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Pei-Chi Chan, Ting-Ni Wu, Ying-Chuan Chen, Chieh-Hua Lu, Martin Wabitsch, Yu-Feng Tian, Po-Shiuan Hsieh
Adipose tissue (AT) inflammation is crucial to the development of obesity-associated insulin resistance. Our aim was to investigate the contribution of COX-2/MIF-mediated crosstalk between hypertrophic adipocytes and macrophages to the etiology of AT inflammation and involvement of CD74 using human SGBS adipocytes, THP-1 macrophages and mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet. The MIF and CD74 mRNA levels in the adipocytes and SVCs (stromal vascular cells) of white fat were highly correlated with body weight, HOMA-IR and adipose macrophage marker expression levels, especially those in SVCs...
May 17, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
Rachana Garg, Jorge M Blando, Carlos J Perez, Priti Lal, Michael D Feldman, Emer M Smyth, Emanuela Ricciotti, Tilo Grosser, Fernando Benavides, Marcelo G Kazanietz
The pro-oncogenic kinase PKCε is overexpressed in human prostate cancer and cooperates with loss of the tumor suppressor Pten for the development of prostatic adenocarcinoma. However, the effectors driving PKCε-mediated phenotypes remain poorly defined. Here, using cellular and mouse models, we showed that PKCε overexpression acts synergistically with Pten loss to promote NF-κB activation and induce cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, phenotypic traits which are also observed in human prostate tumors. Targeted disruption of PKCε from prostate cancer cells impaired COX-2 induction and PGE2 production...
May 16, 2018: Oncogene
Antonella Costa, Stefania Graci, Gaetano Cammilleri, Maria Drussilla Buscemi, Rosaria Collura, Antonio Vella, Vincenzo Ferrantelli
In this research a total of 3,017 fish samples belonging to 11 species from Sicily's Mediterranean coasts were examined for the presence of Hysterothylacium spp. larvae, which were then used in subsequent phylogenetic studies. Fifty-eight Raphidascaridid parasitic nematodes were found in the examined fish, with prevalence values ranging from 0.2% in anchovies to 60% in forkbeard samples. Twenty-seven parasites were identified as Hysterothylacium fabri and Hysterothylacium aduncum by sequencing the following regions: the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (cox2)...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Parasitology
Benoîte Mery, Sophie Espenel, Jean-Baptiste Guy, Chloé Rancoule, Alexis Vallard, Marie-Thérèse Aloy, Claire Rodriguez-Lafrasse, Nicolas Magné
Chondrosarcomas are characterized by their chemo- and radioresistance leading to a therapeutic surgical approach which remains the only available treatment with a 10-year survival between 30% and 80% depending on the grade. Non-surgical treatments are under investigation and rely on an accurate biological understanding of drug resistance mechanisms. Novel targeted therapy which represents a new relevant therapeutic approach will open new treatment options by targeting several pathways responsible for processes of proliferation and invasion...
June 2018: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
Shilpa Choudhary, Elizabeth Santone, Yee Sui-Pok, Joseph Lorenzo, Douglas J Adams, Alexandra Goetjen, Mary Beth McCarthy, Augustus D Mazzocca, Carol Pilbeam
Increased bone resorption is considered to explain why intermittent PTH is anabolic for bone but continuous PTH is catabolic. However, when cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) is absent in mice, continuous PTH becomes anabolic without decreased resorption. In murine bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs), SAA3, induced in the hematopoietic lineage by the combination of COX2-produced prostaglandin and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL), suppresses PTH-stimulated osteoblast differentiation. To determine if SAA3 inhibits the anabolic effects of PTH in vivo, wild-type (WT) and SAA3 knockout (KO) mice were infused with PTH...
May 10, 2018: Endocrinology
Hoda Bahmanof, Simin Dadashzadeh, Afshin Zarghi, Alireza Shafaati, Seyed Mohsen Foroutan
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) act mainly via inhibition of prostaglandins synthesis by inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX) isoenzymes (COX-1 and COX-2). Selective COX-2 inhibitors which are also known as coxibs provide the main therapeutic effects of NSAIDs. Zarghi et al . reported 6-benzoyl-2-(4-(methylsulfonyl) phenyl) quinoline-4-carboxylic acid (AZGH101) as a novel derivative of ketoprofen with improved selectivity index (COX-1/COX-2 inhibitory potency) in comparison with ketoprofen. In this study, the log P and stability of AZGH101 were evaluated and the pharmacokinetic characteristics of this compound were investigated following intravenous (10 mg/kg), and oral administration (20 mg/kg), to Wistar rats...
2018: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
Jun Li, Rui-Rui Lin, Yao-Yao Zhang, Kun-Jie Hu, Ya-Qi Zhao, Yan Li, Zhuo-Ran Huang, Xu Zhang, Xue-Xia Geng, Jian-Hua Ding
In the present study, the complete mitogenome of Theretra japonica was sequenced and compared with other sequenced mitogenomes of Sphingidae species. The mitogenome of T. japonica , containing 37 genes (13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, and two rRNA genes) and a region rich in adenine and thymine (AT-rich region), is a circular molecule with 15,399 base pairs (bp) in length. The order and orientation of the genes in the mitogenome are similar to those of other sequenced mitogenomes of Sphingidae species...
2018: ZooKeys
Bendik C Brinchmann, Tonje Skuland, Mia H Rambøl, Krisztina Szoke, Jan E Brinchmann, Arno C Gutleb, Elisa Moschini, Alena Kubátová, Klara Kukowski, Eric Le Ferrec, Dominique Lagadic-Gossmann, Per E Schwarze, Marit Låg, Magne Refsnes, Johan Øvrevik, Jørn A Holme
BACKGROUND: Exposure to traffic-derived particulate matter (PM), such as diesel exhaust particles (DEP), is a leading environmental cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and may contribute to endothelial dysfunction and development of atherosclerosis. It is still debated how DEP and other inhaled PM can contribute to CVD. However, organic chemicals (OC) adhered to the particle surface, are considered central to many of the biological effects. In the present study, we have explored the ability of OC from DEP to reach the endothelium and trigger pro-inflammatory reactions, a central step on the path to atherosclerosis...
May 11, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Taeho Kim, Elizabeth Kern, Chungoo Park, Steven A Nadler, Yeon Jae Bae, Joong-Ki Park
Mitochondrial genes and whole mitochondrial genome sequences are widely used as molecular markers in studying population genetics and resolving both deep and shallow nodes in phylogenetics. In animals the mitochondrial genome is generally composed of a single chromosome, but mystifying exceptions sometimes occur. We determined the complete mitochondrial genome of the millipede-parasitic nematode Ruizia karukerae and found its mitochondrial genome consists of two circular chromosomes, which is highly unusual in bilateral animals...
May 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Fulan Guan, Wing Lam, Rong Hu, Yun Kyung Kim, Hua Han, Yung-Chi Cheng
Herbs categorized as "Qing Re Yao" are translated into "medicine that removes heat" where heat symptoms strongly resemble inflammation. 226 herbs, among those 54 herbs are classified as "Qing Re Yao", were studied on six key mechanisms of inflammation: COX2, iNOS activity, and the pathways of IL-6, IFNγ, TNF-α and glucocorticoid in order to assess if the majority of this family of herbs have anti-inflammatory activity. 96% demonstrated at least one anti-inflammatory process or innate immunity modular activity, and 72% could affect one anti-inflammatory process...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jianlin Gong, Benjamin J Lang, Desheng Weng, Takanori Eguchi, Ayesha Murshid, Thiago J Borges, Sachin Doshi, Baizheng Song, Mary Ann Stevenson, Stuart K Calderwood
We describe a cell damage-induced phenotype in mammary carcinoma cells involving acquisition of enhanced migratory and metastatic properties. Induction of this state by radiation required increased activity of the Ptgs2 gene product cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox2), secretion of its bioactive lipid product prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and the activity of the PGE2 receptor EP4. Although largely transient, decaying to low levels in a few days to a week, this phenotype was cumulative with damage and levels of cell markers Sca-1 and ALDH1 increased with treatment dose...
May 8, 2018: Molecular Oncology
Brian M Kennedy, Randall E Harris
We examined the expression of major inflammatory genes, cyclooxygenase-1 and 2 (COX1, COX2) and arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (ALOX5) in 1090 tumor samples of invasive breast cancer from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Mean cyclooxygenase expression (COX1 + COX2) ranked in the upper 99th percentile of all 20,531 genes and surprisingly, the mean expression of COX1 was more than tenfold higher than COX2. Highly significant correlations were observed between COX2 with eight tumor-promoting genes (EGR2, IL6, RGS2, B3GNT5, SGK1, SLC2A3, SFRP1 and ETS2) and between ALOX5 and ten tumor promoter genes (CD33, MYOF1, NLRP1, GAB3, CD4, IFR8, CYTH4, BTK, FGR, CD37)...
May 7, 2018: Inflammopharmacology
Tomoko Nakano, Tomomi Kotani, Kenji Imai, Yukako Iitani, Takafumi Ushida, Hiroyuki Tsuda, Hua Li, Akira Iwase, Shinya Toyokuni, Fumitaka Kikkawa
Intrauterine inflammation causes preterm birth and is associated with complications in preterm neonates. Thus, strategies aimed at suppressing inflammation are expected to be effective for reducing the risk of preterm birth and associated complications. Our previous studies demonstrated that molecular hydrogen (H2 ), an anti-inflammatory agent, prevented inflammation-induced impairment in foetal brain and lung tissues in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced rodent models. However, it remains unclear whether H2 is capable of inhibiting preterm labour...
May 2018: Biomedical Reports
Xuehua Piao, Shuangdi Li, Xiaodan Sui, Lianyi Guo, Xingmei Liu, Hongmei Li, Leming Gao, Shusheng Cai, Yanrong Li, Tingting Wang, Baohai Liu
Gastric ulcer (GU) is a main threat to public health. 1-Deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and may prevent GU but related mechanism remains unclear. DNJ was extracted from the supernatants of Bacillus subtilis by using ethanol and purified by using CM-Sepharose chromatography. A GU mouse model was induced by indomethacin. The functional role of DNJ in GU mice was explored by measuring the main molecules in the NF-KappaB pathway. After the model establishment, 40 GU mice were evenly assigned into five categories: IG (received vehicle control), LG (10 μg DNJ daily), MG (20 μg DNJ daily), HG (40 μg DNJ daily), and RG (0...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Eui-Baek Byun, Woo Sik Kim, Nak-Yun Sung, Eui-Hong Byun
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a condition that involves chronic inflammation in all or part of the digestive tract. Often painful and debilitating, IBD can lead to life-threatening complications and increase the risk for colon cancer. In this study, we investigated the epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) mediated anti-inflammation response in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human colorectal cells through the negative regulator of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling...
April 28, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Juan Li, Jin-Long Zhu, Shi-di Lou, Ping Wang, You-Sen Zhang, Lin Wang, Ruo-Chun Yin, Ping-Ping Zhang
Coptotermes suzhouensis (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) is a significant subterranean termite pest of wooden structures and is widely distributed in southeastern China. The complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of C. suzhouensis was analyzed in this study. The mitogenome was a circular molecule of 15,764 bp in length, which contained 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and an A+T-rich region with a gene arrangement typical of Isoptera mitogenomes. All PCGs were initiated by ATN codons and terminated by complete termination codons (TAA), except COX2, ND5, and Cytb, which ended with an incomplete termination codon T...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Maria Isabel Carvalho, Rodolfo Bianchini, Judit Fazekas-Singer, Ina Herrmann, Irene Flickinger, Johann G Thalhammer, Isabel Pires, Erika Jensen-Jarolim, Felisbina L Queiroga
BACKGROUND/AIM: Our aim was to investigate the crosstalk between tumor and immune cells (M2 macrophages) and its effects on cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX2) regulation in canine mammary tumors (CMT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sh1b CMT cells and human BT474 mammary or HT29 colon cancer cells were co-cultured with canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) or with macrophage-like differentiated THP1 monocytes (dTHP1). Intracellular COX2 expression by PBMCs, dTHP1 and cancer cells was evaluated by flow cytometry...
May 2018: Anticancer Research
Li-Chao Wang, Wen-Hui Wei, Xiao-Wen Zhang, Dan Liu, Ke-Wu Zeng, Peng-Fei Tu
Drastic macrophages activation triggered by exogenous infection or endogenous stresses is thought to be implicated in the pathogenesis of various inflammatory diseases. Carnosic acid (CA), a natural phenolic diterpene extracted from Salvia officinalis plant, has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory activity. However, its role in macrophages activation as well as potential molecular mechanism is largely unexplored. In the current study, we sought to elucidate the anti-inflammatory property of CA using an integrated approach based on unbiased proteomics and bioinformatics analysis...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Shunsuke Sakai, Natsumi Hagihara, Mariko Kuse, Koji Kimura, Kiyoshi Okuda
Heat stress (HS) negatively affects reproduction in cattle; however, its effect on endocrine function in bovine endometrial cells remains unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of HS on the production of prostaglandin (PG)E2 and PGF2α in the cultured bovine endometrial epithelial and stromal cells separately. To evaluate the effect of HS on endocrine function, the cells were cultured at 38.5°C (control) or 40.5°C (HS). After treatment, PGE2 and PGF2α levels were measured via enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and mRNA expressions of enzymes involved in PG synthesis were examined via quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Alexandre Vallée, Yves Lecarpentier
Inflammation and oxidative stress are common and co-substantial pathological processes accompanying, promoting, and even initiating numerous cancers. The canonical WNT/β-catenin pathway and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) generally work in opposition. If one of them is upregulated, the other one is downregulated and vice versa . WNT/β-catenin signaling is upregulated in inflammatory processes and oxidative stress and in many cancers, although there are some exceptions for cancers...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
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