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Andrew K Cordova, Robin Feldman
Research universities have made enormous contributions to the field of medicine and the treatment of human disease. Alone or in collaboration with pharmaceutical companies, academic researchers have added to the store of knowledge that has led to numerous life science breakthroughs. A new chapter may be opening for academic researchers, however, that could lead to a darker tale. 'The mouse that trolled: the long and tortuous history of a gene mutation patent that became an expensive impediment to Alzheimer's research, by Bubela et al...
November 2015: Journal of Law and the Biosciences
Jean-Marie Bruzzese, Sharon Kingston, Yihong Zhao, John S DiMeglio, Amarilis Céspedes, Maureen George
PURPOSE: Adolescents are low users of medical care. Psychological factors and perceived reasons to not seek routine medical care may increase risk of nonuse by adolescents with undiagnosed asthma. This study tests if psychological factors were associated with seeing a medical provider for asthma-like symptoms; identifies adolescents' perceived reasons for not obtaining care; explores if psychological factors are associated with these perceptions; and explores if asthma severity moderates the relationships with psychological factors...
November 2016: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
Akin Ojagbemi, Robin Emsley, Oye Gureje
OBJECTIVES: The time required in completing the 26 items of neurological examinations in the standard Neurological Evaluation Scale (NES) may limit its utility in pragmatic clinical situations. We propose the Short Neurological Evaluation Scale (S-NES) for use in busy clinical settings, and in research. METHODS: Using confirmatory factor analyses, we identified 12 items of neurological examination showing significant overlap with previously reported theoretical and empirical categories of neurological soft signs (NSS) in schizophrenia...
October 24, 2016: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
Joan R Villalbí, Carme Borrell, Manel Macía, Teresa Subirana, María José López, Samuel Portaña, Xavier Llebaria, Conrad Casas
This paper describes the review process of the Agency of Public Health of Barcelona's service portfolio in response to the budget cuts introduced since 2010 in the public administrations in Spain. A working group reviewed the different business activities, taking into account their costs and generated revenue and their justification, assessing factors such as the existence of legal constraints, tied funding, explicit demands from the founding administrations and other actors that may be capable of undertaking particular activities...
October 19, 2016: Gaceta Sanitaria
Mauricio J Grisolia, Diego A Peralta, Hugo A Valdez, Julieta Barchiesi, Diego F Gomez-Casati, María V Busi
Starch binding domains of starch synthase III from Arabidopsis thaliana (SBD123) binds preferentially to cell wall polysaccharides rather than to starch in vitro. Transgenic plants overexpressing SBD123 in the cell wall are larger than wild type. Cell wall components are altered in transgenic plants. Transgenic plants are more susceptible to digestion than wild type and present higher released glucose content. Our results suggest that the transgenic plants have an advantage for the production of bioethanol in terms of saccharification of essential substrates...
October 21, 2016: Plant Molecular Biology
Fraser Henderson, Istvan Takacs
BACKGROUND: Troubleshooting of deep brain stimulators (Activa SC/PC/RC Medtronic PLC) sometimes results in a decision to replace a tunneled stretch-coil extension cable. We present a simple technique to accomplish this atraumatically without a tunneling tool. OBJECTIVES: In the treatment of patients with deep brain stimulators, complication avoidance and efficiency of operative time are paramount. We sought to find the most safe, effective, and rapid method for performing the conceptually-simple yet technically-nuanced act of replacing lead extension cables...
October 18, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Yasutaka Mizuno, Yuri Miura, Tetsuo Yamaguchi, Tetsuya Matsumoto
BACKGROUND: International travel is considered a risk for colonisation with extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE). To our knowledge, no studies to date have focused on ESBL-PE colonisation among long-termbusiness travellers. Therefore this study aimed to clarify the characteristics associated with ESBL-PE colonisation in Japanese long-term business travellers. METHODS: Japanese business travellers planning to stay abroad for ≥ 6 months were enrolled...
October 18, 2016: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
Brett Wolfson-Stofko, Alex S Bennett, Luther Elliott, Ric Curtis
BACKGROUND: Though public bathroom drug injection has been documented from the perspective of people who inject drugs, no research has explored the experiences of the business managers who oversee their business bathrooms and respond to drug use. These managers, by default, are first-responders in the event of a drug overdose and thus of intrinsic interest during the current epidemic of opioid-related overdoses in the United States. This exploratory study assists in elucidating the experiences that New York City business managers have with people who inject drugs, their paraphernalia, and their overdoses...
October 18, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
Luisanna Cocco, Michele Marchesi
In January 3, 2009, Satoshi Nakamoto gave rise to the "Bitcoin Blockchain", creating the first block of the chain hashing on his computer's central processing unit (CPU). Since then, the hash calculations to mine Bitcoin have been getting more and more complex, and consequently the mining hardware evolved to adapt to this increasing difficulty. Three generations of mining hardware have followed the CPU's generation. They are GPU's, FPGA's and ASIC's generations. This work presents an agent-based artificial market model of the Bitcoin mining process and of the Bitcoin transactions...
2016: PloS One
Megan K Creutzburg, Robert M Scheller, Melissa S Lucash, Stephen D LeDuc, Mark G Johnson
Balancing economic, ecological and social values has long been a challenge in the forests of the Pacific Northwest, where conflict over timber harvest and old-growth habitat on public lands has been contentious for the past several decades. The Northwest Forest Plan, adopted two decades ago to guide management on federal lands, is currently being revised as the region searches for a balance between sustainable timber yields and habitat for sensitive species. In addition, climate change imposes a high degree of uncertainty on future forest productivity, sustainability of timber harvest, wildfire risk, and species habitat...
October 21, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Gary Goldstein, Mark Andrawis, Mijin Choi, Jonathan Wiens, Malvin N Janal
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: The definition of centric relation (CR) has been both controversial and divisive, with little consensus. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether agreement can be reached on a definition for CR among the Fellows of the Academy of Prosthodontics, the organization that writes the Glossary of Prosthodontic Terms. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A survey of the Fellows of the Academy of Prosthodontics was conducted at the organization's annual business meeting...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
Cecilia Benoit, Nadia Ouellet, Mikael Jansson
OBJECTIVES: This paper examines unmet health care needs in one of Canada's most hard-to-reach populations, adult sex workers, and investigates whether their reasons for not accessing health care are different from those of other Canadians. METHODS: Data gathered in 2012-2013 from sex workers aged 19 and over (n = 209) in five Canadian census metropolitan areas (CMAs) were analyzed to estimate the perceived health, health care access and level of unmet health care needs of sex workers, and their principal reasons for not accessing health care...
October 20, 2016: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
S Malfait, K Eeckloo, J Hellings, G De Bodt, A Van Hecke
INTRODUCTION: In many health care systems, strategies are currently deployed to engage patients and other stakeholders in decisions affecting hospital services. In this paper, a model for stakeholder involvement is presented and evaluated in three Flemish hospitals. In the model, a stakeholder committee advises the hospital's board of directors on themes of strategic importance. OBJECTIVES: To study the internal hospital's decision processes in order to identify the impact of a stakeholder involvement committee on strategic themes in the hospital decision processes...
October 20, 2016: Acta Clinica Belgica
Hassan Rahnama, Shayan Rajabpour
The environment is increasingly turning to a vital and very important issue for all people. By increasing environmental concerns as well as legislating and regulating rules on the protection of the environment and the emergence of green consumers, implementing green marketing approach for organizations seems to be more crucial and essential. As a result, the need for ecological products and green business activities compels companies to combine environmental issues with marketing strategies. The first step in the success of companies and organizations is to identify consumers and their consumption behaviors correctly and accurately...
October 19, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Marianne Williams, Yvonne Barclay, Rosie Benneyworth, Steve Gore, Zoe Hamilton, Rudi Matull, Iain Phillips, Leah Seamark, Kate Staveley, Steve Thole, Emma Greig
BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) costs the National Health Service almost £12 million per annum. Despite national guidelines advising primary care management, these have failed to stem secondary care referrals of patients with likely IBS for unnecessary and costly assessment and investigation without necessarily achieving resolution of their symptoms. METHODS: In 2011, an integrated team from primary and secondary care developed a business case using baseline data to create a Somerset-wide IBS pathway using Clinical Commissioning Group funding...
October 2016: Frontline Gastroenterology
Jerry M Green
Glyphosate and glyphosate-resistant crops had a revolutionary impact on weed management practices, but the epidemic of glyphosate-resistant (GR) weeds is rapidly decreasing the value of these technologies. In areas that fully adopted glyphosate and GR crops, GR weeds evolved and glyphosate and glyphosate traits now must be combined with other technologies. The chemical company solution is to combine glyphosate with other chemicals, and the seed company solution is to combine glyphosate resistance with other traits...
October 18, 2016: Pest Management Science
Krishnendu Ray
The sociology of food consumption has emerged as a robust field with rich empirical material and engaged theorization about taste, omnivorousness, distinction, and practice theory. Nevertheless there are continuing empirical and conceptual lacunae. For instance, although transnational and rural-to-urban migrants play a crucial role in food businesses in many global cities, they are mostly unaccounted for in the sociology of taste. Taking the American case, in particular based on data from New York City, this article provides reasons for that gap and shows what might be gained if migrants were accounted for in the urban sociology of taste...
October 15, 2016: Appetite
Henry Zakumumpa, Modupe Oladunni Taiwo, Alex Muganzi, Freddie Ssengooba
BACKGROUND: Human resources for health (HRH) constraints are a major barrier to the sustainability of antiretroviral therapy (ART) scale-up programs in Sub-Saharan Africa. Many prior approaches to HRH constraints have taken a top-down trend of generalized global strategies and policy guidelines. The objective of the study was to examine the human resources for health strategies adopted by front-line providers in Uganda to sustain ART delivery beyond the initial ART scale-up phase between 2004 and 2009...
October 19, 2016: Human Resources for Health
Tanmay Mahapatra, Kaushik Chakraborty, Sanchita Mahapatra, Umakanta Mahapatra, Naren Pandey, Peter L Thomson, Arthur W Musk, Ramendra N Mitra
BACKGROUND: Progressive burden of diabetes mellitus is a major concern in India. Data on the predictors of poor glycemic control among diabetics are scanty. A population-based cross-sectional study nested in an urban cohort was thus conducted in West Bengal, India to determine the burden and correlates of total and uncontrolled abnormalities in glucose metabolism (AGM) in a representative population. METHODS: From 9046 adult cohort-members, 269 randomly selected consenting subjects (non-response = 7...
2016: PloS One
Debbie Selby, Dori Seccaraccia, Jim Huth, Kristin Kurrpa, Margaret Fitch
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to explore healthcare professionals' (HCPs') perception of their role in provision of spiritual care, in addition to attempting to identify a simple question(s) to help identify spiritual distress. BACKGROUND: Spirituality is well recognized as important to whole-person care, particularly in those with terminal illnesses. Understanding the role of front-line providers in the identification and management of spiritual distress, however, remains challenging...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Palliative Medicine
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