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Enterovirus 71

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636969/human-virus-derived-small-rnas-can-confer-antiviral-immunity-in-mammals
#1
Yang Qiu, Yanpeng Xu, Yao Zhang, Hui Zhou, Yong-Qiang Deng, Xiao-Feng Li, Meng Miao, Qiang Zhang, Bo Zhong, Yuanyang Hu, Fu-Chun Zhang, Ligang Wu, Cheng-Feng Qin, Xi Zhou
RNA interference (RNAi) functions as a potent antiviral immunity in plants and invertebrates; however, whether RNAi plays antiviral roles in mammals remains unclear. Here, using human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) as a model, we showed HEV71 3A protein as an authentic viral suppressor of RNAi during viral infection. When the 3A-mediated RNAi suppression was impaired, the mutant HEV71 readily triggered the production of abundant HEV71-derived small RNAs with canonical siRNA properties in cells and mice. These virus-derived siRNAs were produced from viral dsRNA replicative intermediates in a Dicer-dependent manner and loaded into AGO, and they were fully active in degrading cognate viral RNAs...
June 20, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631594/human-picornaviruses-associated-with-neurological-diseases-and-their-neutralization-by-antibodies
#2
Maria Anastasina, Aušra Domanska, Kaia Palm, Sarah Butcher
Picornaviruses are the most commonly encountered infectious agents in mankind. They typically cause mild infections of the gastrointestinal or respiratory tract, but sometimes also invade the central nervous system. There, they can cause severe diseases with long-term sequelae and even be lethal. The most infamous picornavirus is poliovirus, for which significant epidemics of poliomyelitis were reported from the end of the nineteenth century. A successful vaccination campaign has brought poliovirus close to eradication, but neurological diseases caused by other picornaviruses have increasingly been reported since the late 1990s...
June 20, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625847/hnrnp-a1-alters-the-structure-of-a-conserved-enterovirus-ires-domain-to-stimulate-viral-translation
#3
Michele Tolbert, Christopher E Morgan, Marvin Pollum, Carlos E Crespo-Hernández, Mei-Ling Li, Gary Brewer, Blanton S Tolbert
Enteroviruses use a type I IRES structure to facilitate protein synthesis and promote genome replication. Type I IRES elements require auxiliary host proteins to organize RNA structure for 40S ribosomal subunit assembly. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 stimulates Enterovirus 71 (EV71) translation in part through specific interactions with its stem loop II (SLII) IRES domain. Here, we determined a conjoined NMR-SAXS structure of the EV71 SLII domain and a mutant that significantly attenuates viral replication by abrogating hnRNP A1 interactions...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615098/-human-ev71-invades-human-neuroblastoma-sk-n-sh-cells-by-clathrin-mediated-endocytosis
#4
Yanhua Xu, Quanbo Liu, Zhenzhen Zhang
Objective To study the mechanism ofhuman enterovirus 71 (EV71) entering human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells. Methods After the SK-N-SH cells were pretreated with chlorpromazine (CPZ) or nystatin (NT), real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) was employed to measure EV71 mRNA level, and indirect immunofluorescence microscopy was used to detect the expression level of viral protein 1 (VP1) in the target cells. In order to reveal the colocalization of EV71 with clathrin, laser confocal microscopy was performed on the infected cells...
June 2017: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610823/pre-vaccination-evolution-of-antibodies-among-infants-0-3-and-6months-of-age-a-longitudinal-analysis-of-measles-enterovirus-71-and-coxsackievirus-16
#5
Chuanxi Fu, Jichuan Shen, Long Lu, Yajing Li, Yimin Cao, Ming Wang, Sen Pei, Zhicong Yang, Qing Guo, Jeffrey Shaman
BACKGROUND: Due to waning levels of maternal antibodies (measles; enterovirus 71, EV71; and coxsackievirus A16, CoxA16), some infants may lose protection against infection prior to vaccination. Using a longitudinal design, we examine how maternal antibody levels evolve over time in infants prior to vaccination. METHODS: In 2013-2014, we collected sera at ages 0, 3 and 6months from infants. We assayed for levels of measles IgG antibody (717, 233 and 75 sample sera tested at months 0, 3 and 6, respectively), and neutralizing antibodies for EV71 and CoxA16 (225, 217, and 72)...
June 10, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602802/synonymous-codon-usage-analysis-of-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-viruses-a-comparative-study-on-coxsackievirus-a6-a10-a16-and-enterovirus-71-from-2008-to-2015
#6
Weiheng Su, Xue Li, Meili Chen, Wenwen Dai, Shiyang Sun, Shuai Wang, Xin Sheng, Shixiang Sun, Chen Gao, Ali Hou, Yan Zhou, Bo Sun, Feng Gao, Jingfa Xiao, Zhewen Zhang, Chunlai Jiang
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) have been considered major pathogens of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) throughout the world for decades. In recent years, coxsackievirus A6 (CVA6) and coxsackievirus A10 (CVA10) have raised attention as two other serious pathogens of HFMD. The present study focused on the synonymous codon usage of four viruses isolated from 2008 to 2015, with particular attention on P1 (encoding capsid proteins) and P2-P3 regions (both encoding non-structural proteins) in the genomic RNA...
June 14, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594402/arrdc4-regulates-enterovirus-71-induced-innate-immune-response-by-promoting-k63-polyubiquitination-of-mda5-through-trim65
#7
Jun Meng, Zhenyu Yao, Yaqing He, Renli Zhang, Yanwei Zhang, Xiangjie Yao, Hong Yang, Long Chen, Zhen Zhang, Hailong Zhang, Xueqin Bao, Gang Hu, Tangchun Wu, Jinquan Cheng
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the main causative agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), which induces significantly elevated levels of cytokines and chemokines, leading to local or system inflammation and severe complications, whereas the underlying regulatory mechanisms and the inflammatory pathogenesis remain elusive. ARRDC4 is one member of arrestins family, having important roles in glucose metabolism and G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) related physiological and pathological processes, however, the function of ARRDC4 in innate immune system is largely unknown...
June 8, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593131/mir-127-5p-negatively-regulates-enterovirus-71-replication-by-directly-targeting-scarb2
#8
Chunhong Feng, Yuxuan Fu, Deyan Chen, Huanru Wang, Airong Su, Li Zhang, Liang Chang, Nan Zheng, Zhiwei Wu
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the major causative agent of hand-foot-and-mouth disease in young children and can cause severe cerebral and pulmonary complications and even fatality. This study aimed at elucidating whether and how EV71 infection is regulated by a cellular microRNA, miR-127-5p. We found that miR-127-5p can downregulate the expression of SCARB2, a main receptor of EV71, by targeting two potential sites in its 3' UTR region and inhibit EV71 infection. Meanwhile, miR-127-5p expression was upregulated during EV71 infection...
June 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592020/-research-progress-of-rlr-signal-transduction-pathways-blocked-by-enterovirus-71
#9
W J Zhu, Y Xu, L M Tan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587824/enterovirus-inhibitory-activity-of-c-8-tert-butyl-substituted-4-aryl-6-7-8-9-tetrahydrobenzo-4-5-thieno-3-2-e-1-2-4-triazolo-4-3-a-pyrimidin-5-4h-ones
#10
Bishyajit Kumar Biswas, Yashwardhan R Malpani, Neul Ha, Do-Hyun Kwon, Jin Soo Shin, Hae-Soo Kim, Chonsaeng Kim, Soo Bong Han, Chong-Kyo Lee, Young-Sik Jung
Members of a series of 4-aryl-6,7,8,9-tetrahydrobenzo[4,5]thieno[3,2-e][1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyrimidin-5(4H)-ones (1, Fig. 2) were prepared and tested against representative enteroviruses including Human Coxsackievirus B1 (Cox B1), Human Coxsackievirus B3 (Cox B3), human Poliovirus 3 (PV3), human Rhinovirus 14 (HRV14), human Rhinovirus 21 (HRV 21) and human Rhinovirus 71 (HRV 71). The C-8-tert-butyl group on the tetrahydrobenzene ring in these substances was found to be crucial for their enterovirus activity...
May 19, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577914/genetic-characterization-of-enterovirus-strains-identified-in-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-hfmd-emergence-of-b1c-a-c1-subgenotypes-of-cva16-cva6-and-ev71-strains-in-india
#11
Nital N Ganorkar, Pooja P Fulmali, Sanjay S Tikute, Varanasi Gopalkrishna
Hand, Foot and Mouth disease (HFMD) is a common childhood disease and caused due to Enterovirus-A (EV-A), EV-B and EV-C species worldwide. Cases of HFMD were reported from, Ahmadabad (Gujarat, 2012) and Pune (Maharashtra, 2013-2014) in India. The present study highlights the identification of EV strains (CVA16, CVA6, CVA4 and Echo12), characterization of subgenotypes of CVA16, CVA6 strains identified during 2012-14 and CVA16, CVA6, EV71 strains reported from earlier study (2009-10) in HFMD cases from India...
May 31, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576572/intradermal-injection-of-a-fractional-dose-of-an-inactivated-hfmd-vaccine-elicits-similar-protective-immunity-to-intramuscular-inoculation-of-a-full-dose-of-an-al-oh-3-adjuvanted-vaccine
#12
Min Li, Yueqiang Duan, Xiaolan Yang, Qiaozhi Yang, Baodong Pang, Yugang Wang, Tianyu Ren, Xiliang Wang, Zhongpeng Zhao, Songcai Liu
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) are the two major causative agents of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), which erupts in the Asia-Pacific regions. A bivalent vaccine against both EV71 and CVA16 is highly desirable. In the present study, on the bases that an experimental bivalent vaccine comprising of inactivated EV71 and CVA16 induces a balanced protective immunity against both EV71 and CVA16, we compare the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of one fourth of a full dose of an intradermal vaccine administered by needle-free liquid jet injector with a full dose of an intramuscular vaccine administered by needle-syringe in monkeys...
May 30, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28565836/the-immune-mechanism-of-intestinal-tract-toll-like-receptor-in-mediating-ev71-virus-type-severe-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-and-the-mapk-pathway
#13
Lei Zhu, Weihua Li, Gongjian Qi, Na Liu, Liping Sheng, Lei Shang, Boxiang Qi
Immunological response is thought to play a crucial role in the development of a severe hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) infection in children, but the mechanisms remain largely unknown. This study was designed to help in elucidating the immunopathological pathways involved in the disease by quantifying Toll-like receptor (TLR) mRNAs, MAPK factors and cytokine levels in children experiencing the disease. A total of 86 enterovirus 71 (EV71)-infected HFMD children (49 with mild and 27 with severe disease), along with 30 healthy children were involved in the study...
May 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548626/correlates-of-protection-for-inactivated-enterovirus-71-vaccine-the-analysis-of-immunological-surrogate-endpoints
#14
Wenbo Zhu, Pengfei Jin, Jing-Xin Li, Feng-Cai Zhu, Pei Liu
BACKGROUND: Inactivated Enterovirus 71 (EV71) vaccines showed significant efficacy against the diseases associated with EV71 and a neutralizing antibody (NTAb) titer of 1:16-1:32 was suggested as the correlates of the vaccine protection. This paper aims to further estimate the immunological surrogate endpoints for the protection of inactivated EV71 vaccines and the effect factors. METHODS: Pre-vaccination NTAb against EV71 at baseline (day 0), post-vaccination NTAb against EV71 at day 56, and the occurrence of laboratory-confirmed EV71-associated diseases during a 24-months follow-up period were collected from a phase 3 efficacy trial of an inactivated EV71 vaccine...
June 12, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545059/uggt1-enhances-enterovirus-71-pathogenicity-by-promoting-viral-rna-synthesis-and-viral-replication
#15
Peng-Nien Huang, Jia-Rong Jheng, Jamie J Arnold, Jen-Ren Wang, Craig E Cameron, Shin-Ru Shih
Positive-strand RNA virus infections can induce the stress-related unfolded protein response (UPR) in host cells. This study found that enterovirus A71 (EVA71) utilizes host UDP-glucose glycoprotein glucosyltransferase 1 (UGGT1), a key endoplasmic reticulum protein (ER) involved in UPR, to enhance viral replication and virulence. EVA71 forms replication complexes (RCs) on cellular membranes that contain a mix of host and viral proteins to facilitate viral replication, but the components and processes involved in the assembly and function of RCs are not fully understood...
May 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542556/an-inactivated-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-vaccine-using-the-enterovirus-71-c4a-strain-isolated-from-a-korean-patient-induces-a-strong-immunogenic-response-in-mice
#16
Hyun Ju In, Heeji Lim, Jung-Ah Lee, Hye Jin Kim, Jin-Won Kim, Ji-Yeon Hyeon, Sang-Gu Yeo, June-Woo Lee, Jung Sik Yoo, Young Ki Choi, Sang-Won Lee
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major causative agent of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) frequently occurring in children. HFMD induced by EV71 can cause serious health problems and has been reported worldwide, particularly in the Asia-Pacific region. In this study, we assessed the immunogenicity of a formalin-inactivated HFMD vaccine using an EV71 strain (FI-EV71 C4a) isolated from a Korean patient. The vaccine candidate was evaluated in mice to determine the vaccination doses and vaccine schedules. BALB/c mice were intramuscularly administered 5, 10, or 20 μg FI-EV71 vaccine, followed by a booster 2 weeks later...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540257/dynamic-interaction-of-enterovirus-71-and-dendritic-cells-in-infected-neonatal-rhesus-macaques
#17
Ting Zhao, Zhixiao Zhang, Ying Zhang, Min Feng, Shengtao Fan, Lichun Wang, Longding Liu, Xi Wang, Qinglin Wang, Xiaolong Zhang, Jingjing Wang, Yun Liao, Zhanlong He, Shuaiyao Lu, Huai Yang, Qihan Li
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the main pathogens responsible for hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). Infection with EV71 can lead to severe clinical disease via extensive infections of either the respiratory or alimentary tracts in children. Based on the previous pathological study of EV71 infections in neonatal rhesus macaques, our work using this animal model and an EV71 chimera that expresses enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP-EV71) primarily explored where EV71 localizes and proliferates, and the subsequent initiation of the pathological process...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533530/the-impact-of-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-control-policies-in-singapore-a-qualitative-analysis-of-public-perceptions
#18
Karen Siegel, Alex R Cook, Hanh La
Hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a widespread pediatric disease in Asia. Most cases are relatively mild and caused by Coxsackie viruses, but in epidemics caused by Enterovirus 71, severe complications can occur. In response to the deaths of dozens of children in a 1997 outbreak (Podin in BMC Public Health 6:180,1 Abubakar in Virus Res 61(1):1-9,2 WHO in3), Singapore practices childcare centre surveillance, case-isolation, and short-term closure of centres. We conducted 44 in-depth interviews with teachers, principals, and parents at four childcare centres in Singapore to better understand experiences with current control policies...
May 2017: Journal of Public Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531227/different-microrna-profiles-reveal-the-diverse-outcomes-induced-by-ev71-and-ca16-infection-in-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells-using-high-throughput-sequencing
#19
Jie Song, Yajie Hu, Jiaqi Li, Huiwen Zheng, Jingjing Wang, Lei Guo, Ruotong Ning, Hongzhe Li, Zening Yang, Haitao Fan, Longding Liu
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) remain the predominant pathogens in hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), but the factors underlying the pathogenesis of EV71 and CA16 infections have not been elucidated. Recently, the functions of microRNAs (miRNAs) in pathogen-host interactions have been highlighted. In the present study, we performed comprehensive miRNA profiling in EV71- and CA16-infected human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) at multiple time points using high-throughput sequencing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508043/crystal-structure-of-2c-helicase-from-enterovirus-71
#20
Hongxin Guan, Juan Tian, Bo Qin, Justyna Aleksandra Wojdyla, Bei Wang, Zhendong Zhao, Meitian Wang, Sheng Cui
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the major pathogen responsible for outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease. EV71 nonstructural protein 2C participates in many critical events throughout the virus life cycle; however, its precise role is not fully understood. Lack of a high-resolution structure made it difficult to elucidate 2C activity and prevented inhibitor development. We report the 2.5 Å-resolution crystal structure of the soluble part of EV71 2C, containing an adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) domain, a cysteine-rich zinc finger with an unusual fold, and a carboxyl-terminal helical domain...
April 2017: Science Advances
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