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Radiation fibrosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138594/prevention-and-treatment-of-acute-and-chronic-radiodermatitis
#1
Sophie Seité, René-Jean Bensadoun, Jean-Michel Mazer
More than half the number of patients with cancer, who are treated with radiotherapy, will have radiodermatitis at some point during their treatment. Radiodermatitis either occurs early on in the treatment period or appears months or up to several years later. Acute radiodermatitis is a burn injury that varies in severity according to both treatment and inherent patient factors. Most acute radiodermatitis reactions resolve after several weeks but some reactions persist and can cause complications. Late-onset radiodermatitis is characterized by telangiectasia that forms on atrophic and fragile skin...
2017: Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135894/deferoxamine-preconditioning-of-irradiated-tissue-improves-perfusion-and-fat-graft-retention
#2
John Flacco, Natalie Chung, Charles P Blackshear, Dre Irizarry, Arash Momeni, Gordon K Lee, Dung Nguyen, Geoffrey C Gurtner, Michael T Longaker, Derrick C Wan
BACKGROUND: Radiation therapy is a mainstay in the treatment of many malignancies, but collateral damage to surrounding tissue, with resultant hypovascularity, fibrosis, and atrophy, can be difficult to reconstruct. Fat grafting has been shown to improve the quality of irradiated skin, but volume retention of the graft is significantly decreased. Deferoxamine (DFO) is a FDA-approved iron-chelating medication for acute iron intoxication and chronic iron overload that has also been shown to increase angiogenesis...
November 8, 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134185/infiltrative-intraocular-conjunctival-squamous-cell-carcinoma-after-local-resection-and-brachytherapy-clinical-and-pathological-findings
#3
Magnolia Trinidad Cano-Suárez, María Antonia Saornil-Álvarez, Ciro García-Álvarez, Francisco López-Lara, Jesús María Frutos-Baraja, Elena García-Lagarto
A pseudophakic 70-year-old man presented to the clinic with a slow-growing conjunctival mass in the left eye. He was diagnosed with a conjunctival exophytic lesion suspicious of invasive conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). Excisional biopsy showed a well-differentiated CSCC with positive margins and the patient underwent adjuvant brachytherapy. Six weeks later, examination of the anterior segment revealed cells in the anterior chamber and a neurotrophic corneal ulcer with corneal perforation. Considering the high suspicion of intraocular invasion of CSCC, the left eye was enucleated...
September 2017: Ocular Oncology and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126489/dental-treatment-planning-for-the-patient-with-oral-cancer
#4
REVIEW
Lauren E Levi, Rajesh V Lalla
Oral cancer therapy is associated with a multitude of head and neck sequelae that includes, but is not limited to, hyposalivation, increased risk for dental caries, osteoradionecrosis of the jaw, radiation fibrosis syndrome, mucositis, chemotherapy-induced neuropathy, dysgeusia, dysphagia, mucosal lesions, trismus, and infections. Preparing a comprehensive treatment plan for patients undergoing cancer therapy is essential to help minimize their risks for developing these oral and dental complications. In addition, dentists must take into account a patient's ongoing oncologic therapy for those patients who present to the dentist while concurrently receiving cancer treatment...
January 2018: Dental Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124057/radiation-induced-cardiovascular-disease-a-clinical-perspective
#5
REVIEW
Syed Wamique Yusuf, Bhanu Prasad Venkatesulu, Lakshmi Shree Mahadevan, Sunil Krishnan
Cancer survival has improved dramatically, and this has led to the manifestation of late side effects of multimodality therapy. Radiation (RT) to the thoracic malignancies results in unintentional irradiation of the cardiac chambers. RT-induced microvascular ischemia leads to disruption of capillary endothelial framework, and injury to differentiated myocytes results in deposition of collagen and fibrosis. Coexistence of risk factors of metabolic syndrome and preexisting atherosclerosis in addition to RT exposure results in accelerated occurrence of major coronary events...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122140/cardiac-tissue-characterization-and-imaging-in-autoimmune-rheumatic-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Sophie I Mavrogeni, Petros P Sfikakis, Loukia Koutsogeorgopoulou, George Markousis-Mavrogenis, Theodoros Dimitroulas, Genovefa Kolovou, George D Kitas
Inflammation, microvascular and macrovascular ischemia, valvular disease, and fibrosis are the main causes of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARDs). The silent presentation and the high mortality and/or morbidity of CVD in ARDs necessitate a reliable tool for early diagnosis. Noninvasive cardiovascular imaging, including echocardiography, nuclear imaging, cardiovascular computed tomography (CT), cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), and hybrid imaging modalities, constitutes the main tool for monitoring of CVD in ARDs...
November 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121718/non-invasive-assessment-of-liver-changes-in-eisenmenger-patients
#7
Siegrun Mebus, Nicole Nagdyman, Johanna Kügel, Reinhart Zachoval, Siegmund Lorenz Braun, Guido Haverkämper, Bernd Opgen-Rhein, Felix Berger, Sophia Horster, Jörg Schoetzau, Claudia Pujol Salvador, Ulrike Bauer, John Hess, Peter Ewert, Harald Kaemmerer
BACKGROUND: Eisenmenger syndrome as a severe form of cyanotic congenital heart disease results in a complex multisystemic disorder. Due to increased systemic venous pressure and the inability to ensure systemic perfusion and metabolic requirements, the liver may develop congestion, fibrosis or cirrhosis. This study aimed to assess hepatic abnormalities in Eisenmenger patients non-invasively. METHODS AND RESULTS: 10 adults with Eisenmenger syndrome (six female; median age 44...
December 15, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120857/the-safety-and-efficacy-of-light-emitting-diodes-based-ultraviolet-a1-phototherapy-in-bleomycin-induced-scleroderma-in-mice
#8
Diana Karpec, Romualdas Rudys, Laima Leonaviciene, Zygmunt Mackiewicz, Ruta Bradunaite, Gailute Kirdaite, Algirdas Venalis
PURPOSE: To define the efficacy and safety of narrowband ultraviolet A1 (UVA1) for the treatment of dermal fibrosis in bleomycin-induced mouse model of scleroderma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 42 DBA/2 strain mice were included in the study: healthy mice and mice with established scleroderma, treated with high or medium dose of UVA1. Non-treated groups served as control. The equipment emitting 365±5nm UVA1 radiation was used in the study. The average cumulative doses were 1200J/cm(2) for high and 600J/cm(2) for medium dose course...
November 6, 2017: Advances in Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120031/histopathological-immunohistochemical-and-stereological-analysis-of-the-effect-of-gingko-biloba-egb761-on-the-hippocampus-of-rats-exposed-to-long-term-cellphone-radiation
#9
Fikret Gevrek
Cellular phones are major sources of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) that can penetrate the human body and pose serious health hazards. The increasingly widespread use of mobile communication systems has raised concerns about the effects of cellphone radiofrequency (RF) on the hippocampus because of its close proximity to radiation during cellphone use. The effects of cellphone EMR exposure on the hippocampus of rats and the possible counteractive effects of ginkgo biloba (Egb761) were aimed to investigate...
November 9, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119941/targeting-of-inflammation-for-radiation-protection-and-mitigation
#10
Rasoul Yahyapour, Peyman Amini, Saeed Rezapoor, Abolhasan Rezaeyan, Bagher Farhood, Mohsen Cheki, Hengameh Fallah, Masoud Najafi
Inflammation is the response of the immune system that guards the body against several harmful stimuli in normal conditions. However, in response to ionizing radiation that leads to a massive cell death and DNA aberrations, this phenomenon causes various side effects in normal tissues. Inflammation is involved in various side effects such as gastrointestinal toxicity, mucositis, skin reactions, nervous system damage, pneumonitis, fibrosis and so on. Observations have proposed that inflammatory mediators are involved in the toxic effect of ionizing radiation on non-irradiated cells via a phenomenon named bystander effect...
November 8, 2017: Current Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116014/quantitative-assessment-of-radiation-dose-and-fractionation-effects-on-normal-tissue-by-utilizing-a-novel-lung-fibrosis-index-model
#11
Cheng Zhou, Bleddyn Jones, Mahmoud Moustafa, Christian Schwager, Julia Bauer, Bing Yang, Liji Cao, Min Jia, Andrea Mairani, Ming Chen, Longhua Chen, Juergen Debus, Amir Abdollahi
BACKGROUND: Normal lung tissue tolerance constitutes a limiting factor in delivering the required dose of radiotherapy to cure thoracic and chest wall malignancies. Radiation-induced lung fibrosis (RILF) is considered a critical determinant for late normal tissue complications. While RILF mouse models are frequently approached e.g., as a single high dose thoracic irradiation to investigate lung fibrosis and candidate modulators, a systematic radiobiological characterization of RILF mouse model is urgently needed to compare relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of particle irradiation with protons, helium-, carbon and oxygen ions now available at HIT...
November 7, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113120/the-sod-mimic-mnte-2-pyp-protects-from-chronic-fibrosis-and-inflammation-in-irradiated-normal-pelvic-tissues
#12
Shashank Shrishrimal, Elizabeth A Kosmacek, Arpita Chatterjee, McDonald J Tyson, Rebecca E Oberley-Deegan
Pelvic radiation for cancer therapy can damage a variety of normal tissues. In this study, we demonstrate that radiation causes acute changes to pelvic fibroblasts such as the transformation to myofibroblasts and the induction of senescence, which persist months after radiation. The addition of the manganese porphyrin, MnTE-2-PyP, resulted in protection of these acute changes in fibroblasts and this protection persisted months following radiation exposure. Specifically, at two months post-radiation, MnTE-2-PyP inhibited the number of α-smooth muscle actin positive fibroblasts induced by radiation and at six months post-radiation, MnTE-2-PyP significantly reduced collagen deposition (fibrosis) in the skin and bladder tissues of irradiated mice...
November 6, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110314/post-irradiation-morphoea-of-the-breast-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#13
Paula I Gonzalez-Ericsson, Monica V Estrada, Rami Al-Rohil, Melinda E Sanders
We describe a 44-year-old female with triple-negative breast cancer who developed skin erythaema, sclerosis and contracture of her entire right breast 15 months after completion of post-lumpectomy chemotherapy and radiotherapy, consistent with post-irradiation morphoea (PIM). PIM is a rare complication of breast irradiation that impairs a patient's quality of life. PIM is located usually at the radiation port or in the surrounding tissue. Clinically, PIM is misdiagnosed commonly as lymphoedema and cellulitis in the early inflammatory phase, and recurrent breast cancer, chronic radiodermatitis (CRD), radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF), post-irradiation pseudosclerodermatous panniculitis (PIPP), atypical vascular lesions (AVL) or angiosarcoma (AS) in the late burnout phase...
August 14, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103357/noninvasive-liver-assessment-in-adult-patients-with-fontan-circulation-using-acoustic-radiation-force-impulse-elastography-and-hepatic-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#14
F Buendía-Fuentes, J L Melero-Ferrer, D Plaza-López, J Rueda-Soriano, A Osa-Saez, J Aguero, P Calvillo-Batllés, C Fonfria-Esparcia, A Ballesta-Cuñat, L Martí-Bonmatí, L Martínez-Dolz
BACKGROUND: Patients who have undergone the Fontan procedure are at risk of developing hepatic dysfunction. However, broad recommendations regarding liver monitoring are limited. The purpose of this study was to characterize the frequency of liver disease in adult Fontan patients using multimodality imaging (hepatic magnetic resonance imaging [MRI], acoustic radiation force impulse [ARFI] elastography, or hepatic ultrasound). METHODS: In a prospective cross-sectional analysis of adult patients palliated with a Fontan procedure, hepatic MRI, ARFI, and hepatic ultrasound were used to assess for liver disease...
January 1, 2017: World Journal for Pediatric & Congenital Heart Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101980/acr-appropriateness-criteria-%C3%A2-chronic-liver%C3%A2-disease
#15
Jeanne M Horowitz, Ihab R Kamel, Hina Arif-Tiwari, Sumeet K Asrani, Nicole M Hindman, Harmeet Kaur, Michelle M McNamara, Richard B Noto, Aliya Qayyum, Tasneem Lalani
Because liver fibrosis can be treated, it is important to diagnose liver fibrosis noninvasively and monitor response to treatment. Although ultrasound (grayscale and Doppler) can diagnose cirrhosis, it does so unreliably using morphologic and sonographic features and cannot diagnose the earlier, treatable stages of hepatic fibrosis. Transient elastography, ultrasound elastography with acoustic radiation force impulse, and MR elastography are modalities that can assess for hepatic fibrosis. Although all international organizations recommend ultrasound for screening for hepatocellular carcinoma, ultrasound is particularly limited for identifying hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with obesity, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and nodular cirrhotic livers...
November 2017: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082453/rapidly-growing-hepatocellular-carcinoma-after-direct-acting-antiviral-treatment-of-chronic-hepatitis-c
#16
Toshihiro Kawaguchi, Tatsuya Ide, Hironori Koga, Reiichiro Kondo, Ichiro Miyajima, Teruko Arinaga-Hino, Reiichiro Kuwahara, Keisuke Amano, Takashi Niizeki, Masahito Nakano, Ryoko Kuromatsu, Takuji Torimura
We report on a 62-year-old man with chronic hepatitis C who developed rapidly growing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after achieving sustained virological response at post-treatment week 24 (SVR 24) by direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatment. In 2008, he failed interferon therapy at 56 years of age. He received daclatasvir plus asunaprevir for 24 weeks after confirmation of no liver tumor by abdominal ultrasonography. He had no advanced liver fibrosis. Three months after initiation of DAA treatment, a liver tumor measuring 6 mm in diameter was detected by ultrasonography and confirmed with magnetic resonance imaging...
October 29, 2017: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080145/role-of-angiogenesis-in-chronic-radiation-proctitis-new-evidence-favoring-inhibition-of-angiogenesis-ex-vivo
#17
Peihuang Wu, Li Li, Huaiming Wang, Tenghui Ma, Haiyong Wu, Xinjuan Fan, Zihuan Yang, Daici Chen, Lei Wang
BACKGROUND: Chronic radiation proctitis (CRP), a common complication after radiotherapy for pelvic malignancies, compromises patient quality of life. Vascular damage and aberrant angiogenesis in the mucosal layer are essential histological features, but changes to the submucosal layer are unclear. Thus, we evaluated the histological characteristics and distribution changes of key angiogenic factors in full-layered human CRP samples. METHODS: Thirty paraffin-embedded CRP and twenty-nine non-CRP tissues were used to evaluate histopathological changes...
October 27, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079566/swine-atrioventricular-node-ablation-using-stereotactic-radiosurgery-methods-and-in-vivo-feasibility-investigation-for-catheter-free-ablation-of-cardiac-arrhythmias
#18
Marwan M Refaat, Jad A Ballout, Patrick Zakka, Mostafa Hotait, Karine A Al Feghali, Ibrahim Abu Gheida, Charbel Saade, Mukbil Hourani, Fady Geara, Malek Tabbal, Pierre Sfeir, Wassim Jalbout, Wael Al-Jaroudi, Abdo Jurjus, Bassem Youssef
BACKGROUND: Linear accelerator-based stereotactic radiosurgery delivered to cardiac arrhythmogenic foci could be a promising catheter-free ablation modality. We tested the feasibility of in vivo atrioventricular (AV) node ablation in swine using stereotactic radiosurgery. METHODS AND RESULTS: Five Large White breed swine (weight 40-75 kg; 4 females) were studied. Single-chamber St Jude pacemakers were implanted in each pig. The pigs were placed under general anesthesia, and coronary/cardiac computed tomography simulation scans were performed to localize the AV node...
October 27, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071801/common-oral-complications-of-head-and-neck-cancer-radiation-therapy-mucositis-infections-saliva-change-fibrosis-sensory-dysfunctions-dental-caries-periodontal-disease-and-osteoradionecrosis
#19
REVIEW
Herve Y Sroussi, Joel B Epstein, Rene-Jean Bensadoun, Deborah P Saunders, Rajesh V Lalla, Cesar A Migliorati, Natalie Heaivilin, Zachary S Zumsteg
Patients undergoing radiation therapy for the head and neck are susceptible to a significant and often abrupt deterioration in their oral health. The oral morbidities of radiation therapy include but are not limited to an increased susceptibility to dental caries and periodontal disease. They also include profound and often permanent functional and sensory changes involving the oral soft tissue. These changes range from oral mucositis experienced during and soon after treatment, mucosal opportunistic infections, neurosensory disorders, and tissue fibrosis...
October 25, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069254/accuracy-of-transient-elastography-fibroscan%C3%A2-acoustic-radiation-force-impulse-arfi-imaging-the-enhanced-liver-fibrosis-elf-test-apri-and-the-fib-4-index-compared-with-liver-biopsy-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c
#20
Taisa Grotta Ragazzo, Denise Paranagua-Vezozzo, Fabiana Roberto Lima, Daniel Ferraz de Campos Mazo, Mário Guimarães Pessoa, Claudia Pinto Oliveira, Venancio Avancini Ferreira Alves, Flair José Carrilho
OBJECTIVES: Although liver biopsy is the gold standard for determining the degree of liver fibrosis, issues regarding its invasiveness and the small amount of liver tissue evaluated can limit its applicability and interpretation in clinical practice. Non-invasive evaluation methods for liver fibrosis can address some of these limitations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of transient elastography-FibroScan®, acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI), enhanced liver fibrosis (ELF), the aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI), and the FIB-4 index compared with liver biopsy in hepatitis C...
October 2017: Clinics
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