuan-Yuan Qin, Mei Li, Xing Feng, Jian Wang, Lijuan Cao, Xi-Kui Shen, Jieyu Chen, Meiling Sun, Rui Sheng, Feng Han, Zheng-Hong Qin
Our previous study has reported that the pentose phosphate pathway product nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) protected neurons against ischemia/reperfusion-induced brain injury. NADPH can either act as a co-enzyme to produce GSH or a substrate of NADPH oxidase (NOX) to generate ROS. This study was designed to elucidate the effects of co-treatment with NADPH and NOX inhibitor apocynin on ischemia/reperfusion-induced brain inflammation and neuronal injury. The results showed that both NADPH and apocynin markedly attenuated ischemia/reperfusion-induced increases in the levels of NOX2, NOX4 and ROS...
January 26, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128409/analysis-of-the-cytochrome-c-oxidase-subunit-ii-cox2-gene-in-giant-panda-ailuropoda-melanoleuca
#15
S S Ling, Y Zhu, D Lan, D S Li, H Z Pang, Y Wang, D Y Li, R P Wei, H M Zhang, C D Wang, Y D Hu
The giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca (Ursidae), has a unique bamboo-based diet; however, this low-energy intake has been sufficient to maintain the metabolic processes of this species since the fourth ice age. As mitochondria are the main sites for energy metabolism in animals, the protein-coding genes involved in mitochondrial respiratory chains, particularly cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COX2), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in electron transfer, could play an important role in giant panda metabolism...
January 23, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126544/population-parameters-and-mito-nuclear-mosaicism-of-anisakis-spp-in-the-adriatic-sea
#16
Ivona Mladineo, Ivana Bušelić, Jerko Hrabar, Anamarija Vrbatović, Ivana Radonić
Recombinant genotypes of A. simplex sensu stricto (s.s.) and A. pegreffii, two species of Anisakis simplex complex found in sympatric waters of the Mediterranean Sea, are believed to be a product of interspecific hybridisation and/or DNA introgression. In contrast, such events within an allopatric area as the Adriatic Sea are unlikely to occur and therefore observed recombination should be assessed more closely. We have genotyped 525 anisakids collected from migratory and non-migratory fish of the southern part of the Adriatic Sea, inferring its omniparentage at nuclear (ITS locus) and matrilineage at mitochondrial locus (cox2)...
January 23, 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124629/contracaecum-osculatum-and-other-anisakid-nematodes-in-grey-seals-and-cod-in-the-baltic-sea-molecular-and-ecological-links
#17
S Zuo, P W Kania, F Mehrdana, M H Marana, K Buchmann
Populations of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus), sprats (Sprattus sprattus) and cod (Gadus morhua) in the Baltic Sea are relatively stationary. The present work, applying classical and molecular helminthological techniques, documents that seals and cod also share a common parasite, the anisakid nematode Contracaecum osculatum, which uses seals as the final host and fish as transport hosts. Sequencing mitochondrial genes (COX1 and COX2) in adult worms from seals and third-stage larvae from livers of Baltic fish (sprats and cod), showed that all gene variants occur in both seals and fish...
January 26, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116048/comparative-mitochondrial-and-chloroplast-genomics-of-a-genetically-distinct-form-of-sargassum-contributing-to-recent-golden-tides-in-the-western-atlantic
#18
Linda A Amaral-Zettler, Nicholas B Dragone, Jeffrey Schell, Beth Slikas, Leslie G Murphy, Clare E Morrall, Erik R Zettler
Over the past 5 years, massive accumulations of holopelagic species of the brown macroalga Sargassum in coastal areas of the Caribbean have created "golden tides" that threaten local biodiversity and trigger economic losses associated with beach deterioration and impact on fisheries and tourism. In 2015, the first report identifying the cause of these extreme events implicated a rare form of the holopelagic species Sargassum natans (form VIII). However, since the first mention of S. natans VIII in the 1930s, based solely on morphological characters, no molecular data have confirmed this identification...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115830/pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacodynamic-evaluation-according-to-absorption-differences-in-three-formulations-of-ibuprofen
#19
Dongseong Shin, Sook Joung Lee, Yu-Mi Ha, Young-Sim Choi, Jae-Won Kim, Se-Rin Park, Min Kyu Park
OBJECTIVE: Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis is modulated by COX2. Changes in PGE2 could be used to quantify the COX2 inhibition after ibuprofen administration. This study investigated the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic relationships for COX2 inhibition according to three formulations of ibuprofen in healthy male subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A randomized, open-label, single-dose, three-treatment, six-sequence crossover study was performed in 36 healthy South Korean male volunteers...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115179/cat-fleas-ctenocephalides-felis-from-cats-and-dogs-in-new-zealand-molecular-characterisation-presence-of-rickettsia-felis-and-bartonella-clarridgeiae-and-comparison-with-australia
#20
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Shona Chandra, Maureen Forsyth, Andrea L Lawrence, David Emery, Jan Šlapeta
The cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) is the most common flea species parasitising both domestic cats and dogs globally. Fleas are known vectors of zoonotic pathogens such as vector borne Rickettsia and Bartonella. This study compared cat fleas from domestic cats and dogs in New Zealand's North and South Islands to Australian cat fleas, using the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) marker, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and II (cox1, cox2). We assessed the prevalence of Rickettsia and Bartonella using genus specific multiplexed real-time PCR assays...
January 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
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