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Radiation fibrosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314668/extracellular-superoxide-dismutase-increased-the-therapeutic-potential-of-human-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-in-radiation-pulmonary-fibrosis
#1
Li Wei, Jing Zhang, Zai-Liang Yang, Hua You
BACKGROUND AIMS: Pulmonary fibrosis induced by irradiation is a significant problem of radiotherapy in cancer patients. Extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD3) is found to be predominantly and highly expressed in the extracellular matrix of lung and plays a pivotal role against oxidative damage. Early administration of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) has been demonstrated to reduce fibrosis of damaged lung. However, injection of MSCs at a later stage would be involved in fibrosis development...
March 14, 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301516/follistatin-attenuates-radiation-induced-fibrosis-in-a-murine-model
#2
Helen B Forrester, David M de Kretser, Trevor Leong, Jim Hagekyriakou, Carl N Sprung
PURPOSE: Fibrosis can be a disabling, severe side effect of radiotherapy that can occur in patients, and for which there is currently no effective treatment. The activins, proteins which are members of the TGFβ superfamily, have a major role in stimulating the inflammatory response and subsequent fibrosis. Follistatin is an endogenous protein that binds the activins virtually irreversibly and inhibits their actions. These studies test if follistatin can attenuate the fibrotic response using a murine model of radiation-induced fibrosis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283856/effects-of-nintedanib-on-the-microvascular-architecture-in-a-lung-fibrosis-model
#3
Maximilian Ackermann, Yong Ook Kim, Willi L Wagner, Detlef Schuppan, Cristian D Valenzuela, Steven J Mentzer, Sebastian Kreuz, Detlef Stiller, Lutz Wollin, Moritz A Konerding
Nintedanib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, has anti-fibrotic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-angiogenic activity. We explored the impact of nintedanib on microvascular architecture in a pulmonary fibrosis model. Lung fibrosis was induced in C57Bl/6 mice by intratracheal bleomycin (0.5 mg/kg). Nintedanib was started after the onset of lung pathology (50 mg/kg twice daily, orally). Micro-computed tomography was performed via volumetric assessment. Static lung compliance and forced vital capacity were determined by invasive measurements...
March 10, 2017: Angiogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270226/first-in-man-mesenchymal-stem-cells-for-radiation-induced-xerostomia-mesrix-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
Christian Grønhøj, David H Jensen, Peter V Glovinski, Siri Beier Jensen, Allan Bardow, Roberto S Oliveri, Lena Specht, Carsten Thomsen, Sune Darkner, Katalin Kiss, Anne Fischer-Nielsen, Christian von Buchwald
BACKGROUND: Salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia are major complications following radiotherapy for head and neck cancer and may lead to debilitating oral disorders and impaired quality of life. Currently, only symptomatic treatment is available. However, mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy has shown promising results in preclinical studies. Objectives are to assess safety and efficacy in a first-in-man trial on adipose-derived MSC therapy (ASC) for radiation-induced xerostomia...
March 7, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261568/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-lifestyle-a-paradigm-for-adaptation-survival-and-persistence
#5
REVIEW
M Fata Moradali, Shirin Ghods, Bernd H A Rehm
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen affecting immunocompromised patients. It is known as the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and as one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections. Due to a range of mechanisms for adaptation, survival and resistance to multiple classes of antibiotics, infections by P. aeruginosa strains can be life-threatening and it is emerging worldwide as public health threat. This review highlights the diversity of mechanisms by which P...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258742/current-and-future-approaches-to-large-airways-imaging-in-adults-and-children
#6
REVIEW
T Semple, A Calder, C M Owens, S Padley
"Large airways disease" is a catch-all phrase encompassing a wide variety of pathology affecting the trachea, main, lobar, segmental, and proximal sub-segmental bronchi. Relevant pathologies can be divided into focal or diffuse processes and many conditions have classic appearances on computed tomography (CT). We provide a review of the imaging specifics of a wide range of large airway pathologies in adult, childhood, and fetal life with examples of common and rare pathologies ranging from well-known entities such as cystic fibrosis and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis to rarities such as Williams-Campbell, primary ciliary dyskinesia, and congenital high-airway obstruction syndrome (CHAOS)...
March 1, 2017: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256158/treatment-outcomes-and-patterns-of-radiologic-appearance-after-hypofractionated-image-guided-radiotherapy-delivered-with-helical-tomotherapy-hht-for-lung-tumours
#7
Stefano Arcangeli, Lorenzo Falcinelli, Stefano Bracci, Alessandro Greco, Alessia Monaco, Jessica Dognini, Cinzia Chiostrini, Rita Bellavita, Cynthia Aristei, Vittorio Donato
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate treatment outcomes and patterns of CT lung injury after hypofractionated image-guided radiotherapy delivered with helical tomotherapy (HHT) in a series of inoperable lung lesions. METHODS: 68 patients who were medically inoperable (69 lesions) without evidence of viable extrathoracic disease were included. Dose prescription was driven by tumour location (hilar/pericentral vs peripheral) and/or target volume. 52% of the lesions received a biological equivalent dose (BED10) ≥100 Gy...
March 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246402/grape-seed-proanthocyanidins-prevent-irradiation-induced-differentiation-of-human-lung-fibroblasts-by-ameliorating-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#8
XiaoHong Yang, Tao Liu, Bo Chen, Fangqin Wang, Qunfang Yang, XiaoHong Chen
Radiation-induced lung fibrosis (RILF) is a long-term adverse effect of curative radiotherapy. The accumulation of myofibroblasts in fibroblastic foci is a pivotal feature of RILF. In the study, we found the inhibitory effect of grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) on irradiation-induced differentiation of human fetal lung fibroblasts (HFL1). To explore the mechanism by which GSPs inhibit fibroblast differentiation, we measured the reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, mitochondrial function, mitochondrial dynamics, glycolysis and the signaling molecules involved in fibroblast transdifferentiation...
December 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28232732/hydrolysis-of-hyaluronic-acid-in-lymphedematous-tissue-alleviates-fibrogenesis-via-th1-cell-mediated-cytokine-expression
#9
Sungrae Cho, Kangsan Roh, Jaehyun Park, Yong Seok Park, Minji Lee, Seungchan Cho, Eui-Joon Kil, Mun-Ju Cho, Jeong Su Oh, Hee-Seong Byun, Sang-Ho Cho, Kyewon Park, Hee Kang, Jinmo Koo, Chang-Hwan Yeom, Sukchan Lee
Although surgery and radiation are beneficial for treating cancer, they can also lead to malfunctions of the lymphatic system such as secondary lymphedema. This abnormality of the lymphatic system is characterized by severe swelling, adipogenesis, inflammation, and fibrosis in the lymphedematous region. Moreover, the proliferation of fibrotic tissue in the lymphedematous region generates edema that is no longer spontaneously reversible. No treatment for fibrosis has been validated in patients with lymphedema...
December 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231892/-new-tools-in-cystic-fibrosis
#10
G Dournes, K De Boeck, S Bui, F Vermeulen, A Ramalho, J-F Chateil, F Laurent, M Fayon
The use of 3 novel tools available for the diagnosis and treatment in cystic fibrosis are described here. 1) The lung clearance index is a sensitive method which can detect functional impairment in the first months after birth. 2) Detailed morphological analyses of the lung can be performed with the new MRI sequences, without any contrast medium or risk of radiation. The analysis of functional MRI data (perfusion, diffusion, ventilation, inflammation) will be possible, and these data will be correlated to morphological data...
December 2016: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225655/mnte-2-pyp-treatment-or-nox4-inhibition-protects-against-radiation-induced-damage-in-mouse-primary-prostate-fibroblasts-by-inhibiting-the-tgf-beta-1-signaling-pathway
#11
Arpita Chatterjee, Elizabeth A Kosmacek, Rebecca E Oberley-Deegan
Prostate cancer patients who undergo radiotherapy frequently suffer from side effects caused by radiation-induced damage to normal tissues adjacent to the tumor. Exposure of these normal cells during radiation treatment can result in tissue fibrosis and cellular senescence, which ultimately leads to postirradiation-related chronic complications including urinary urgency and frequency, erectile dysfunction, urethral stricture and incontinence. Radiation-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been reported as the most potent causative factor for radiation damage to normal tissue...
February 22, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217761/modeling-of-chronic-radiation-induced-cystitis-in-mice
#12
Bernadette M M Zwaans, Sarah Krueger, Sarah N Bartolone, Michael B Chancellor, Brian Marples, Laura E Lamb
PURPOSE: Radiation cystitis (RC), a severe inflammatory bladder condition, develops as a side-effect of pelvic radiation therapy in cancer patients. There are currently no effective therapies to treat RC, in part due to the lack of preclinical model systems. In this study, we developed a mouse model for RC and used a small animal radiation research platform (SARRP) to simulate the targeted delivery of radiation as used with human patients. METHODS AND MATERIALS: To induce RC, C3H mice received a single radiation dose of 20Gy delivered through two beams...
October 2016: Advances in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209920/effect-of-captopril-on-radiation-induced-tgf-%C3%AE-1-secretion-in-ea-hy926-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells
#13
Jingni Wei, Hui Xu, Yinyin Liu, Baiyu Li, Fuxiang Zhou
The pathophysiological mechanism involved in the sustained endothelial secretion of cytokines that leads to fibrosis 6-16 months after radiotherapy remains unclear. Angiotensin II (Ang II) is produced by the endothelium in response to stressing stimuli, like radiation, and may induce the synthesis of TGF-β, a profibrotic cytokine. In this study we tested the hypothesis that captopril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, inhibits or attenuates radiation-induced endothelial TGF-β1 secretion. The human endothelial hybrid cell line EA...
February 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208025/aeol-10150-mitigates-radiation-induced-lung-injury-in-the-nonhuman-primate-morbidity-and-mortality-are-administration-schedule-dependent
#14
Thomas J MacVittie, Allison Gibbs, Ann M Farese, Kory Barrow, Alexander Bennett, Cheryl Taylor-Howell, Abdul Kazi, Karl Prado, George Parker, William Jackson Iii
Pneumonitis and fibrosis are potentially lethal, delayed effects of acute radiation exposure. In this study, male rhesus macaques received whole-thorax lung irradiation (WTLI) with a target dose of 10.74 Gy prescribed to midplane at a dose rate of 0.80 ± 0.05 Gy/min using 6 MV linear accelerator-derived photons. The study design was comprised of four animal cohorts: one control and three treated with AEOL 10150 (n = 20 animals per cohort). AEOL 10150, a metalloporphyrin antioxidant, superoxide dismutase mimetic was administered by daily subcutaneous injection at 5 mg/kg in each of three schedules, beginning 24 ± 2 h postirradiation: from day 1 to day 28, day 1 to day 60 or a divided regimen from day 1 to day 28 plus day 60 to day 88...
February 16, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189065/the-pulmonary-fibrosis-associated-muc5b-promoter-polymorphism-is-prognostic-of-the-overall-survival-in-patients-with-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-nsclc-receiving-definitive-radiotherapy
#15
Ju Yang, Ting Xu, Daniel R Gomez, Melenda Jeter, Lawrence B Levy, Yipeng Song, Stephen Hahn, Zhongxing Liao, Xianglin Yuan
BACKGROUND: MUC5B is glycoprotein secreted by bronchial glands. A promoter variant in MUC5B, rs35705950, was previously found to be strongly associated with the incidence of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and also the overall survival (OS) of such patients. Patients with IPF and patients with radiation pneumonitis (RP) have the similar pathologic process and clinical symptoms. However, the role of rs35705950 in patients receiving thoracic radiotherapy remains unclear. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In total, 664 patients with NSCLC receiving definitive radiotherapy (total dose ≥60 Gy) were included in our study...
April 2017: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184272/treatment-of-radiation-induced-cystitis-and-vulvodynia-via-a-ganglion-impar-block-using-a-lateral-approach-under-computed-tomography-guidance-a-case-report
#16
Jeong-Eun Lee, Kyung-Hwa Kwak, Seong Wook Hong, Hoon Jung, Seung-Yeon Chung, Jun-Mo Park
Adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) after colorectal cancer surgery can prevent local recurrence, but has several side effects. Precise injection of drugs into the affected areas is complicated by radiation-induced fibrosis of soft or connective tissue. A 48-year-old woman experienced severe intractable perineal pain, dysuria, urinary urgency, and frequent urination after rectal cancer surgery and adjuvant RT, and was diagnosed with radiation-induced cystitis and vulvodynia. Her symptoms persisted despite two fluoroscopy-guided ganglion impar blocks...
February 2017: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180193/acoustic-radiation-force-impulse-arfi-elastography-for-non%C3%A2-invasive-evaluation-of-hepatic-fibrosis-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-and-c-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
Xiangdong Hu, Lanyan Qiu, Dong Liu, Linxue Qian
AIM: The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) elastography in the diagnosis of liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis B and C patients through Meta-analysis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Four databases (PubMed, the Cochrane Library, WanFang data, and CNKI) were searched. The key words were: ("ARFI" or "acoustic radiation force impulse") combined with "liver fibrosis" and ("chronic hepatitis" or "HBV HCV"). Heterogeneity (I2) was assessed, and its source was analyzed through meta-regression...
January 31, 2017: Medical Ultrasonography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177765/diosmin-attenuates-radiation-induced-hepatic-fibrosis-via-boosting-ppar-%C3%AE-expression-and-hampering-mir-17-5p-activated-canonical-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#18
Hesham Farouk Hasan, Mohamed Khairy Abdel-Rafei, Shereen Mohamed Galal
BACKGROUND: Liver fibrosis is one of the major complications of upper right quadrant radiotherapy. MicroRNA-17-5p (miR-17-5p) is hypothesized to act as regulator of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activation via activation of canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Diosmin (Dios), a citrus bioflavonoid, is known to possess potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties. PURPOSE: To explore molecular mechanisms underlie radiation- induced liver fibrosis and evaluate the possible influence of Dios on miR-17-5p/ Wnt/ β-catenin signaling axis during fibrogenesis provoked by irradiation (IRR) in rats...
November 21, 2016: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168165/innate-immune-pathways-associated-with-lung-radioprotection-by-soy-isoflavones
#19
Lisa M Abernathy, Matthew D Fountain, Michael C Joiner, Gilda G Hillman
INTRODUCTION: Radiation therapy for lung cancer causes pneumonitis and fibrosis. Soy isoflavones protect against radiation-induced lung injury, but the mediators of radioprotection remain unclear. We investigated the effect of radiation on myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in the lung and their modulation by soy isoflavones for a potential role in protection from radiation-induced lung injury. METHODS: BALB/c mice (5-6 weeks old) received a single 10 Gy dose of thoracic irradiation and soy isoflavones were orally administrated daily before and after radiation at 1 mg/day...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164664/serum-amyloid-p-component-level-may-be-a-biomarker-for-lung-toxicities-and-overall-survival-after-thoracic-radiotherapy-for-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#20
Jing Zhao, Alexander Chi, Rui Mao, Guangyuan Hu, Minghua Ji
BACKGROUND: Serum amyloid P-component (SAP) contributes to the clearance of apoptotic cells. As one of the main acute-phase reactants, SAP regulates key aspects of inflammation and sets a threshold for immune cell activation. This study aimed to investigate the association of SAP levels with symptomatic lung toxicities after thoracic radiotherapy (TRT) and overall survival (OS) in non-small lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. METHODS: The SAP level at diagnosis and during TRT was evaluated by ELISA in 113 clinically inoperable NSCLC patients...
November 1, 2016: Clinical Laboratory
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