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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526056/the-blood-schizonticidal-activity-of-tafenoquine-makes-an-essential-contribution-to-its-prophylactic-efficacy-in-nonimmune-subjects-at-the-intended-dose-200%C3%A2-mg
#1
REVIEW
Geoffrey Dow, Bryan Smith
Tafenoquine (TQ) is an 8-aminoquinoline anti-malarial being developed for malaria prophylaxis. It has been generally assumed that TQ, administered prophylactically, acts primarily on the developing exoerythrocytic stages of malaria parasites (causal prophylaxis), and that polymorphisms in metabolic enzymes thought to impact the activity of other 8-aminoquinolines also inhibit this property of TQ. Furthermore, it has been suggested that a diagnostic test for CYP2D6 metabolizer status might be required. In field studies in which metabolic status was not an exclusion criteria, TQ has been shown to exhibit similar prophylactic efficacy as blood schizonticidal drugs (mefloquine)...
May 19, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495354/tafenoquine-for-malaria-prophylaxis-in-adults-an-integrated-safety-analysis
#2
Anne Novitt-Moreno, Janet Ransom, Geoffrey Dow, Bryan Smith, Lisa Thomas Read, Stephen Toovey
BACKGROUND: Tafenoquine is a new prophylactic antimalarial drug. The current analysis presents an integrated safety assessment of the Tafenoquine Anticipated Clinical Regimen (Tafenoquine ACR) from 5 clinical trials, including 1 conducted in deployed military personnel and 4 in non-deployed residents, which also incorporated placebo and mefloquine comparator groups. METHODS: Adverse events (AEs) were coded according to the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA(®), Version 15...
May 8, 2017: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491482/long-term-prophylaxis-and-pharmacokinetic-evaluation-of-intramuscular-nano-and-microparticle-decoquinate-in-mice-infected-with-p-berghei-sporozoites
#3
Qigui Li, Lisa Xie, Diana Caridha, Qiang Zeng, Jing Zhang, Norma Roncal, Ping Zhang, Chau Vuong, Brittney Potter, Jason Sousa, Sean Marcsisin, Lisa Read, Mark Hickman
Decoquinate nanoparticle and microparticle suspended in an oily vehicle to retard drug release are evaluated for long-term malaria prophylaxis. Pharmacokinetic studies in normal animals and antimalarial efficacy in liver stage malaria mice were conducted at various single intramuscular-decoquinate doses for 2, 4, 6, or 8 weeks prior to infection with P. berghei sporozoites. The liver stage efficacy evaluation was monitored by using an in vivo imaging system. Full causal prophylaxis was shown in mice with a single intramuscular dose at 120 mg/kg of nanoparticle decoquinate (0...
2017: Malaria Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487213/long-term-health-outcomes-among-returned-peace-corps-volunteers-after-malaria-prophylaxis-1995-2014
#4
Kathrine R Tan, Susan J Henderson, John Williamson, Rennie W Ferguson, Thomas M Wilkinson, Paul Jung, Paul M Arguin
BACKGROUND: A primary reason for non-adherence to malaria chemoprophylaxis is fear of latent side effects. We examined latent effects of malaria chemoprophylaxis among Returned Peace Corps Volunteers (RPCVs). METHODS: During July 18-September 16, 2016, RPCVs who served during 1995-2014 with an e-mail address in Peace Corps' RPCV database were invited to take an internet-based survey on malaria prophylaxis and medical diagnoses. "Good adherence" meant taking prophylaxis "as prescribed" or "most of the time...
May 6, 2017: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460165/development-of-a-rapidly-dissolvable-oral-pediatric-formulation-for-mefloquine-using-liposomes
#5
Wei-Lun Tang, Wei-Hsin Sophia Tang, Weihsu Claire Chen, Charles Diako, Carolyn F Ross, Shyh-Dar Li
Mefloquine (Mef), a poorly soluble and highly bitter drug, has been used for malaria prophylaxis and treatment. The dosage form for Mef is mostly available as adult tablets, and thus children under the age of 5 suffer from poor medication adherence. We have developed a stable, rapidly dissolvable, and palatable pediatric formulation for Mef using liposomes composed of 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC) and cholesterol with a mean diameter of ~110 nm. Mef was actively loaded into the liposomes via an ammonium sulfate gradient using the solvent-assisted loading technology (SALT) developed in our lab...
May 1, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444232/co-trimoxazole-prophylaxis-asymptomatic-malaria-parasitemia-and-infectious-morbidity-in-hiv-exposed-uninfected-infants-in-malawi-the-ban-study
#6
Nicole L Davis, Jeffrey Wiener, Jonathan J Juliano, Linda Adair, Charles S Chasela, Dumbani Kayira, Michael G Hudgens, Charles van der Horst, Denise J Jamieson, Athena P Kourtis
Background: HIV-exposed infants are disproportionately at risk of morbidity and mortality compared with their HIV-unexposed counterparts. The role of co-trimoxazole preventive therapy (CPT) in reducing leading causes of infectious morbidity is unclear. Methods: We used data from the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals and Nutrition (BAN) clinical trial (conducted 2004-2010, Malawi) to assess the association of 1) CPT and 2) asymptomatic malaria parasitemia with respiratory and diarrheal morbidity in infants...
April 21, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439418/prevention-practices-influencing-frequency-of-occurrence-of-vaso-occlusive-crisis-among-sickle-cell-patients-in-abeokuta-south-local-government-area-of-ogun-state-nigeria
#7
Olorunfemi Emmanuel Amoran, Ahmed Babatunde Jimoh, Omotola Ojo, Temitope Kuponiyi
BACKGROUND: Africa is the most affected continent with 200,000 new born affected by sickle cell anemia annually with of 5% of under five deaths. Nigeria has the largest sickle cell gene pool in the world with about 2% of all babies born to Nigerian parents. This study therefore sets out to assess the prevention practices influencing the frequency of occurrence of vaso-occlusive crisis among patients in Ogun State. METHODS: This study is a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in Abeokuta South Local Government Area Ogun State...
2017: BMC Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438137/case-report-of-plasmodium-ovale-curtisi-malaria-in-sri-lanka-relevance-for-the-maintenance-of-elimination-status
#8
Sharmini Gunawardena, Rachel F Daniels, Thishan C Yahathugoda, Mirani V Weerasooriya, Katelyn Durfee, Sarah K Volkman, Dyann F Wirth, Nadira D Karunaweera
BACKGROUND: Following its recent certification as malaria-free, imported infections now pose the greatest threat for maintaining this status in Sri Lanka. Imported infections may also introduce species that are uncommon or not previously endemic to these areas. We highlight in this case report the increasing importance of less common malaria species such as Plasmodium ovale in elimination settings and discuss its relevance for the risk of malaria resurgence in the country. CASE PRESENTATION: A 41-year-old patient from southern Sri Lanka was diagnosed with malaria after 8 days of fever...
April 24, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411937/preparing-for-international-travel-and-global-medical-care
#9
REVIEW
Swaminatha V Mahadevan, Matthew C Strehlow
Thorough pretravel preparation and medical consultation can mitigate avoidable health and safety risks. A comprehensive pretravel medical consultation should include an individualized risk assessment, immunization review, and discussion of arthropod protective measures, malaria prophylaxis, traveler's diarrhea, and injury prevention. Travel with children and jet lag reduction require additional planning and prevention strategies; travel and evacuation insurance may prove essential when traveling to less resourced countries...
May 2017: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363637/dsm265-for-plasmodium-falciparum-chemoprophylaxis-a-randomised-double-blinded-phase-1-trial-with-controlled-human-malaria-infection
#10
Mihály Sulyok, Thomas Rückle, Alexandra Roth, Raymund E Mürbeth, Stephan Chalon, Nicola Kerr, Sonia Schnieper Samec, Nathalie Gobeau, Carlos Lamsfus Calle, Javier Ibáñez, Zita Sulyok, Jana Held, Tamirat Gebru, Patricia Granados, Sina Brückner, Christian Nguetse, Juliana Mengue, Albert Lalremruata, Kim Lee Sim, Stephen L Hoffman, Jörg J Möhrle, Peter G Kremsner, Benjamin Mordmüller
BACKGROUND: A drug for causal (ie, pre-erythrocytic) prophylaxis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria with prolonged activity would substantially advance malaria control. DSM265 is an experimental antimalarial that selectively inhibits the parasite dihydroorotate dehydrogenase. DSM265 shows in vitro activity against liver and blood stages of P falciparum. We assessed the prophylactic activity of DSM265 against controlled human malaria infection (CHMI). METHODS: At the Institute of Tropical Medicine, Eberhard Karls University (Tübingen, Germany), healthy, malaria-naive adults were allocated to receive 400 mg DSM265 or placebo either 1 day (cohort 1A) or 7 days (cohort 2) before CHMI by direct venous inoculation (DVI) of 3200 aseptic, purified, cryopreserved P falciparum sporozoites (PfSPZ Challenge; Sanaria Inc, Rockville, MD, USA)...
March 28, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347311/predictors-of-the-use-of-interventions-to-prevent-malaria-in-pregnancy-in-cameroon
#11
Jodie Dionne-Odom, Andrew O Westfall, Tobias O Apinjoh, Judith Anchang-Kimbi, Eric A Achidi, Alan T N Tita
BACKGROUND: Malaria in pregnancy is common in sub-Saharan Africa where it contributes to perinatal morbidity and mortality. Use of insecticide-treated bed nets and intermittent preventive therapy with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine during pregnancy are effective but underutilized interventions to prevent infection. Factors associated with bed net ownership and usage, and use of prophylaxis among recently pregnant women in Cameroon were investigated. METHODS: National data from the 2011 Cameroon Demographic Health Survey was used to identify women with a pregnancy within the previous 5 years...
March 27, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344011/the-epidemiology-pathogenesis-transmission-diagnosis-and-management-of-multidrug-resistant-extensively-drug-resistant-and-incurable-tuberculosis
#12
REVIEW
Keertan Dheda, Tawanda Gumbo, Gary Maartens, Kelly E Dooley, Ruth McNerney, Megan Murray, Jennifer Furin, Edward A Nardell, Leslie London, Erica Lessem, Grant Theron, Paul van Helden, Stefan Niemann, Matthias Merker, David Dowdy, Annelies Van Rie, Gilman K H Siu, Jotam G Pasipanodya, Camilla Rodrigues, Taane G Clark, Frik A Sirgel, Aliasgar Esmail, Hsien-Ho Lin, Sachin R Atre, H Simon Schaaf, Kwok Chiu Chang, Christoph Lange, Payam Nahid, Zarir F Udwadia, C Robert Horsburgh, Gavin J Churchyard, Dick Menzies, Anneke C Hesseling, Eric Nuermberger, Helen McIlleron, Kevin P Fennelly, Eric Goemaere, Ernesto Jaramillo, Marcus Low, Carolina Morán Jara, Nesri Padayatchi, Robin M Warren
Global tuberculosis incidence has declined marginally over the past decade, and tuberculosis remains out of control in several parts of the world including Africa and Asia. Although tuberculosis control has been effective in some regions of the world, these gains are threatened by the increasing burden of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis. XDR tuberculosis has evolved in several tuberculosis-endemic countries to drug-incurable or programmatically incurable tuberculosis (totally drug-resistant tuberculosis)...
March 15, 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339598/high-postdischarge-morbidity-in-ugandan-children-with-severe-malarial-anemia-or-cerebral-malaria
#13
Robert O Opoka, Karen E S Hamre, Nathan Brand, Paul Bangirana, Richard Idro, Chandy C John
Summary: Postdischarge readmission and outpatient illnesses are frequent in children with severe malarial anemia or cerebral malaria. Trials of postdischarge malaria prophylaxis in children with severe malaria should be considered. Background: Cerebral malaria (CM) and severe malarial anemia (SMA) account for a substantial proportion of malaria-related deaths in sub-Saharan Africa. However, postdischarge morbidity in children with CM or SMA has not been well established...
October 7, 2016: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334018/development-of-an-evidence-evaluation-and-synthesis-system-for-drug-drug-interactions-and-its-application-to-a-systematic-review-of-hiv-and-malaria-co-infection
#14
Kay Seden, Sara Gibbons, Catia Marzolini, Jonathan M Schapiro, David M Burger, David J Back, Saye H Khoo
BACKGROUND: In all settings, there are challenges associated with safely treating patients with multimorbidity and polypharmacy. The need to characterise, understand and limit harms resulting from medication use is therefore increasingly important. Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) are prevalent in patients taking antiretrovirals (ARVs) and if unmanaged, may pose considerable risk to treatment outcome. One of the biggest challenges in preventing DDIs is the substantial gap between theory and clinical practice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291967/phototoxicity-of-doxycycline-a-systematic-review-on-clinical-manifestations-frequency-cofactors-and-prevention
#15
Steven Goetze, Christian Hiernickel, Peter Elsner
BACKGROUND: One of the most important dermatologic side effects of doxycycline is photosensitivity. As doxycycline is important for malaria prophylaxis and malaria is mainly spread in countries with high sun radiation, special attention should be paid to this adverse effect. While there are many publications on the phototoxicity of tetracyclines in general, only a few exist focusing on doxycycline. The objective of this systematic review was to summarize all available reports on clinical manifestations, influencing factors like UV dose or dose of medication, and the possibilities of prevention by sun protection...
2017: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259152/should-chemoprophylaxis-be-a-main-strategy-for-preventing-re-introduction-of-malaria-in-highly-receptive-areas-sri-lanka-a-case-in-point
#16
A Rajitha Wickremasinghe, Renu Wickremasinghe, Hemantha D B Herath, S Deepika Fernando
BACKGROUND: Imported malaria cases continue to be reported in Sri Lanka, which was declared 'malaria-free' by the World Health Organization in September 2016. Chemoprophylaxis, a recommended strategy for malaria prevention for visitors travelling to malaria-endemic countries from Sri Lanka is available free of charge. The strategy of providing chemoprophylaxis to visitors to a neighbouring malaria-endemic country within the perspective of a country that has successfully eliminated malaria but is highly receptive was assessed, taking Sri Lanka as a case in point...
March 4, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249591/controlled-release-of-artemisone-for-the-treatment-of-experimental-cerebral-malaria
#17
Jacob Golenser, Viola Buchholz, Amir Bagheri, Abed Nasereddin, Ron Dzikowski, Jintao Guo, Nicholas H Hunt, Sara Eyal, Natalia Vakruk, Andreas Greiner
BACKGROUND: Cerebral malaria (CM) is a leading cause of malarial mortality resulting from infection by Plasmodium falciparum. Treatment commonly involves adjunctive care and injections or transfusion of artemisinins. All artemisinins that are in current use are metabolized to dihydroxyartemisinin (DHA), to which there is already some parasite resistance. We used artemisone, a derivative that does not convert to DHA, has improved pharmacokinetics and anti-plasmodial activity and is also anti-inflammatory (an advantage given the immunopathological nature of CM)...
March 1, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237435/imported-malaria-in-children-in-madrid-spain-2007-2013
#18
Beatriz Soto Sánchez, L M Prieto Tato, S Guillén Martín, E Pérez, C Grasa, S Valderrama, I de Augusto, M Sierra, M García Ros, I Aguado, M García López Hortelano
BACKGROUND: The majority of malaria cases diagnosed in Europe in the last few years have occurred in people living in non-endemic areas travelling back to their home country to visit friends and relatives (VFRs). Children account for 15-20% of imported malaria, with known higher risk of severe disease. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective multicentre study was conducted in 24 hospitals in Madrid (Spain) including patients under 16 years diagnosed with malaria (2007-2013)...
February 23, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213434/malaria-during-pregnancy
#19
Michal Fried, Patrick E Duffy
One hundred and twenty-five million women in malaria-endemic areas become pregnant each year (see Dellicour et al. PLoS Med7: e1000221 [2010]) and require protection from infection to avoid disease and death for themselves and their offspring. Chloroquine prophylaxis was once a safe approach to prevention but has been abandoned because of drug-resistant parasites, and intermittent presumptive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, which is currently used to protect pregnant women throughout Africa, is rapidly losing its benefits for the same reason...
February 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173862/pre-travel-malaria-chemoprophylaxis-counselling-in-a-public-travel-medicine-clinic-in-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-brazil
#20
Tânia do Socorro Souza Chaves, Wuelton Marcelo Monteiro, Jessé Reis Alves, Marcus Lacerda, Marta Heloisa Lopes
BACKGROUND: Malaria is one of the most prevalent parasitic diseases in the world and represents a threat to travellers visiting endemic areas. Chemoprophylaxis is the prevention measure used in travel medicine, avoiding clinical manifestations and protecting against the development of severe disease and death. METHODS: Retrospective and descriptive analysis of malaria prevention data in travellers was recorded from a travel medicine clinic in São Paulo, Brazil, between January 2006 and December 2010...
February 7, 2017: Malaria Journal
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