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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525326/short-term-heart-rate-variability-in-dogs-with-sick-sinus-syndrome-or-chronic-mitral-valve-disease-as-compared-to-healthy-controls
#1
Sz Bogucki, A Noszczyk-Nowak
Heart rate variability is an established risk factor for mortality in both healthy dogs and animals with heart failure. The aim of this study was to compare short-term heart rate variability (ST-HRV) parameters from 60-min electrocardiograms in dogs with sick sinus syndrome (SSS, n=20) or chronic mitral valve disease (CMVD, n=20) and healthy controls (n=50), and to verify the clinical application of ST-HRV analysis. The study groups differed significantly in terms of both time - and frequency- domain ST-HRV parameters...
March 28, 2017: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520449/-novelties-in-the-treatment-of-heart-failure
#2
Filip Souček, Jan Novak
Heart failure (HF) is a complex clinical syndrome which is manifested by characteristic symptoms and objective signs of cardiac insufficiency. The incidence of HF, particularly its chronic form, is estimated 0.4-2 % in the central and western Europe, with an increase in higher age groups, affecting 10-20 % of the population aged over 80. With respect to its growing incidence and prevalence, novel modalities of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment are being developed in order to improve quality of life and survival of the affected patients...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516907/vagal-determinants-of-exercise-capacity
#3
Asif Machhada, Stefan Trapp, Nephtali Marina, Robert C M Stephens, John Whittle, Mark F Lythgoe, Sergey Kasparov, Gareth L Ackland, Alexander V Gourine
Indirect measures of cardiac vagal activity are strongly associated with exercise capacity, yet a causal relationship has not been established. Here we show that in rats, genetic silencing of the largest population of brainstem vagal preganglionic neurons residing in the brainstem's dorsal vagal motor nucleus dramatically impairs exercise capacity, while optogenetic recruitment of the same neuronal population enhances cardiac contractility and prolongs exercise endurance. These data provide direct experimental evidence that parasympathetic vagal drive generated by a defined CNS circuit determines the ability to exercise...
May 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514402/-psychoemotional-and-autonomic-states-in-patients-with-cholelithiasis
#4
Ya M Vakhrushev, N A Khokhlacheva, N N Sergeeva
AIM: To investigate the psychoemotional and autonomic states of patients with biliary system diseases and to determine their significance in the development of cholelithiasis. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 396 patients with stage 1 cholelithiasis were examined. The results of hepatobiliary ultrasonography, multifractional duodenal probing, followed by macroscopic, microscopic, and biochemical examinations of bile (the total concentration of bile acids and cholesterol, by subsequently calculating the cholate-cholesterol ratio) were used to verify the diagnosis...
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511871/effect-of-distigmine-on-the-contractile-response-of-guinea-pig-urinary-bladder-to-electrical-field-stimulation
#5
Keisuke Obara, Yurina Kobayashi, Daisuke Chino, Yoshio Tanaka
Distigmine bromide (distigmine) is a reversible carbamate group cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitor. Although mainly used clinically for the treatment of myasthenia gravis, distigmine is also indicated for detrusor underactivity in Japan. According to the pharmacological classification of distigmine, its therapeutic effect against detrusor underactivity appears to be produced by enhanced urinary bladder smooth muscle (UBSM) contractility due to an increased concentration of acetylcholine between parasympathetic nerve endings and UBSM cells...
May 13, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507603/fingolimod-initiation-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients-is-associated-with-potential-beneficial-cardiovascular-autonomic-effects
#6
Max J Hilz, Ruihao Wang, Carmen de Rojas Leal, Mao Liu, Francesca Canavese, Sankanika Roy, Katharina M Hösl, Klemens Winder, De-Hyung Lee, Ralf A Linker
BACKGROUND: Fingolimod slows heart rate (HR) due to vagomimetic effects and might cause additional cardiovascular autonomic changes. While the time course of HR changes is well described, the extent and course of cardiovascular autonomic changes upon fingolimod initiation has not yet been evaluated. This study, therefore, intended to assess cardiovascular autonomic changes during the first 6 h after fingolimod initiation. METHODS: In 21 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), we recorded respiration (RESP), electrocardiographic RR interval (RRI), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BPsys, BPdia) at rest, before and 0...
April 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505471/a-prospective-examination-of-risk-factors-in-the-development-of-intrusions-following-a-trauma-analog
#7
Adam J Ripley, Joshua D Clapp, J Gayle Beck
Several factors have been linked to the severity of posttraumatic distress, although retrospective designs in much of the literature limit conclusions regarding the temporal relation between risk factors and corresponding symptoms. To address these concerns, the current project employed an analog trauma paradigm to assess the impact of background characteristics, stress response, and post-stressor affect regulation on subjective distress and intrusive memories experienced during the subsequent processing of emotional stimuli...
May 5, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504110/neurological-consequences-of-obesity
#8
REVIEW
Phillipe D O'Brien, Lucy M Hinder, Brian C Callaghan, Eva L Feldman
The high prevalence of obesity is associated with an enormous medical, social, and economic burden. The metabolic dysfunction, dyslipidaemia, and inflammation caused by obesity contribute to the development of a wide variety of disorders and effects on the nervous system. In the CNS, mild cognitive impairment can be attributed to obesity-induced alterations in hippocampal structure and function in some patients. Likewise, compromised hypothalamic function and subsequent defects in maintaining whole-body energy balance might be early events that contribute to weight gain and obesity development...
June 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502104/assess-pain-intensity-using-photoplethysmography-signal-in-chronic-myofascial-pain-syndrome
#9
Jing-Jhao Ye, Kuan-Ting Lee, Ying-Yu Chou, Hung-Hai Sie, Ju-Nan Huang, Chiung-Cheng Chuang
BACKGROUND: Efficacy of pain assessment is the basis for effective therapy. Clinically, assessing pain is by subjective scale, but these methods have some shortcomings. Therefore, studies have been conducted on assessment of pain using physiological signals. Photoplethysmography (PPG) signal provides much information about the cardiovascular system. PPG- derived parameters (PPG parameters) reflect nociceptive stimulation, and obtain an approximation of the R-R interval from PPG period...
May 14, 2017: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501968/effect-of-parachute-jump-in-the-psychophysiological-response-of-soldiers-in-urban-combat
#10
Joaquín Sánchez-Molina, José J Robles-Pérez, Vicente J Clemente-Suárez
The study of organic and psychological response during combat situations has been poorly reported despite its importance for soldiers training and specific instruction, so it was proposed as aim of the present investigation to analyze the effect of a tactical parachute simulated jump in psycho-physiological response of paratroopers' warfighters during an urban combat simulation. 19 male paratroopers (31.9 ± 6.2 year old; 173.6 ± 5.3 cm; 73.8 ± 8.3 Kg) of the Spanish Army were divided in two groups: parachute jump group (n:11) that conducted a simulated parachute jump and a urban combat maneuver and a non-parachute jump group (n:8) that only conducted an urban combat maneuver...
June 2017: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501900/autonomic-nervous-system-in-newborns-a-review-based-on-heart-rate-variability
#11
REVIEW
Sandra Cardoso, Marta João Silva, Hercília Guimarães
PURPOSE: Heart rate variability (HRV) has been a relevant tool in the assessment of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). How autonomic control normally develops in newborns and how it is affected by gestational age (GA) is not fully understood. We aimed to review the current evidence on HRV in preterm (PT) and term neonates (TN) and investigate the relation between GA and the maturation of ANS. METHODS: Electronic databases (Pubmed, World of Science, and Scopus) were searched for studies from 1997 to 2017 examining HRV (time and frequency domain) in PT and TN who followed to the Task Force (1996) guidelines...
May 13, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499865/implication-of-altered-autonomic-control-for-orthostatic-tolerance-in-sci
#12
REVIEW
Jill Maria Wecht, William A Bauman
Neural output from the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) are integrated to appropriately control cardiovascular responses during routine activities of daily living including orthostatic positioning. Sympathetic control of the upper extremity vasculature and the heart arises from the thoracic cord between T1 and T5, whereas splanchnic bed and lower extremity vasculature receive sympathetic neural input from the lower cord between segments T5 and L2. Although the vasculature is not directly innervated by the parasympathetic nervous system, the SA node is innervated by post-ganglionic vagal nerve fibers via cranial nerve X...
May 3, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497404/sexual-dysfunction-following-rectal-cancer-surgery
#13
REVIEW
V Celentano, R Cohen, J Warusavitarne, O Faiz, M Chand
INTRODUCTION: Sexual and urological problems after surgery for rectal cancer are common, multifactorial, inadequately discussed, and untreated. The urogenital function is dependent on dual autonomic sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation, and four key danger zones exist that are at risk for nerve damage during colorectal surgery: one of these sites is in the abdomen and three are in the pelvis. The aim of this study is to systematically review the epidemiology of sexual dysfunction following rectal cancer surgery, to describe the anatomical basis of autonomic nerve-preserving techniques, and to explore the scientific evidence available to support the laparoscopic or robotic approach over open surgery...
May 11, 2017: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496924/atrial-fibrillation-triggered-by-drug-induced-bradycardia
#14
Gokhan Altunbas, Suleyman Ercan, Murat Sucu, Vedat Davutoglu
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most frequently observed arrhythmia in clinical practice. Many causative factors have been identified from well-known structural heart disease to less understood triggers. Both sympathetic and parasympathetic (vagal) stimuli are able to trigger paroxysms of AF. Vagally mediated AF is especially observed in young healthy subjects and especially during nights when the heart rate is considerably slow. Tachycardia induced AF is demonstrated and the possible mechanisms are explained...
October 2016: Journal of Atrial Fibrillation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496430/cholinergic-nociceptive-mechanisms-in-rat-meninges-and-trigeminal-ganglia-potential-implications-for-migraine-pain
#15
Irina Shelukhina, Nikita Mikhailov, Polina Abushik, Leniz Nurullin, Evgeny E Nikolsky, Rashid Giniatullin
BACKGROUND: Parasympathetic innervation of meninges and ability of carbachol, acetylcholine (ACh) receptor (AChR) agonist, to induce headaches suggests contribution of cholinergic mechanisms to primary headaches. However, neurochemical mechanisms of cholinergic regulation of peripheral nociception in meninges, origin place for headache, are almost unknown. METHODS: Using electrophysiology, calcium imaging, immunohistochemistry, and staining of meningeal mast cells, we studied effects of cholinergic agents on peripheral nociception in rat hemiskulls and isolated trigeminal neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493923/brief-relaxation-training-is-not-sufficient-to-alter-tolerance-to-experimental-pain-in-novices
#16
Karen E Smith, Greg J Norman
Relaxation techniques, such as deep breathing and muscle relaxation, are aspects common to most forms of mindfulness training. There is now an abundance of research demonstrating that mindfulness training has beneficial effects across a wide range of clinical conditions, making it an important tool for clinical intervention. One area of extensive research is on the beneficial effects of mindfulness on experiences of pain. However, the mechanisms of these effects are still not well understood. One hypothesis is that the relaxation components of mindfulness training, through alterations in breathing and muscle tension, leads to changes in parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system functioning which influences pain circuits...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493755/affect-contagion-between-mothers-and-infants-examining-valence-and-touch
#17
Sara F Waters, Tessa V West, Helena R Karnilowicz, Wendy Berry Mendes
Mothers and their babies represent one of the closest dyadic units and thus provide a powerful paradigm to examine how affective states are shared, and result in, synchronized physiologic responses between two people. We recruited mothers and their 12- to 14-month-old infants (Ndyads = 98) to complete a lab study in which mothers were initially separated from their infants and assigned to either a low-arousal positive/relaxation condition, intended to elicit parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) reactivity, or a high-arousal negative/stress task, intended to elicit sympathetic nervous system (SNS) reactivity...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493111/parasympathetic-regulation-and-inhibitory-control-predict-the-development-of-externalizing-problems-in-early-childhood
#18
Sarah Kahle, William T Utendale, Keith F Widaman, Paul D Hastings
The current report examined the longitudinal relations between cognitive self-regulation, physiological self-regulation, and externalizing problems. At age 4 (n = 98; 49 girls) and 6 (n = 87; 42 girls), children completed the Day-Night task, which taps the inhibitory control dimension of executive function. During the task, cardiac activity was measured and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was derived as an index of parasympathetic activity. Mothers reported on externalizing problems. A cross-lagged path model was used to estimate longitudinal predictions while controlling for stability in all constructs over time...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491734/to-the-editor-swallowing-induced-atrial-tachycardia-arising-from-superior-vena-cava-significant-involvement-of-parasympathetic-nerve-activity
#19
Bor Antolic, David Zizek
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: HeartRhythm Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491733/reply-to-the-editor-regarding-swallowing-induced-atrial-tachycardia-arising-from-superior-vena-cava-significant-involvement-of-parasympathetic-nerve-activity
#20
Koji Higuchi, Kenzo Hirao, Hitoshi Hachiya, Mitsuaki Isobe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: HeartRhythm Case Reports
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