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Fetal, obstetrical ultrasound diagnosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104551/a-framework-for-analysis-of-linear-ultrasound-videos-to-detect-fetal-presentation-and-heartbeat
#1
M A Maraci, C P Bridge, R Napolitano, A Papageorghiou, J A Noble
Confirmation of pregnancy viability (presence of fetal cardiac activity) and diagnosis of fetal presentation (head or buttock in the maternal pelvis) are the first essential components of ultrasound assessment in obstetrics. The former is useful in assessing the presence of an on-going pregnancy and the latter is essential for labour management. We propose an automated framework for detection of fetal presentation and heartbeat from a predefined free-hand ultrasound sweep of the maternal abdomen. Our method exploits the presence of key anatomical sonographic image patterns in carefully designed scanning protocols to develop, for the first time, an automated framework allowing novice sonographers to detect fetal breech presentation and heartbeat from an ultrasound sweep...
January 10, 2017: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057388/evaluation-of-focused-obstetric-ultrasound-examinations-by-health-care-personnel-in-the-democratic-republic-of-congo-guatemala-kenya-pakistan-and-zambia
#2
Robert O Nathan, Jonathan O Swanson, David L Swanson, Elizabeth M McClure, Victor Lokomba Bolamba, Adrien Lokangaka, Irma Sayury Pineda, Lester Figueroa, Walter López-Gomez, Ana Garces, David Muyodi, Fabian Esamai, Nancy Kanaiza, Waseem Mirza, Farnaz Naqvi, Sarah Saleem, Musaku Mwenechanya, Melody Chiwila, Dorothy Hamsumonde, Dennis D Wallace, Holly Franklin, Robert L Goldenberg
Prior studies have suggested that obstetrical (OB) ultrasound in low- and middle-income countries has aided in detection of high-risk conditions, which in turn could improve OB management. We are participating in a cluster-randomized clinical trial of OB ultrasound, which is designed to assess the effect of basic OB ultrasound on maternal mortality, fetal mortality, neonatal mortality, and maternal near-miss in 5 low-income countries. We designed a 2-week course in basic OB ultrasound, followed by 12 weeks of oversight, to train health care professionals with no prior ultrasound experience to perform basic OB ultrasound to screen for high-risk pregnancies...
November 10, 2016: Current Problems in Diagnostic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040117/skeletal-dysplasia-with-bowing-long-bones-proposed-flowchart-for-prenatal-diagnosis-with-case-demonstration
#3
Gabriele Tonni, Marcella Palmisano, Mario Lituania, Gianpaolo Grisolia, Ave Maria Baffico, Maria Paola Bonasoni, Pierpaolo Pattacini, Claudio De Felice, Edward Araujo Júnior
OBJECTIVE: Skeletal dysplasia with bowing long bones is a rare group of multiple characterized congenital anomalies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We introduce a simple, practical diagnostic flowchart that may be helpful in identifying the appropriate pathway of obstetrical management. RESULTS: Herein, we describe four fetal cases of bent bony dysplasia that focus on ultrasound findings, phenotype, molecular tests, distinctive X-ray features, and chondral growth plate histology...
December 2016: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029461/-prevention-of-preterm-birth-by-uterine-cervical-cerclage
#4
L Marcellin
OBJECTIVE: To review the scientific literature on cervical insufficiency and indications of cervical cerclage cervix. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The PubMed database, the Cochrane Library and the recommendations from the French and international obstetrical societies between 1972 and June 2016 have been consulted. RESULTS: Cervical insufficiency is a pathophysiological concept and to date no consensual definition is available: the diagnosis is clinical and discussed retrospectively in case of patients with a history of late miscarriages and/or spontaneous preterm delivery, with asymptomatic dilatation of the cervix (professional consensus)...
October 29, 2016: Journal de Gynécologie, Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029179/prenatal-diagnosis-of-congenital-heart-diseases-by-fetal-echocardiography-in-second-trimester-a-chinese-multicenter-study
#5
Chen Chu, Yingliu Yan, Yunyun Ren, Xiaotian Li, Yonghao Gui
INTRODUCTION: The objective of our study was to evaluate the performance of detailed fetal echocardiography by skilled obstetric physician sonologists in the diagnosis of congenital heart disease (CHD) in a Chinese population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This investigation included a multicenter prospective cohort of 10,259 pregnant women attending ten regional tertiary hospitals in China. The inclusion criteria were singleton pregnancy and gestational age 18 ~ ≤28 weeks...
December 28, 2016: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904846/complete-congenital-heart-block-in-a-neonate-with-a-complex-congenital-heart-defect-in-africa
#6
Clovis Nkoke, Edvine Yonta Wawo, Liliane Kuate Mfeukeu, Larissa Makamte, Sandrine Dikosso Edie, Flore Esiene Balana
Congenital heart block (CHB) is rare disorder that has a higher mortality when associated with structural congenital heart defects. Very few cases have been reported in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We present a case of complete CHB associated with a complex congenital heart defect in a neonate in Cameroon. A 1-month-old neonate in Cameroon was referred for the evaluation of bradycardia. The obstetrical ultrasound done during pregnancy revealed fetal bradycardia without further evaluation. Clinical examination showed well a developed neonate with bradycardia at 62 beats/minute, and mild cyanosis with oxygen saturation at 93% at room air...
October 2016: Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882752/-bronchopulmonary-sequestration
#7
J Bombová, M Lubušký
OBJECTIVE: To describe the case of prenatal diagnosis of bronchopulmonary sequestration and compelete spontaneous antenatal regresion of the lesion. DESIGN: Case report and review of the literature. SETTING: Complex Cancer Center Novy Jicin, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Palacky University Hospital Olomouc. CASE REPORT: We describe the case reports about the complete regression of a quite large bronchopulmonary sequestration during pregnancy...
2016: Ceská Gynekologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771202/-in-case-of-fetal-macrosomia-the-best-strategy-is-the-induction-of-labor-at-38%C3%A2-weeks-of-gestation
#8
REVIEW
P Rozenberg
Macrosomic fetuses are at increased risk of obstetric complications, and notably shoulder dystocia, responsible for a severe neonatal morbidity. In case of fetal macrosomia, three options are: (i) the elective cesarean delivery, but this is recommended only when the estimated fetal weight is≥4500g for diabetic women and 5000g for non-diabetic women; (ii) the expectative management, but children with birth weight≥4500 had significantly increased risk of perinatal mortality, neonatal asphyxia, trauma, and cesarean delivery; (iii) the induction of labor which, reducing the possibility of fetal growth, reduce the risk of cesarean delivery for cephalopelvic disproportion and shoulder dystocia...
November 2016: Journal de Gynécologie, Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766742/intracranial-translucency-assessment-at-first-trimester-nuchal-translucency-ultrasound
#9
Annah Lane, Ling Lee, Donna Traves, Andreas Lee
INTRODUCTION: The antenatal diagnosis of open spina bifida (OSB), a neural tube defect, is predominantly made at the second trimester morphology scan by ultrasound detection of structural abnormalities resulting from the associated Chiari II malformation. Evidence has emerged suggesting that these structural abnormalities can be detected earlier, by examination of the posterior fossa as part of the first trimester nuchal translucency scan. In particular, absence of the intra-cranial translucency (IT) of the fourth ventricle has shown promise as a diagnostic marker of OSB, although the sensitivity and specificity of this finding varies widely in the literature...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734711/findings-and-differential-diagnosis-of-fetal-intracranial-haemorrhage-and-fetal-ischaemic-brain-injury-what-is-the-role-of-fetal-mri
#10
Bryn Putbrese, Anne Kennedy
Ventriculomegaly (VM) is a non-specific finding on fetal imaging. Identification of the specific aetiology is important, as it affects prognosis and may even change the course of current or future pregnancies. In this review, we will focus on the application of fetal MRI to demonstrate intracranial haemorrhage and ischaemic brain injury as opposed to other causes of VM. MRI is able to identify the specific aetiology of VM with much more sensitivity and specificity than ultrasound and should be considered whenever VM is identified on obstetric ultrasound...
December 8, 2016: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695952/multimodality-imaging-of-placental-masses-a-pictorial-review
#11
REVIEW
Priyanka Jha, Viktoriya Paroder, Winnie Mar, Jeanne M Horowtiz, Liina Poder
Placental masses are uncommonly identified at the time of obstetric ultrasound evaluation. Understanding the pathologies presenting as placental masses is key for providing a differential diagnosis and guiding subsequent management, which may include additional imaging with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Potential benign entities include chorioangiomas and teratomas. Larger chorioangiomas can cause fetal cardiovascular issues from volume overload. Placental mesenchymal dysplasia has an association with fetal anomalies and detailed fetal evaluation should be performed when it is suspected...
December 2016: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643400/diagnostic-accuracy-of-mid-trimester-antenatal-ultrasound-for-multicystic-dysplastic-kidneys
#12
C Scala, S McDonnell, F Murphy, U Leone Roberti Maggiore, A Khalil, A Bhide, B Thilaganthan, A T Papageorghiou
OBJECTIVES: To establish the diagnostic accuracy of obstetric ultrasound at a tertiary fetal medicine centre in the prenatal detection of unilateral and bilateral MCDK in fetuses where this condition was suspected; and to undertake a systematic review of the literature on this topic. METHODS: Retrospective observational study of all cases with an antenatal diagnosis of either unilateral or bilateral MCDK referred to a regional tertiary fetal medicine unit between 1997 and 2015...
September 19, 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27595049/conservative-management-and-planned-surgery-for-periviable-advanced-extrauterine-abdominal-pregnancy-with-favorable-outcome-report-of-two-cases
#13
Hassan M Harirah, J Michael Smith, C Luke Dixon, Gary D V Hankins
Advanced abdominal pregnancy is an extremely rare condition that poses diagnostic and management challenges. A high index of suspicion and careful assessment of the patient's symptoms, supplemented with obstetric ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging, are crucial for timely diagnosis and management to prevent life-threatening complications. The presence of periviable fetuses in advanced abdominal pregnancies increases the challenge to achieve a balance between maternal and fetal benefits and risks. Early diagnosis and management decisions via a multidisciplinary approach and planned delivery are of paramount importance to minimize complications and achieve favorable maternal and fetal outcomes...
July 2016: American Journal of Perinatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27583078/-rudimentary-horn-pregnancy-diagnostic-difficulties-and-therapeutic-management
#14
Nisrine Mamouni, Nabil Ghazal, Sanaa Erraghay, Chahrazed Bouchikhi, Abdelaziz Banani
The occurrence of rudimentary horn pregnancy is an extremely rare and potentially serious obstetric entity, threatening maternal and fetal outcome. The authors report five cases of rudimentary horn pregnancy, the difficulties in making a proper diagnosis and the therapeutic management of this pathological entity, stressing the importance of transvaginal ultrasound, of pelvic MRI and laparoscopy in the early diagnosis of this type of uterine malformation.
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27524445/perinatal-asphyxia-from-the-obstetric-standpoint-diagnosis-and-interventions
#15
REVIEW
Christina A Herrera, Robert M Silver
Perinatal asphyxia is a general term referring to neonatal encephalopathy related to events during birth. Asphyxia refers to a deprivation of oxygen for a duration sufficient to cause neurologic injury. Most cases of perinatal asphyxia are not necessarily caused by intrapartum events but rather associated with underlying chronic maternal or fetal conditions. Of intrapartum causes, obstetric emergencies are the most common and are not always preventable. Screening high-risk pregnancies with ultrasound, Doppler velocimetry, and antenatal testing can aid in identifying fetuses at risk...
September 2016: Clinics in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27453740/velamentous-insertion-of-umbilical-cord-with-vasa-praevia-case-series-and-literature-review
#16
REVIEW
R E Bohîlțea, M M Cîrstoiu, A I Ciuvica, O Munteanu, O Bodean, D Voicu, C A Ionescu
A velamentous umbilical cord is characterized by membranous umbilical vessels at the placental insertion site that are prone to compression and rupture, especially when they are located in the membranes covering the cervical os (vasa praevia). The velamentous insertion of the umbilical cord, with a reported incidence of 1% in singleton pregnancies and 15% in monochorionic twin gestations, has been associated with obstetric complications: fetal growth restriction, prematurity, congenital anomalies, low Apgar scores, fetal bleeding with acute fetal distress and placental retention...
April 2016: Journal of Medicine and Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27440228/the-value-of-cardiac-magnetic-resonance-in-the-diagnosis-of-fetal-aortic-arch-anomalies
#17
Xu Li, Xue-Lei Li, Kefei Hu, Chuangao Yin
BACKGROUND: Here we report our preliminary experience of using fetal cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging, particularly with transverse views at the level of the aortic arch, in the diagnosis of aortic arch anomalies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between January 2013 and December 2015, routine prenatal obstetric ultrasound (US), echocardiography (Echo) and 1.5 T CMR were performed on approximately 600 pregnant women. CMR included balanced fast field echo and single-shot fast spin echo sequences...
July 20, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27433255/ultrasound-diagnosis-of-bilateral-cataracts-in-a-fetus-with-possible-cerebro-ocular-congential-muscular-dystrophy-during-the-routine-second-trimester-anomaly-scan
#18
Alexandra Drought, Ruwan Wimalasundera, Susan Holder
The finding of bilateral congenital cataracts in the fetus is rare. We report bilateral congenital cataracts detected during the routine second trimester anomaly scan, which subsequently were found to be associated with other congenital anomalies and the parents opted for a termination of pregnancy. At post-mortem, Muscle-Eye Brain disease or Walker-Warburg Syndrome was considered likely, which are autosomal recessive congenital muscular dystrophy disorders associated with cerebral, cerebellar, muscle and eye anomalies...
August 2015: Ultrasound: Journal of the British Medical Ultrasound Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27424445/-vasa-praevia-diagnosis-during-transvaginal-measurement-of-cervical-length-as-preventing-preterm-delivery-in-the-second-quarter
#19
L I Belmonte-Andújar, A M Fuentes-Rozalén, R M Soler-Garcia
BACKGROUND: Vasa praevia is a rare pregnancy complication with a high fetal mortality when not diagnosed in the prenatal period. CLINICAL CASES: two cases of vasa praevia diagnosed during the second trimester ultrasound cervical measurement. CONCLUSIONS: We propose carry out further investigation about cost effectiveness of double vaginal screening (cervical length measurement and vasa praevia) during the second trimester morphology ultrasound...
March 2016: Ginecología y Obstetricia de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27311166/-prevalence-in-birth-defects-diagnosed-by-ultrasound-three-years-experience-in-university-maternal-fetal-medicine-unit
#20
Saulo Molina-Giraldo, Luis Alfonso-Ospina, Carolina Parra-Meza, Eder Ariel Lancheros-García, José Luis Rojas-Arias, Edgar Acuña-Osorio
OBJECTIVE: To establish the prevalence of congenital malformations diagnosed in Maternal-Fetal Medicine Unit of Hospital de San José, Bogotá-Colombia and comparing them to national and international reports. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective, descriptive observational where the quantification of all malformed fetuses diagnosed in Maternal-Fetal Medicine Unit from June 2010 to June 2013 was performed. RESULTS: 236 malformed fetuses, a total of 11,914 births, for a prevalence of 1...
November 2015: Ginecología y Obstetricia de México
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