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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635325/effect-of-salt-loading-on-baroreflex-sensitivity-in-reduced-renal-mass-hypertension
#1
Besim Özaykan, Eylem Taskin, Ali Magemizoğlu
BACKGROUND: High dietary salt, as well as renal mass reduction, is known to decrease baroreflex sensitivity in rats. However, the effect of high salt intake on baroreflex sensitivity is unknown in reduced renal mass (RRM) hypertension; therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of salt loading on arterial baroreflex sensitivity and mean arterial pressure (MAP) in RRM hypertension. METHODS: Both RRM and sham-operated control (SO) rats were loaded with 0...
June 21, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635176/genetic-loss-of-the-muscarinic-m3-receptor-m3-r-markedly-alters-bile-formation-and-cholestatic-liver-injury-in-mice
#2
Franziska Durchschein, Elisabeth Krones, Marion J Pollheimer, Gernot Zollner, Martin Wagner, Jean-Pierre Raufman, Peter Fickert
Hepatic innervation represents a potentially underestimated regulator of liver function and regeneration. The muscarinic 3 receptor (M3 -R) is the primary cholangiocyte receptor for the afferent parasympathetic innervation of bile ducts. We aimed to determine the specific role of the M3 -R in bile formation and models for cholestatic liver disease in mice. We compared bile flow and composition in M3 -R knock-out mice (M3 -R(-/-) ) and wild type littermates (WT). M3 -R(-/-) mice showed significantly reduced bile flow compared to WT mice, most likely due to decreased biliary HCO3(-) secretion...
June 21, 2017: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630583/acute-modification-of-cardiac-autonomic-function-of-high-intensity-interval-training-in-collegiate-male-soccer-players-with-different-chronotype-a-cross-over-study
#3
Matteo Bonato, Luca Agnello, Letizia Galasso, Angela Montaruli, Eliana Roveda, Giampiero Merati, Antonio La Torre, Jacopo A Vitale
The purpose of this study was to evaluate if the time of the day (8.00 a.m. vs 8.00 p.m.) and chronotype could influence autonomic cardiac control in soccer players in relation to an acute session of high-intensity interval training. The morningness-eveningness questionnaire was administered to recruit Morning-type and Evening-type collegiate male soccer players. Therefore, 24 players (12 Morning-types and 12 Evening-types) were randomly assigned, to either morning (n = 12; age 23 ± 3 years; height 1.75 ± 0...
June 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629735/chronic-fluoxetine-treatment-enhances-sympathetic-activities-associated-with-abnormality-of-baroreflex-function-in-conscious-normal-rats
#4
Ling-Zong Hong, Keh-Feng Huang, Siu-Wan Hung, Li-Te Kuo
Data regarding the effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which are a common type of antidepressants, on cardiovascular autonomic function are inconsistent. The present study was conducted to determine the effects of chronic fluoxetine, an SSRI, on blood pressure, cardiac autonomic nervous activities and baroreflex control of heart rate. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with fluoxetine (10mg/kg·day, p.o.) or saline for 14 weeks. Baroreflex function was determined by the sigmoid logistic method based on the heart rate responses to changes in blood pressure elicited by phenylephrine or sodium nitroprusside infusions...
June 16, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628651/the-density-of-parasympathetic-axons-is-reduced-in-the-exocrine-pancreas-of-individuals-recently-diagnosed-with-type-1-diabetes
#5
Marcus Lundberg, Andreas Lindqvist, Nils Wierup, Lars Krogvold, Knut Dahl-Jørgensen, Oskar Skog
To elucidate the etiology of type 1 diabetes, the affected pancreas needs to be thoroughly characterized. Pancreatic innervation has been suggested to be involved in the pathology of the disease and a reduction of sympathetic innervation of the islets was recently reported. In the present study, we hypothesized that parasympathetic innervation would be altered in the type 1 diabetes pancreas. Human pancreatic specimens were obtained from a unique cohort of individuals with recent onset or long standing type 1 diabetes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628383/cardiovascular-response-of-an-acute-exergame-session-in-prepubertal-obese-children
#6
Herikson Araújo Costa, Antonio Carlos Silva-Filho, Carlos José Dias, Vicenilma Andrade Martins, Thiago Mendes, André Rabelo, Francisco Navarro, Emerson Silami-Garcia, Cristiano Mostarda, Mario Sevílio
PURPOSE: We aimed to analyze the acute autonomic response of obese and eutrophic prepubertal boys to an exergame (EXG) session. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Nine eutrophic (8.89 ± 2.71 years of age and 16.42% ± 6.30% body fat) and nine obese boys (8.70 ± 1.16 years of age and 40.76% ± 4.2% body fat) participated. Nutritional state was determined using World Health Organization guidelines. Variables were collected at rest, immediately post (IP), and 60 minutes after a 20 minutes EXG session...
June 2017: Games for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627793/increased-sympathetic-outflow-induces-adaptation-to-acute-experimental-pain
#7
Lior Dayan, Uri Hochberg, Hadas Nahman-Averbuch, Silviu Brill, Jacob N Ablin, Giris Jacob
BACKGROUND: There are interrelationships between the autonomic nervous system and pain. This study aims to explore the effect of different autonomic manipulations on pain perception and modulation. METHODS: Twenty healthy subjects (10 men and 10 women, mean age 25±3) participate in this single-blinded, semi-randomized, controlled study, which included 2 study visits. Warm and heat pain thresholds, conditioned pain modulation and pain adaptation were tested before and after administration of phenylephrine, clonidine, yohimbine and saline...
June 19, 2017: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626097/-visceral-sensitivity-gut-barrier-function-and-autonomic-nerve-function-in-patients-with-diarrhea-predominant-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#8
Xiaojuan Xu, Liang Liu, Shukun Yao, Yanli Zhang
To evaluate visceral sensitivity, gut barrier function and autonomic nerve function (ANF) in patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D), and to explore their roles in IBS-D pathophysiology.
 Methods: A total of 46 IBS-D patients (IBS-D group) were selected from the Department of Gastroenterology of China-Japan Friendship Hospital from October 2015 to March 2016, and 20 healthy volunteer were served as a control group (HC group). Clinical and psychological symptoms were evaluated by questionnaire, and visceral sensitivity to rectal balloon distention, gut barrier function and autonomic nerve function (ANF) were examined...
May 28, 2017: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625674/regional-cerebral-cortical-thickness-correlates-with-autonomic-outflow
#9
REVIEW
Katelyn N Wood, Mark B Badrov, Mark R Speechley, J Kevin Shoemaker
Dysregulation of autonomic control often develops with advancing age, favoring a chronic state of heightened sympathetic outflow with parasympathetic withdrawal. However, the mechanisms of this age-related autonomic impairment are not known. This study tested the hypothesis that inter-individual differences in autonomic outflow across the adult age-span are related to cerebral cortex thickness. A total of 55 healthy, active individuals participated in this study (21-73years; 18 female). Physical fitness was treated as a possible covariate (VO2peak: 26-81mL/kg/min)...
June 7, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625139/targeting-cholinergic-system-to-modulate-liver-injury
#10
Ravirajsinh N Jadeja, Vikrant P Rachakonda, Sandeep Khurana
Over the past few decades, evidence accumulated to indicate that parasympathetic innervation regulates liver injury and regeneration. Liver derives its parasympathetic input via vagus nerve. In animal models, vagus nerve stimulation and transection are frequently used to determine the impact of parasympathetic input on liver injury responses. Such strategies provide limited understanding of post-neuronal mechanisms involved in regulation of liver injury. The hepatic branch of vagus nerve releases acetylcholine (ACh), which activates muscarinic and nicotinic receptors in hepatocytes as well as non-parenchymal cells to modulate cellular functions...
June 18, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623666/sox2-regulates-acinar-cell-development-in-the-salivary-gland
#11
Elaine Emmerson, Alison May, Sara Nathan, Noel Cruz Pacheco, Carlos O Lizama, Lenka Maliskova, Ann C Zovein, Yin Shen, Marcus O Muench, Sarah M Knox
Acinar cells play an essential role in the secretory function of exocrine organs. Despite this requirement, how acinar cells are generated during organogenesis is unclear. Using the acini-ductal network of the developing human and murine salivary gland, we demonstrate an unexpected role for SOX2 and parasympathetic nerves in generating the acinar lineage that has broad implications for epithelial morphogenesis. Despite SOX2 being expressed by progenitors that give rise to both acinar and duct cells, genetic ablation of SOX2 results in a failure to establish acini but not ducts...
June 17, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615966/acute-physiological-and-electrical-accentuation-of-vagal-tone-has-no-effect-on-pain-or-gastrointestinal-motility-in-chronic-pancreatitis
#12
Jacob Juel, Christina Brock, Søren S Olesen, Adnan Madzak, Adam D Farmer, Qasim Aziz, Jens B Frøkjær, Asbjørn Mohr Drewes
BACKGROUND: The effective management of pain in chronic pancreatitis (CP) remains a therapeutic challenge. Analgesic drugs, such as opioids, and the underlying pathology can impair gut function. The autonomic nervous system influences hormone secretion and gut motility. In healthy volunteers, electrical (using noninvasive transcutaneous vagal nerve stimulation [t-VNS]) and physiological (using deep slow breathing [DSB]) modulation of parasympathetic tone results in pain attenuation and enhanced gut motility...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611675/cardiac-autonomic-responses-during-exercise-and-post-exercise-recovery-using-heart-rate-variability-and-systolic-time-intervals-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Scott Michael, Kenneth S Graham, Glen M Davis
Cardiac parasympathetic activity may be non-invasively investigated using heart rate variability (HRV), although HRV is not widely accepted to reflect sympathetic activity. Instead, cardiac sympathetic activity may be investigated using systolic time intervals (STI), such as the pre-ejection period. Although these autonomic indices are typically measured during rest, the "reactivity hypothesis" suggests that investigating responses to a stressor (e.g., exercise) may be a valuable monitoring approach in clinical and high-performance settings...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605971/impaired-baroreflex-function-during-orthostatic-challenge-in-patients-after-spinal-cord-injury
#14
Katarina Ondrusova, Jana Svacinova, Michal Javorka, Jan Novak, Marie Novakova, Zuzana Novakova
The level of spinal cord injury (SCI) affects baroreflex regulation of blood pressure (BP). While a parasympathetic cardiac chronotropic effect is preserved, baroreflex response could be impaired by sympathetic dysfunction under the SCI level. This study was aimed to evaluate the baroreflex function in SCI patients by the analysis of causal interaction between systolic blood pressure (SBP) and inter-beat intervals (IBI). BP was continuously recorded in 13 cervical SCI patients (CSCI), 9 thoracic SCI (ThSCI) and 13 able-bodied controls (Con) during two phases: sitting (PS) and orthostatic challenge (PO)...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600120/effects-of-cevimeline-on-excitability-of-parasympathetic-preganglionic-neurons-in-the-superior-salivatory-nucleus-of-rats
#15
Yoshihiro Mitoh, Hirotaka Ueda, Hiroyuki Ichikawa, Masako Fujita, Motoi Kobashi, Ryuji Matsuo
The superior salivatory nucleus (SSN) contains parasympathetic preganglionic neurons innervating the submandibular and sublingual salivary glands. Cevimeline, a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) agonist, is a sialogogue that possibly stimulates SSN neurons in addition to the salivary glands themselves because it can cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In the present study, we examined immunoreactivities for mAChR subtypes in SSN neurons retrogradely labeled with a fluorescent tracer in neonatal rats...
May 30, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587528/a-prospective-observational-cohort-study-of-exposure-to-womb-like-sounds-to-stabilize-breathing-and-cardiovascular-patterns-in-preterm-neonates
#16
Joanna J Parga, Ravi R Bhatt, Kalpashri Kesavan, Myung-Shin Sim, Harvey N Karp, Ronald M Harper, Lonnie Zeltzer
PURPOSE: We exposed premature infants to womb-like sounds to evaluate such exposure on breathing and cardiovascular patterns. We hypothesized that these sounds would reduce apnea and intermittent hypoxemia, enhance parasympathetic outflow, and improve cardiovascular patterns. METHODS: A total of 20 cases and 5 control infants at ≤ 32-36 weeks corrected gestational age participated in a prospective observational cohort study. Twenty-four hours of continuous ECG, respiratory and oxygen saturation data were collected in all infants...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579207/peripheral-nerve-involvement-in-fabry-s-disease-which-investigations-a-case-series-and-review-of-the-literature
#17
J Franques, P Sahuc, B Dussol, G Penaranda, L Swiader, R Froissart, S Attarian, C Stavris, L Chiche, J Pouget
BACKGROUND: Peripheral nerve system (PNS) involvement is common in Fabry's disease (FD), predominantly affecting the small nerve fibers that are difficult to investigate with conventional electrophysiological methods. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eighteen patients followed for Fabry's disease underwent a prospective series of electroneurophysiological explorations, including a study of the cardiac parasympathetic autonomic nervous system (ANS) and electrochemical skin conductance (ESC) tests...
June 1, 2017: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578927/synergistic-signaling-by-light-and-acetylcholine-in-mouse-iris-sphincter-muscle
#18
Qian Wang, Wendy Wing Sze Yue, Zheng Jiang, Tian Xue, Shin H Kang, Dwight E Bergles, Katsuhiko Mikoshiba, Stefan Offermanns, King-Wai Yau
The mammalian pupillary light reflex (PLR) involves a bilateral brain circuit whereby afferent light signals in the optic nerve ultimately drive iris-sphincter-muscle contraction via excitatory cholinergic parasympathetic innervation [1, 2]. Additionally, the PLR in nocturnal and crepuscular sub-primate mammals has a "local" component in the isolated sphincter muscle [3-5], as in amphibians, fish, and bird [6-10]. In mouse, this local PLR requires the pigment melanopsin [5], originally found in intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) [11-19]...
June 19, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576855/sodium-balance-circadian-bp-rhythm-heart-rate-variability-and-intrarenal-renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-and-dopaminergic-systems-in-acute-phase-of-arb-therapy
#19
Yukako Isobe-Sasaki, Michio Fukuda, Yoshiaki Ogiyama, Ryo Sato, Toshiyuki Miura, Daisuke Fuwa, Masashi Mizuno, Tetsuhei Matsuoka, Hiroko Shibata, Hiroyuki Ito, Minamo Ono, Sumiko Abe-Dohmae, Ken Kiyono, Yoshiharu Yamamoto, Hiroyuki Kobori, Makoto Michikawa, Junichiro Hayano, Nobuyuki Ohte
We have revealed that even in humans, activated intrarenal renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) enhances tubular sodium reabsorption to facilitate salt sensitivity and nondipper rhythm of blood pressure (BP), and that angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) could increase daytime urinary sodium excretion rate (UNaV) to produce lower sodium balance and restore nondipper rhythm. However, the sympathetic nervous system and intrarenal dopaminergic system can also contribute to renal sodium handling. A total of 20 patients with chronic kidney disease (61 ± 15 years) underwent 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring before and during two-day treatment with ARB, azilsartan...
June 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575801/evaluation-of-the-parasympathetic-tone-activity-pta-index-to-assess-the-analgesia-nociception-balance-in-anaesthetised-dogs
#20
Christelle Mansour, Tristan Merlin, Jeanne-Marie Bonnet-Garin, Rana Chaaya, Rita Mocci, Clara Conde Ruiz, Bernard Allaouchiche, Emmanuel Boselli, Stéphane Junot
The Parasympathetic Tone Activity (PTA) is an index based on the analysis of heart rate variability that has been recently developed to assess the analgesia/nociception balance in anaesthetised animals. The present study aimed to evaluate its performance in dogs undergoing surgery. Thirty dogs admitted for elective surgeries, were anaesthetised with a standardised protocol. PTA, heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and HDR (defined as an increase by >20% in HR and/or SBP within 5min) were assessed at the following predefined time-points: TStSt (steady-state, after induction of anaesthesia and before start of surgery), TClamp (clamping of surgical drapes on the skin), TCut (cutaneous incision), TPrePTA (retrospectively assessed 1min before a PTA decline of at least 20%) and TEndIso (isoflurane discontinuation)...
May 10, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
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