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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350715/continuous-cardiac-autonomic-and-haemodynamic-responses-to-isometric-exercise
#1
Katrina A Taylor, Jonathan D Wiles, Damian D Coleman, Rajan Sharma, Jamie M O'Driscoll
PURPOSE: Elevated arterial blood pressure (BP) is associated with autonomic dysfunction and impaired haemodynamic control mechanisms. Isometric exercise (IE) training has been demonstrated effective at reducing BP; however, the continuous cardiovascular responses during IE are underinvestigated. We hypothesized that reflex autonomic cardiovascular control is an important mediator in reducing BP. To test our hypothesis, we investigated continuous cardiac autonomic modulation and baroreceptor reflex sensitivity (BRS) in response to IE...
March 27, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345604/mind-wandering-and-alterations-to-default-mode-network-connectivity-when-listening-to-naturalistic-versus-artificial-sounds
#2
Cassandra D Gould van Praag, Sarah N Garfinkel, Oliver Sparasci, Alex Mees, Andrew O Philippides, Mark Ware, Cristina Ottaviani, Hugo D Critchley
Naturalistic environments have been demonstrated to promote relaxation and wellbeing. We assess opposing theoretical accounts for these effects through investigation of autonomic arousal and alterations of activation and functional connectivity within the default mode network (DMN) of the brain while participants listened to sounds from artificial and natural environments. We found no evidence for increased DMN activity in the naturalistic compared to artificial or control condition, however, seed based functional connectivity showed a shift from anterior to posterior midline functional coupling in the naturalistic condition...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344687/disseminated-pancreatic-neuroendocrine-neoplasm-nen-with-an-uncommon-localisation-in-the-central-nervous-system-a-case-report
#3
Joanna Białkowska, Agnieszka Kolasińska-Ćwikła, Dorota Mroczkowska, Mariusz Sowa, Łukasz Grabarczyk, Wojciech Maksymowicz, Andrzej Cichocki, Jarosław B Ćwikła
BACKGROUND: Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) are rare neoplasms that originate from neuroendocrine cells and are characterized by the potential of hormonal activity. Approximately 70% of these tumours are located in the gastrointestinal system (GI), followed by the bronchi, endocrine glands-like C cells of the thyroid (medullary carcinoma), the parasympathetic and sympathetic system (paragangliomas, pheochromocytoma) and other very rare locations. The prevalence of cerebral metastases in neuroendocrine tumours is estimated by various authors to be approximately 1...
2017: Polish Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344558/role-of-autonomic-nervous-system-and-orexinergic-system-on-adipose-tissue
#4
REVIEW
Giovanni Messina, Anna Valenzano, Fiorenzo Moscatelli, Monica Salerno, Antonio Lonigro, Teresa Esposito, Vincenzo Monda, Gaetano Corso, Antonietta Messina, Andrea Viggiano, Antonio I Triggiani, Sergio Chieffi, Giuseppe Guglielmi, Marcellino Monda, Giuseppe Cibelli
Adipose tissue, defined as white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT), is a biological caloric reservoir; in response to over-nutrition it expands and, in response to energy deficit, it releases lipids. The WAT primarily stores energy as triglycerides, whereas BAT dissipates chemical energy as heat. In mammals, the BAT is a key site for heat production and an attractive target to promote weight loss. The autonomic nervous system (ANS) exerts a direct control at the cellular and molecular levels in adiposity...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342980/muscarinic-receptor-mediated-signaling-pathways-in-hepatocytes-from-ccl4-induced-liver-fibrotic-rat
#5
Lin Luo, Chenghao Xi, Tingting Xu, Gaoshan Zhang, E Qun, Wei Zhang
The pathological changes of parasympathetic nerves are considered as an independent prognostic factor of the survival rate for patients with chronic liver disease. The non-selective muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAchR) agonists and antagonists can affect the proliferation of hepatocytes, but little is known about the role of mAChR in hepatocytes and hepatic fibrosis and the signaling pathway of this receptor in regulation of hepatocytes remains elusive. Here, 3ml/kg 40% carbon tetrachloride (CCL4) was given to induce hepatic fibrosis in rats and the hepatocytes were isolated to investigate the expression of mAchR and the cell signaling pathways which were involved in...
March 22, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339438/the-role-of-autonomic-function-in-exercise-induced-endogenous-analgesia-a-case-control-study-in-myalgic-encephalomyelitis-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-and-healthy-people
#6
Jessica Van Oosterwijck, Uros Marusic, Inge De Wandele, Lorna Paul, Mira Meeus, Greta Moorkens, Luc Lambrecht, Lieven Danneels, Jo Nijs
BACKGROUND: Patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis / chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) are unable to activate brain-orchestrated endogenous analgesia (or descending inhibition) in response to exercise. This physiological impairment is currently regarded as one factor explaining post-exertional malaise in these patients. Autonomic dysfunction is also a feature of ME/CFS. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to examine the role of the autonomic nervous system in exercise-induced analgesia in healthy people and those with ME/CFS, by studying the recovery of autonomic parameters following aerobic exercise and the relation to changes in self-reported pain intensity...
March 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337432/the-current-and-future-role-of-heart-rate-variability-for-assessing-and-training-compassion
#7
James N Kirby, James R Doty, Nicola Petrocchi, Paul Gilbert
The evolution of mammalian caregiving involving hormones, such as oxytocin, vasopressin, and the myelinated vagal nerve as part of the ventral parasympathetic system, enables humans to connect, co-regulate each other's emotions and create prosociality. Compassion-based interventions draw upon a number of specific exercises and strategies to stimulate these physiological processes and create conditions of "interpersonal safeness," thereby helping people engage with, alleviate, and prevent suffering. Hence, compassion-based approaches are connected with our evolved caring motivation and attachment and our general affiliative systems that help regulate distress...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334441/flexible-parasympathetic-responses-to-sadness-facilitate-spontaneous-affect-regulation
#8
Jonathan P Stange, Jessica L Hamilton, David M Fresco, Lauren B Alloy
The ability of the parasympathetic nervous system to flexibly adapt to changes in environmental context is thought to serve as a physiological indicator of self-regulatory capacity, and deficits in parasympathetic flexibility appear to characterize affective disorders such as depression. However, whether parasympathetic flexibility (vagal withdrawal to emotional or environmental challenges such as sadness, and vagal augmentation during recovery from sadness) could facilitate the effectiveness of adaptive affect regulation strategies is not known...
March 23, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331306/is-cardiac-autonomic-modulation-during-upper-limb-isometric-contraction-and-valsalva-maneuver-impaired-in-copd-patients
#9
Cássia da Luz Goulart, Ramona Cabiddu, Paloma de Borba Schneiders, Elisabete Antunes San Martin, Renata Trimer, Audrey Borghi-Silva, Andréa Lúcia Gonçalves da Silva
PURPOSE: To evaluate the heart rate variability (HRV) indices and heart rate (HR) responses during isometric contraction (IC) and Valsalva maneuver (VM) in COPD patients. METHODS: Twenty-two stable moderate to severe COPD patients were evaluated. R-R intervals were recorded (monitor Polar(®) S810i) during dominant upper limb IC (2 minutes). Stable signals were analyzed by Kubios HRV(®) software. Indices of HRV were computed in the time domain (mean HR; square root of the mean squared differences of successive RR intervals [RMSSD] and HRV triangular index [RR tri index]) and in the frequency domain (high frequency [HF]; low frequency [LF] and LF/HF ratio)...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329901/-pathophysiology-of-headaches
#10
Charly Gaul, Karl Meßlinger, Dagny Holle-Lee, Lars Neeb
Pathophysiological concepts of primary headache diseases have been developed significantly in the last decades. Nevertheless pathophysiology of single diseases is unexplained. Migraine headache arises from activation and sensibilization of trigeminal nociceptors, essential processes are located at the meninges and the meningeal vessels. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) seems to have essential importance concerning migraine and cluster headache. Mechanisms leading to peripheral and central sensitization are relevant in chronification of migraine and tension-type headache...
March 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328743/acetylcholine-atropine-interactions-paradoxical-effects-on-atrial-fibrillation-inducibility
#11
Yu Liu, Benjamin J Scherlag, Youqi Fan, Wenfang Xia, He Huang, Sunny S Po
Atropine (ATr) is well known as a cholinergic antagonist, however, at low concentrations ATr could paradoxically accentuate the parasympathetic actions of acetylcholine (ACh). In 22 pentobarbital anesthetized dogs, via a left and right thoracotomy, a leak proof barrier was attached to isolate the atrial appendages (AAs) from the rest of the atria. In Group 1(Ach+ATr+Ach), ACh, 100 mM, was placed on the AA followed by the application of ATr, 2mg/cc. The average AFdur was 17±7 minutes. After ATr was applied to the AA and ACh again tested, the AFdur was markedly attenuated (2±2 minutes, p<0...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324630/morphological-and-neurochemical-differences-in-peptidergic-nerve-fibres-of-the-mouse-vagina
#12
Christine Barry, Esther Ji, Harman Sharma, Lara Beukes, Pat Vilimas, Yvette DeGraaf, Dusan Matusica, Rainer V Haberberger
The vagina is innervated by a complex arrangement of sensory, sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve fibres that contain classical transmitters plus an array of neuropeptides and enzymes known to regulate diverse processes including blood flow and nociception. The neurochemical characteristics and distributions of peptide-containing nerves in the mouse vagina are unknown. This study used multiple labelling immunohistochemistry, confocal imaging and analysis to investigate the presence and colocalization of the peptides vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP), substance P (SP), neuropeptide tyrosine (NPY) and the nitric oxide synthesizing enzyme neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in nerve fibres of the murine vaginal wall...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321913/heart-rate-variability-can-be-used-to-evaluate-wellbeing-in-preterm-infants
#13
K Kaar, J Brandner, B Minnich, J Hilberath, C Weisser, M Wald
Preterm infants are exposed to various potentially stressful procedures during intensive care, which have been shown to compromise development. We explored the potential stress caused by echocardiograph and the correlation between the duration of the investigation and the amplitude of the alteration. The usefulness of the Newborn Infant Parasympathetic Evaluation (NIPE) monitor (Mdoloris Medical Systems, Loos, France) for assessing acute distress during daily routines, based on heart rate variability, was also investigated...
March 21, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321772/paragangliomas-of-the-head-and-neck-an-overview-from-diagnosis-to-genetics
#14
Michelle D Williams
Paragangliomas (PGL) develop from the parasympathetic system in the head and neck (HN) and arise primarily in four distinct areas: Carotid body, vagal, middle ear, and larynx. Globally, the diagnosis and morphologic features are the same regardless of anatomic site, however the incidence, frequency of genetic alterations/syndromes and differential diagnosis vary. It is now recognized that nearly 40% of all HN PGLs are hereditary, including a significant subset without a known family history. Now pathologists are central to the evaluation for diagnosis and further management of patients with HNPGLs...
March 20, 2017: Head and Neck Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321682/recent-advances-and-clinical-applications-of-pet-cardiac-autonomic-nervous-system-imaging
#15
REVIEW
Nabil E Boutagy, Albert J Sinusas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review was to summarize current advances in positron emission tomography (PET) cardiac autonomic nervous system (ANS) imaging, with a specific focus on clinical applications of novel and established tracers. RECENT FINDINGS: [(11)C]-Meta-hydroxyephedrine (HED) has provided useful information in evaluation of normal and pathological cardiovascular function. Recently, [(11)C]-HED PET imaging was able to predict lethal arrhythmias, sudden cardiac death (SCD), and all-cause mortality in heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF)...
April 2017: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321127/ancient-evolutionary-origin-of-vertebrate-enteric-neurons-from-trunk-derived-neural-crest
#16
Stephen A Green, Benjamin R Uy, Marianne E Bronner
The enteric nervous system of jawed vertebrates arises primarily from vagal neural crest cells that migrate to the foregut and subsequently colonize and innervate the entire gastrointestinal tract. Here we examine development of the enteric nervous system in the basal jawless vertebrate the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) to gain insight into its evolutionary origin. Surprisingly, we find no evidence for the existence of a vagally derived enteric neural crest population in the lamprey. Rather, labelling with the lipophilic dye DiI shows that late-migrating cells, originating from the trunk neural tube and associated with nerve fibres, differentiate into neurons within the gut wall and typhlosole...
March 20, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320892/sepiapterin-reductase-gene-disrupted-mice-suffer-from-hypertension-with-fluctuation-and-bradycardia
#17
Chiho Sumi-Ichinose, Yui Suganuma, Taiki Kano, Noriko Ihira, Hiroko Nomura, Kazuhisa Ikemoto, Tadayoshi Hata, Setsuko Katoh, Hiroshi Ichinose, Kazunao Kondo
(6R)-l-erythro-5,6,7,8-Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor for monoamine and nitric oxide (NO) production. Sepiapterin reductase (SPR) catalyzes the final step in BH4 biosynthesis. We analyzed the cardiovascular function of adult Spr gene-disrupted (Spr(-/-)) mice for the first time. After weaning, Spr(-/-) mice suffered from hypertension with fluctuation and bradycardia, while the monoamine contents in these mice were less than 10% of those in the wild-type mice as a result of BH4 depletion...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299533/clival-paragangliomas-a-report-of-two-cases-involving-the-midline-skull-base-and-review-of-the-literature
#18
Jacob Ruzevick, Eun Kyung Koh, Luis F Gonzalez-Cuyar, Patrick J Cimino, Kristen Moe, Lorena A Wright, Richard Failor, Manuel Ferreira
Head and neck paragangliomas are rare neuroendocrine tumors that arise from paraganglion cells of the parasympathetic nervous system. Paragangliomas arising from the midline skull base have only rarely been reported. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment and adjuvant radiation is often recommended. These tumors can rarely secrete metanephrines and normetanephrines which can complicate operative management. Here we present two cases of clival paragangliomas with unique clinical presentations and review the previous literature on skull base paragangliomas...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296784/simultaneous-degeneration-of-myenteric-plexuses-and-pelvic-parasympathetic-colonic-nerve-in-slow-transit-constipation-a-case-report
#19
Zhiqiang Cheng, Kun Zhao, Dongsong Bi
RATIONALE: Slow transit constipation (STC) is a common disease of which the etiology is still not clear. Multiple hypotheses have been proposed to explain STC, including autonomic neuropathy, disorders of the enteric nervous system and so forth. Morphological abnormalities of the enteric nerves of the colon in patients with STC have been extensively reported, while there have been no morphological reports focusing on extrinsic extramural fibers from the pelvic plexus to the distal colon (i...
March 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296184/long-term-administration-of-pyridostigmine-attenuates-pressure-overload-induced-cardiac-hypertrophy-by-inhibiting-calcineurin-signalling
#20
Yi Lu, Ming Zhao, Jin-Jun Liu, Xi He, Xiao-Jiang Yu, Long-Zhu Liu, Lei Sun, Li-Na Chen, Wei-Jin Zang
Cardiac hypertrophy is associated with autonomic imbalance, characterized by enhanced sympathetic activity and withdrawal of parasympathetic control. Increased parasympathetic function improves ventricular performance. However, whether pyridostigmine, a reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, can offset cardiac hypertrophy induced by pressure overload remains unclear. Hence, this study aimed to determine whether pyridostigmine can ameliorate pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and identify the underlying mechanisms...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
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