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Radiation fibrosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919341/human-epidermal-stem-cells-role-in-adverse-skin-reactions-and-carcinogenesis-from-radiation
#1
Michèle T Martin, Adeline Vulin, Jolyon H Hendry
In human skin, keratinopoiesis is based on a functional hierarchy among keratinocytes, with rare slow-cycling stem cells responsible for the long-term maintenance of the tissue through their self-renewal potential, and more differentiated daughter progenitor cells actively cycling to permit epidermal renewal and turn-over every month. Skin is a radio-responsive tissue, developing all types of radiation damage and pathologies, including early tissue reactions such as dysplasia and denudation in epidermis, and later fibrosis in the dermis and acanthosis in epidermis, with the TGF-beta 1 pathway as a known master switch...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914244/surgical-treatment-and-histopathological-assessment-of-advanced-cervicovaginal-carcinoma-a-prospective-study-and-retrospective-analysis
#2
Michael Höckel, Benjamin Wolf, Bettina Hentschel, Lars-Christian Horn
BACKGROUND: Standard treatment of advanced cervicovaginal cancer [international federation of gynecology and obstetrics (FIGO) stages II(B), III(A, B), IVA] is (chemo-)radiation excluding the possibility of systematic histopathological assessment of locoregional tumour spread. Laterally extended endopelvic resection (LEER) and therapeutic lymph node dissection (tLND) are novel surgical treatment options for advanced cervicovaginal cancer. METHODS: The therapeutic efficacy of LEER for locally advanced primary and recurrent cervicovaginal cancer was reassessed by an update of the prospective observational trial at the University of Leipzig...
November 30, 2016: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913002/clinical-evaluation-and-management-of-radiation-fibrosis-syndrome
#3
REVIEW
Michael D Stubblefield
Radiation fibrosis syndrome describes the multiple neuromuscular, musculoskeletal, visceral, and other late effects that result from radiation-induced fibrosis. Radiation can damage the spinal cord, nerve roots, plexus, local peripheral nerves, and muscles within the radiation field. This constellation is known as a "myelo-radiculo-plexo-neuro-myopathy" and can result in pain, sensory loss, weakness, and other signs and symptoms. Although there is no curative treatment for radiation damage, supportive management of symptoms can be helpful in restoring and maintaining function and quality of life...
February 2017: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908971/13n-ammonia-pet-ct-detection-of-myocardial-perfusion-abnormalities-in-beagle-dogs-after-local-heart-irradiation
#4
Jianbo Song, Rui Yan, Zhifang Wu, Jianguo Li, Min Yan, Xinzhong Hao, Jianzhong Liu, Sijin Li
: To determine the potential value of (13)N-ammonia positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) for detection of myocardial perfusion changes at early stage induced by radiation damage. METHODS: Thirty-six Beagle dogs were randomly divided into the control (n = 18) or the irradiation groups (n = 18). The irradiation group underwent local irradiation to the left ventricular anterior cardiac wall with a single dose of 20 Gy, whereas the control group received sham irradiation...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906856/radiation-exposure-and-lung-disease-in-today-s-nuclear-world
#5
Steven D Deas, Nikhil Huprikar, Andrew Skabelund
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ionizing radiation poses important health risks. The per capita annual dose rate has increased in the United States and there is increasing concern for the risks posed by low-dose occupational exposure among workers in nuclear industries and healthcare. Recent nuclear accidents and concern for terrorism have heightened concern for catastrophic, high-dose ionizing radiation exposure. This review will highlight recent research into the risks to lung health posed by ionizing radiation exposure and into potential treatments...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878387/genetic-susceptibility-to-cutaneous-radiation-injury
#6
REVIEW
Amy Huang, Sharon A Glick
The use of ionizing radiation is critical to cancer treatment and fluoroscopic procedures. However, despite efforts to minimize total radiation dose, many patients experience toxic cutaneous side-effects of ionizing radiation, ranging from mild erythema to subcutaneous fibrosis, telangiectasia formation, and ulceration. Extent of injury is highly variable among patients. Studying the genetic determinants of radiation injury can help develop protocols to reduce radiation toxicity, as well as drive research into effective modulators of the genes and gene products associated with radiation injury...
November 22, 2016: Archives of Dermatological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872946/implementation-of-image-guided-intensity-modulated-accelerated-partial-breast-irradiation-three-year-results-of-a%C3%A2-phase%C3%A2-ii-clinical-study
#7
Norbert Mészáros, Tibor Major, Gábor Stelczer, Zoltán Zaka, Emőke Mózsa, Dávid Pukancsik, Zoltán Takácsi-Nagy, János Fodor, Csaba Polgár
PURPOSE: To report 3‑year results of accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IG-IMRT) following breast conserving surgery (BCS) for low-risk early invasive breast cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between July 2011 and March 2014, 60 patients with low-risk early invasive breast cancer underwent BCS and were enrolled in this phase II prospective study. The total dose was 36.9 Gy (9 fractions of 4.1 Gy, two fractions/day)...
November 21, 2016: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868416/-comparison-of-fibrotouch-and-acoustic-radiation-force-impulse-in-diagnosis-of-liver-fibrosis-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b
#8
Fang Liu, Lin Wei, Shanshan Wang, Bin Huang
Objective: To compare transient elastorgaphy (FibroTouch) and acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) in diagnosis of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Methods: One hundred and forty five patients with chronic hepatitis B underwent FibroTouch and ARFI examinations in Xixi Hospital of Hangzhou from January to November 2015. The liver stiffness (LSM) was detected by FibroTouch and the liver shear wave velocity (VTQ) was detected by ARFI; liver biopsy was performed in all patients. With biopsy results as gold standards, the diagnostic values of FibroTouch and ARFI for liver fibrosis were analyzed with Spearman correlation analysis and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve...
May 25, 2016: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862899/pro-apoptotic-noxa-is-involved-in-ablative-focal-irradiation-induced-lung-injury
#9
Jee-Youn Kim, Yong-Min An, Won Hoon Choi, Jin-Mo Kim, Samju Cho, Byung Rok Yoo, Jeong Wook Kang, Yun-Sil Lee, Yoon-Jin Lee, Jaeho Cho
Although lung injury including fibrosis is a well-documented side effect of lung irradiation, the mechanisms underlying its pathology are poorly understood. X-rays are known to cause apoptosis in the alveolar epithelial cells of irradiated lungs, which results in fibrosis due to the proliferation and differentiation of fibroblasts and the deposition of collagen. Apoptosis and BH3-only pro-apoptotic proteins have been implicated in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. Recently, we have established a clinically analogous experimental model that reflects focal high-dose irradiation of the ipsilateral lung...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860388/enhanced-tissue-remodeling-efficacy-of-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-using-injectable-matrices-in-radiation-damaged-salivary-gland-model
#10
Jeong-Seok Choi, Hye-Young An, Hyun-Soo Shin, Young-Mo Kim, Jae-Yol Lim
The present study was conducted to introduce the use of a delivery carrier for local transplantation of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AdMSCs) into the salivary gland (SG) and analyze its ability to enhance radioprotection of AdMSCs against irradiation (IR)-induced damage. An injectable porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS) matrix was used as a cell delivery carrier and human AdMSCs were contained within SIS hydrogel (AdMSC/SIS). After local injection into SGs of mice following local IR, morphological and functional changes were evaluated in the sham, vehicle (PBS), SIS, AdMSC, and AdMSC/SIS groups...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855416/hedgehog-signaling-is-associated-with-liver-response-to-fractionated-irradiation-in-mice
#11
Jieun Kim, Sihyung Wang, Jeongeun Hyun, Cynthia D Guy, Youngmi Jung
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Radiation-induced liver disease (RILD) is a major obstacle in treating liver cancer; however, the mechanisms underlying RILD development remain unclear. Hedgehog (Hh) orchestrates liver response to injury. Herein, we investigated the liver response with Hh to fractionated irradiation (FI) using a small murine model for RILD. METHODS: Male mice exposed to liver-targeted FI with 6Gy in 5 consecutive weekly fractions were sacrificed at one day after weekly irradiation and 6 or 10 weeks post 5th FI for the acute and late response model, respectively...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845360/pathophysiological-mechanisms-underlying-phenotypic-differences-in-pulmonary-radioresponse
#12
Isabel L Jackson, Yuji Zhang, Søren M Bentzen, Jingping Hu, Angel Zhang, Zeljko Vujaskovic
Differences in the pathogenesis of radiation-induced lung injury among murine strains offer a unique opportunity to elucidate the molecular mechanisms driving the divergence in tissue response from repair and recovery to organ failure. Here, we utilized two well-characterized murine models of radiation pneumonitis/fibrosis to compare and contrast differential gene expression in lungs 24 hours after exposure to a single dose of whole thorax lung irradiation sufficient to cause minor to major morbidity/mortality...
November 15, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829197/gorham-disease-lymphangiomatosis-with-massive-osteolysis
#13
Ryan M Renacci, Roger J Bartolotta
Gorham disease (also referred to as vanishing bone disease or idiopathic massive osteolysis) is a rare skeletal condition that results in the localized replacement of bone with angiomas and fibrosis. The etiology and most effective treatment for this nonhereditary condition remain controversial in the medical literature. To our knowledge, we present the first case of post-traumatic Gorham disease that includes MR imaging (before and after radiation therapy), post-radiation CT with evidence of treatment effect (sclerosis), as well as asymptomatic bilateral renal lymphangiomata...
October 18, 2016: Clinical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825048/the-effect-of-the-tlr9-ligand-cpg-oligodeoxynucleotide-on-the-protective-immune-response-to-radiation-induced-lung-fibrosis-in-mice
#14
Jing Chen, Xiaoli Tian, Zijie Mei, Yacheng Wang, Ye Yao, Shimin Zhang, Xin Li, Hui Wang, Junhong Zhang, Conghua Xie
CpG-oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG-ODN) is not only reported to protect against airway hyper responsiveness but is also known as a potent vaccine adjuvant for anti-tumor therapy. Little is known about the effect of CpG-ODN in mice with radiation-induced lung fibrosis (RILF), a common late stage form of tissue damage that occurs after thorax radiotherapy (RT). Here, we evaluated the immunomodulatory effects of CpG-ODN on the development of RILF. Mice were divided into four groups: (1) RT, single dose of 12Gy to the whole thorax; (2) CpG, only intraperitoneal injection of CpG-ODN for total 5 weeks; (3) RT+CpG, irradiation plus CpG-ODN treatment before and after irradiation for total 5 weeks; and (4) control (CTL): No RT or CpG-ODN treatment...
November 5, 2016: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812692/radiotherapy-characteristics-and-outcomes-for-head-and-neck-carcinoma-of-unknown-primary-vs-t1-base-of-tongue-carcinoma
#15
Ali Hosni, Peter R Dixon, Anupam Rishi, Michael Au, Wei Xu, Yuyao Song, Douglas B Chepeha, David P Goldstein, Shao Hui Huang, John Kim, Brian O'Sullivan, John Waldron, Scott V Bratman, John R de Almeida
Importance: Transoral robotic surgery- or transoral laser microsurgery-assisted lingual tonsillectomy may improve the identification rate of hidden base-of-tongue (BOT) carcinoma presenting as head or neck carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP) site. Objective: To evaluate the potential impact of lingual tonsillectomy in CUP site by comparing differences in radiotherapy volumes, dosimetry, and clinical outcomes for CUP site and T1-category BOT carcinoma. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective study of 115 patients treated at a tertiary cancer center between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2013, that included patients with BOT carcinoma (category T1N1-3M0) and CUP site (category T0N1-3M0) with known p16 status...
November 3, 2016: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805817/the-role-of-tgf-beta-and-ppar-alpha-signalling-pathways-in-radiation-response-of-locally-exposed-heart-integrated-global-transcriptomics-and-proteomics-analysis
#16
Vikram Subramanian, Ingar Seemann, Juliane Merl-Pham, Stefanie M Hauck, Fiona Anne Stewart, Michael J Atkinson, Soile Tapio, Omid Azimzadeh
Epidemiological data from patients undergoing radiotherapy for thoracic tumours clearly show the damaging effect of ionising radiation on cardiovascular system. The long-term impairment of heart function and structure after local high-dose irradiation is associated with systemic inflammatory response, contraction impairment, microvascular damage and cardiac fibrosis. The goal of the present study was to investigate molecular mechanisms involved in this process. C57BL/6J mice received a single X-ray dose of 16 Gy given locally to the heart at the age of 8 weeks...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795503/role-of-inflammatory-macrophages-and-ccr9-ccl25-chemokine-axis-in-the-pathogenesis-of-liver-injury-as-a-therapeutic-target
#17
Nobuhiro Nakamoto
  It is widely known that a variety of immune cells in the liver contribute to the pathogenesis of liver diseases. Recently, roles of chemokines/chemokines receptors axes regarding the migration of immune competent cells to the inflamed liver have been reported as possible therapeutic targets. We here showed that CCR9(+) CD11b(+) macrophages play an important role during the course of Concanavalin A-induced murine acute liver injury as well as human acute hepatitis via the production of inflammatory cytokines and the Th1 induction...
2016: Nihon Rinshō Men'eki Gakkai Kaishi, Japanese Journal of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794421/a-topical-mitochondria-targeted-redox-cycling-nitroxide-mitigates-oxidative-stress-induced-skin-damage
#18
Rhonda M Brand, Michael W Epperly, J Mark Stottlemyer, Erin M Skoda, Xiang Gao, Song Li, Saiful Huq, Peter Wipf, Valerian E Kagan, Joel S Greenberger, Louis D Falo
Skin is the largest human organ and provides a first line of defense that includes physical, chemical, and immune mechanisms to combat environmental stress. Radiation is a prevalent environmental stressor. Radiation induced skin damage ranges from photoaging and cutaneous carcinogenesis from UV exposure, to treatment-limiting radiation dermatitis associated with radiotherapy, to cutaneous radiation syndrome, a frequently fatal consequence of exposures from nuclear accidents. The major mechanism of skin injury common to these exposures is radiation induced oxidative stress...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793444/radiation-induced-fibrosis-in-the-boost-area-after-three-dimensional-conformal-radiotherapy-with-a-simultaneous-integrated-boost-technique-for-early-stage-breast-cancer-a-multivariable-prediction-model
#19
C Hammer, J H Maduro, E J Bantema-Joppe, A van der Schaaf, H P van der Laan, J A Langendijk, A P G Crijns
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To develop a multivariable prediction model for the risk of grade⩾2 fibrosis in the boost area after breast conserving surgery (BCS) followed by three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (RT) with a simultaneous integrated photon boost (3D-CRT-SIB), five years after RT. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This prospective cohort study included 1,030 patients treated with RT for breast cancer (stage 0-III), after BCS. Data regarding physician-rated fibrosis and dose-volume parameters were available in 546 patients...
October 25, 2016: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790446/lymph-node-fibrosis-in-a-case-of-primary-lymphoedema-a-report-of-two-cases
#20
Smitha Surendra Masamatti, Aparna Narasimha, Jayalakshmi Valligari Janardhan, Vijaya Chowdappa
Lymphoedema can be classified into primary and secondary. Primary lymphoedema arise in patients where the cause is not known. Secondary lymphoedema are those in which the lymph system has been damaged by some well recognised pathological process, such as extensive malignancy, filariasis, radiation etc. The changes may occur either in the lymph node, or in lymph vessels or both. The clinical evolution and the prognosis of the oedema in the limb involved will depend on the extension and evolution of these lesions...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
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