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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720379/inhibition-of-12-15-lox-ameliorates-cognitive-and-cholinergic-dysfunction-in-mouse-model-of-hypobaric-hypoxia-via-attenuation-of-oxidative-nitrosative-stress
#1
Richa Choudhary, Udayabanu Malairaman, Anju Katyal
12/15 Lipoxygenase has recently been described as potent propagator of oxidative stress and is closely associated with cognitive decline in neurodegenerative diseases. The mechanism/s behind 12/15 LOX involvement in cognitive deficits remain obscure. The current study has been designed to investigate the underlying role of 12/15LOX and effect of 12/15 LOX inhibition on hypobaric hypoxia induced memory impairment and cholinergic deficits. Male Balb/c mice subjected to simulated hypobaric hypoxia/reoxygenation condition for 3 days showed marked working memory impairment concomitant with hippocampal neuronal damage and malondialdehyde production which were significantly attenuated by baicalein, a specific inhibitor of 12/15LOX...
July 15, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713945/mir%C3%A2-433-protects-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-growth-in-high%C3%A2-glucose-conditions
#2
Min Wang
Pancreatic β cell dysfunction is a key characteristic in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus (DM). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified to serve a role in DM pathogenesis, but how specific miRNAs regulate glucose‑stimulated β cell functions remain unclear. The present study aimed to explore the effects of miR‑433 on cell growth under high‑glucose culture conditions and to determine the possible mechanisms involved. Reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR) analysis was performed to detect the expression levels of miRNAs in Min‑6 pancreatic β cells cultured in high‑glucose medium, which revealed that miR‑433 was significantly downregulated...
July 5, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710231/tuberin-regulates-prostaglandin-receptor-mediated-viability-via-rheb-in-mtorc1-hyperactive-cells
#3
Chenggang Li, Xiaolei Liu, Yang Liu, Erik Zhang, Kantha Medepalli, Kohei Masuda, Na Li, Elizabeth J Kopras, David J Kwiatkowski, Michael T Borchers, Kathryn A Wikenheiser-Brokamp, Andrew Osterburg, Maxwell Mays, Yang Sun, David R Plas, Julia L Sun, David N Franz, Jamie K Capal, Anya Alayev, Marina K Holz, Darcy A Krueger, Brian J Siroky, Jane J Yu
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a tumor suppressor syndrome affecting multiple organs, including the brain, skin, kidneys, heart, and lungs. TSC is associated with mutations in TSC1 or TSC2 resulting in hyperactivation of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Clinical trials demonstrate that mTORC1 inhibitors decrease tumor volume and stabilize lung function in TSC patients; however, mTOR inhibitors are cytostatic not cytocidal, and long-term benefits and toxicities are uncertain. Previously, we identified rapamycin-insensitive upregulation of cyclooxygenase 2 (PTGS2/COX2) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in TSC2-deficient cells and postulate that the action of excess PGE2 and its cognate receptors (EPs) contribute to cell survival...
July 14, 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708489/2-methoxystypandrone-improves-in%C3%A2-vitro-produced-bovine-embryo-quality-through-inhibition-of-ikbkb
#4
Ayman Mesalam, Imran Khan, Kyeong-Lim Lee, Seok-Hwan Song, M M R Chowdhury, Zia Uddin, Ki Hun Park, Il-Keun Kong
2-Methoxystypandrone (2-MS), a naphthoquinone from Polygonum cuspidatum, has been reported to exhibit antioxidant activities. However, its pharmacological properties have not been fully studied in vitro culture system of oocytes and embryos development. In this study, we examined the effects of 2-MS on bovine blastocyst developmental competency during preimplantation using TUNEL assay, qRT-PCR and immunocytochemistry. Oocytes were treated with 1 μM 2-MS during maturation, followed by in vitro fertilized and the zygotes were cultured...
May 19, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700713/increased-urinary-prostaglandin-e2-metabolite-a-potential-therapeutic-target-of-gitelman-syndrome
#5
Xiaoyan Peng, Lanping Jiang, Chen Chen, Yan Qin, Tao Yuan, Ou Wang, Xiaoping Xing, Xuemei Li, Min Nie, Limeng Chen
BACKGROUND: Gitelman syndrome (GS), an inherited autosomal recessive salt-losing renal tubulopathy caused by mutations in SLC12A3 gene, has been associated with normal prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels since 1995 by a study involving 11 clinically diagnosed patients. However, it is difficult to explain why cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) inhibitors, which pharmacologically reduce PGE2 synthesis, are helpful to patients with GS, and few studies performed in the last 20 years have measured PGE2 levels...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697535/cancer-stem-cells-and-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-urothelial-carcinoma-possible-pathways-and-potential-therapeutic-approaches
#6
REVIEW
Dong Fang, Hiroshi Kitamura
There is growing evidence of the presence of cancer stem cells in urothelial carcinoma. Cancer stem cells have the ability to self-renew and to differentiate into all cell types of the original heterogeneous tumor. A panel of diverse cancer stem cell markers might be suitable for simulation studies of urothelial cancer stem cells and for the development of optimized treatment protocols. The present review focuses on the advances in recognizing the markers of urothelial cancer stem cells and possible therapeutic targets...
July 11, 2017: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688903/differential-effects-between-developmental-and-postpubertal-exposure-to-n-methyl-n-nitrosourea-on-progenitor-cell-proliferation-of-rat-hippocampal-neurogenesis-in-relation-to-cox2-expression-in-granule-cells
#7
Yousuke Watanabe, Kota Nakajima, Sayaka Mizukami, Yumi Akahori, Nobuya Imatanaka, Gye-Hyeong Woo, Toshinori Yoshida, Makoto Shibutani
This study was performed to compare the exposure effects of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU), a cytocidal agent of proliferating cells, on rat hippocampal neurogenesis between developmental and postpubertal periods. Developmental exposure through maternal drinking water from gestational day 6 to day 21 after delivery on weaning decreased GFAP-immunoreactive ((+)) stem cells and increased immunoreactive cells indicative of subsequent progenitor and postmitotic immature neuronal populations, TUNEL(+) or p21(Cip1/Waf1+) stem/progenitor cells and COX2(+) granule cells, on postnatal day (PND) 21...
July 5, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687864/stressed-podocytes-mechanical-forces-sensors-signaling-and-response
#8
REVIEW
Karlhans Endlich, Felix Kliewe, Nicole Endlich
Increased glomerular capillary pressure (glomerular hypertension) and increased glomerular filtration rate (glomerular hyperfiltration) have been proven to cause glomerulosclerosis in animal models and are likely to be operative in patients. Since podocytes cover the glomerular basement membrane, they are exposed to tensile stress due to circumferential wall tension and to fluid shear stress arising from filtrate flow through the narrow filtration slits and through Bowman's space. In vitro evidence documents that podocytes respond to tensile stress as well as to fluid shear stress...
July 7, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686677/mdr1a-deficiency-restrains-tumor-growth-in-murine-colitis-associated-carcinogenesis
#9
Eva Maria Hennenberg, Annette Eyking, Henning Reis, Elke Cario
Patients with Ulcerative Colitis (UC) have an increased risk to develop colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC). Here, we found that protein expression of ABCB1 (ATP Binding Cassette Subfamily B Member 1) / MDR1 (multidrug resistance 1) was diminished in the intestinal mucosa of patients with active UC with or without CAC, but not in non-UC patients with sporadic colon cancer. We investigated the consequences of ABCB1/MDR1 loss-of-function in a common murine model for CAC (AOM/DSS). Mice deficient in MDR1A (MDR1A KO) showed enhanced intratumoral inflammation and cellular damage, which were associated with reduced colonic tumor size and decreased degree of dysplasia, when compared to wild-type (WT)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684188/ascorbate-lacks-significant-influence-in-rats-with-bile-duct-ligation-induced-liver-injury
#10
Hsin-Ling Ho, Teh-Ia Huo, Ting Chang, Wen-Shin Lee, I-Fang Hsin, Fa-Yauh Lee, Hui-Chun Huang, Ming-Chih Hou, Shou-Dong Lee
BACKGROUND: Liver inflammation may induce fibrogenesis, cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Liver cirrhosis is characterized by increased intrahepatic resistance and enhanced vasoconstrictive response. The splanchnic vasodilatation, angiogenesis and portosystemic collaterals formation further bring about lethal complications. Ascorbate is a potent antioxidant with anti-inflammation, anti-fibrosis, and anti-angiogenesis effects. However, the relevant influences in chronic liver injury have not been sufficiently explored...
July 3, 2017: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677781/gonadotropins-promote-human-ovarian-cancer-cell-migration-and-invasion-via-a-cyclooxygenase-2-dependent-pathway
#11
Dingqing Feng, Tingting Zhao, Keqin Yan, Haiyan Liang, Jing Liang, Ying Zhou, Weidong Zhao, Bin Ling
It is generally accepted that ovarian cancer is associated with local elevation of gonadotropins (FSH and LH), with repeated ovulation and accompanying expression of inducible cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2). However, the roles of gonadotropins and the concomitant elevation of COX2 in the development of ovarian cancer have not been fully characterized. Herein, we report that excessive FSH/LH exposure did not induce proliferation in ovarian cancer cell lines but significantly promoted cell migration and invasion. Moreover, FSH/LH treatment rapidly upregulated COX2 expression within 24 h, whereas COX1 expression remained unchanged...
July 3, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677163/mitochondrial-genomes-of-the-green-macroalga-ulva-pertusa-ulvophyceae-chlorophyta-novel-insights-into-the-evolution-of-mitogenomes-in-the-ulvophyceae
#12
Feng Liu, James T Melton, Yuping Bi
To further understand the trends in the evolution of mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes or mtDNAs) in the Ulvophyceae, the mitogenomes of two separate thalli of Ulva pertusa were sequenced. Two U. pertusa mitogenomes (Up1 and Up2) were 69,333 bp and 64,602 bp in length. These mitogenomes shared 2 ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), 28 transfer RNAs (tRNAs), 29 protein-coding genes (PCGs), and 12 open reading frames (ORFs). The 4.7 kb difference in size was attributed to variation in intron content and tandem repeat regions...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668885/interactive-analysis-of-tx-1123-with-cyclo-oxygenase-design-of-cox2-selective-tx-analogs
#13
Kazuto Ohkura, Yohei Tatematsu, Yuki Kawaguchi, Yoshihiro Uto, Hitoshi Hori
BACKGROUND: To date, two cyclo-oxygenase (COX) isoforms, COX1 and COX2, have been identified. In the present study, the COX-inhibitory activities of TX-1123 derivatives with the 2-hydroxyarylidene-4-cyclopentene-1,3-dione structure were examined, and the binding profiles of TX-1123 to COXs were analyzed using docking simulations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: X-Ray data on COX1 [protein data bank (PDB) ID=1PGG] and COX2 (PDB ID=3LN1) were used for molecular interactive simulations...
July 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668512/h-pylori-infection-increases-gastric-mucosal-cox2-and-mtor-expression-in-chronic-gastritis-implications-for-cancer-progression
#14
Dalia M Badary, Mohammed Zakaria Ali Abu Rahma, Ahmed M Ashmawy, Mohamed Z Hafez
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter Pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium that infects the human stomach and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic gastritis. H. pylori associated chronic gastritis affects various molecular markers related to gastric cancer development. The aim of this study to assess the effect of H. pylori infection on gastric mucosa and to explore its role in gastric carcinogenesis via COX2 and mTOR mucosal expression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study comprised archival blocks from 60 dyspeptic patients who underwent gastric endoscopic biopsies for histopathological examination...
June 17, 2017: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663093/heat-stress-induced-neuroinflammation-and-aberration-in-monoamine-levels-in-hypothalamus-are-associated-with-temperature-dysregulation
#15
Nishant Ranjan Chauhan, Medha Kapoor, Laxmi Prabha Singh, Rajinder Kumar Gupta, Ramesh Chand Meena, Rajkumar Tulsawani, Sarita Nanda, Shashi Bala Singh
Heat Stress (HS) induces diverse pathophysiological changes, which include brain ischemia, oxidative stress and neuronal damage. The present study was undertaken with the objective to ascertain whether neuroinflammation in Hypothalamus (HTH) caused under HS affects monoamine levels and hence, its physiological role in thermoregulation. Rats were exposed to HS in a heat simulation environmental chamber (Ambient temperature, Ta=45±0.5°C and Relative Humidity, RH=30±10%) with real-time measurement of core temperature (Tc) and skin temperature (Ts)...
June 27, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657734/anthocyanins-from-black-chokeberry-aronia-melanocarpa-elliot-delayed-aging-related-degenerative-changes-of-brain
#16
Jie Wei, Guokun Zhang, Xiao Zhang, Dexin Xu, Jun Gao, Jungang Fan, Zhiquan Zhou
Aging is the greatest risk factor for most neurodegenerative diseases, which is associated with decreasing cognitive function and significantly affectinglife quality in the elderly. Computational analysis suggested that 4 anthocyanins from chokeberry fruit increased Klotho (aging-suppressor) structural stability, so we hypothesized that chokeberry anthocyanins could anti-aging. To explore the effectsof anthocyanins treatment on brain aging, Mice treated with 15 or 30 mg/kg anthocyanins by gavage and injected D-galactose accelerated aging per day...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654916/inhibition-of-cox2-enhances-the-chemosensitivity-of-dichloroacetate-in-cervical-cancer-cells
#17
Bo Li, Xinzhe Li, Haojun Xiong, Peng Zhou, Zhenhong Ni, Teng Yang, Yan Zhang, Yijun Zeng, Jintao He, Fan Yang, Nan Zhang, Yuting Wang, Yingru Zheng, Fengtian He
Dichloroacetate (DCA), a traditional mitochondria-targeting agent, has shown promising prospect as a sensitizer in fighting against malignancies including cervical cancer. But it is unclear about the effect of DCA alone on cervical tumor. Moreover, previous reports have demonstrated that the increased cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) expression is associated with chemoresistance and poor prognosis of cervical cancer. However, it is still unknown whether COX2 can affect the sensitivity of DCA in cervical cancer cells...
June 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648567/eicosapentaenoic-and-docosahexaenoic-acids-have-different-effects-on-peripheral-phospholipase-a2-gene-expressions-in-acute-depressed-patients
#18
Kuan-Pin Su, Hui-Ting Yang, Jane Pei-Chen Chang, Yin-Hua Shih, Ta-Wei Guu, Satyanarayanan Senthil Kumaran, Piotr Gałecki, Anna Walczewska, Carmine M Pariante
INTRODUCTION: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been proven critical in the development and management of major depressive disorder (MDD) by a number of epidemiological, clinical and preclinical studies, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this therapeutic action are yet to be understood. Although eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) seems to be the active component of omega-3 PUFAs' antidepressant effects, the biological research about the difference of specific genetic regulations between EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the two main components of omega-3 PUFAs, is still lacking in human subjects...
June 22, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647573/focal-adhesion-kinase-signaling-regulates-anti-inflammatory-function-of-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-induced-by-biomechanical-force
#19
Hyun Jung Lee, Miguel F Diaz, Adesuwa Ewere, Scott D Olson, Charles S Cox, Pamela L Wenzel
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have tremendous potential for use in regenerative medicine due to their multipotency and immune cell regulatory functions. Biomimetic physical forces have been shown to direct differentiation and maturation of MSCs in tissue engineering applications; however, the effect of force on immunomodulatory activity of MSCs has been largely overlooked. Here we show in human bone marrow-derived MSCs that wall shear stress (WSS) equivalent to the fluid frictional force present in the adult arterial vasculature significantly enhances expression of four genes that mediate MSC immune regulatory function, PTGS2, HMOX1, IL1RN, and TNFAIP6...
June 21, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642632/mcl-plays-an-anti-inflammatory-role-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-induced-immune-response-by-inhibiting-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation
#20
Qingwen Zhang, Xinru Jiang, Weigang He, Kailin Wei, Jinxia Sun, Xiangyang Qin, Yuejuan Zheng, Xin Jiang
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) remains a significant menace to global health as it induces granulomatous lung lesions and systemic inflammatory responses during active tuberculosis (TB). Micheliolide (MCL), a sesquiterpene lactone, was recently reported to have a function of relieving LPS-induced inflammatory response, but the regulative role of MCL on the immunopathology of TB still remains unknown. In this experiment, we examined the inhibitory effect of MCL on Mtb-induced inflammatory response in mouse macrophage-like cell line Raw264...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
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