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Enterovirus 71

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238324/immunopathogenesis-and-virus-host-interactions-of-enterovirus-71-in-patients-with-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease
#1
REVIEW
Jonathan A Cox, Julian A Hiscox, Tom Solomon, Mong-How Ooi, Lisa F P Ng
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a global infectious disease that affects millions of people. The virus is the main etiological agent for hand, foot, and mouth disease with outbreaks and epidemics being reported globally. Infection can cause severe neurological, cardiac, and respiratory problems in children under the age of 5. Despite on-going efforts, little is known about the pathogenesis of EV71, how the host immune system responds to the virus and the molecular mechanisms behind these responses. Moreover, current animal models remain limited, because they do not recapitulate similar disease patterns and symptoms observed in humans...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235129/association-of-gene-polymorphisms-of-pattern-recognition-receptor-signalling-pathway-with-the-risk-and-severity-of-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-caused-by-enterovirus-71-in-chinese-han-population
#2
Ya-Ping Li, Mei Li, Xiao-Li Jia, Hui-Ling Deng, Wen-Jun Wang, Feng-Ping Wu, Jun Wang, Shuang-Suo Dang
Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71) presents with a wide variety of clinical manifestations. Host immune response is a factor that influences disease susceptibility and severity. We investigated the potential association of gene polymorphisms in the pattern recognition receptor (PRR) pathway with the risk and severity of EV71 infection. A total of 180 EV71 HFMD cases (108 severe case; 72 mild cases) were enrolled. A group of 201 sex- and age-matched children was included as a control...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231154/enteropathogens-and-gut-inflammation-in-asymptomatic-infants-and-children-in-different-environments-in-southern-india
#3
Ira Praharaj, R Revathy, Rini Bandyopadhyay, Blossom Benny, Mohammad Azharuddin Ko, Jie Liu, Eric R Houpt, Gagandeep Kang
Children in poor environmental conditions are exposed early and often to enteric pathogens, but within developing countries, heterogeneity in enteropathogen exposure in different settings and communities is rarely addressed. We tested fecal samples from healthy infants and children from two different environments in the same Indian town for gut enteropathogens and biomarkers of gut inflammation. A significantly higher proportion of infants and children from a poor semi-urban neighborhood (93%) had one or more enteropathogens than those from a medical college campus (71...
December 11, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231065/serum-interleukin-6-levels-as-an-indicator-of-aseptic-meningitis-among-children-with-enterovirus-71-induced-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease
#4
Joo Young Lee, Minji Son, Jin Han Kang, Ui Yoon Choi
OBJECTIVES: The enterovirus EV71 is a major pathogen of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in children. Aseptic meningitis is the most common neurologic complication of EV71-induced HFMD. Lumbar puncture is a crucial procedure in the diagnosis of aseptic meningitis. It is often performed based on physicians' clinical suspicion. A diagnostic method that can aid in deciding whether this procedure should be performed is necessary. Cytokines are speculated to be associated with neurologic complications...
December 14, 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227478/a-potentiometric-immunosensor-for-enterovirus-71-based-on-bis-mpa-cooh-dendrimer-doped-agcl-nanospheres-with-a-silver-ion-selective-electrode
#5
Ai-Li Sun
Herein a new potentiometric immunoassay for the point-of-care detection of enterovirus 71 (EV71) was developed by using a silver (Ag+) ion-selective electrode (ISE). Initially, the carboxylated dendrimer-doped AgCl nanospheres were synthesized by the reverse micelle method. Then the synthesized nanospheres were used to label a polyclonal mouse anti-EV71 antibody via a typical carbodiimide coupling method. The immunoreaction was executed on a monoclonal anti-EV71 antibody-coated microplate by using biofunctional AgCl nanospheres as the detection antibody...
December 11, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216216/epidemiological-and-genetic-characteristics-of-ev71-in-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-in-guangxi-southern-china-from-2010-to-2015
#6
Minmei Chen, Yu Ju, Min Chen, Zhenguo Xie, Kaijiao Zhou, Yi Tan, Jianjun Mo
Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a significant public health challenge in China. Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is regarded as the predominant causative pathogen of HFMD. Since 2015, two inactivated EV71 vaccines have been approved in mainland China, and because their use could change the HFMD pathogen spectrum, this should now be monitored. However, the epidemiological and genetic trends of EV71 with respect to HFMD in Guangxi, southern China, are still not clear. In this study, we describe the epidemiological and genetic characterization of this virus in clinically-diagnosed HFMD reported from 2010 to 2015 in Guangxi...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180670/mir-16-5p-mediates-a-positive-feedback-loop-in-ev71-induced-apoptosis-and-suppresses-virus-replication
#7
Caishang Zheng, Zhenhua Zheng, Jianhong Sun, Yuan Zhang, Chunyu Wei, Xianliang Ke, Yan Liu, Li Deng, Hanzhong Wang
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the predominant causative pathogen of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD). Contrary to other HFMD-causing enterovirus, EV71 can lead to severe neurological complications, even death. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that constitute the largest family of gene regulators participating in numerous biological or pathological processes. We previously reported that miR-16-5p increases with severity of HFMD by investigating the expression patterns of host miRNAs in patients with HFMD...
November 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176678/isochlorogenic-acid-c-prevents-enterovirus-71-infection-via-modulating-redox-homeostasis-of-glutathione
#8
Zeyu Cao, Yue Ding, Liang Cao, Gang Ding, Zhenzhong Wang, Wei Xiao
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a key pathogen of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in children under 6 years of age. The antiviral potency of antioxidant isochlorogenic acid C (ICAC) extracted from foods was evaluated in cellular and animal models. First, the cytotoxicity of ICAC on Vero cells was investigated. The viral plaques, cytopathic effects and yield induced by EV71 infection were obviously reduced by ICAC, which was consistent with the investigation of VP1 transcripts and protein expression. Moreover, the mortality, weight loss and limb paralysis of mice caused by EV71 challenge were remarkably relieved by ICAC injection, which was achieved through decreases in the viral load and cytokine secretion in the mouse brain...
November 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175261/th17-cytokine-profiling-of-colorectal-cancer-patients-with-or-without-enterovirus-71-antigen-expression
#9
Yazhen Li, Qiancheng Qiu, Zhiqiang Fan, Ping He, Huanzhu Chen, Xiaoyang Jiao
OBJECT: Th17 cytokines have been identified in several types of human cancers. In this pilot study, the expression of Th17 cytokines profiling in enteroviruses 71 (EV71) associated colorectal cancer (CRC) were explored. METHODS: 66 patients with CRC were enrolled in this study; immune- histochemical analyses were performed on cancerous tissues and adjacent non- cancerous tissues of the patients. Serum Th17 cytokines of CRC patients and healthy controls were measured using a Luminex 200 analyzer...
November 23, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175108/nonstructural-protein-2a-modulates-replication-and-virulence-of-enterovirus-71
#10
Chun Li, Qiao Qiao, Shu-Bin Hao, Zhen Dong, Li Zhao, Jing Ji, Zhi-Yu Wang, Hong-Ling Wen
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) can cause hand, foot, and mouth disease in children, and severe infections can induce neurological complications and even death. However, the pathogenesis of EV71 remains unknown. The 2A proteinase (2Apro) of EV71 plays an important role in segmenting the precursor polyprotein during viral replication, inhibiting host protein synthesis, and evading innate immunity. This study was to determine the function of EV71 2Apro in replication and virulence. A chimeric strain (SDLY 107-2A-1) was recombined by replacing 2Apro of a severe strain (SDLY107) with that of a mild strain (SDLY1) based on an infectious cDNA clone...
November 21, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172969/interleukin-35-modulates-the-imbalance-between-regulatory-t-cells-and-t-helper-17-cells-in-enterovirus-71-induced-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease
#11
Qian Huang, Yanhua Wang, Changyun Si, De'an Zhao, Yanping Wang, Yuxiu Duan
Interleukin (IL)-35 modulates the imbalance between regulatory T cells (Tregs) and T helper (Th) 17 cells, which played vital roles in the pathogenesis of autoimmune and infectious diseases. However, the role of Tregs/Th17 cell imbalance and the regulatory functions of IL-35 have remained largely unknown in enterovirus 71 (EV71)-induced hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). In this study, a total of 47 HFMD patients (30 with mild HFMD and 17 with severe HFMD) and 13 healthy individuals were enrolled. The frequencies of CD4+CD25+CD127dim/- Tregs and CD4+IL-17+ Th17 cells, as well as IL-35 expression levels, were measured...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156632/neurotropism-in-vitro-and-mouse-models-of-severe-and-mild-infection-with-clinical-strains-of-enterovirus-71
#12
Pin Yu, Linlin Bao, Lili Xu, Fengdi Li, Qi Lv, Wei Deng, Yanfeng Xu, Chuan Qin
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a common etiological agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease and fatal neurological diseases in children. The neuropathogenicity of severe EV71 infection has been documented, but studies comparing mouse models of severe and mild EV71 infection are lacking. The aim of the study was to investigate the neurovirulence of EV71 strains and the differences in serum cytokine and chemokine levels in mouse models of severe and mild EV71 infection. Nine EV71 isolates belonging to the C4 subgenogroup (proposed as genotype D) displayed infectivity in human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells; moreover, ultrastructural observation confirmed viral particle replication...
November 20, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129453/hepatitis-b-virus-core-particles-containing-multiple-epitopes-confer-protection-against-enterovirus-71-and-coxsackievirus-a16-infection-in-mice
#13
Chunling Huo, Jie Yang, Lei Lei, Lei Qiao, Jiantao Xin, Zishu Pan
Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) are the two major causative agents of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD). To investigate novel combined vaccines to prevent EV71 and CA16 infection, we constructed chimeric virus-like particles (tHBc/SPA or tHBc/SP VLPs) displaying conserved epitopes of EV71 (aa 208-222 of VP1 and aa 248-263 of VP2) and CA16 (aa271-285 of VP1) using a truncated hepatitis B virus core carrier (tHBc). Immunization with the chimeric VLPs induced epitope- or virus-specific IgG and neutralization antibodies against EV71 and CA16 in the mice...
December 19, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127186/formyl-peptide-receptor-2-is-regulated-by-rna-mimics-and-viruses-through-an-ifn-%C3%AE-stat3-dependent-pathway
#14
Patrick B Ampomah, Leonardo A Moraes, Hakim M Lukman, Lina H K Lim
The regulation of host factors is a key strategy employed by viruses to suppress host defense systems and enhance their propagation; however, the mechanisms that underlie this regulation is still unclear. Formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2) recognizes numerous proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory stimuli, and emerging reports indicate elevated levels of FPR2 in several disease conditions. Although studies have implicated FPR2 in a myriad of inflammatory conditions, how viruses exploit this cell-surface receptor to facilitate disease progression remains unknown...
November 10, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122098/contribution-of-3cd-region-to-the-virulence-of-enterovirus-71
#15
Jing Li, Feng Gao, Shu Bin Hao, Dong Cheng, Wen Qiang Zhang, Bin Lin, Li Zhao, Xue Jie Yu, Zhi Yu Wang, Hong Ling Wen
Enterovirus 71 is a neuroinvasive virus that is associated with severe neurological complications. We had earlier suggested that the replication capacity of a severe strain was higher than that of a mild strain. The recombinant 3CRV and 3CDRV virus strains were successfully rescued in our previous study. In the present study, we found no difference in virulence between 3CRV and severe strains. However, the capacity of replication and to cause cell injury of 3CDRV strain decreased in vitro, especially at 39...
October 2017: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122092/rapid-and-accurate-sequencing-of-enterovirus-genomes-using-minion-nanopore-sequencer
#16
Ji Wang, Yue Hua Ke, Yong Zhang, Ke Qiang Huang, Lei Wang, Xin Xin Shen, Xiao Ping Dong, Wen Bo Xu, Xue Jun Ma
OBJECTIVE: Knowledge of an enterovirus genome sequence is very important in epidemiological investigation to identify transmission patterns and ascertain the extent of an outbreak. The MinION sequencer is increasingly used to sequence various viral pathogens in many clinical situations because of its long reads, portability, real-time accessibility of sequenced data, and very low initial costs. However, information is lacking on MinION sequencing of enterovirus genomes. METHODS: In this proof-of-concept study using Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) strains as examples, we established an amplicon-based whole genome sequencing method using MinION...
October 2017: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120300/enterovirus-71-antagonizes-the-antiviral-activity-of-host-stat3-and-il-6r-with-partial-dependence-on-virus-induced-mir-124
#17
Zhangmei Chang, Yan Wang, Liang Bian, Qingqing Liu, Jian-Er Long
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has caused major outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease. EV71 infections increase the production of many host cytokines and pro-inflammatory factors, including interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10 and COX-2. Some of these molecules could stimulate the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), which plays a key role in regulating host immune responses and several viral diseases. However, the role of STAT3 in EV71 infection remains unknown. This study found that the phosphorylation levels of STAT3 (p(Y705)-STAT3) are closely related to EV71 infection...
November 9, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115505/alanine-scanning-mutagenesis-of-sp70-epitope-in-characterizing-species%C3%A2-specific-antibodies-induced-by-enterovirus-71%C3%A2-based-antigens
#18
Meng Gao, Feng Zhang, Yun Zhu, Limei Gao, Yunshui Jiang, Yongneng Luo, Fangchang Zhuang, Zian Mao, Jiangsen Mao
The enterovirus 71 (EV71) SP70 epitope, derived from amino acids 208‑222 of VP1, is a neutralizing epitope. The present study aimed to assess the inter‑species differences of the antibodies induced by EV71‑based antigens in responses to SP70 mutant peptides. BALB/c mice and Lou/C rats were immunized with EV71 SP70. Monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) were produced by hybridoma clones. Serum polyclonal antibodies (Pabs) were produced from BALB/c mice and New Zealand white rabbits immunized with recombinant EV71 VP1 (rEV71‑VP1) protein or inactivated EV71...
November 6, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113363/involvement-of-inducible-nitric-oxide-synthase-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-the-pathogenesis-of-enterovirus-71-infection
#19
Dejian Dang, Chao Zhang, Rongguang Zhang, Weidong Wu, Shuaiyin Chen, Jingchao Ren, Peng Zhang, Guangyuan Zhou, Demin Feng, Tiantian Sun, Ying Li, Qiaoli Liu, Mengchen Li, Yuanlin Xi, Yuefei Jin, Guangcai Duan
Enterovirus71 (EV71) is recognized as the main causative agent of severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). However, the pathogenesis of EV71 infection has not been well characterized. Clinical evidence indicated that inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) induction in the lung of HFMD patients contributes to the severe symptoms of pulmonary edema. In the present study, we recruited 142 subjects including HFMD patients and controls, and serum level of nitric oxide (NO) was determined. Next, cellular and animal model were used to further investigate the roles of iNOS and mitochondria damage during EV71 infection...
October 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109684/antimicrobial-anthelmintic-and-antiviral-activity-of-plants-traditionally-used-for-treating-infectious-disease-in-the-similipal-biosphere-reserve-odisha-india
#20
Sujogya K Panda, Laxmipriya Padhi, Pieter Leyssen, Maoxuan Liu, Johan Neyts, Walter Luyten
In the present study, we tested in vitro different parts of 35 plants used by tribals of the Similipal Biosphere Reserve (SBR, Mayurbhanj district, India) for the management of infections. From each plant, three extracts were prepared with different solvents (water, ethanol, and acetone) and tested for antimicrobial (E. coli, S. aureus, C. albicans); anthelmintic (C. elegans); and antiviral (enterovirus 71) bioactivity. In total, 35 plant species belonging to 21 families were recorded from tribes of the SBR and periphery...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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