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Radiation fibrosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099226/computed-tomography-in-cystic-fibrosis-combining-low-dose-techniques-and-iterative-reconstruction
#1
Johannes Kahn, David Kaul, Ulrich Grupp, Georg Böning, Diane Renz, Doris Staab, Vera Schreiter, Florian Streitparth
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of iterative reconstruction (IR) and low-kilovolt technique on dose reduction and image quality of chest computed tomography scans obtained in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). METHODS: A total of 124 CF patients were examined; group A (n = 63) was examined with a dose reduction protocol using IR and group B (n = 61) with a standard protocol using filtered back projection. Further subgroups with tube voltage modulations were established...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076629/acoustic-radiation-force-impulse-arfi-elastography-compared-with-biopsy-for-evaluating-hepatic-fibrosis-after-liver-transplantation-a-cross-sectional-diagnostic-study
#2
Joel Schmillevitch, Maria Cristina Chammas, Vincenzo Pugliese, Edson Abdala, Adriana Cortez Rizzon, Venâncio Alves, Luiz Augusto Carneiro, Giovanni Cerri
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Biopsies are used after liver transplantation to evaluate fibrosis. This study aimed to evaluate the elasticity of transplanted livers by means of a non-invasive examination, acoustic radiation force imaging (ARFI) elastography, correlating the results with the histological analysis. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study in a public university hospital. METHODS: All patients consecutively operated between 2002 and 2010 with an indication for biopsy were evaluated by means of elastography...
November 2016: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067683/acoustic-radiation-force-impulse-elastography-comparison-and-combination-with-other-noninvasive-tests-for-the-diagnosis-of-compensated-liver-cirrhosis
#3
Lukas Pfeifer, Werner Adler, Steffen Zopf, Jürgen Siebler, Dane Wildner, Ruediger S Goertz, Barbara Schellhaas, Markus F Neurath, Deike Strobel
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The aim of this study was to compare acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography with other noninvasive tests and to develop a new score for the assessment of liver fibrosis/cirrhosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: B-mode ultrasound (including high-frequency liver surface evaluation), routine blood tests, ARFI quantification, and mini-laparoscopic liver evaluation were obtained in compensated patients scheduled for mini-laparoscopic biopsy...
January 6, 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054837/radiosurgery-alters-the-endothelial-surface-proteome-externalized-intracellular-molecules-as-potential-vascular-targets-in-irradiated-brain-arteriovenous-malformations
#4
Lucinda S McRobb, Vivienne S Lee, Margaret Simonian, Zhenjun Zhao, Santhosh George Thomas, Markus Wiedmann, Jude V Amal Raj, Michael Grace, Vaughan Moutrie, Matthew J McKay, Mark P Molloy, Marcus A Stoodley
Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is an established treatment for brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) that drives blood vessel closure through cellular proliferation, thrombosis and fibrosis, but is limited by a delay to occlusion of 2-3 years and a maximum treatable size of 3 cm. In this current study we used SRS as a priming tool to elicit novel protein expression on the endothelium of irradiated AVM vessels, and these proteins were then targeted with prothrombotic conjugates to induce rapid thrombosis and vessel closure...
January 5, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048367/th-a-207b-00-shear-wave-imaging-and-a-qiba-us-biomarker-update
#5
Paul Carson
: Imaging of tissue elastic properties is a relatively new and powerful approach to one of the oldest and most important diagnostic tools. Imaging of shear wave speed with ultrasound is has been added to most high-end ultrasound systems. Understanding this exciting imaging mode aiding its most effective use in medicine can be a rewarding effort for medical physicists and other medical imaging and treatment professionals. Assuring consistent, quantitative measurements across the many ultrasound systems in a typical imaging department will constitute a major step toward realizing the great potential of this technique and other quantitative imaging...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048125/su-f-r-31-identification-of-robust-normal-lung-ct-texture-features-for-the-prediction-of-radiation-induced-lung-disease
#6
W Choi, S Riyahi, W Lu
PURPOSE: Normal lung CT texture features have been used for the prediction of radiation-induced lung disease (radiation pneumonitis and radiation fibrosis). For these features to be clinically useful, they need to be relatively invariant (robust) to tumor size and not correlated with normal lung volume. METHODS: The free-breathing CTs of 14 lung SBRT patients were studied. Different sizes of GTVs were simulated with spheres placed at the upper lobe and lower lobe respectively in the normal lung (contralateral to tumor)...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047820/we-ab-202-02-incorporating-regional-ventilation-function-in-predicting-radiation-fibrosis-after-concurrent-chemoradiotherapy-for-lung-cancer
#7
F Lan, J Jeudy, S Senan, J van Sornsen de Koste, H Tseng, J Zhou, W D'Souza, H Zhang
PURPOSE: To investigate the incorporation of pre-therapy regional ventilation function in predicting radiation fibrosis (RF) in stage III non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with concurrent thoracic chemoradiotherapy. METHODS: 37 stage III NSCLC patients were retrospectively studied. Patients received one cycle of cisplatin-gemcitabine, followed by two to three cycles of cisplatin-etoposide concurrently with involved-field thoracic radiotherapy between 46 and 66 Gy (2 Gy per fraction)...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047721/th-a-207b-01-basics-and-current-implementations-of-ultrasound-imaging-of-shear-wave-speed-and-elasticity
#8
S Chen
: Imaging of tissue elastic properties is a relatively new and powerful approach to one of the oldest and most important diagnostic tools. Imaging of shear wave speed with ultrasound is has been added to most high-end ultrasound systems. Understanding this exciting imaging mode aiding its most effective use in medicine can be a rewarding effort for medical physicists and other medical imaging and treatment professionals. Assuring consistent, quantitative measurements across the many ultrasound systems in a typical imaging department will constitute a major step toward realizing the great potential of this technique and other quantitative imaging...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047072/th-a-207b-02-qiba-ultrasound-elasticity-imaging-system-biomarker-qualification-and-user-testing-of-systems
#9
B Garra
: Imaging of tissue elastic properties is a relatively new and powerful approach to one of the oldest and most important diagnostic tools. Imaging of shear wave speed with ultrasound is has been added to most high-end ultrasound systems. Understanding this exciting imaging mode aiding its most effective use in medicine can be a rewarding effort for medical physicists and other medical imaging and treatment professionals. Assuring consistent, quantitative measurements across the many ultrasound systems in a typical imaging department will constitute a major step toward realizing the great potential of this technique and other quantitative imaging...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041326/pathological-characteristics-of-spine-metastases-treated-with-high-dose-single-fraction-stereotactic-radiosurgery
#10
Evangelia Katsoulakis, Ilya Laufer, Mark Bilsky, Narasimhan P Agaram, Michael Lovelock, Yoshiya Yamada
OBJECTIVE Spine radiosurgery is increasingly being used to treat spinal metastases. As patients are living longer because of the increasing efficacy of systemic agents, appropriate follow-up and posttreatment management for these patients is critical. Tumor progression after spine radiosurgery is rare; however, vertebral compression fractures are recognized as a more common posttreatment effect. The use of radiographic imaging alone posttreatment may makeit difficult to distinguish tumor progression from postradiation changes such as fibrosis...
January 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034833/hyperbaric-oxygen-treatment-reverses-radiation-induced-pro-fibrotic-and-oxidative-stress-responses-in-a-rat-model
#11
N Oscarsson, L Ny, J Mölne, F Lind, S-E Ricksten, H Seeman-Lodding, D Giglio
PURPOSE: Radiotherapy is effective in the treatment of tumors in the pelvic area but is associated with side effects such as cystitis and proctitis. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (HBOT) has emerged as a treatment modality for radiation-induced side effects. In a rat model for radiation cystitis, we studied the effects of HBOT on oxidative stress and pro-fibrotic factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sedated Sprague-Dawley rats underwent bladder irradiation of 20Gy with and without 20 sessions of HBOT during a fortnight...
December 27, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033224/skeletal-scintigraphy-in-radiation-induced-fibrosis-with-lymphedema
#12
Jieqi Wang, Arya M Iranmanesh, M Elizabeth Oates
Despite increasing reliance on CT, MRI, and FDG PET/CT for oncological imaging, whole-body skeletal scintigraphy remains a frontline modality for staging and surveillance of osseous metastatic disease. We present a 54-year-old woman with metastatic breast cancer who received palliative external-beam radiation to the left ilium. Serial follow-up Tc-MDP bone scans demonstrated progressive soft-tissue uptake in her left lower extremity, extending from thigh to leg, with associated enlargement and skin thickening, consistent with lymphedema related to radiation-induced fibrosis...
December 28, 2016: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027781/use-of-pentoxifylline-and-tocopherol-in-radiation-induced-fibrosis-and-fibroatrophy
#13
REVIEW
V Patel, M McGurk
Radiation-induced fibrosis in the head and neck is a well-established pathophysiological process after radiotherapy. Recently pentoxifylline and tocopherol have been proposed as treatments to combat the late complications of radiation-induced fibrosis and a way of dealing with osteoradionecrosis. They both have a long history in the management of radiation-induced fibrosis at other anatomical sites. In this paper we review their use in sites other than the head and neck to illustrate the potential benefit that they offer to our patients...
December 24, 2016: British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027743/igg4-related-cardiovascular-disease-the-emerging-role-of-cardiovascular-imaging
#14
REVIEW
Sophie Mavrogeni, George Markousis-Mavrogenis, Genovefa Kolovou
Immunoglobulin 4-related disease (IgG4-related disease) is a systemic inflammatory disease that presents with increases of serum IgG4. It may affect various systems, including the cardiovascular (CV) system. Assessment of serum IgG4 levels and involved organ biopsy are necessary for diagnosis. IgG4-related disease is characterized by fibrosclerosis, lymphocytic infiltration and presence of IgG4-positive plasma cells. The disease usually responds to treatment with corticosteroids and/or immunosuppressive medication...
January 2017: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025714/bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cell-transplantation-improves-radiation-induced-heart-injury-through-dna-damage-repair-in-rat-model
#15
Song Gao, Zhiying Zhao, Rong Wu, Yuecan Zeng, Zhenyong Zhang, Jianing Miao, Zhengwei Yuan
Radiotherapy is an effective form of therapy for most thoracic malignant tumors. However, myocardial injury resulting from the high doses of radiation is a severe complication. Here we aimed to study the possibility of reducing radiation-induced myocardial injury with mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation. We used MSCs extracted from bone marrow (BMSCs) to transplant via the tail vein into a radiation-induced heart injury (RIHI) rat model. The rats were divided into six groups: a Sham group, an IRR (irradiation) group, and four IRR + BMSCs transplantation groups obtained at different time points...
December 26, 2016: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018357/the-role-of-lymphocytes-in-radiotherapy-induced-adverse-late-effects-in-the-lung
#16
REVIEW
Florian Wirsdörfer, Verena Jendrossek
Radiation-induced pneumonitis and fibrosis are dose-limiting side effects of thoracic irradiation. Thoracic irradiation triggers acute and chronic environmental lung changes that are shaped by the damage response of resident cells, by the resulting reaction of the immune system, and by repair processes. Although considerable progress has been made during the last decade in defining involved effector cells and soluble mediators, the network of pathophysiological events and the cellular cross talk linking acute tissue damage to chronic inflammation and fibrosis still require further definition...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011621/a-novel-mouse-model-to-study-image-guided-radiation-induced-intestinal-injury-and-preclinical-screening-of-radioprotectors
#17
Ioannis I Verginadis, Rahul Kanade, Brett Bell, Sravya Koduri, Edgar Ben-Josef, Constantinos Koumenis
Radiation is an important treatment modality for gastrointestinal tumors but intestinal injury is a common side effect. Here we describe a physiologically relevant model for studying the molecular determinants of radiation-induced intestinal damage and testing novel radioprotectors. The model employs a radiopaque marker implanted into the surface of the mouse jejunum, serving as a fiducial marker for precise radiation targeting. Mice were imaged with Cone-Beam CT (CBCT) and irradiated to the marked area using the Small Animal Radiation Research Platform (SARRP)...
December 23, 2016: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004808/il-13-is-a-therapeutic-target-in-radiation-lung-injury
#18
Su I Chung, Jason A Horton, Thirumalai R Ramalingam, Ayla O White, Eun Joo Chung, Kathryn E Hudak, Bradley T Scroggins, Joseph R Arron, Thomas A Wynn, Deborah E Citrin
Pulmonary fibrosis is a potentially lethal late adverse event of thoracic irradiation. Prior research indicates that unrestrained TGF-β1 and/or type 2 cytokine-driven immune responses promote fibrosis following radiation injury, but the full spectrum of factors governing this pathology remains unclear. Interleukin 13 (IL-13) is a key factor in fibrotic disease associated with helminth infection, but it is unclear whether it plays a similar role in radiation-induced lung fibrosis. Using a mouse model, we tested the hypothesis that IL-13 drives the progression of radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis...
December 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003769/chronic-radiation-induced-dermatitis-challenges-and-solutions
#19
REVIEW
Mateusz Spałek
Chronic radiation dermatitis is a late side effect of skin irradiation, which may deteriorate patients' quality of life. There is a lack of precise data about its incidence; however, several risk factors may predispose to the development of this condition. It includes radiotherapy dose, fractionation, technique, concurrent systemic therapy, comorbidities, and personal and genetic factors. Chronic radiation dermatitis is mostly caused by the imbalance of proinflammatory and profibrotic cytokines. Clinical manifestation includes changes in skin appearance, wounds, ulcerations, necrosis, fibrosis, and secondary cancers...
2016: Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003367/attenuation-of-phosphorylation-dependent-activation-of-cystic-fibrosis-transmembrane-conductance-regulator-cftr-by-disease-causing-mutations-at-the-transmission-interface
#20
Stephanie Chin, Donghe Yang, Andrew J Miles, Paul D W Eckford, Steven V Molinski, B A Wallace, Christine E Bear
Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a multi-domain membrane protein that functions as a phosphorylation regulated anion channel. The interface between its two cytosolic nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) and coupling helices (CHs) conferred by intracellular loops (ICLs) extending from the channel pore domains has been referred to as a transmission interface and is thought to be critical for the regulated channel activity of CFTR. Phosphorylation of the regulatory (R) domain of CFTR by PKA is required for its channel activity...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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