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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792856/comparison-of-the-3-d-patterns-of-the-parasympathetic-nervous-system-in-the-lung-at-late-developmental-stages-between-mouse-and-chicken
#1
Tadayoshi Watanabe, Ryo Nakamura, Yuta Takase, Etsuo A Susaki, Hiroki R Ueda, Ryosuke Tadokoro, Yoshiko Takahashi
Although the basic schema of the body plan is similar among different species of amniotes (mammals, birds, and reptiles), the lung is an exception. Here, anatomy and physiology are considerably different, particularly between mammals and birds. In mammals, inhaled and exhaled airs mix in the airways, whereas in birds the inspired air flows unidirectionally without mixing with the expired air. This bird-specific respiration system is enabled by the complex tubular structures called parabronchi where gas exchange takes place, and also by the bellow-like air sacs appended to the main part of the lung...
May 21, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790182/effect-of-chronic-toluene-exposure-on-heart-rhythm-parameters
#2
Sukru Arslan, Isil Uzunhasan, Betul Balaban Kocas, Gokhan Cetinkal, Seyma Arslan, Cuneyt Kocas, Okay Abaci, Mustafa Yildiz, Cengiz Celiker, Cengizhan Turkoglu
BACKGROUND: Toluene is used extensively in various industrial processes, and an increasing number of workers are getting exposed to its vapor. Cardiac abnormalities that have been reported in association with toluene exposure (in toxic doses) are atrioventricular conduction abnormalities, sinus bradycardia, ventricular tachycardia, recurrent myocardial infarction, dilated cardiomyopathy, and coronary vasospasm. HYPOTHESIS: We aimed to investigate the effects of chronic toluene exposure on cardiac rhythm...
May 22, 2018: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789007/site-dependent-differences-in-the-composite-fibers-of-male-pelvic-plexus-branches-an-immunohistochemical-analysis-of-donated-elderly-cadavers
#3
Kuniyasu Muraoka, Shuichi Morizane, Keisuke Hieda, Masashi Honda, Takehiro Sejima, Gen Murakami, Shin-Ichi Abe, Atsushi Takenaka
BACKGROUND: Although the pelvic autonomic plexus branches are considered to be a mixture of sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves, little is known regarding the composite fibers of the pelvic plexus branches. This study aimed to investigate the immunohistochemical features of sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves in the pelvic autonomic plexus branches. METHODS: Using 10 donated elderly male cadavers, the detailed topohistology of nerve fibers at and around the bladder, seminal vesicle, prostate, and rectum was examined...
May 22, 2018: BMC Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787366/parasympathetic-activity-increases-with-digital-microvascular-damage-and-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-in-systemic-sclerosis
#4
Antonietta Gigante, Domenico Margiotta, Luca Navarini, Marta Liberatori, Biagio Barbano, Luigi Tubani, Antonella Afeltra, Edoardo Rosato
OBJECTIVES: The imbalance between angiogenic and angiostatic factors with derangement of the microvasculature are hallmarks of systemic sclerosis (SSc). Raynaud's phenomenon in SSc probably is due to the impaired neuroendothelial control mechanisms between vasoconstriction and vasodilatation. The aim of this study is to evaluate autonomic nervous system function using heart rate variability (HRV) analysis and to correlate with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). METHODS: Twenty-seven SSc patients were enrolled...
May 11, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787347/stp-position-paper-recommended-best-practices-for-sampling-processing-and-analysis-of-the-peripheral-nervous-system-nerves-and-somatic-and-autonomic-ganglia-during-nonclinical-toxicity-studies
#5
Brad Bolon, Georg Krinke, Mark T Butt, Deepa B Rao, Ingrid D Pardo, Bernard S Jortner, Robert H Garman, Karl Jensen, Lydia Andrews-Jones, James P Morrison, Alok K Sharma, Michael S Thibodeau
Peripheral nervous system (PNS) toxicity is surveyed inconsistently in nonclinical general toxicity studies. These Society of Toxicologic Pathology "best practice" recommendations are designed to ensure consistent, efficient, and effective sampling, processing, and evaluation of PNS tissues for four different situations encountered during nonclinical general toxicity (screening) and dedicated neurotoxicity studies. For toxicity studies where neurotoxicity is unknown or not anticipated (situation 1), PNS evaluation may be limited to one sensorimotor spinal nerve...
January 1, 2018: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787287/associations-between-parasympathetic-activity-in-the-month-after-birth-and-wheeze-at-age-2-3-years
#6
Matthew S Perzanowski, Khalil W Savary, Emilio Arteaga-Solis, Laura A Lautenbacher, Natalie H Brito, Virginia A Rauh, J David Nugent, Amy J Elliott, Michael M Myers, William P Fifer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 22, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785749/cardiac-vagal-regulation-in-infancy-predicts-executive-function-and-social-competence-in-preschool-indirect-effects-through-language
#7
Margaret Whedon, Nicole B Perry, Susan D Calkins, Martha A Bell
Parasympathetic nervous system functioning in infancy may serve a foundational role in the development of cognitive and socioemotional skills (Calkins, 2007). In this study (N = 297), we investigated the potential indirect effects of cardiac vagal regulation in infancy on children's executive functioning and social competence in preschool via expressive and receptive language in toddlerhood. Vagal regulation was assessed at 10 months during two attention conditions (social, nonsocial) via task-related changes in respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA)...
May 21, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780604/effect-of-long-term-high-altitude-exposure-on-cardiovascular-autonomic-adjustment-during-rest-and-post-exercise-recovery
#8
Prem Bhattarai, Bishnu H Paudel, Dilip Thakur, Balkrishna Bhattarai, Bijay Subedi, Rita Khadka
Background: Despite the successful adaptation to high altitude, some differences do occur due to long term exposure to the hypoxic environment. The effect of long term high altitude exposure on cardiac autonomic adjustment during basal and post-exercise recovery is less known. Thus we aimed to study the differences in basal cardiac autonomic adjustment and its response to exercise in highlanders and to compare it with lowlanders. Methods: The study was conducted on 29 healthy highlander males who were born and brought up at altitude of 3000 m and above from the sea level, their cardiac autonomic adjustment was compared with age, sex, physical activity and ethnicity-matched 29 healthy lowlanders using Heart Rate Variability (HRV) during rest and recovery from sub-maximal exercise (3 m step test)...
2018: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778243/contextual-modulation-of-autonomic-pain-reactivity
#9
Camille Fauchon, Vincent Pichot, Isabelle Faillenot, Benjamin Pommier, Luis Garcia-Larrea, Roland Peyron, Florian Chouchou
Although modulation of cardiac activity may be influenced by several factors, interaction between autonomic nociceptive responses and the high-level of cortical processes is not clearly understood. Here, we studied in 26 subjects whether empathetic or unempathetic contexts could interact with autonomic pain responses. RR intervals variability was used to approach parasympathetic and sympathetic responses to painful thermal stimulations, according to contexts evoked by experimenters' comments. We observed that unempathetic context increased sympathetic reactivity to comments and to painful stimulations without any parasympathetic change...
July 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778241/dual-autonomic-inhibitory-action-of-central-apelin-on-gastric-motor-functions-in-rats
#10
Mehmet Bülbül, Osman Sinen
Centrally administered apelin has been shown to inhibit gastric emptying (GE) in rodents, however, the relevant mechanism has been investigated incompletely. Using male Wistar rats, we investigated the efferent pathways involved in gastroinhibitory action of central apelin. Stereotaxic intracerebroventricular (icv) cannulation, subdiaphragmatic vagotomy (VGX) and/or celiac ganglionectomy (CGX) were performed 7 days prior to the experiments. Apelin-13 was administered (30 nmol, icv) 90 min prior to GE measurement...
July 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778240/the-autonomic-neural-mechanism-of-right-ventricular-outflow-tract-tachycardia
#11
Hung-Yu Chang, Li-Wei Lo, Yu-Ruey Chen, Yu-Hui Chou, Wei-Lun Lin, Yenn-Jiang Lin, Wei-Hsian Yin, An-Ning Feng, Shih-Ann Chen
BACKGROUND: Ventricular tachycardia (VT) and ventricular premature complexes (VPCs) originating from the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) are generally considered as benign arrhythmias, with ECG morphology showing LBBB pattern and inferior axis. Pathogenic mechanisms in the genesis of RVOT VT/VPC remain largely unknown. We aimed to investigate the neural mechanism in RVOT ventricular arrhythmias in canine model. METHODS: Twelve mongrel dogs (13.7 ± 1...
July 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775234/effects-of-whole-body-vibration-on-heart-rate-variability-acute-responses-and-training-adaptations
#12
REVIEW
Alexei Wong, Arturo Figueroa
Heart rate variability (HRV) is a noninvasive and practical measure of cardiac autonomic nervous system function, mainly the sympathetic and parasympathetic modulations of heart rate. A low HRV has been shown to be indicative of compromised cardiovascular health. Interventions that enhance HRV are therefore beneficial to cardiovascular health. Whole-body vibration (WBV) training has been proposed as an alternative time-efficient exercise intervention for the improvement of cardiovascular health. In this review, we discuss the effect of WBV both acute and after training on HRV...
May 18, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775115/immunofluorescent-localization-of-non-myelinating-schwann-cells-and-their-interactions-with-immune-cells-in-mouse-thymus
#13
Dailun Hu, Philip K Nicholls, Changfu Yin, Khama Kelman, Qionglan Yuan, Wayne K Greene, Zhongli Shi, Bin Ma
The thymus is innervated by sympathetic/parasympathetic nerve fibers from the peripheral nervous system (PNS), suggesting a neural regulation of thymic function including T-cell development. Despite some published studies, data on the innervation and nerve-immune interaction inside the thymus remain limited. In the present study, we used immunofluorescent staining of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) coupled with confocal microscopy/three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction to reveal the distribution of non-myelinating Schwann cells (NMSC) and their interactions with immune cells inside mouse thymus...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771730/vagal-mediation-of-low-frequency-heart-rate-variability-during-slow-yogic-breathing
#14
Bryan W Kromenacker, Anna A Sanova, Frank I Marcus, John J B Allen, Richard D Lane
OBJECTIVE: Changes in heart rate variability (HRV) associated with breathing (respiratory sinus arrhythmia [RSA]) are known to be parasympathetically (vagally) mediated when the breathing rate is within the typical frequency range (9-24 breaths/min; high frequency HRV). Slow yogic breathing occurs at rates below this range and increases low frequency HRV power, which may additionally reflect a significant sympathetic component. Yogic breathing techniques are hypothesized to confer health benefits by increasing cardiac vagal control, but increases in low frequency HRV power cannot unambiguously distinguish sympathetic from parasympathetic contributions...
May 16, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771688/plexiform-atypical-spitz-tumor-with-rosette-like-giant-cells-a-histologic-and-immunohistochemical-study-on-a-case-suggesting-ganglioneuroblastic-differentiation-review-of-the-literature-and-considerations-on-histogenesis
#15
Elena Castelli, Elisabetta Orlando, Giuseppe Pistone, Maria R Bongiorno
Spitz nevi, atypical Spitz tumors and Spitzoid melanoma, the three clinicopathologic forms that constitute the spectrum of the Spitz-type melanocytic lesions, share a histologic picture characterized by large spindle and/or epithelioid ganglion-like cells, with various admixtures of multinucleate bizarre cells. This remarkable cytology has always been interpreted as an unusual, as well as unexplained form of atypia. We report a case of atypical Spitz tumor with Homer Wright-like rosettes, a feature characteristic of ganglioneuroblastic proliferation...
May 16, 2018: American Journal of Dermatopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767628/heart-rate-differences-between-symptomatic-and-asymptomatic-brugada-syndrome-patients-at-night
#16
Mireia Calvo, Virginie Le Rolle, Daniel Romero, Nathalie Behar, Pedro Gomis, Philippe Mabo, Alfredo Hernandez
Ventricular arrhythmias in Brugada syndrome (BS) mainly occur at rest, especially during nighttime, suggesting that parasympathetic activity at night may play an important role in the arrhythmogenesis of the disease. This study examined and compared the autonomic function of symptomatic and asymptomatic BS patients overnight.
 Approach: We analyzed different heart rate variability (HRV) and heart rate complexity (HRC) markers in a clinical series including 87 BS patients, where 23 were symptomatic.
 Main results: Statistically significant differences were found in MIRR, SDNN, SDANN, δSDANN and SampEn, suggesting that symptomatic patients may be related to lower heart rate variability and complexity values, as well as to greater circadian fluctuations overnight...
May 16, 2018: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765005/heart-rate-recovery-physical-activity-level-and-functional-status-in-subjects-with-copd
#17
Andrea A Morita, Laís K O Silva, Gianna W Bisca, Joice M Oliveira, Nidia A Hernandes, Fabio Pitta, Karina C Furlanetto
BACKGROUND: A normal heart rate reflects the balance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic nervous system. When the difference between heart rate at the end of an exercise test and after 1 min of recovery, known as the 1-min heart rate recovery, is ≤ 12 beats/min, this may indicate an abnormal delay. We sought to compare physical activity patterns and subjects' functional status with COPD with or without delayed 1-min heart rate recovery after the 6-min walk test (6MWT)...
May 15, 2018: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763454/multivariate-classification-of-brugada-syndrome-patients-based-on-autonomic-response-to-exercise-testing
#18
Mireia Calvo, Daniel Romero, Virginie Le Rolle, Nathalie Béhar, Pedro Gomis, Philippe Mabo, Alfredo I Hernández
Ventricular arrhythmias in Brugada syndrome (BS) typically occur at rest and especially during sleep, suggesting that changes in the autonomic modulation may play an important role in arrhythmogenesis. The autonomic response to exercise and subsequent recovery was evaluated on 105 patients diagnosed with BS (twenty-four were symptomatic), by means of a time-frequency heart rate variability (HRV) analysis, so as to propose a novel predictive model capable of distinguishing symptomatic and asymptomatic BS populations...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756411/hexarelin-treatment-preserves-myocardial-function-and-reduces-cardiac-fibrosis-in-a-mouse-model-of-acute-myocardial-infarction
#19
Hayley McDonald, Jason Peart, Nyoman Kurniawan, Graham Galloway, Simon Royce, Chrishan S Samuel, Chen Chen
Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Growth hormone secretagogues (GHS) have been shown to improve cardiac function in models of IHD. This study determined whether hexarelin (HEX), a synthetic GHS, preserves cardiac function and morphology in a mouse model of myocardial infarction (MI). MI was induced by ligation of the left descending coronary artery in C57BL/6J mice followed by vehicle (VEH; n = 10) or HEX (0.3 mg/kg/day; n = 11) administration for 21 days...
May 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753022/determinants-of-heart-rate-variability-in-the-general-population-the-lifelines-cohort-study-determinants-of-heart-rate-variability
#20
Balewgizie Sileshi Tegegne, Tengfei Man, Arie M van Roon, Harriëtte Riese, Harold Snieder
BACKGROUND: Heart rate variability (HRV) is an important marker of heart health with low values reflecting reduced vagal control of the heart rhythm. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent a broad range of demographic (age, sex), lifestyle (physical activity, smoking, alcohol use) and psychosocial factors (stress, social wellbeing, neuroticism) explained individual differences in HRV in the general population. METHODS: Using baseline data of 10 second electrocardiograms (ECG) from the Lifelines cohort study (n=149,205;58...
May 9, 2018: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
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