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Radiation fibrosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916223/bet-bromodomain-inhibitors-modulate-epigenetic-patterns-at-the-diacylglycerol-kinase-alpha-enhancer-associated-with-radiation-induced-fibrosis
#1
Gintvile Valinciute, Christoph Weigel, Marlon R Veldwijk, Christopher C Oakes, Carsten Herskind, Frederik Wenz, Christoph Plass, Peter Schmezer, Odilia Popanda
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Fibrosis is a frequent adverse effect of radiotherapy and no effective treatments are currently available to prevent or reverse fibrotic disease. We have previously identified altered epigenetic patterns at a gene enhancer of the diacylglycerol kinase alpha (DGKA) locus in normal skin fibroblasts derived from fibrosis patients. An open chromatin pattern related to radiation-inducibility of DGKA is associated with onset of radiation-induced fibrosis. Here, we explore epigenetic modulation of DGKA as a way to mitigate predisposition to fibrosis...
September 12, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912510/the-th1-th17-balance-dictates-the-fibrosis-response-in-murine-radiation-induced-lung-disease
#2
Alexandra Paun, Marie-Eve Bergeron, Christina K Haston
Radiotherapy can result in lung diseases pneumonitis or fibrosis dependent on patient susceptibility. Herein we used inbred and genetically altered mice to investigate whether the tissue adaptive immune response to radiation injury influences the development of radiation-induced lung disease. Six inbred mouse strains were exposed to 18 Gy whole thorax irradiation and upon respiratory distress strains prone to pneumonitis with fibrosis presented an increased pulmonary frequency of Thelper (Th)17 cells which was not evident in strains prone solely to pneumonitis...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894694/evaluation-of-partial-breast-reirradiation-with-intraoperative-radiotherapy-after-prior-thoracic-radiation-a-single-institution-report-of-outcomes-and-toxicity
#3
Christine Chin, Priya Jadeja, Bret Taback, David P Horowitz, Sheldon M Feldman, Richard Ha, Eileen P Connolly
INTRODUCTION: Mastectomy is the current standard of care for ipsilateral breast tumor recurrences after prior whole breast irradiation (WBI). We report our single-institution experience with breast-conserving surgery (BCS) followed by intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) as an alternative to salvage mastectomy for new or recurrent breast cancers that develop in the setting of prior thoracic radiation. METHODS: We performed an IRB-approved retrospective review of patients treated with breast IORT between September 2013 and November 2016...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886261/syndecan-2-attenuates-radiation-induced-pulmonary-fibrosis-and-inhibits-fibroblast-activation-by-regulating-pi3k-akt-rock-pathway-via-cd148
#4
Konstantin Tsoyi, Sarah G Chu, Nasly G Patino-Jaramillo, Julie Wilder, Julian Villalba, Melanie Doyle-Eisele, Jacob McDonald, Xiaoli Liu, Souheil El-Chemaly, Mark A Perrella, Ivan O Rosas
RATIONALE: Radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis is a severe complication of patients treated with thoracic irradiation. We have previously shown that syndecan-2 reduces fibrosis by exerting alveolar epithelial cytoprotective effects. Here, we investigate whether syndecan-2 attenuates radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis by inhibiting fibroblast activation. METHODS: C57BL/6 wild type (WT) mice and transgenic (TG) mice that overexpress human syndecan-2 in alveolar macrophages were exposed to 14 Gy whole thoracic radiation...
September 8, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885561/acute-and-late-toxicities-of-concurrent-chemoradiotherapy-for-locally-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#5
REVIEW
Vivek Verma, Charles B 2nd Simone, Maria Werner-Wasik
For patients with unresectable locally-advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC), concurrent chemoradiotherapy improves overall survival as compared to sequential chemotherapy and radiation therapy, but is associated with higher rates of toxicities. Acute, clinically significant esophagitis or pneumonitis can occur in one in five patients. The risks of esophagitis and pneumonitis can impact the decision to deliver concurrent therapy and limit the total dose of radiation therapy that is delivered. Hematologic toxicities and emesis are common toxicities from systemic therapies for LA-NSCLC and can result in delaying chemotherapy dosing or chemotherapy dose reductions...
September 8, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885067/differential-gene-expression-in-primary-fibroblasts-induced-by-proton-and-cobalt-60-beam-irradiation
#6
Steffen Nielsen, Niels Bassler, Leszek Grzanka, Jan Swakon, Pawel Olko, Christian Nicolaj Andreassen, Jens Overgaard, Jan Alsner, Brita Singers Sørensen
INTRODUCTION: Proton beam therapy delivers a more conformal dose distribution than conventional radiotherapy, thus improving normal tissue sparring. Increasing linear energy transfer (LET) along the proton track increases the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) near the distal edge of the Spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP). The severity of normal tissue side effects following photon beam radiotherapy vary considerably between patients. AIM: The dual study aim was to identify gene expression patterns specific to radiation type and proton beam position, and to assess whether individual radiation sensitivity influences gene expression levels in fibroblast cultures irradiated in vitro...
September 8, 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878852/potential-adjunctive-role-of-radiosynovectomy-in-primary-synovial-osteochondromatosis-of-the-knee-a-case-report
#7
Shelvin Kumar Vadi, Devendra Kumar Chouhan, Arun Kumar Reddy Gorla, Jaya Shukla, Ashwani Sood, Bhagwant Rai Mittal
Primary synovial osteochondromatosis (PSOC) is a rare but clinically significant cause of morbidity especially in the male population. Surgery is the primary treatment of choice, but the recurrence rate is reported to be high. Moreover, the presence of widespread loose bodies makes it a cumbersome procedure. The complete removal of the disease is tough at times and results in early recurrence. Radiosynovectomy is an established technique for treating various joint arthropathies. The role of radiosynovectomy in case of PSOC has not yet been explored...
September 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877093/assessment-of-liver-fibrosis-with-acoustic-radiation-force-impulse-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c
#8
LETTER
Yaofu Fan, Wen Cao, Hongjie Di, Chao Liu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877030/radiation-mitigating-properties-of-intranasally-administered-kl4-surfactant-in-a-murine-model-of-radiation-induced-lung-damage
#9
Melpo Christofidou-Solomidou, Ralph A Pietrofesa, Evguenia Arguiri, Constantinos Koumenis, Robert Segal
The threat of exposure to ionizing radiation from a nuclear reactor accident or deliberate terrorist actions is a significant public health concern. The lung is particularly susceptible to radiation-induced injury from external sources or inhalation of radioactive particles from radioactive fallout. Radiation-induced lung disease can manifest with an acute radiation pneumonitis and/or delayed effects leading to pulmonary fibrosis. As prior warning of radiation exposure is unlikely, medical countermeasures (MCMs) to mitigate radiation-induced lung disease that can be given in mass-casualty situations many hours or days postirradiation are needed to prevent both early and late lung damage...
September 6, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871103/lipidomic-dysregulation-within-the-lung-parenchyma-following-whole-thorax-lung-irradiation-markers-of-injury-inflammation-and-fibrosis-detected-by-maldi-msi
#10
Claire L Carter, Jace W Jones, Ann M Farese, Thomas J MacVittie, Maureen A Kane
Radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) is a delayed effect of acute radiation exposure that can limit curative cancer treatment therapies and cause lethality following high-dose whole-thorax lung irradiation (WTLI). To date, the exact mechanisms of injury development following insult remain ill-defined and there are no FDA approved pharmaceutical agents or medical countermeasures. Traditionally, RILI development is considered as three phases, the clinically latent period, the intermediate acute pneumonitis phase and the later fibrotic stage...
September 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870520/loss-of-nrf2-promotes-alveolar-type-2-cell-loss-in-irradiated-fibrotic-lung
#11
Geri Traver, Stacey Mont, David Gius, William E Lawson, George X Ding, Konjeti R Sekhar, Michael L Freeman
The development of radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis represents a critical clinical issue limiting delivery of therapeutic doses of radiation to non-small cell lung cancer. Identification of the cell types whose injury initiates a fibrotic response and the underlying biological factors that govern that response are needed for developing strategies that prevent or mitigate fibrosis. C57BL/6 mice (wild type, Nrf2 null, Nrf2(flox/flox), and Nrf2(Δ/Δ); SPC-Cre) were administered a thoracic dose of 12Gy and allowed to recover for 250 days...
September 1, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869295/the-clinical-potential-of-senolytic-drugs
#12
James L Kirkland, Tamara Tchkonia, Yi Zhu, Laura J Niedernhofer, Paul D Robbins
Senolytic drugs are agents that selectively induce apoptosis of senescent cells. These cells accumulate in many tissues with aging and at sites of pathology in multiple chronic diseases. In studies in animals, targeting senescent cells using genetic or pharmacological approaches delays, prevents, or alleviates multiple age-related phenotypes, chronic diseases, geriatric syndromes, and loss of physiological resilience. Among the chronic conditions successfully treated by depleting senescent cells in preclinical studies are frailty, cardiac dysfunction, vascular hyporeactivity and calcification, diabetes mellitus, liver steatosis, osteoporosis, vertebral disk degeneration, pulmonary fibrosis, and radiation-induced damage...
September 4, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869066/neoadjuvant-radiotherapy-for-myxoid-liposarcomas-oncologic-outcomes-and-histopathologic-correlations
#13
Ahmet Salduz, Buğra Alpan, Natig Valiyev, Emre Özmen, Ayça İribaş, Fulya Ağaoğlu, Aysel Bayram, Bilge Bilgiç, Harzem Özger
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the histopathological features of primary extremity myxoid liposarcoma before and after neoadjuvant radiation therapy, and to evaluate the oncological outcomes of the patients. METHODS: The study included 23 patients (16 men and 7 women with a mean age of 43 (24-69) years) with primary myxoid liposarcoma of the extremities, who were treated between January 1998 and December 2015. Inclusion criteria were histopathological confirmation of the diagnosis with both the initial biopsy and the resection specimen, and having undergone neoadjuvant radiotherapy...
August 28, 2017: Acta Orthopaedica et Traumatologica Turcica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866480/lung-ultrasound-surface-wave-elastography-a-pilot-clinical-study
#14
Xiaoming Zhang, Thomas Osborn, Boran Zhou, Duane Meixner, Randall R Kinnick, Brian Bartholmai, James F Greenleaf, Sanjay Kalra
A lung ultrasound surface wave elastography (LUSWE) technique is developed to measure superficial lung tissue elastic properties. The purpose of this paper was to translate LUSWE into clinical studies for assessing patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) and present the pilot data from lung measurements on 10 healthy subjects and 10 patients with ILD. ILD includes multiple lung disorders in which the lung tissue is distorted and stiffened by tissue fibrosis. Chest radiography and computed tomography are the most commonly used techniques for assessing lung disease, but they are associated with radiation and cannot directly measure lung elastic properties...
September 2017: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865520/thoracic-radiation-normal-tissue-injury
#15
REVIEW
Charles B Simone
Thoracic malignancies are often a difficult group of tumors to treat definitively as the radiation doses needed to achieve a high probability for tumor control are often associated with high rates of radiation-induced toxicities. The lungs are particularly radiosensitive and are susceptible to radiation pneumonitis in the acute and subacute settings and pulmonary fibrosis in the late setting. Acute esophagitis is common and affects patient quality of life. Beyond acute pericarditis, late cardiac toxicities are increasingly being recognized as clinically relevant when delivering thoracic radiotherapy and can affect overall survival...
October 2017: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844157/validation-of-genetic-predictors-of-late-radiation-induced-morbidity-in-prostate-cancer-patients
#16
Line M H Schack, Stine E Petersen, Steffen Nielsen, Lilly Lundby, Morten Høyer, Lise Bentzen, Jens Overgaard, Christian N Andreassen, Jan Alsner
INTRODUCTION: Normal tissue morbidity sets the dose limit for radiotherapy (RT) in cancer treatment and has importance for quality of life for cancer survivors. A previous study of prostate cancer patients treated with RT generated clinical data for radiation-induced morbidity measured by anorectal physiological methods and validated questionnaires. Other studies have identified genetic predictors associated with late radiation-induced morbidity outcome. We have expanded biobank material aiming to validate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and a gene expression classifier with endpoints on patient-reported outcomes and biomechanical properties of the anorectum from our cohort matching originally published endpoints...
August 26, 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840309/impact-of-hybrid-molecular-imaging-in-retroperitoneal-fibrosis-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Isidora T Grozdic Milojevic, Bogomir Milojevic, Dragana P Sobic-Saranovic, Vera M Artiko
The aim of this article was to critically assess the usefulness of hybrid molecular imaging (FDG PET/CT and FDG PET/MR) procedures in the evaluation of inflammatory activity in retroperitoneal fibrosis (RPF). A systematic review of the literature was performed using PubMed without timeline restriction and using the following keywords: retroperitoneal fibrosis, disease activity, diagnostic techniques, PET/CT, PET/MR. We evaluated full text articles written in the English language. Case reports, review articles or editorials and articles not in the field of interest of this review were excluded...
August 24, 2017: Rheumatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839883/virtual-touch-quantification-vtq-elastography-for-non-invasive-assessment-of-liver-disease-and-its-complications-what-the-clinician-needs-to-know
#18
REVIEW
David Sherman, Phillip Lung, Philip Shorvon
Liver stiffness measurement (LSM) is the most widely used non-invasive alternative to biopsy for assessing liver fibrosis in the UK. Virtual touch quantification (VTq, also known as acoustic radiation force impulse) is the principal available alternative to transient elastography (Fibroscan) and is delivered via software enhancements to standard ultrasound (US) machines. It has recently been endorsed by National Institute for Health and Care Excellence in terms of both accuracy and cost-effectiveness for use in viral hepatitis...
January 2017: Frontline Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836991/modeling-dna%C3%A2-damage-induced-pneumopathy-in-mice-insight-from-danger-signaling-cascades
#19
REVIEW
Florian Wirsdörfer, Verena Jendrossek
Radiation-induced pneumonitis and fibrosis represent severe and dose-limiting side effects in the radiotherapy of thorax-associated neoplasms leading to decreased quality of life or - as a consequence of treatment with suboptimal radiation doses - to fatal outcomes by local recurrence or metastatic disease. It is assumed that the initial radiation-induced damage to the resident cells triggers a multifaceted damage-signalling cascade in irradiated normal tissues including a multifactorial secretory program. The resulting pro-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic microenvironment triggers a cascade of events that can lead within weeks to a pronounced lung inflammation (pneumonitis) or after months to excessive deposition of extracellular matrix molecules and tissue scarring (pulmonary fibrosis)...
August 24, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836931/liver-stiffness-measurements-using-acoustic-radiation-force-impulse-in-recipients-of-living-donor-and-deceased-donor-orthotopic-liver-transplant
#20
Kemal Murat Haberal, Hale Turnaoğlu, Adnan Özdemir, Nihal Uslu, Asuman Nihan Haberal Reyhan, Gökhan Moray, Mehmet Haberal
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic efficiency of the acoustic radiation force impulse (Siemens Medical Solutions, Erlangen, Germany) elastography in assessment of fibrosis in orthotopic liver transplant patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We enrolled 28 orthotopic liver transplant patients (deceased and living donors), whose biopsy decision had been prospectively given clinically. Ten acoustic radiation force impulse elastographic measurements were applied before the biopsy or within 3 days after the biopsy by 2 radiologists...
August 24, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
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