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Enterovirus 71

Madiiha Bibi Mandary, Chit Laa Poh
Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) is a major etiological agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) that mainly affects young children less than five years old. The onset of severe HFMD is due to neurological complications bringing about acute flaccid paralysis and pulmonary oedema. In this review, we address how genetic events such as recombination and spontaneous mutations could change the genomic organization of EV-A71, leading to an impact on viral virulence. An understanding of the recombination mechanism of the poliovirus and non-polio enteroviruses will provide further evidence of the emergence of novel strains responsible for fatal HFMD outbreaks...
June 12, 2018: Viruses
Yu-Li Lin, Pei-Yun Cheng, Chiao-Li Chin, Li-Min Huang, Shr-Yu Lin, Bor-Luen Chiang
To prevent viral infection at the site of entry, mucosal vaccines are potent tools for inducing IgA secretion for defense. Because Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands serve as strong adjuvants, two ligands that mimic the structure of mycoplasmal and bacterial lipopeptides represent interesting vaccine candidates. Pam3CSK4, a synthetic triacylated lipopeptide, interacts with TLR2/1. Because fibroblast-stimulating lipopeptide-1 (FSL-1), a synthetic diacylated lipopeptide, is recognized by TLR2/6, we targeted the potential immuno-inducibility of Pam3CSK4 and FSL-1 as adjuvants of an enterovirus 71 (EV71) mucosal vaccine...
June 8, 2018: Vaccine
Huiying Zhang, Zhigang Song, Huiju Yu, Xiaoling Zhang, Shanshan Xu, Zhong Li, Jingzhi Li, Hongke Xu, Zhenghong Yuan, Hongwei Ma, Zhigang Yi, Yunwen Hu
BACKGROUND: Enteroviruses cause hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). The host B-cells recognize the viral proteins and provoke humoral responses. Deciphering the B-cell responses to the viral epitopes helps diagnosis and vaccine development. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the present study was to investigate for the first time the landscape of genome-wide linear B-cell epitopes of enterovirus 71 in HFMD population. STUDY DESIGN: The peptides encompassing the entire coding region of EV71 were chemically synthesized and displayed on a microarray...
June 3, 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Tian-Pei Guan, Jade L L Teng, Kai-Yan Yeong, Zhang-Qiang You, Hao Liu, Samson S Y Wong, Susanna K P Lau, Patrick C Y Woo
The Sichuan takin inhabits the bamboo forests in the Eastern Himalayas and is considered as a national treasure of China with the highest legal protection and conservation status considered as vulnerable according to The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. In this study, fecal samples of 71 Sichuan takins were pooled and deep sequenced. Among the 103,553 viral sequences, 21,961 were assigned to mammalian viruses. De novo assembly revealed genomes of an enterovirus and an astrovirus and contigs of circoviruses and genogroup I picobirnaviruses...
June 7, 2018: Virology
Ching-Kun Chang, Shang-Rung Wu, Ying-Chin Chen, Kuen-Jin Lee, Nai-Hsiang Chung, Yi-Ju Lu, Shu-Ling Yu, Chia-Chyi Liu, Yen-Hung Chow
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.
June 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kyousuke Kobayashi, Yui Sudaka, Ayako Takashino, Ayumi Imura, Ken Fujii, Satoshi Koike
Infection of enterovirus 71 (EV71) is affected by cell surface receptors, including the scavenger receptor B2, which are required for viral uncoating, and attachment receptors, such are heparan sulfate (HS), which bind virus, but do not support uncoating. Amino acid residue 145 of the capsid protein VP1 affects viral binding to HS, and virulence in mice. However, the contribution of this amino acid to pathogenicity in humans is not known. We produced EV71 having glycine (VP1-145G) or glutamic acid (VP1-145E) at position 145...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Virology
Ken Fujii, Yui Sudaka, Ayako Takashino, Kyousuke Kobayashi, Chikako Kataoka, Tadaki Suzuki, Naoko Iwata-Yoshikawa, Osamu Kotani, Yasushi Ami, Hiroyuki Shimizu, Noriyo Nagata, Katsumi Mizuta, Yoko Matsuzaki, Satoshi Koike
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease and sometimes causes severe or fatal neurological complications. The amino acid at VP1-145 determines virological characteristics of EV71. Viruses with glutamic acid (E) at VP1-145 (VP1-145E) are virulent in neonatal mice and transgenic mice expressing human scavenger receptor B2, whereas those with glutamine (Q) or glycine (G) are not. However, the contribution of this variation to pathogenesis in humans is not fully understood. We compared the virulence of VP1-145E and VP1-145G viruses of Isehara and C7/Osaka backgrounds in cynomolgus monkeys...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Virology
Surya Palani, Muruganandam Nagarajan, Ashok Kumar Biswas, Rajesh Reesu, Vijayachari Paluru
OBJECTIVE: To investigate an outbreak of Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in Andaman Islands during 2013. METHODS: Epidemiological, clinical data and samples were collected from HFMD patients who attended selected hospitals. Data were analyzed and samples were processed for detection of Enterovirus and further confirmed by sequencing. Serotype-specific molecular typing was also done to identify the etiological agent. RESULTS: Of the 246 suspected patients, most were affected in August 2013 (92/246, 37...
May 15, 2018: Indian Pediatrics
Savina Reid, Haley Thompson, Kiran T Thakur
Neurological complications of infectious diseases are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. It is imperative that neurologists be up-to-date on current developments including typical and atypical presentations of neurological infections in travelers, diagnostic and treatment recommendations, and emerging pathogen resistance patterns to avoid fatal outcomes and long-term sequelae. This article will address concepts of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases, and will provide updates on the neurological manifestations of select emerging and reemerging infections, including Ebola virus, bacterial meningitis, enterovirus 71, Zika virus, cerebral malaria, and Japanese encephalitis...
April 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Chao Zhang, Shuaiyin Chen, Guangyuan Zhou, Yuefei Jin, Rongguang Zhang, Haiyan Yang, Yuanlin Xi, Jingchao Ren, Guangcai Duan
BACKGROUND: Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) is generally considered as a mild exanthematous disease to infants and young children worldwide. HFMD cases are usually mild and self-limiting but for few cases leads to complicated severe clinical outcomes, and even death. Previous studies have indicated that serum Ang II levels in patients with H7N9 infection were related to the severity of infection. However, the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of severe HFMD remain unclear. This study was undertaken to clarify the role of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the progression of severe HFMD...
2018: PloS One
Wei Zhang, Wenlong Dai, Chao Zhang, Yu Zhou, Pei Xiong, Shuxia Wang, Xiaohua Ye, Qingwei Liu, Dongming Zhou, Zhong Huang
Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is an infectious disease that mainly affects infants and children, causing considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. HFMD is commonly caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackieviruses A16 (CVA16), A6 (CVA6), and A10 (CVA10). Formalin-inactivated EV71 vaccines are currently available in China; however, these vaccines fail to confer cross-protection against infections by other HFMD-causing enteroviruses, highlighting the necessity of developing a multivalent HFMD vaccine...
May 18, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Nanfang Peng, Xuecheng Yang, Chengliang Zhu, Li Zhou, Haisheng Yu, Mengqi Li, Yong Lin, Xueyu Wang, Qian Li, Yinglong She, Jun Wang, Qian Zhao, Mengji Lu, Ying Zhu, Shi Liu
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) induces significantly elevated levels of cytokines and chemokines, leading to local or systemic inflammation and severe complications. As shown in our previous study, microRNA (miR) 302c regulates influenza A virus-induced IFN expression by targeting NF-κB-inducing kinase. However, little is known about the role of the miR-302 cluster in EV71-mediated proinflammatory responses. In this study, we found that the miR-302 cluster controls EV71-induced cytokine expression. Further studies demonstrated that karyopherin α2 (KPNA2) is a direct target of the miR-302 cluster...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Tiegang Li, Hui Wang, Yin Lu, Qin Li, Chun Chen, Dahu Wang, Meixia Li, Yilan Li, Jianyun Lu, Zongqiu Chen, Yu Ma, Wenhui Liu, Mengmeng Ma, Di Wu, Jiachun Lu, Zhicong Yang
Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) primarily affects children younger than 5 years of age. Recently, HFMD has ranked as the top notifiable infectious disease in China. In December 2015, China approved two novel inactivated enterovirus 71 vaccines (EV71 vaccines) for HFMD. Parents' acceptance is often essential for vaccination program success. The goal of this study was to identify willingness and influential factors to vaccinate among parents of kindergarteners in Guangzhou, China. A cross-sectional survey of face-to-face interviews was conducted from March to July 2016...
May 15, 2018: Vaccine
Dan Yin, Yanan Zhu, Kaifeng Wang, Jing Wang, Xiru Zhang, Min Han, Yaqing He, Qing Chen, Guifang Hu
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the most common pathogens of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). A rapid reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) assay was established to detect EV71 subgenotype C4 (EV71-C4). The 95% detection limit of the RT-RPA was 3.767 log10 genomic copies (LGC)/reaction. The specificity was 100%. In a clinical sample evaluation, this approach demonstrated sufficient clinical performance when compared with a commercial RT-qPCR diagnostic kit. Thus, the RT-RPA assay may be a promising alternative for the detection of EV71-C4...
May 16, 2018: Archives of Virology
Yuefei Jin, Chao Zhang, Hui Wang, Guangyuan Zhou, Xiangpeng Wang, Rongguang Zhang, Shuaiyin Chen, Jingchao Ren, Lu Chen, Dejian Dang, Peng Zhang, Yuanlin Xi, Weidong Wu, Weiguo Zhang, Guangcai Duan
Enterovirus (EV) 71 infection has been widely acknowledged as the leading cause of severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), which may rapidly lead to fatal pulmonary edema. In this study, we established a mouse model for EV71 infection exhibiting high incidence of severe symptoms with pulmonary edema. Mast cells (MCs) accumulation, activation and allergic inflammation were found in the brains, lungs and skeletal muscle of mice after EV71 infection, especially in the lungs of mice. Levels of histamine, platelet-activating factor (PAF), interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-13, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), nitric oxide (NO), endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor (EG-VEGF) and noradrenaline (NA) were increased in EV71-infected lungs...
May 15, 2018: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
Fengmei Song, Xiaoyan Yu, Ting Zhong, Zengyan Wang, Xiangling Meng, Zhaolong Li, Shuxia Zhang, Wenbo Huo, Xin Liu, Yahong Zhang, Wenyan Zhang, Jinghua Yu
Previous studies demonstrate that human enterovirus 71 (EV71), a primary causative agent for hand, foot, and mouth disease, activates caspase-3 through the non-structural viral 3C protein to induce host cell apoptosis; however, until now it was unclear how 3C activates caspase-3 and how caspase-3 activation affects viral production. Our results demonstrate that 3C binds caspase-8 and caspase-9 but does not directly bind caspase-3 to activate them, and that the proteolytic activity of 3C is required by the activation of caspase-8, caspase-9, and caspase-3...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Sabine M G van der Sanden, Norman Sachs, Sylvie M Koekkoek, Gerrit Koen, Dasja Pajkrt, Hans Clevers, Katja C Wolthers
Human enteroviruses frequently cause severe diseases in children. Human enteroviruses are transmitted via the fecal-oral route and respiratory droplets, and primary replication occurs in the gastro-intestinal and respiratory tracts; however, how enteroviruses infect these sites is largely unknown. Human intestinal organoids have recently proven to be valuable tools for studying enterovirus-host interactions in the intestinal tract. In this study, we demonstrated the susceptibility of a newly developed human airway organoid model for enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection...
May 9, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Heeji Lim, Hyun Ju In, Jung-Ah Lee, Jung Sik Yoo, Sang-Won Lee, Gyung Tae Chung, Young Ki Choi, Jae Keun Chung, Sun Ju Cho, June-Woo Lee
Coxsackievirus belongs to the Enterovirus genus of the Picornaviridae family and is one of the major pathogens associated with human hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). Historically, outbreaks of HFMD have mainly been caused by enterovirus 71 and coxsackievirus A16. Recently, coxsackieviruses A6 and A10 have been associated with increased occurrences of sporadic HFMD cases and outbreak events globally. In this study, the immunogenicity of coxsackieviruses A6, A10, and A16 (CA6, CA10, and CA16), which were inactivated by formalin or β-propiolactone (BPL) under different conditions, was evaluated as multivalent vaccine candidates...
June 7, 2018: Vaccine
Deyan Chen, Xiaoyan Tian, Xue Zou, Shijie Xu, Huanru Wang, Nan Zheng, Zhiwei Wu
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection of young children can cause neurological manifestations, which is mainly responsible for the fatality. Although a vaccine is recently available for preventing enterovirus 71 infection, its efficacy remains to be seen. Therefore, there is a pressing need for anti-viral agents for the treatment of EV71 infection. By screening a natural compound library for inhibitory activity of EV71 replication, we identified a small molecule, harmine, that inhibited EV71 replication by targeting NF-κB signaling pathway...
May 2, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Ching-Kun Chang, Shang-Rung Wu, Ying-Chin Chen, Kuen-Jin Lee, Nai-Hsiang Chung, Yi-Ju Lu, Shu-Ling Yu, Chia-Chyi Liu, Yen-Hung Chow
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major cause of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). The current EV71 propagating in Vero (EV-V) or sub-passaged in RD (EV-R) cells was used as a pathogen. Interestingly, EV-R exhibited differential virulence; challenging human scavenger receptor class B2-expressing (hSCARB2-Tg) mice with EV71 revealed that EV-V was more virulent than EV-R: 100% of mice that received lethal amounts of EV-V died, while all the mice that received EV-R survived. Severe pathogenesis correlated with viral burdens and proinflammatory cytokine levels were observed in EV-V-challenged mice, but controversy in EV-R-challenged mice...
April 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
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