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Malaria prophylaxis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630942/antimalarial-drugs-and-the-prevalence-of-mental-and-neurological-manifestations-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
Mary A Bitta, Symon M Kariuki, Clifford Mwita, Samson Gwer, Leah Mwai, Charles R J C Newton
Background: Antimalarial drugs affect the central nervous system, but it is difficult to differentiate the effect of these drugs from that of the malaria illness. We conducted a systematic review to determine the association between anti-malarial drugs and mental and neurological impairment in humans.  Methods: We systematically searched online databases, including Medline/PubMed, PsychoInfo, and Embase, for articles published up to 14th July 2016. Pooled prevalence, heterogeneity and factors associated with prevalence of mental and neurological manifestations were determined using meta-analytic techniques...
2017: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619415/international-travelers-sociodemographic-health-and-travel-characteristics-an-italian-study
#2
Gianmarco Troiano, Astrid Mercone, Alessandra Bagnoli, Nicola Nante
BACKGROUND: Approximately the 8% of travelers requires medical care, with the diagnosis of a vaccine-preventable disease. The aim of our study was to analyze the socio-demographic, health and travel characteristics of the Italian international travelers. METHODS: We conducted a cross sectional study from January 2015 to June 2016, at the Travel Medicine Clinic of Siena, asking the doctor to interview patients who attended the Clinic, recording socio-demographic and travel information, malaria prophylaxis, vaccinations...
March 2017: Annals of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596841/targeting-endosomal-acidification-by-chloroquine-analogs-as-a-promising-strategy-for-the-treatment-of-emerging-viral-diseases
#3
REVIEW
Md Abdul Alim Al-Bari
Emerging viruses such as HIV, dengue, influenza A, SARS coronavirus, Ebola, and other viruses pose a significant threat to human health. Majority of these viruses are responsible for the outbreaks of pathogenic lethal infections. To date, there are no effective therapeutic strategies available for the prophylaxis and treatment of these infections. Chloroquine analogs have been used for decades as the primary and most successful drugs against malaria. Concomitant with the emergence of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium strains and a subsequent decrease in the use as antimalarial drugs, other applications of the analogs have been investigated...
February 2017: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593051/the-need-for-preventive-and-curative-services-for-malaria-when-the-military-is-deployed-in-endemic-overseas-territories-a-case-study-and-lessons-learned
#4
Sumadhya Deepika Fernando, Rahuman Booso, Priyani Dharmawardena, Arunagirinathan Harintheran, Kugapiriyan Raviraj, Chaturaka Rodrigo, Manjula Danansuriya, Rajitha Wickremasinghe
BACKGROUND: Sri Lanka has been free from indigenous malaria since November 2012 and received the WHO certificate for malaria-free status in September 2016. Due to increased global travel, imported malaria cases continue to be reported in the country. Military personnel returning home from international peace-keeping missions in malaria endemic countries represent a key risk group in terms of imported malaria. The present study intended to characterize the potential causes of a malaria outbreak among the Sri Lankan security forces personnel deployed in the Central African Republic (CAR)...
2017: Military Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583709/imported-malaria-in-pregnant-women-experienced-in-japan
#5
Mikio Kimura, Michiko Koga, Chihiro Hasegawa, Yoshikazu Mutoh, Yasuyuki Kato, Haruhiko Maruyama
INTRODUCTION: With ever-growing global exchanges, the number of travelers, including pregnant women, to the tropics is increasing, which poses a risk of contracting malaria. Although there are several reports on imported malaria in pregnancy from Western countries, those focusing on cases experienced in Japan are very limited. METHODS: We searched for cases of malaria in pregnancy in the treatment records submitted to the Research Group on Chemotherapy of Tropical Diseases, Japan, during the period 1993-2016...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572077/assessment-of-adherence-to-malaria-chemoprophylaxis-in-a-french-navy-frigate-deployed-in-southeast-asia
#6
B Nicolas, L Papillault des Charbonnières, T Vasseur, P Mauclere
During a 2-month mission in Southeast Asia, including numerous stopovers in coastal cities, the crew of a frigate of the French Navy received doxycycline for antimalarial prophylaxis. Adherence to this chemoprophylaxis was evaluated with an anonymous questionnaire distributed at the end of the malaria exposure period. The response rate was 74 % (72 crew members). Among them, 67 sailors felt they had received clear information about the risks of malaria. Overall, 19 (27 %) respondents reported adherence (one forgotten pill, by no more than 15 days), 18 (25 %) irregular adherence (one or more pills forgotten weekly or stopped during the mission), and 35 recognized that they had not taken the treatment...
June 1, 2017: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567199/frequent-malaria-illness-episodes-in-two-malawian-patients-on-antiretroviral-therapy-soon-after-stopping-cotrimoxazole-preventive-therapy
#7
Wongani Js Nyangulu, Edson Mwinjiwa, Titus H Divala, Randy G Mungwira, Osward Nyirenda, Maxwell Kanjala, Gillian Mbambo, Jane Mallewa, Terrie E Taylor, Matthew B Laurens, Miriam K Laufer, Joep J van Oosterhout
We describe two Malawian adults on successful antiretroviral therapy who experienced frequent malaria episodes after stopping cotrimoxazole prophylaxis. We argue that, in addition to stopping cotrimoxazole, diminished malaria immunity and drug interactions between efavirenz and artemether-lumefantrine may have played a causative role in the recurrent malaria our patients experienced.
March 2017: Malawi Medical Journal: the Journal of Medical Association of Malawi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526056/the-blood-schizonticidal-activity-of-tafenoquine-makes-an-essential-contribution-to-its-prophylactic-efficacy-in-nonimmune-subjects-at-the-intended-dose-200%C3%A2-mg
#8
REVIEW
Geoffrey Dow, Bryan Smith
Tafenoquine (TQ) is an 8-aminoquinoline anti-malarial being developed for malaria prophylaxis. It has been generally assumed that TQ, administered prophylactically, acts primarily on the developing exoerythrocytic stages of malaria parasites (causal prophylaxis), and that polymorphisms in metabolic enzymes thought to impact the activity of other 8-aminoquinolines also inhibit this property of TQ. Furthermore, it has been suggested that a diagnostic test for CYP2D6 metabolizer status might be required. In field studies in which metabolic status was not an exclusion criteria, TQ has been shown to exhibit similar prophylactic efficacy as blood schizonticidal drugs (mefloquine)...
May 19, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495354/tafenoquine-for-malaria-prophylaxis-in-adults-an-integrated-safety-analysis
#9
Anne Novitt-Moreno, Janet Ransom, Geoffrey Dow, Bryan Smith, Lisa Thomas Read, Stephen Toovey
BACKGROUND: Tafenoquine is a new prophylactic antimalarial drug. The current analysis presents an integrated safety assessment of the Tafenoquine Anticipated Clinical Regimen (Tafenoquine ACR) from 5 clinical trials, including 1 conducted in deployed military personnel and 4 in non-deployed residents, which also incorporated placebo and mefloquine comparator groups. METHODS: Adverse events (AEs) were coded according to the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA(®), Version 15...
May 8, 2017: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491482/long-term-prophylaxis-and-pharmacokinetic-evaluation-of-intramuscular-nano-and-microparticle-decoquinate-in-mice-infected-with-p-berghei-sporozoites
#10
Qigui Li, Lisa Xie, Diana Caridha, Qiang Zeng, Jing Zhang, Norma Roncal, Ping Zhang, Chau Vuong, Brittney Potter, Jason Sousa, Sean Marcsisin, Lisa Read, Mark Hickman
Decoquinate nanoparticle and microparticle suspended in an oily vehicle to retard drug release are evaluated for long-term malaria prophylaxis. Pharmacokinetic studies in normal animals and antimalarial efficacy in liver stage malaria mice were conducted at various single intramuscular-decoquinate doses for 2, 4, 6, or 8 weeks prior to infection with P. berghei sporozoites. The liver stage efficacy evaluation was monitored by using an in vivo imaging system. Full causal prophylaxis was shown in mice with a single intramuscular dose at 120 mg/kg of nanoparticle decoquinate (0...
2017: Malaria Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487213/long-term-health-outcomes-among-returned-peace-corps-volunteers-after-malaria-prophylaxis-1995-2014
#11
Kathrine R Tan, Susan J Henderson, John Williamson, Rennie W Ferguson, Thomas M Wilkinson, Paul Jung, Paul M Arguin
BACKGROUND: A primary reason for non-adherence to malaria chemoprophylaxis is fear of latent side effects. We examined latent effects of malaria chemoprophylaxis among Returned Peace Corps Volunteers (RPCVs). METHODS: During July 18-September 16, 2016, RPCVs who served during 1995-2014 with an e-mail address in Peace Corps' RPCV database were invited to take an internet-based survey on malaria prophylaxis and medical diagnoses. "Good adherence" meant taking prophylaxis "as prescribed" or "most of the time...
May 6, 2017: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460165/development-of-a-rapidly-dissolvable-oral-pediatric-formulation-for-mefloquine-using-liposomes
#12
Wei-Lun Tang, Wei-Hsin Tang, Weihsu Claire Chen, Charles Diako, Carolyn F Ross, Shyh-Dar Li
Mefloquine (Mef), a poorly soluble and highly bitter drug, has been used for malaria prophylaxis and treatment. The dosage form for Mef is mostly available as adult tablets, and thus children under the age of 5 suffer from poor medication adherence. We have developed a stable, rapidly dissolvable, and palatable pediatric formulation for Mef using liposomes composed of 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC) and cholesterol with a mean diameter of ∼110 nm. Mef was actively loaded into the liposomes via an ammonium sulfate gradient using the solvent-assisted loading technology (SALT) developed in our lab...
May 9, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444232/co-trimoxazole-prophylaxis-asymptomatic-malaria-parasitemia-and-infectious-morbidity-in-hiv-exposed-uninfected-infants-in-malawi-the-ban-study
#13
Nicole L Davis, Jeffrey Wiener, Jonathan J Juliano, Linda Adair, Charles S Chasela, Dumbani Kayira, Michael G Hudgens, Charles van der Horst, Denise J Jamieson, Athena P Kourtis
Background: HIV-exposed infants are disproportionately at risk of morbidity and mortality compared with their HIV-unexposed counterparts. The role of co-trimoxazole preventive therapy (CPT) in reducing leading causes of infectious morbidity is unclear. Methods: We used data from the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals and Nutrition (BAN) clinical trial (conducted 2004-2010, Malawi) to assess the association of 1) CPT and 2) asymptomatic malaria parasitemia with respiratory and diarrheal morbidity in infants...
April 21, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439418/prevention-practices-influencing-frequency-of-occurrence-of-vaso-occlusive-crisis-among-sickle-cell-patients-in-abeokuta-south-local-government-area-of-ogun-state-nigeria
#14
Olorunfemi Emmanuel Amoran, Ahmed Babatunde Jimoh, Omotola Ojo, Temitope Kuponiyi
BACKGROUND: Africa is the most affected continent with 200,000 new born affected by sickle cell anemia annually with of 5% of under five deaths. Nigeria has the largest sickle cell gene pool in the world with about 2% of all babies born to Nigerian parents. This study therefore sets out to assess the prevention practices influencing the frequency of occurrence of vaso-occlusive crisis among patients in Ogun State. METHODS: This study is a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in Abeokuta South Local Government Area Ogun State...
2017: BMC Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438137/case-report-of-plasmodium-ovale-curtisi-malaria-in-sri-lanka-relevance-for-the-maintenance-of-elimination-status
#15
Sharmini Gunawardena, Rachel F Daniels, Thishan C Yahathugoda, Mirani V Weerasooriya, Katelyn Durfee, Sarah K Volkman, Dyann F Wirth, Nadira D Karunaweera
BACKGROUND: Following its recent certification as malaria-free, imported infections now pose the greatest threat for maintaining this status in Sri Lanka. Imported infections may also introduce species that are uncommon or not previously endemic to these areas. We highlight in this case report the increasing importance of less common malaria species such as Plasmodium ovale in elimination settings and discuss its relevance for the risk of malaria resurgence in the country. CASE PRESENTATION: A 41-year-old patient from southern Sri Lanka was diagnosed with malaria after 8 days of fever...
April 24, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411937/preparing-for-international-travel-and-global-medical-care
#16
REVIEW
Swaminatha V Mahadevan, Matthew C Strehlow
Thorough pretravel preparation and medical consultation can mitigate avoidable health and safety risks. A comprehensive pretravel medical consultation should include an individualized risk assessment, immunization review, and discussion of arthropod protective measures, malaria prophylaxis, traveler's diarrhea, and injury prevention. Travel with children and jet lag reduction require additional planning and prevention strategies; travel and evacuation insurance may prove essential when traveling to less resourced countries...
May 2017: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363637/dsm265-for-plasmodium-falciparum-chemoprophylaxis-a-randomised-double-blinded-phase-1-trial-with-controlled-human-malaria-infection
#17
Mihály Sulyok, Thomas Rückle, Alexandra Roth, Raymund E Mürbeth, Stephan Chalon, Nicola Kerr, Sonia Schnieper Samec, Nathalie Gobeau, Carlos Lamsfus Calle, Javier Ibáñez, Zita Sulyok, Jana Held, Tamirat Gebru, Patricia Granados, Sina Brückner, Christian Nguetse, Juliana Mengue, Albert Lalremruata, B Kim Lee Sim, Stephen L Hoffman, Jörg J Möhrle, Peter G Kremsner, Benjamin Mordmüller
BACKGROUND: A drug for causal (ie, pre-erythrocytic) prophylaxis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria with prolonged activity would substantially advance malaria control. DSM265 is an experimental antimalarial that selectively inhibits the parasite dihydroorotate dehydrogenase. DSM265 shows in vitro activity against liver and blood stages of P falciparum. We assessed the prophylactic activity of DSM265 against controlled human malaria infection (CHMI). METHODS: At the Institute of Tropical Medicine, Eberhard Karls University (Tübingen, Germany), healthy, malaria-naive adults were allocated to receive 400 mg DSM265 or placebo either 1 day (cohort 1A) or 7 days (cohort 2) before CHMI by direct venous inoculation (DVI) of 3200 aseptic, purified, cryopreserved P falciparum sporozoites (PfSPZ Challenge; Sanaria Inc, Rockville, MD, USA)...
June 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347311/predictors-of-the-use-of-interventions-to-prevent-malaria-in-pregnancy-in-cameroon
#18
Jodie Dionne-Odom, Andrew O Westfall, Tobias O Apinjoh, Judith Anchang-Kimbi, Eric A Achidi, Alan T N Tita
BACKGROUND: Malaria in pregnancy is common in sub-Saharan Africa where it contributes to perinatal morbidity and mortality. Use of insecticide-treated bed nets and intermittent preventive therapy with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine during pregnancy are effective but underutilized interventions to prevent infection. Factors associated with bed net ownership and usage, and use of prophylaxis among recently pregnant women in Cameroon were investigated. METHODS: National data from the 2011 Cameroon Demographic Health Survey was used to identify women with a pregnancy within the previous 5 years...
March 27, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344011/the-epidemiology-pathogenesis-transmission-diagnosis-and-management-of-multidrug-resistant-extensively-drug-resistant-and-incurable-tuberculosis
#19
REVIEW
Keertan Dheda, Tawanda Gumbo, Gary Maartens, Kelly E Dooley, Ruth McNerney, Megan Murray, Jennifer Furin, Edward A Nardell, Leslie London, Erica Lessem, Grant Theron, Paul van Helden, Stefan Niemann, Matthias Merker, David Dowdy, Annelies Van Rie, Gilman K H Siu, Jotam G Pasipanodya, Camilla Rodrigues, Taane G Clark, Frik A Sirgel, Aliasgar Esmail, Hsien-Ho Lin, Sachin R Atre, H Simon Schaaf, Kwok Chiu Chang, Christoph Lange, Payam Nahid, Zarir F Udwadia, C Robert Horsburgh, Gavin J Churchyard, Dick Menzies, Anneke C Hesseling, Eric Nuermberger, Helen McIlleron, Kevin P Fennelly, Eric Goemaere, Ernesto Jaramillo, Marcus Low, Carolina Morán Jara, Nesri Padayatchi, Robin M Warren
Global tuberculosis incidence has declined marginally over the past decade, and tuberculosis remains out of control in several parts of the world including Africa and Asia. Although tuberculosis control has been effective in some regions of the world, these gains are threatened by the increasing burden of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis. XDR tuberculosis has evolved in several tuberculosis-endemic countries to drug-incurable or programmatically incurable tuberculosis (totally drug-resistant tuberculosis)...
March 15, 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339598/high-postdischarge-morbidity-in-ugandan-children-with-severe-malarial-anemia-or-cerebral-malaria
#20
Robert O Opoka, Karen E S Hamre, Nathan Brand, Paul Bangirana, Richard Idro, Chandy C John
Summary: Postdischarge readmission and outpatient illnesses are frequent in children with severe malarial anemia or cerebral malaria. Trials of postdischarge malaria prophylaxis in children with severe malaria should be considered. Background: Cerebral malaria (CM) and severe malarial anemia (SMA) account for a substantial proportion of malaria-related deaths in sub-Saharan Africa. However, postdischarge morbidity in children with CM or SMA has not been well established...
October 7, 2016: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
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