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Malaria prophylaxis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077589/trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-prophylaxis-during-live-malaria-sporozoite-immunization-induces-long-lived-homologous-and-heterologous-protective-immunity-against-sporozoite-challenge
#1
Charlotte V Hobbs, Charles Anderson, Jillian Neal, Tejram Sahu, Solomon Conteh, Tatiana Voza, Jean Langhorne, William Borkowsky, Patrick E Duffy
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) is widely used in malaria-endemic areas in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children and HIV-uninfected, HIV-exposed children as opportunistic infection prophylaxis. Despite the known effects that TMP-SMX has in reducing clinical malaria, its impact on development of malaria-specific immunity in these children remains poorly understood. Using rodent malaria models, we previously showed that TMP-SMX, at prophylactic doses, can arrest liver stage development of malaria parasites and speculated that TMP-SMX prophylaxis during repeated malaria exposures would induce protective long-lived sterile immunity targeting pre-erythrocytic stage parasites in mice...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077587/malaria-parasitemia-and-parasite-density-in-antiretroviral-treated-hiv-infected-adults-following-discontinuation-of-cotrimoxazole-prophylaxis
#2
Ronald K Ottichilo, Christina S Polyak, Bernard Guyah, Benson Singa, Josphat Nyataya, Krista Yuhas, Grace John-Stewart, John N Waitumbi
BACKGROUND:  Cotrimoxazole (CTX) discontinuation increases malaria incidence in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. Rates, quantity, and timing of parasitemia rebound following CTX remain undefined. METHODS:  Serial specimens from a trial of HIV-infected individuals receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) randomized to continue (the CTX arm) or discontinue (the STOP-CTX arm) were examined for malaria parasites by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032428/antimalarial-treatment-patterns-among-pregnant-women-attending-antenatal-care-clinics-in-south-east-nigeria-and-the-future-implications
#3
Charles Ezenduka, Chizoba Nworgu, Brian Barr Godman, Amos Massele, Charles Esimone
BACKGROUND: Prompt and effective treatment of malaria in pregnancy in accordance with recommended guidelines is essential to help prevent adverse events among pregnant mothers and the foetus. AIM: The aim of this study was to assess current prescribing of antimalarial medicines in pregnancy against policy guidelines in south east Nigeria to provide future guidance. METHODS: A review of prescription records of pregnant women treated for malaria over a 6-month period between August 2013 and January 2014 was carried out to assess the prescribing patterns for both the prevention and treatment of malaria in each trimester and analyzed for conformity to recommended guidelines...
December 2016: International Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008284/implementation-of-co-trimoxazole-preventive-therapy-policy-for-malaria-in-hiv-infected-pregnant-women-in-the-public-health-facilities-in-tanzania
#4
Appolinary Ar Kamuhabwa, Richard Gordian, Ritah F Mutagonda
BACKGROUND: In 2011, Tanzania adopted a policy for provision of daily co-trimoxazole prophylaxis to HIV-infected pregnant women for prevention of malaria and other opportunistic infections. As per the policy, HIV-infected pregnant women should not be given sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) for intermittent preventive therapy. The challenges associated with this policy change and the extent to which the new policy for prevention of malaria in pregnant women coinfected with HIV was implemented need to be assessed...
2016: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934844/severe-unresolving-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-following-artemisinin-combination-therapy-emergence-of-drug-resistance-in-saudi-arabia
#5
I A Al-Zaydani, A Al-Hakami, A Kumar, S A Abdalla, M Otaif, Rma Thiqa, H Ahmed, K Alnahili
A 5-year-old female child presented with fever of 1-week duration after visiting a malaria endemic zone without antimalarial prophylaxis. The patient presented with respiratory distress, decreased level of consciousness and high-grade fever. An elevated parasitaemia reaching 800,000/μl was observed. Antimalarial therapy was initiated with artesunate being administered intravenous (IV) along with IV clindamycin. Contrary to the expectations, there was no resolution of fever. Following a week of unresolved fever, the drug therapy was revised and altered to IV quinine dihydrochloride and IV clindamycin...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929232/the-pretravel-consultation
#6
Christopher Sanford, Adam McConnell, Justin Osborn
Key components of the pretravel consultation include intake questions regarding the traveler's anticipated itinerary and medical history; immunizations; malaria prophylaxis; and personal protection measures against arthropod bites, traveler's diarrhea, and injury. Most vaccinations that are appropriate for international travelers are included in the routine domestic immunization schedule; only a few travel-specific vaccines must also be discussed. The most common vaccine-preventable illnesses in international travelers are influenza and hepatitis A...
October 15, 2016: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923405/cytochrome-p450-2d-mediated-metabolism-is-not-necessary-for-tafenoquine-and-primaquine-to-eradicate-the-erythrocytic-stages-of-plasmodium-berghei
#7
Erin E Milner, Jonathan Berman, Diana Caridha, Samuel P Dickson, Mark Hickman, Patricia J Lee, Sean R Marcsisin, Lisa T Read, Norma Roncal, Brian A Vesely, Lisa H Xie, Jing Zhang, Ping Zhang, Qigui Li
BACKGROUND: Due to the ability of the 8-aminoquinolines (8AQs) to kill different stages of the malaria parasite, primaquine (PQ) and tafenoquine (TQ) are vital for causal prophylaxis and the eradication of erythrocytic Plasmodium sp. parasites. Recognizing the potential role of cytochrome (CYP) 450 2D6 in the metabolism and subsequent hepatic efficacy of 8-aminoquinolines, studies were designed to explore whether CYP2D-mediated metabolism was related to the ability of single-dose PQ and TQ to eliminate the asexual and sexual erythrocytic stages of Plasmodium berghei...
December 7, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895848/four-artemisinin-based-treatments-in-african-pregnant-women-with-malaria
#8
Divine Pekyi, Akua A Ampromfi, Halidou Tinto, Maminata Traoré-Coulibaly, Marc C Tahita, Innocent Valéa, Victor Mwapasa, Linda Kalilani-Phiri, Gertrude Kalanda, Mwayiwawo Madanitsa, Raffaella Ravinetto, Theonest Mutabingwa, Prosper Gbekor, Harry Tagbor, Gifty Antwi, Joris Menten, Maaike De Crop, Yves Claeys, Celine Schurmans, Chantal Van Overmeir, Kamala Thriemer, Jean-Pierre Van Geertruyden, Umberto D'Alessandro, Michael Nambozi, Modest Mulenga, Sebastian Hachizovu, Jean-Bertin B Kabuya, Joyce Mulenga
BACKGROUND: Information regarding the safety and efficacy of artemisinin combination treatments for malaria in pregnant women is limited, particularly among women who live in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, randomized, open-label trial of treatments for malaria in pregnant women in four African countries. A total of 3428 pregnant women in the second or third trimester who had falciparum malaria (at any parasite density and regardless of symptoms) were treated with artemether-lumefantrine, amodiaquine-artesunate, mefloquine-artesunate, or dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine...
September 2016: Malawi Medical Journal: the Journal of Medical Association of Malawi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852523/anemia-offers-stronger-protection-than-sickle-cell-trait-against-the-erythrocytic-stage-of-falciparum-malaria-and-this-protection-is-reversed-by-iron-supplementation
#9
M M Goheen, R Wegmüller, A Bah, B Darboe, E Danso, M Affara, D Gardner, J C Patel, A M Prentice, C Cerami
BACKGROUND: Iron deficiency causes long-term adverse consequences for children and is the most common nutritional deficiency worldwide. Observational studies suggest that iron deficiency anemia protects against Plasmodium falciparum malaria and several intervention trials have indicated that iron supplementation increases malaria risk through unknown mechanism(s). This poses a major challenge for health policy. We investigated how anemia inhibits blood stage malaria infection and how iron supplementation abrogates this protection...
December 2016: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826886/rarity-of-mixed-species-malaria-with-plasmodium-falciparum-and-plasmodium-malariae-in-travelers-to-saarland-in-germany
#10
Josef Yayan, Kurt Rasche
Malaria is an acute, life-threatening infectious disease that spreads in tropical and subtropical regions. Malaria is mainly brought over to Germany by travelers, so the disease can be overlooked due to its nonspecific symptoms and a lack of experience of attending physicians. The aim of this study was to analyze, retrospectively, epidemiological and clinical data from patients examined for malaria. Patient data were collected from hospital charts at the Department of Internal Medicine, Saarland University Medical Center, Germany, for the period of 2004-2012...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799645/dosage-of-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine-and-risk-of-low-birth-weight-in-a-cohort-of-zambian-pregnant-women-in-a-low-malaria-prevalence-region
#11
Marie C D Stoner, Bellington Vwalika, Marcela Smid, Andrew Kumwenda, Elizabeth Stringer, Benjamin H Chi, Jeff S A Stringer
In Lusaka, Zambia, where malaria prevalence is low, national guidelines continue to recommend that all pregnant women receive sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) for malaria prophylaxis monthly at every scheduled antenatal care visit after 16 weeks of gestation. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive women should receive co-trimoxazole prophylaxis for HIV and not SP, but many still receive SP. We sought to determine whether increased dosage of SP is still associated with a reduced risk of low birth weight (LBW) in an area where malaria transmission is low...
October 31, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789127/is-the-mitochondrion-a-good-malaria-drug-target
#12
REVIEW
Christopher D Goodman, Hayley D Buchanan, Geoffrey I McFadden
Rapid emergence of resistance to atovaquone, which targets electron transport in the malaria parasite mitochondrion, relegated its use to prophylaxis and even cast a shadow over the development of drugs targeting other parasite mitochondrial pathways. Here we argue for a renewed focus on the mitochondrion as a drug target, focusing particularly on the issues of resistance. We posit a hypothesis for why atovaquone resistance emerges so quickly, and we explain how facile acquisition of resistance is apparently offset by an inability of parasites to spread this resistance...
October 24, 2016: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756308/malaria-burden-in-a-birth-cohort-of-hiv-exposed-uninfected-ugandan-infants-living-in-a-high-malaria-transmission-setting
#13
Abel Kakuru, Paul Natureeba, Mary K Muhindo, Tamara D Clark, Diane V Havlir, Deborah Cohan, Grant Dorsey, Moses R Kamya, Theodore Ruel
BACKGROUND: HIV-exposed, uninfected (HEU) infants suffer high morbidity and mortality in the first year of life compared to HIV-unexposed, uninfected (HUU) infants, but accurate data on the contribution of malaria are limited. METHODS: The incidence of febrile illnesses and malaria were evaluated in a birth cohort of HEU infants. Infants were prescribed daily trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TS) prophylaxis from 6 weeks of age until exclusion of HIV-infection after cessation of breastfeeding...
October 18, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747687/prolonged-neuropsychiatric-symptoms-in-a-military-service-member-exposed-to-mefloquine
#14
Jeffrey Livezey, Thomas Oliver, Louis Cantilena
A 32-year-old male developed neuropsychiatric symptoms 2 weeks after starting mefloquine 250 mg/week for malaria prophylaxis. He continued to take the medication for the next 4 months. Initial symptoms included vivid dreams and anxiety, as well as balance problems. These symptoms persisted and progressed over the next 4 years to include vertigo, emotional lability, and poor short-term memory, which have greatly affected his personal and professional life. An extensive evaluation revealed objective evidence supporting a central vestibulopathy...
December 2016: Drug Safety—Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663283/travel-health-attitudes-among-turkish-business-travellers-to-african-countries
#15
Engin Burak Selcuk, Uner Kayabas, Hulisi Binbasioglu, Baris Otlu, Yasar Bayindir, Bulent Bozdogan, Mehmet Karatas
BACKGROUND: The number of international travellers is increasing worldwide. Although health risks related to international travel are important and generally well-understood, the perception of these risks was unclear among Turkish travellers. We aimed to evaluate the attitudes and health risk awareness of Turkish travellers travelling to African countries. METHOD: A survey was performed of Turkish travellers bound for Africa from Istanbul International Ataturk Airport in July 2013...
November 2016: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647575/molecular-surveillance-of-plasmodium-falciparum-drug-resistance-markers-reveals-partial-recovery-of-chloroquine-susceptibility-but-sustained-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine-resistance-at-two-sites-of-different-malaria-transmission-intensities-in-rwanda
#16
Fredrick Kateera, Sam L Nsobya, Steven Tukwasibwe, Emmanuel Hakizimana, Leon Mutesa, Petra F Mens, Martin P Grobusch, Michèle van Vugt, Nirbhay Kumar
Faced with intense levels of chloroquine (CQ) resistance in Plasmodium falciparum malaria, Rwanda replaced CQ with amodiaquine (AQ)+sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) in 2001, and subsequently with artemether-lumefantrine (AL) in 2006, as first-line treatments for uncomplicated malaria. Following years of discontinuation of CQ use, re-emergence of CQ-susceptible parasites has been reported in countries including Malawi, Kenya and Tanzania. In contrast, high levels of SP resistant mutant parasites continue to be reported even in countries of presumed reduced SP drug selection pressure...
December 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27645545/rarity-of-mixed-species-malaria-with-plasmodium-falciparum-and-plasmodium-malariae-in-travelers-to-saarland-in-germany
#17
Josef Yayan, Kurt Rasche
Malaria is an acute, life-threatening infectious disease that spreads in tropical and subtropical regions. Malaria is mainly brought over to Germany by travelers, so the disease can be overlooked due to its nonspecific symptoms and a lack of experience of attending physicians. The aim of this study was to analyze, retrospectively, epidemiological and clinical data from patients examined for malaria. Patient data were collected from hospital charts at the Department of Internal Medicine, Saarland University Medical Center, Germany, for the period of 2004-2012...
September 20, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27625401/effectiveness-of-twice-a-week-prophylaxis-with-atovaquone-proguanil-malarone%C3%A2-in-long-term-travellers-to-west-africa
#18
Tamar Lachish, Maskit Bar-Meir, Neta Eisenberg, Eli Schwartz
BACKGROUND: Current guidelines recommend daily dosing of atovaquone-proguanil (AP), beginning a day before travel to endemic areas and continuing for 7 days after departure. Adherence of long-term travellers to daily malaria chemoprophylaxis tends to be poor, even when residing in highly endemic malaria regions. Evidence from a volunteer challenging study suggests that non-daily, longer intervals dosing of AP provides effective protection against Plasmodium falciparum This study examines the effectiveness of twice weekly AP prophylaxis in long-term travellers to highly endemic P...
June 2016: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619013/the-prevalence-of-malaria-in-people-living-with-hiv-in-yaounde-cameroon
#19
Anna Longdoh Njunda, Charles Njumkeng, Shey Dickson Nsagha, Jules Clement Nguedia Assob, Tebit Emmanuel Kwenti
BACKGROUND: Coinfection with malaria and HIV is common in Sub-Saharan Africa. In the advent of a decline in the global incidence of malaria, it is important to generate updated data on the burden of malaria in people living with HIV (PLWHIV). This study was designed to determine the prevalence of malaria in PLWHIV in Yaounde, Cameroon, as well determine the association between CD4 (+) T cell count and malaria in the study population. METHODS: In a cross sectional study performed between April 2015 and June 2016, 355 PLWHIV were enrolled and blood samples were collected for analysis...
2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27544402/parallel-inhibition-of-amino-acid-efflux-and-growth-of-erythrocytic-plasmodium-falciparum-by-mefloquine-and-non-piperidine-analogs-implication-for-the-mechanism-of-antimalarial-action
#20
Maryam Ghavami, Christie H Dapper, Seema Dalal, Kristina Holzschneider, Michael Klemba, Paul R Carlier
Despite the troubling psychiatric side-effects it causes in some patients, mefloquine (MQ) has been used for malaria prophylaxis and therapy, due to its activity against all Plasmodium species, its ease of dosing, and its relative safety in children and pregnant women. Yet at present there is no consensus on the mechanism of antimalarial action of MQ. Two leading hypotheses for the mechanism of MQ are inhibition of heme crystallization and inhibition of host cell hemoglobin endocytosis. In this report we show that MQ is a potent and rapid inhibitor of amino acid efflux from intact parasitized erythrocytes, which is a measure of the in vivo rate of host hemoglobin endocytosis and catabolism...
October 1, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
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