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Malaria prophylaxis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895848/four-artemisinin-based-treatments-in-african-pregnant-women-with-malaria
#1
Divine Pekyi, Akua A Ampromfi, Halidou Tinto, Maminata Traoré-Coulibaly, Marc C Tahita, Innocent Valéa, Victor Mwapasa, Linda Kalilani-Phiri, Gertrude Kalanda, Mwayiwawo Madanitsa, Raffaella Ravinetto, Theonest Mutabingwa, Prosper Gbekor, Harry Tagbor, Gifty Antwi, Joris Menten, Maaike De Crop, Yves Claeys, Celine Schurmans, Chantal Van Overmeir, Kamala Thriemer, Jean-Pierre Van Geertruyden, Umberto D'Alessandro, Michael Nambozi, Modest Mulenga, Sebastian Hachizovu, Jean-Bertin B Kabuya, Joyce Mulenga
BACKGROUND: Information regarding the safety and efficacy of artemisinin combination treatments for malaria in pregnant women is limited, particularly among women who live in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, randomized, open-label trial of treatments for malaria in pregnant women in four African countries. A total of 3428 pregnant women in the second or third trimester who had falciparum malaria (at any parasite density and regardless of symptoms) were treated with artemether-lumefantrine, amodiaquine-artesunate, mefloquine-artesunate, or dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine...
September 2016: Malawi Medical Journal: the Journal of Medical Association of Malawi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852523/anemia-offers-stronger-protection-than-sickle-cell-trait-against-the-erythrocytic-stage-of-falciparum-malaria-and-this-protection-is-reversed-by-iron-supplementation
#2
M M Goheen, R Wegmüller, A Bah, B Darboe, E Danso, M Affara, D Gardner, J C Patel, A M Prentice, C Cerami
BACKGROUND: Iron deficiency causes long-term adverse consequences for children and is the most common nutritional deficiency worldwide. Observational studies suggest that iron deficiency anemia protects against Plasmodiumfalciparum malaria and several intervention trials have indicated that iron supplementation increases malaria risk through unknown mechanism(s). This poses a major challenge for health policy. We investigated how anemia inhibits blood stage malaria infection and how iron supplementation abrogates this protection...
November 9, 2016: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826886/rarity-of-mixed-species-malaria-with-plasmodium-falciparum-and-plasmodium-malariae-in-travelers-to-saarland-in-germany
#3
Josef Yayan, Kurt Rasche
Malaria is an acute, life-threatening infectious disease that spreads in tropical and subtropical regions. Malaria is mainly brought over to Germany by travelers, so the disease can be overlooked due to its nonspecific symptoms and a lack of experience of attending physicians. The aim of this study was to analyze, retrospectively, epidemiological and clinical data from patients examined for malaria. Patient data were collected from hospital charts at the Department of Internal Medicine, Saarland University Medical Center, Germany, for the period of 2004-2012...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799645/dosage-of-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine-and-risk-of-low-birth-weight-in-a-cohort-of-zambian-pregnant-women-in-a-low-malaria-prevalence-region
#4
Marie C D Stoner, Bellington Vwalika, Marcela Smid, Andrew Kumwenda, Elizabeth Stringer, Benjamin H Chi, Jeff S A Stringer
In Lusaka, Zambia, where malaria prevalence is low, national guidelines continue to recommend that all pregnant women receive sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) for malaria prophylaxis monthly at every scheduled antenatal care visit after 16 weeks of gestation. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive women should receive co-trimoxazole prophylaxis for HIV and not SP, but many still receive SP. We sought to determine whether increased dosage of SP is still associated with a reduced risk of low birth weight (LBW) in an area where malaria transmission is low...
October 31, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789127/is-the-mitochondrion-a-good-malaria-drug-target
#5
REVIEW
Christopher D Goodman, Hayley D Buchanan, Geoffrey I McFadden
Rapid emergence of resistance to atovaquone, which targets electron transport in the malaria parasite mitochondrion, relegated its use to prophylaxis and even cast a shadow over the development of drugs targeting other parasite mitochondrial pathways. Here we argue for a renewed focus on the mitochondrion as a drug target, focusing particularly on the issues of resistance. We posit a hypothesis for why atovaquone resistance emerges so quickly, and we explain how facile acquisition of resistance is apparently offset by an inability of parasites to spread this resistance...
October 24, 2016: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756308/malaria-burden-in-a-birth-cohort-of-hiv-exposed-uninfected-ugandan-infants-living-in-a-high-malaria-transmission-setting
#6
Abel Kakuru, Paul Natureeba, Mary K Muhindo, Tamara D Clark, Diane V Havlir, Deborah Cohan, Grant Dorsey, Moses R Kamya, Theodore Ruel
BACKGROUND: HIV-exposed, uninfected (HEU) infants suffer high morbidity and mortality in the first year of life compared to HIV-unexposed, uninfected (HUU) infants, but accurate data on the contribution of malaria are limited. METHODS: The incidence of febrile illnesses and malaria were evaluated in a birth cohort of HEU infants. Infants were prescribed daily trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TS) prophylaxis from 6 weeks of age until exclusion of HIV-infection after cessation of breastfeeding...
October 18, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747687/prolonged-neuropsychiatric-symptoms-in-a-military-service-member-exposed-to-mefloquine
#7
Jeffrey Livezey, Thomas Oliver, Louis Cantilena
A 32-year-old male developed neuropsychiatric symptoms 2 weeks after starting mefloquine 250 mg/week for malaria prophylaxis. He continued to take the medication for the next 4 months. Initial symptoms included vivid dreams and anxiety, as well as balance problems. These symptoms persisted and progressed over the next 4 years to include vertigo, emotional lability, and poor short-term memory, which have greatly affected his personal and professional life. An extensive evaluation revealed objective evidence supporting a central vestibulopathy...
December 2016: Drug Safety—Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663283/travel-health-attitudes-among-turkish-business-travellers-to-african-countries
#8
Engin Burak Selcuk, Uner Kayabas, Hulisi Binbasioglu, Baris Otlu, Yasar Bayindir, Bulent Bozdogan, Mehmet Karatas
BACKGROUND: The number of international travellers is increasing worldwide. Although health risks related to international travel are important and generally well-understood, the perception of these risks was unclear among Turkish travellers. We aimed to evaluate the attitudes and health risk awareness of Turkish travellers travelling to African countries. METHOD: A survey was performed of Turkish travellers bound for Africa from Istanbul International Ataturk Airport in July 2013...
September 20, 2016: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647575/molecular-surveillance-of-plasmodium-falciparum-drug-resistance-markers-reveals-partial-recovery-of-chloroquine-susceptibility-but-sustained-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine-resistance-at-two-sites-of-different-malaria-transmission-intensities-in-rwanda
#9
Fredrick Kateera, Sam L Nsobya, Steven Tukwasibwe, Emmanuel Hakizimana, Leon Mutesa, Petra F Mens, Martin P Grobusch, Michèle van Vugt, Nirbhay Kumar
Faced with intense levels of chloroquine (CQ) resistance in Plasmodium falciparum malaria, Rwanda replaced CQ with amodiaquine (AQ)+sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) in 2001, and subsequently with artemether-lumefantrine (AL) in 2006, as first-line treatments for uncomplicated malaria. Following years of discontinuation of CQ use, re-emergence of CQ-susceptible parasites has been reported in countries including Malawi, Kenya and Tanzania. In contrast, high levels of SP resistant mutant parasites continue to be reported even in countries of presumed reduced SP drug selection pressure...
September 17, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27645545/rarity-of-mixed-species-malaria-with-plasmodium-falciparum-and-plasmodium-malariae-in-travelers-to-saarland-in-germany
#10
Josef Yayan, Kurt Rasche
Malaria is an acute, life-threatening infectious disease that spreads in tropical and subtropical regions. Malaria is mainly brought over to Germany by travelers, so the disease can be overlooked due to its nonspecific symptoms and a lack of experience of attending physicians. The aim of this study was to analyze, retrospectively, epidemiological and clinical data from patients examined for malaria. Patient data were collected from hospital charts at the Department of Internal Medicine, Saarland University Medical Center, Germany, for the period of 2004-2012...
September 20, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27625401/effectiveness-of-twice-a-week-prophylaxis-with-atovaquone-proguanil-malarone%C3%A2-in-long-term-travellers-to-west-africa
#11
Tamar Lachish, Maskit Bar-Meir, Neta Eisenberg, Eli Schwartz
BACKGROUND: Current guidelines recommend daily dosing of atovaquone-proguanil (AP), beginning a day before travel to endemic areas and continuing for 7 days after departure. Adherence of long-term travellers to daily malaria chemoprophylaxis tends to be poor, even when residing in highly endemic malaria regions. Evidence from a volunteer challenging study suggests that non-daily, longer intervals dosing of AP provides effective protection against Plasmodium falciparum This study examines the effectiveness of twice weekly AP prophylaxis in long-term travellers to highly endemic P...
June 2016: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619013/the-prevalence-of-malaria-in-people-living-with-hiv-in-yaounde-cameroon
#12
Anna Longdoh Njunda, Charles Njumkeng, Shey Dickson Nsagha, Jules Clement Nguedia Assob, Tebit Emmanuel Kwenti
BACKGROUND: Coinfection with malaria and HIV is common in Sub-Saharan Africa. In the advent of a decline in the global incidence of malaria, it is important to generate updated data on the burden of malaria in people living with HIV (PLWHIV). This study was designed to determine the prevalence of malaria in PLWHIV in Yaounde, Cameroon, as well determine the association between CD4 (+) T cell count and malaria in the study population. METHODS: In a cross sectional study performed between April 2015 and June 2016, 355 PLWHIV were enrolled and blood samples were collected for analysis...
2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27544402/parallel-inhibition-of-amino-acid-efflux-and-growth-of-erythrocytic-plasmodium-falciparum-by-mefloquine-and-non-piperidine-analogs-implication-for-the-mechanism-of-antimalarial-action
#13
Maryam Ghavami, Christie H Dapper, Seema Dalal, Kristina Holzschneider, Michael Klemba, Paul R Carlier
Despite the troubling psychiatric side-effects it causes in some patients, mefloquine (MQ) has been used for malaria prophylaxis and therapy, due to its activity against all Plasmodium species, its ease of dosing, and its relative safety in children and pregnant women. Yet at present there is no consensus on the mechanism of antimalarial action of MQ. Two leading hypotheses for the mechanism of MQ are inhibition of heme crystallization and inhibition of host cell hemoglobin endocytosis. In this report we show that MQ is a potent and rapid inhibitor of amino acid efflux from intact parasitized erythrocytes, which is a measure of the in vivo rate of host hemoglobin endocytosis and catabolism...
October 1, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27434109/-demographic-characteristics-malaria-chemoprophylaxis-and-vaccination-in-6-783-international-travelers-attended-in-a-specialized-unit
#14
N Jaén-Sánchez, L Suárez-Hormiga, C Carranza-Rodríguez, M Hernández-Cabrera, E Pisos-Álamo, L García-Reina, J L Pérez-Arellano
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper was to determine the demographic characteristics and the evolution of international travelers treated at the Unit of Infectious and Tropical Medicine in order to improve precautions prior to travel and, thus reduce the occurrence of these diseases. METHODS: A retrospective study of all international travelers served in UEIMT (Las Palmas de Gran Canaria) during the period 1998-2013 was performed. The following variables were collected using a standardized protocol were analyzed: age, gender, date of consultation, type of traveler, countries of destination and preventive measures undertaken (malaria chemoprophylaxis and vaccines)...
October 2016: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27432906/a-non-pharmaceutical-form-of-artemisia-annua-is-not-effective-in-preventing-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria
#15
Laurence Lagarce, Nicolas Lerolle, Pierre Asfar, Yohann Le Govic, Pascale Lainé-Cessac, Ludovic de Gentile
Non-pharmaceutical forms of Artemisia annua (a Chinese plant containing artemisinin) are used by some travellers who believe these products are safer than anti-malarial drugs. We report two cases of severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria requiring hospitalization in an Intensive Care Unit following prophylaxis with non-pharmaceutical A. annua in French travellers.
May 2016: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27424614/a-comparative-study-of-azithromycin-and-sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine-as-prophylaxis-against-malaria-in-pregnancy
#16
Rukiyat Adeola Abdus-Salam, Folasade Adenike Bello, Fatai A Fehintola, Ayodele O Arowojolu
CONTEXT: The benefit of malaria prophylaxis in pregnancy is threatened by emergence of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to antimalarial agents for chemoprophylaxis and treatment. AIM: This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of azithromycin (AZ) with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) for malaria prevention. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A prospective comparative study of antenatal clinic attendees at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria...
April 2016: Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27417903/longitudinal-effect-of-cd4-by-cotrimoxazole-use-on-malaria-incidence-among-hiv-infected-ugandan-adults-on-antiretroviral-therapy-a-randomized-controlled-study
#17
Ronnie Kasirye, Heiner Grosskurth, Paula Munderi, Jonathan Levin, Zacchaeus Anywaine, Andrew Nunn, Anatoli Kamali, Kathy Baisley
BACKGROUND: The effect of CD4 count on malaria incidence in HIV infected adults on antiretroviral therapy (ART) was assessed in the context of a randomized controlled trial on the effect of stopping cotrimoxazole (CTX). METHODS: This study presents a sub-analysis of the COSTOP trial (ISRCTN44723643) which was carried out among HIV-infected Ugandan adults stable on ART with CD4 counts ≥250 cells/µl. Participants were randomized (1:1) to continue CTX or stop CTX and receive matching placebo, and were followed up for a minimum of 1 year (median 2...
2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27412525/travelers-health-problems-and-behavior-prospective-study-with-post-travel-follow-up
#18
Katri Vilkman, Sari H Pakkanen, Tinja Lääveri, Heli Siikamäki, Anu Kantele
BACKGROUND: The annual number of international tourist arrivals has recently exceeded one billion, yet surprisingly few studies have characterized travelers' behavior, illness, and risk factors in a prospective setting. Particularly scarce are surveys of data spanning travel, return, and follow-up of the same cohort. This study examines behavior and illness among travelers while abroad, after return home, and at follow-up. Patterns of behavior connected to type of travel and illness are characterized so as to identify risk factors and provide background data for pre-travel advice...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27405448/rarity-of-mixed-species-malaria-with-plasmodium-falciparum-and-plasmodium-malariae-in-travelers-to-saarland-in-germany
#19
Josef Yayan, Kurt Rasche
Malaria is an acute, life-threatening infectious disease that spreads in tropical and subtropical regions. Malaria is mainly brought over to Germany by travelers, so the disease can be overlooked due to its nonspecific symptoms and a lack of experience of attending physicians. The aim of this study was to analyze, retrospectively, epidemiological and clinical data from patients examined for malaria. Patient data were collected from hospital charts at the Department of Internal Medicine, Saarland University Medical Center, Germany, for the period of 2004-2012...
July 13, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27347981/factors-influencing-anti-malarial-prophylaxis-and-iron-supplementation-non-compliance-among-pregnant-women-in-simiyu-region-tanzania
#20
Benatus Sambili, Ronald Kimambo, Yun Peng, Elison Ishunga, Edna Matasha, Godfrey Matumu, Rita Noronha, David P Ngilangwa
Malaria and iron-deficient anemia during pregnancy pose considerable risks for the mother and newborn. Intermittent Preventive Treatment during pregnancy with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) and iron supplement to prevent anemia to all pregnant women receiving antenatal care (ANC) services is highly recommended. However, their compliance remains low. This study aimed at identifying factors influencing non-compliance of medications among pregnant women. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in Simiyu region in northwest Tanzania using a structured questionnaire to collect data from 430 women who were pregnant or gave birth 12 months prior to data collection...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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