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Radiation fibrosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217761/modeling-of-chronic-radiation-induced-cystitis-in-mice
#1
Bernadette M M Zwaans, Sarah Krueger, Sarah N Bartolone, Michael B Chancellor, Brian Marples, Laura E Lamb
PURPOSE: Radiation cystitis (RC), a severe inflammatory bladder condition, develops as a side-effect of pelvic radiation therapy in cancer patients. There are currently no effective therapies to treat RC, in part due to the lack of preclinical model systems. In this study, we developed a mouse model for RC and used a small animal radiation research platform (SARRP) to simulate the targeted delivery of radiation as used with human patients. METHODS AND MATERIALS: To induce RC, C3H mice received a single radiation dose of 20Gy delivered through two beams...
October 2016: Advances in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209920/effect-of-captopril-on-radiation-induced-tgf-%C3%AE-1-secretion-in-ea-hy926-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells
#2
Jingni Wei, Hui Xu, Yinyin Liu, Baiyu Li, Fuxiang Zhou
The pathophysiological mechanism involved in the sustained endothelial secretion of cytokines that leads to fibrosis 6-16 months after radiotherapy remains unclear. Angiotensin II (Ang II) is produced by the endothelium in response to stressing stimuli, like radiation, and may induce the synthesis of TGF-β, a profibrotic cytokine. In this study we tested the hypothesis that captopril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, inhibits or attenuates radiation-induced endothelial TGF-β1 secretion. The human endothelial hybrid cell line EA...
February 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208025/aeol-10150-mitigates-radiation-induced-lung-injury-in-the-nonhuman-primate-morbidity-and-mortality-are-administration-schedule-dependent
#3
Thomas J MacVittie, Allison Gibbs, Ann M Farese, Kory Barrow, Alexander Bennett, Cheryl Taylor-Howell, Abdul Kazi, Karl Prado, George Parker, William Jackson Iii
Pneumonitis and fibrosis are potentially lethal, delayed effects of acute radiation exposure. In this study, male rhesus macaques received whole-thorax lung irradiation (WTLI) with a target dose of 10.74 Gy prescribed to midplane at a dose rate of 0.80 ± 0.05 Gy/min using 6 MV linear accelerator-derived photons. The study design was comprised of four animal cohorts: one control and three treated with AEOL 10150 (n = 20 animals per cohort). AEOL 10150, a metalloporphyrin antioxidant, superoxide dismutase mimetic was administered by daily subcutaneous injection at 5 mg/kg in each of three schedules, beginning 24 ± 2 h postirradiation: from day 1 to day 28, day 1 to day 60 or a divided regimen from day 1 to day 28 plus day 60 to day 88...
February 16, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189065/the-pulmonary-fibrosis-associated-muc5b-promoter-polymorphism-is-prognostic-of-the-overall-survival-in-patients-with-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-nsclc-receiving-definitive-radiotherapy
#4
Ju Yang, Ting Xu, Daniel R Gomez, Melenda Jeter, Lawrence B Levy, Yipeng Song, Stephen Hahn, Zhongxing Liao, Xianglin Yuan
BACKGROUND: MUC5B is glycoprotein secreted by bronchial glands. A promoter variant in MUC5B, rs35705950, was previously found to be strongly associated with the incidence of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and also the overall survival (OS) of such patients. Patients with IPF and patients with radiation pneumonitis (RP) have the similar pathologic process and clinical symptoms. However, the role of rs35705950 in patients receiving thoracic radiotherapy remains unclear. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In total, 664 patients with NSCLC receiving definitive radiotherapy (total dose ≥60 Gy) were included in our study...
February 8, 2017: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184272/treatment-of-radiation-induced-cystitis-and-vulvodynia-via-a-ganglion-impar-block-using-a-lateral-approach-under-computed-tomography-guidance-a-case-report
#5
Jeong-Eun Lee, Kyung-Hwa Kwak, Seong Wook Hong, Hoon Jung, Seung-Yeon Chung, Jun-Mo Park
Adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) after colorectal cancer surgery can prevent local recurrence, but has several side effects. Precise injection of drugs into the affected areas is complicated by radiation-induced fibrosis of soft or connective tissue. A 48-year-old woman experienced severe intractable perineal pain, dysuria, urinary urgency, and frequent urination after rectal cancer surgery and adjuvant RT, and was diagnosed with radiation-induced cystitis and vulvodynia. Her symptoms persisted despite two fluoroscopy-guided ganglion impar blocks...
February 2017: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180193/acoustic-radiation-force-impulse-arfi-elastography-for-non%C3%A2-invasive-evaluation-of-hepatic-fibrosis-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-and-c-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Xiangdong Hu, Lanyan Qiu, Dong Liu, Linxue Qian
AIM: The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) elastography in the diagnosis of liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis B and C patients through Meta-analysis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Four databases (PubMed, the Cochrane Library, WanFang data, and CNKI) were searched. The key words were: ("ARFI" or "acoustic radiation force impulse") combined with "liver fibrosis" and ("chronic hepatitis" or "HBV HCV"). Heterogeneity (I2) was assessed, and its source was analyzed through meta-regression...
January 31, 2017: Medical Ultrasonography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177765/diosmin-attenuates-radiation-induced-hepatic-fibrosis-via-boosting-ppar-%C3%AE-expression-and-hampering-mir-17-5p-activated-canonical-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#7
Hesham Farouk Hasan, Mohamed Khairy Abdel-Rafei, Shereen Mohamed Galal
BACKGROUND: Liver fibrosis is one of the major complications of upper right quadrant radiotherapy. MicroRNA-17-5p (miR-17-5p) is hypothesized to act as regulator of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activation via activation of canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Diosmin (Dios), a citrus bioflavonoid, is known to possess potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties. PURPOSE: To explore molecular mechanisms underlie radiation- induced liver fibrosis and evaluate the possible influence of Dios on miR-17-5p/ Wnt/ β-catenin signaling axis during fibrogenesis provoked by irradiation (IRR) in rats...
November 21, 2016: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168165/innate-immune-pathways-associated-with-lung-radioprotection-by-soy-isoflavones
#8
Lisa M Abernathy, Matthew D Fountain, Michael C Joiner, Gilda G Hillman
INTRODUCTION: Radiation therapy for lung cancer causes pneumonitis and fibrosis. Soy isoflavones protect against radiation-induced lung injury, but the mediators of radioprotection remain unclear. We investigated the effect of radiation on myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in the lung and their modulation by soy isoflavones for a potential role in protection from radiation-induced lung injury. METHODS: BALB/c mice (5-6 weeks old) received a single 10 Gy dose of thoracic irradiation and soy isoflavones were orally administrated daily before and after radiation at 1 mg/day...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164664/serum-amyloid-p-component-level-may-be-a-biomarker-for-lung-toxicities-and-overall-survival-after-thoracic-radiotherapy-for-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#9
Jing Zhao, Alexander Chi, Rui Mao, Guangyuan Hu, Minghua Ji
BACKGROUND: Serum amyloid P-component (SAP) contributes to the clearance of apoptotic cells. As one of the main acute-phase reactants, SAP regulates key aspects of inflammation and sets a threshold for immune cell activation. This study aimed to investigate the association of SAP levels with symptomatic lung toxicities after thoracic radiotherapy (TRT) and overall survival (OS) in non-small lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. METHODS: The SAP level at diagnosis and during TRT was evaluated by ELISA in 113 clinically inoperable NSCLC patients...
November 1, 2016: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151749/clinical-usefulness-and-performance-of-acoustic-radiation-force-impulse-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b
#10
Coskun Ozturker, Ergenekon Karagoz, Ali K Sivrioglu, Kemal Kara
AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) compared with liver biopsy in quantifying fibrosis levels in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study was approved by the institutional review board at our hospital. One hundred CHB patients and 30 healthy controls (130 individuals) were included in the study. ARFI measurements were performed on all of these cases. CHB was diagnosed when serum hepatitis surface antigen was positive for more than 6 months and when persistent or intermittent elevations in alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels and histopathological changes in liver biopsy were present...
February 1, 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130908/aspartate-transaminase-platelet-ratio-and-fibrosis-4-indices-as-effective-markers-for-monitoring-esophageal-varices-in-hiv-hepatitis-c-virus-co-infected-patients-due-to-contaminated-blood-products-for-hemophilia
#11
Koji Natsuda, Mitsuhisa Takatsuki, Takayuki Tanaka, Akihiko Soyama, Tomohiko Adachi, Shinichiro Ono, Takanobu Hara, Zhassulan Baimakhanov, Hajime Imamura, Satomi Okada, Masaaki Hidaka, Susumu Eguchi
AIM: We examined the feasibility of the aspartate transaminase (AST)-platelet ratio index (APRI) and Fibrosis-4 (FIB4) score, which are well-established markers for liver fibrosis, as indicators for monitoring esophageal varices in patients who were co-infected with HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) due to contaminated blood products for hemophilia in Japan. METHODS: Forty-three HIV/HCV co-infected patients were enrolled. All were hemophilic men (median age 41 years; range, 29-66 years)...
January 28, 2017: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130353/gene-expression-profiles-among-murine-strains-segregate-with-distinct-differences-in-the-progression-of-radiation-induced-lung-disease
#12
Isabel L Jackson, Fitsum Baye, Chirayu P Goswami, Barry P Katz, Andrew Zodda, Radmila Pavlovic, Ganga Gurung, Don Winans, Zeljko Vujaskovic
Molecular mechanisms underlying development of acute pneumonitis and/or late fibrosis following thoracic irradiation remain poorly understood. Here we hypothesize that heterogeneity in disease progression and phenotypic expression of radiation-induced lung disease (RILD) across murine strains presents an opportunity to better elucidate mechanisms driving tissue response toward pneumonitis and/or fibrosis. In this study distinct differences in disease progression were observed in age- and sex-matched CBA/J, C57L/J, and C57BL/6J mice over 1 y after graded doses of whole-thorax lung irradiation (WTLI)...
January 26, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127192/evolving-strategies-for-liver-fibrosis-staging-non-invasive-assessment
#13
EDITORIAL
Cristina Stasi, Stefano Milani
Transient elastography and the acoustic radiation force impulse techniques may play a pivotal role in the study of liver fibrosis. Some studies have shown that elastography can detect both the progression and regression of fibrosis. Similarly, research results have been analysed and direct and indirect serum markers of hepatic fibrosis have shown high diagnostic accuracy for advanced fibrosis/cirrhosis. The prognosis of different stages of cirrhosis is well established and various staging systems have been proposed, largely based on clinical data...
January 14, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126305/hypofractionated-regional-nodal-irradiation-for-women-with-node-positive-breast-cancer
#14
Sara Bellefqih, Sanaa Elmajjaoui, Jihan Aarab, Jihane Khalil, Mohamed Afif, Amine Lachgar, Hanan El Kacemi, Tayeb Kebdani, Noureddine Benjaafar
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of hypofractionated radiation therapy (HFRT) of the breast/chest wall and regional nodes on overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), locoregional control and on treatment-related toxicity in patients with breast cancer and nodal involvement. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Two hundred fifty-seven patients treated between October 2009 and June 2011 with hypofractionated locoregional radiation therapy (42 Gy in 15 fractions) were retrospectively reviewed, 51 (19...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117246/radiotherapy-induced-right-ventricular-remodelling-the-missing-piece-of-the-puzzle
#15
REVIEW
Marijana Tadic, Cesare Cuspidi, Dagmara Hering, Lucia Venneri, Isidora Grozdic-Milojevic
The number of studies demonstrating that right ventricular structure, function and mechanics are valuable predictors of cardiovascular and total morbidity and mortality in patients with a wide range of cardiovascular conditions is constantly increasing. Most studies that evaluated the influence of radiotherapy on the heart focused on left ventricular remodelling, which is why current guidelines only recommend detailed assessment of the left ventricle. Data regarding right ventricular changes in cancer patients treated with radiotherapy are scarce...
January 20, 2017: Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099226/computed-tomography-in-cystic-fibrosis-combining-low-dose-techniques-and-iterative-reconstruction
#16
Johannes Kahn, David Kaul, Ulrich Grupp, Georg Böning, Diane Renz, Doris Staab, Vera Schreiter, Florian Streitparth
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of iterative reconstruction (IR) and low-kilovolt technique on dose reduction and image quality of chest computed tomography scans obtained in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). METHODS: A total of 124 CF patients were examined; group A (n = 63) was examined with a dose reduction protocol using IR and group B (n = 61) with a standard protocol using filtered back projection. Further subgroups with tube voltage modulations were established...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076629/acoustic-radiation-force-impulse-arfi-elastography-compared-with-biopsy-for-evaluating-hepatic-fibrosis-after-liver-transplantation-a-cross-sectional-diagnostic-study
#17
Joel Schmillevitch, Maria Cristina Chammas, Vincenzo Pugliese, Edson Abdala, Adriana Cortez Rizzon, Venâncio Alves, Luiz Augusto Carneiro, Giovanni Cerri
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Biopsies are used after liver transplantation to evaluate fibrosis. This study aimed to evaluate the elasticity of transplanted livers by means of a non-invasive examination, acoustic radiation force imaging (ARFI) elastography, correlating the results with the histological analysis. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study in a public university hospital. METHODS: All patients consecutively operated between 2002 and 2010 with an indication for biopsy were evaluated by means of elastography...
November 2016: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067683/acoustic-radiation-force-impulse-elastography-comparison-and-combination-with-other-noninvasive-tests-for-the-diagnosis-of-compensated-liver-cirrhosis
#18
Lukas Pfeifer, Werner Adler, Steffen Zopf, Jürgen Siebler, Dane Wildner, Ruediger S Goertz, Barbara Schellhaas, Markus F Neurath, Deike Strobel
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The aim of this study was to compare acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography with other noninvasive tests and to develop a new score for the assessment of liver fibrosis/cirrhosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: B-mode ultrasound (including high-frequency liver surface evaluation), routine blood tests, ARFI quantification, and mini-laparoscopic liver evaluation were obtained in compensated patients scheduled for mini-laparoscopic biopsy...
January 6, 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054837/radiosurgery-alters-the-endothelial-surface-proteome-externalized-intracellular-molecules-as-potential-vascular-targets-in-irradiated-brain-arteriovenous-malformations
#19
Lucinda S McRobb, Vivienne S Lee, Margaret Simonian, Zhenjun Zhao, Santhosh George Thomas, Markus Wiedmann, Jude V Amal Raj, Michael Grace, Vaughan Moutrie, Matthew J McKay, Mark P Molloy, Marcus A Stoodley
Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is an established treatment for brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) that drives blood vessel closure through cellular proliferation, thrombosis and fibrosis, but is limited by a delay to occlusion of 2-3 years and a maximum treatable size of 3 cm. In this current study we used SRS as a priming tool to elicit novel protein expression on the endothelium of irradiated AVM vessels, and these proteins were then targeted with prothrombotic conjugates to induce rapid thrombosis and vessel closure...
January 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048367/th-a-207b-00-shear-wave-imaging-and-a-qiba-us-biomarker-update
#20
Paul Carson
: Imaging of tissue elastic properties is a relatively new and powerful approach to one of the oldest and most important diagnostic tools. Imaging of shear wave speed with ultrasound is has been added to most high-end ultrasound systems. Understanding this exciting imaging mode aiding its most effective use in medicine can be a rewarding effort for medical physicists and other medical imaging and treatment professionals. Assuring consistent, quantitative measurements across the many ultrasound systems in a typical imaging department will constitute a major step toward realizing the great potential of this technique and other quantitative imaging...
June 2016: Medical Physics
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