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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771281/high-risk-of-plasmodium-vivax-malaria-following-splenectomy-in-papua-indonesia
#1
Steven Kho, Benediktus Andries, Jeanne R Poespoprodjo, Robert J Commons, Putu A I Shanti, Enny Kenangalem, Nicholas M Douglas, Julie A Simpson, Paulus Sugiarto, Nicholas M Anstey, Ric N Price
Background: Splenectomy increase the risk of severe and fatal infections, however the risk of Plasmodium vivax malaria is unknown. We quantified the Plasmodium species-specific risks of malaria and other outcomes following splenectomy in patients attending a hospital in Papua, Indonesia. Methods: Records of all patients attending Mitra-Masyarakat Hospital 2004-2013 were reviewed, identifying those who underwent splenectomy. Subsequent risks of specific clinical outcomes within 12 months for splenectomized patients were compared to non-splenectomized patients from their first recorded hospital admission...
May 16, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768543/preventing-diseases-in-round-the-world-travelers-a-contemporary-challenge-for-travel-medicine-advice
#2
Karis Maria de Pinho Rodrigues, Beatriz Meurer Moreira
Providing advice for travelers embarking on long-term trips poses a challenge in travel medicine. A long duration of risk exposure is associated with underuse of protective measures and poor adherence to chemoprophylaxis, increasing the chances of acquiring infections. Recently, in our clinic, we observed an increase in the number of travelers undertaking round-the-world trips. These individuals are typically aged around 32 years and quit their jobs to embark on one-to-two-year journeys. Their destinations include countries in two or more continents, invariably Southeast Asia and Indonesia, and mostly involve land travel and visiting rural areas...
March 2018: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761755/a-deadly-wait-for-u-s-health-insurance-coverage-sitting-on-the-couch-with-malaria
#3
Jonathan S Schultz, Adam J Atherly, Andrés F Henao-Martínez
Uninsured and unprepared travelers to countries with endemic tropical diseases pose great health-care burdens and financial risks on returning to the United States. We discuss the delayed presentation of an uninsured U.S. traveler returning from West Africa with severe malaria who required intensive care measures to save his life. Despite being critically ill on his return, he sat rigoring on his couch taking antipyretics for 3 days, while he applied for insurance on the Affordable Care Act website and waited for approval because he was fearful of the costs of seeking care...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719927/comparative-study-of-mefloquine-and-sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine-for-malaria-prevention-among-pregnant-women-with-hiv-in-southwest-nigeria
#4
Oriyomi Akinyotu, Folasade Bello, Rukiyat Abdus-Salam, Ayodele Arowojolu
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of mefloquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine as intermittent preventive therapy for malaria among pregnant women with HIV. METHODS: The present randomized, controlled, prospective, open-label study enrolled women with HIV who had reached at least 16 weeks of pregnancy attending prenatal clinics at secondary and tertiary health facilities in South West Nigeria between January 1 and August 31, 2016. Block randomization was used to assign patients to treatment with mefloquine or sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine for malaria prophylaxis...
May 2, 2018: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692311/sulfamethoxazole-levels-in-hiv-exposed-uninfected-ugandan-children
#5
Jingo Kasule, Erin E Gabriel, Aggrey Anok, Jillian Neal, Richard T Eastman, Scott Penzak, Kevin Newell, David Serwadda, Patrick E Duffy, Steven J Reynolds, Charlotte V Hobbs
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) prophylaxis in HIV-uninfected, exposed (HUE) children variably reduces clinical malaria burden despite antifolate resistance, but data regarding achieved serum levels and adherence are lacking. Serum samples from 70 HUE children aged 3-12 months from Rakai, Uganda, enrolled in an observational study were assayed for random SMX levels using a colorimetric assay. Adherence with TMP-SMX prophylaxis data (yes/no) was also collected. Of 148 visits with concurrent SMX levels available, 56% had self-reported adherence with TMP-SMX therapy...
April 23, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617280/oropouche-fever-a-review
#6
REVIEW
Hercules Sakkas, Petros Bozidis, Ashley Franks, Chrissanthy Papadopoulou
Oropouche fever is an emerging zoonotic disease caused by Oropouche virus (OROV), an arthropod transmitted Orthobunyavirus circulating in South and Central America. During the last 60 years, more than 30 epidemics and over half a million clinical cases attributed to OROV infection have been reported in Brazil, Peru, Panama, Trinidad and Tobago. OROV fever is considered the second most frequent arboviral febrile disease in Brazil after dengue fever. OROV is transmitted through both urban and sylvatic transmission cycles, with the primary vector in the urban cycle being the anthropophilic biting midge Culicoides paraensis ...
April 4, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614536/-prophylaxis-and-therapy-of-malaria-current-recommendations
#7
Christof D Vinnemeier, Thierry Rolling
Malaria incidence is decreasing on a global scale, while the number of imported cases has remained at a high level in Germany. To decrease this number, counselling of travellers to malaria-endemic regions is important. Patients to high risk countries need regular chemoprophylaxis. The alternative of stand-by emergency treatment for travellers to regions with low or medium risk has been met with growing criticism. For the treatment of all malaria cases, artemisinins are a mainstay of treatment. Regular follow-up is warranted to prevent relapses...
April 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561063/mefloquine-for-preventing-malaria-in-pregnant-women
#8
REVIEW
Raquel González, Clara Pons-Duran, Mireia Piqueras, John J Aponte, Feiko O Ter Kuile, Clara Menéndez
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommends intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for malaria for all women who live in moderate to high malaria transmission areas in Africa. However, parasite resistance to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine has been increasing steadily in some areas of the region. Moreover, HIV-infected women on cotrimoxazole prophylaxis cannot receive sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine because of potential drug interactions. Thus, there is an urgent need to identify alternative drugs for prevention of malaria in pregnancy...
March 21, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524230/transfusion-transmitted-malaria-masquerading-as-sickle-cell-crisis-with-multisystem-organ-failure
#9
Cheryl L Maier, Phillip J Gross, Christina L Dean, Satheesh Chonat, Andrew Ip, Morgan McLemore, Fuad El Rassi, Sean R Stowell, Cassandra D Josephson, Ross M Fasano
BACKGROUND: Fever accompanying vaso-occlusive crisis is a common presentation in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) and carries a broad differential diagnosis. Here, we report a case of transfusion-transmitted malaria in a patient with SCD presenting with acute vaso-occlusive crisis and rapidly decompensating to multisystem organ failure (MSOF). CASE REPORT: An 18-year-old African American male with SCD was admitted after multiple days of fever and severe generalized body pain...
March 9, 2018: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453292/clonal-selection-drives-protective-memory-b-cell-responses-in-controlled-human-malaria-infection
#10
Rajagopal Murugan, Lisa Buchauer, Gianna Triller, Cornelia Kreschel, Giulia Costa, Gemma Pidelaserra Martí, Katharina Imkeller, Christian E Busse, Sumana Chakravarty, B Kim Lee Sim, Stephen L Hoffman, Elena A Levashina, Peter G Kremsner, Benjamin Mordmüller, Thomas Höfer, Hedda Wardemann
Affinity maturation, the clonal selection and expansion of antigen-activated B cells expressing somatically mutated antibody variants that develop during T cell-dependent germinal center reactions, is considered pivotal for efficient development of protective B cell memory responses to infection and vaccination. Repeated antigen exposure promotes affinity maturation but each time also recruits antigen-reactive naïve B cells into the response. Here, we determined the relative impact of affinity maturation versus antigen-mediated clonal selection of naïve B cells to mount potent B cell memory responses in humans after repeated exposure to a complex pathogen, the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (Pf)...
February 16, 2018: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408573/malaria-sickle-cell-disease-hiv-and-co-trimoxazole-prophylaxis-an-observational-study
#11
Ewurama D A Owusu, Nana S A Cofie, Edna A Nai, Kerstin Klipstein-Grobusch, Charles A Brown, Petra F Mens, Martin P Grobusch
OBJECTIVES: This observational study recorded the malaria and sickle cell disease (SCD) profile of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) and determined whether prophylactic co-trimoxazole (CTX) and the haemoglobin S (Hb S) allele influenced malaria episodes. METHODS: Sickling status, malaria episodes, and HIV type, as well as other data, were extracted retrospectively from the clinical records of 1001 patients attending the antiretroviral therapy clinic at Ridge Regional Hospital in Accra, Ghana between 2010 and 2015...
April 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398694/when-epidemiology-is-the-clue-to-a-positive-outcome-a-case-of-malaria-during-pregnancy
#12
Daniela F de Lima Corvino, Aditya A Chandorkar, Andres L Mora Carpio, Antonette Climaco
BACKGROUND Malaria infection during pregnancy is associated with increased perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. CASE REPORT A 29-year-old primigravida at 37 weeks of gestation, with no significant medical history, presented complaining of fever, chills, and generalized body aches. She had been living in Malawi for 1 year and was on atovaquone/proguanil prophylaxis until she was found to be pregnant. Prophylaxis was changed to mefloquine and discontinued upon her return to the US. Six weeks prior to presentation, she traveled to Malawi for 1 month when she was off prophylaxis...
February 5, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358624/long-acting-injectable-atovaquone-nanomedicines-for-malaria-prophylaxis
#13
Rahul P Bakshi, Lee M Tatham, Alison C Savage, Abhai K Tripathi, Godfree Mlambo, Matthew M Ippolito, Elizabeth Nenortas, Steve P Rannard, Andrew Owen, Theresa A Shapiro
Chemoprophylaxis is currently the best available prevention from malaria, but its efficacy is compromised by non-adherence to medication. Here we develop a long-acting injectable formulation of atovaquone solid drug nanoparticles that confers long-lived prophylaxis against Plasmodium berghei ANKA malaria in C57BL/6 mice. Protection is obtained at plasma concentrations above 200 ng ml-1 and is causal, attributable to drug activity against liver stage parasites. Parasites that appear after subtherapeutic doses remain atovaquone-sensitive...
January 22, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338726/a-case-of-blackwater-fever-with-persistent-plasmodium-falciparum-parasitaemia-detected-by-pcr-after-artemether-lumefantrine-treatment
#14
Paul John Huggan, Chin Hin Ng, Jennifer Ho, Raymond Tzer Pin Valentine Lin, Jean-Marc Chavatte
BACKGROUND: Blackwater fever is a complication of malaria infection consisting of a syndrome of febrile intra-vascular haemolysis with severe anaemia and intermittent passage of dark-red to black colour urine. Despite numerous reports and studies of this condition, its pathogenesis remains incompletely understood. CASE PRESENTATION: This report describes a case of classic blackwater fever in a returning traveller, without prior history of malaria infection nor usage of anti-malarial prophylaxis, treated with two courses of oral artemether-lumefantrine combination therapy...
January 16, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321371/assessing-drug-efficacy-against-plasmodium-falciparum-liver-stages-in-vivo
#15
Erika L Flannery, Lander Foquet, Vorada Chuenchob, Matthew Fishbaugher, Zachary Billman, Mary Jane Navarro, William Betz, Tayla M Olsen, Joshua Lee, Nelly Camargo, Thao Nguyen, Carola Schafer, Brandon K Sack, Elizabeth M Wilson, Jessica Saunders, John Bial, Brice Campo, Susan A Charman, Sean C Murphy, Margaret A Phillips, Stefan Hi Kappe, Sebastian A Mikolajczak
Malaria eradication necessitates new tools to fight the evolving and complex Plasmodium pathogens. These tools include prophylactic drugs that eliminate Plasmodium liver stages and consequently prevent clinical disease, decrease transmission, and reduce the propensity for resistance development. Currently, the identification of these drugs relies on in vitro P. falciparum liver stage assays or in vivo causal prophylaxis assays using rodent malaria parasites; there is no method to directly test in vivo liver stage activity of candidate antimalarials against the human malaria-causing parasite P...
January 11, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317472/failure-of-systemic-oral-doxycycline-in-preventing-ocular-toxoplasmic-retinochoroiditis-in-french-military-personnel
#16
Sami Saad, M Delbarre, R Saad, M Berguiga, D Benisty, M Marechal, T Adam, F Froussart
This paper describes two cases of toxoplasmic chorioretinitis presenting in two French soldiers who had been receiving oral doxycycline for malaria prophylaxis. This is despite the proven effectiveness of oral doxycycline in treating Toxoplasma gondii , the most common cause of this infection. The lack of effectiveness of oral doxycycline in these two cases most likely reflected that the ocular concentration of 100 mg daily doxycycline is too low to treat or prevent Toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis (TC). Clinicians should therefore be aware that soldiers taking prophylactic oral doxycycline are still at risk of developing ocular TC with potentially sight-threatening consequences if not treated adequately...
January 8, 2018: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273442/pharmaceutical-interactions-between-antiretroviral-and-antimalarial-drugs-used-in-chemoprophylaxis
#17
REVIEW
Andreas Erich Zautner, Ottmar Herchenröder, Awatef El Moussi, Norbert Georg Schwarz, Dorothea Franziska Wiemer, Uwe Groß, Hagen Frickmann
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the causative agent of the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The pandemic is believed to have originated within the Northern Congo basin covering large parts of the Democratic Republic of Congo, the Republic of Congo, the Central African Republic, Cameroon and Gabon. Although over decades, HIV-1 has spread throughout the World leaving no country unaffected, sub-Saharan Africa remains the region with more than 80% of all infected individuals. The HIV-2 epidemic has largely remained restricted to West Africa along the Upper Guinean forests...
March 2018: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259752/long-lasting-and-fast-acting-in-vivo-efficacious-antiplasmodial-azepanylcarbazole-amino-alcohol
#18
Nada Abla, Sridevi Bashyam, Susan A Charman, Béatrice Greco, Philip Hewitt, Maria Belén Jiménez-Díaz, Kasiram Katneni, Holger Kubas, Didier Picard, Yuvaraj Sambandan, Laura Sanz, Dennis Smith, Tai Wang, Paul Willis, Sergio Wittlin, Thomas Spangenberg
With ∼429,000 deaths in 2016, malaria remains a major infectious disease where the need to treat the fever symptoms, but also to provide relevant post-treatment prophylaxis, is of major importance. An azepanylcarbazole amino alcohol is disclosed with a long- and fast-acting in vivo antiplasmodial efficacy and meets numerous attributes of a desired post-treatment chemoprophylactic antimalarial agent. The synthesis, the parasitological characterization, and the animal pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of this compound are presented along with a proposed target...
December 14, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242073/abbreviated-atovaquone-proguanil-prophylaxis-regimens-in-travellers-after-leaving-malaria-endemic-areas-a-systematic-review
#19
Jelmer Savelkoel, Klaas Hendrik Binnendijk, Rene Spijker, Michèle van Vugt, Kathrine Tan, Thomas Hänscheid, Patricia Schlagenhauf, Martin Peter Grobusch
BACKGROUND: We evaluated existing data on the prophylactic efficacy of atovaquone-proguanil (AP) in order to determine whether prophylaxis in travellers can be discontinued on the day of return from a malaria-endemic area instead of seven days after return as per currently recommended post-travel schedule. METHODS: PubMed and Embase databases were searched to identify relevant studies. This PROSPERO-registered systematic review followed PRISMA guidelines. The search strategy included terms or synonyms relevant to AP combined with terms to identify articles relating to prophylactic use of AP and inhibitory and half-life properties of AP...
January 2018: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228132/vivax-malaria-chemoprophylaxis-the-role-of-atovaquone-proguanil-compared-to-other-options
#20
Meltzer Eyal, Galia Rahav, Schwartz Eli
Background: Atovaquone-Proguanil is considered causal prophylaxis (inhibition of liver-stage schizonts) for Plasmodium falciparum, however, its causal prophylactic efficacy for P. vivax is not known. Travelers returning to non-endemic areas, provide a unique opportunity to study P. vivax prophylaxis. Methods: A retrospective observational study. For 11 years Israeli rafters who had traveled to the Omo River in Ethiopia, a highly malaria endemic area, were followed for at least one year after their return...
December 7, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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