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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110461/the-emerging-role-of-liquid-biopsies-circulating-tumor-cells-and-circulating-cell-free-tumor-dna-in-lung-cancer-diagnosis-and-identification-of-resistance-mutations
#1
REVIEW
Angela Esposito, Carmen Criscitiello, Dario Trapani, Giuseppe Curigliano
Therapeutic advances in the treatment of lung cancer are in part due to a more complete understanding of its genomic portrait. The serial monitoring of tumor genotypes, which are instable and prone to changes under selective pressure, is becoming increasingly needed. Although tumor biopsies remain the reference standard for the diagnosis and genotyping of lung cancer, they are invasive and not always feasible. The "liquid biopsies" have the potential to overcome many of these hurdles, allowing a rapid and accurate identification of de novo and resistant genetic alterations and a real-time monitoring of treatment responses...
January 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110390/operative-treatment-of-lateral-ligament-instability
#2
REVIEW
Rachel J Shakked, Sydney Karnovsky, Mark C Drakos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ankle sprains, which account for 40% of sports injuries in the USA, can lead to chronic ankle instability. Chronic ankle instability can be classified as functional, mechanical, or a combination of both and is diagnosed using a combination of a physical exam, an MRI, and stress radiographs. This review focuses on different approaches to treatment, including non-operative and operative techniques, of chronic ankle instability, including reviewing traditional procedures as well as more novel and newer techniques...
January 21, 2017: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110266/dioecy-in-amborella-trichopoda-evidence-for-genetically-based-sex-determination-and-its-consequences-for-inferences-of-the-breeding-system-in-early-angiosperms
#3
Nicolas Anger, Bruno Fogliani, Charles P Scutt, Gildas Gâteblé
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: This work aimed to gain insight into the breeding system at the base of living angiosperms through both character state reconstructions and the study of sex ratios and phenotypes in the likely sister to all other living angiosperms, Amborella trichopoda METHODS: Sex phenotypes were mapped onto a phylogeny of basally diverging angiosperms using maximum parsimony. In parallel, sex ratios and phenotypes were studied over two consecutive flowering seasons in an ex situ population of A...
January 20, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110242/three-dimensional-analysis-of-tarsal-bone-response-to-axial-loading-in-patients-with-hallux-valgus-and-normal-feet
#4
Kota Watanabe, Yasutoshi Ikeda, Daisuke Suzuki, Atsushi Teramoto, Takuma Kobayashi, Tomoyuki Suzuki, Toshihiko Yamashita
BACKGROUND: Patients with hallux valgus present a variety of symptoms that may be related to the type of deformity. Weightbearing affects the deformities, and the evaluation of the load response of tarsal bones has been mainly performed using two-dimensional plane radiography. The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare structural changes in the medial foot arch between patients with hallux valgus and normal controls using a computer image analysis technique and weightbearing computed tomography data...
January 17, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110044/dopaminergic-modulation-of-multi-muscle-synergies-in-postural-tasks-performed-by-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#5
Ali Falaki, Xuemei Huang, Mechelle M Lewis, Mark L Latash
BACKGROUND: Postural instability is one of most disabling motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease. Indices of multi-muscle synergies are new measurements of postural stability. OBJECTIVES: We explored the effects of dopamine-replacement drugs on multi-muscle synergies stabilizing center of pressure coordinate and their adjustments prior to a self-triggered perturbation in patients with Parkinson's disease. We hypothesized that both synergy indices and synergy adjustments would be improved on dopaminergic drugs...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109761/survivorship-of-metaphyseal-sleeves-in-revision-total-knee-arthroplasty
#6
Brian P Chalmers, Nicholas M Desy, Mark W Pagnano, Robert T Trousdale, Michael J Taunton
BACKGROUND: Metaphyseal fixation has promising early results in providing component stability and fixation in revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, there are limited studies on midterm results of metaphyseal sleeves. We analyzed complications, rerevisions, and survivorship free of revision for aseptic loosening of metaphyseal sleeves in revision TKA. METHODS: Two hundred eighty patients with 393 metaphyseal sleeves (144 femoral, 249 tibial) implanted during revision TKA from 2006-2014 were reviewed...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109672/optimizing-follow-up-after-anatomic-total-shoulder-arthroplasty
#7
Bradley Schoch, Jean David Werthel, Cathy D Schleck, William S Harmsen, John Sperling, Joaquín Sánchez-Sotelo, Robert H Cofield
BACKGROUND: With increases in both total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) volumes and patient life expectancies, the number of patients requiring follow-up after shoulder arthroplasty continues to grow exponentially. The purpose of this study is to establish a data-based follow-up schedule minimizing unnecessary patient and health care system costs without sacrificing patient care. METHODS: Between January 1975 and January 2013, 2786 consecutive anatomic TSAs were performed at our institution...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109400/tumor-infiltrating-lymphocytes-in-gastrointestinal-tumors-controversies-and-future-clinical-implications
#8
REVIEW
Cinzia Solinas, Grazia Pusole, Laura Demurtas, Marco Puzzoni, Roberta Mascia, Gilberto Morgan, Riccardo Giampieri, Mario Scartozzi
Chronic inflammation following infections, autoimmune diseases or exposure to environmental irritants plays a crucial role in tumor development and influences the host immune response to neoplastic cells. The presence of an anti-tumor immune infiltrate is often associated with better outcomes in gastro-intestinal primary cancers, particularly in those with high microsatellite instability (MSI-H). Immunotherapeutic drugs inhibiting the PD-1 and PD-L1 pathway showed promising results in the treatment of these patients in the metastatic setting...
February 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109293/genetic-instability-and-increased-mutational-load-which-diagnostic-tool-best-direct-patients-with-cancer-to-immunotherapy
#9
Giuseppe Palmieri, Maria Colombino, Antonio Cossu, Antonio Marchetti, Gerardo Botti, Paolo A Ascierto
The occurrence of high rates of somatic mutations in cancer is believed to correspond to increased frequency of neo-epitope formation and tumor immunogenicity. Thus, classification of patients with cancer according to degree a somatic hyper-mutational status could be proposed as a predictive biomarker of responsiveness to immunotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors. Here, we discuss the suitable and reliable tests easily adoptable in clinical practice to assess somatic mutational status in patients with advanced cancer...
January 21, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108774/-hip-dislocation-after-revision-arthroplasty-risk-assessment-and-treatment-strategies
#10
P M Prodinger, J Schauwecker, H Mühlhofer, N Harrasser, F Pohlig, C Suren, R von Eisenhart-Rothe
With a dislocation rate of up to 35% after revision total hip arthroplasty (THA), instability is one of the major causes why this procedure fails. Independent factors for patients at risk are age, sex, and the type of revision needed. The surgical approach, implant choice, and positioning of the components are factors that the surgeon can influence to keep the dislocation rate low. Large femoral heads or double mobility (DM) cups can increase the stability of the joint. After detailed failure analysis, targeted use of different technical innovations enhances stability in revision THA and prevents further revisions...
January 20, 2017: Der Orthopäde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108661/a-structure-function-analysis-of-the-yeast-elg1-protein-reveals-the-importance-of-pcna-unloading-in-genome-stability-maintenance
#11
Keren Shemesh, Marek Sebesta, Martin Pacesa, Soumitra Sau, Alex Bronstein, Oren Parnas, Batia Liefshitz, Česlovas Venclovas, Lumir Krejci, Martin Kupiec
The sliding clamp, PCNA, plays a central role in DNA replication and repair. In the moving replication fork, PCNA is present at the leading strand and at each of the Okazaki fragments that are formed on the lagging strand. PCNA enhances the processivity of the replicative polymerases and provides a landing platform for other proteins and enzymes. The loading of the clamp onto DNA is performed by the Replication Factor C (RFC) complex, whereas its unloading can be carried out by an RFC-like complex containing Elg1...
January 20, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108477/quantitative-microscopy-uncovers-ploidy-changes-during-mitosis-in-live-drosophila-embryos-and-their-effect-on-nuclear-size
#12
Wee Choo Puah, Rambabu Chinta, Martin Wasser
Time-lapse microscopy is a powerful tool to investigate cellular and developmental dynamics. In Drosophila melanogaster, it can be used to study division cycles in embryogenesis. To obtain quantitative information from 3D time-lapse data and track proliferating nuclei from the syncytial stage until gastrulation, we developed an image analysis pipeline consisting of nuclear segmentation, tracking, annotation and quantification. Image analysis of maternal-haploid (mh) embryos revealed that a fraction of haploid syncytial nuclei fused to give rise to nuclei of higher ploidy (2n, 3n, 4n)...
January 20, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108423/isolated-transverse-process-fractures-a-systematic-analysis
#13
REVIEW
Daniel T Nagasawa, Timothy T Bui, Carlito Lagman, Seung J Lee, Lawrance K Chung, Tianyi Niu, Alexander Tucker, Bilwaj Gaonkar, Isaac Yang, Luke Macyszyn
OBJECTIVE: To review the literature on isolated transverse process fractures (ITPFs) and provide evidence for and validate the current practice of conservative management. METHODS: The PubMed database was searched for published literature related to ITPFs. Baseline patient (age, sex, presentation, mechanism of injury) and fracture (number of fractures, level, single or multi-segmental) characteristics were extracted. Management, and outcomes were also recorded. Statistical comparisons were ascertained through N-1 Pearson Chi-squared tests...
January 17, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108153/parameters-from-the-complete-phonatory-range-of-an-excised-rabbit-larynx
#14
Randal D Mills, Keith Dodd, Alex Ablavsky, Erin Devine, Jack J Jiang
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to collect data throughout the complete phonatory range using rabbit larynges. STUDY DESIGN: This is a methodological excised rabbit larynx study. METHODS: Seven rabbit larynges were dissected and mounted on a modified excised laryngeal apparatus. Phonation was initiated at phonation threshold pressure (PTP) and airflow was increased by consistent increments until phonation instability pressure (PIP) was reached...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108129/cardiovascular-impact-in-patients-undergoing-maintenance-hemodialysis-clinical-management-considerations
#15
REVIEW
Srisakul Chirakarnjanakorn, Sankar D Navaneethan, Gary S Francis, W H Wilson Tang
Patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis develop both structural and functional cardiovascular abnormalities. Despite improvement of dialysis technology, cardiovascular mortality of this population remains high. The pathophysiological mechanisms of these changes are complex and not well understood. It has been postulated that several non-traditional, uremic-related risk factors, especially the long-term uremic state, which may affect the cardiovascular system. There are many cardiovascular changes that occur in chronic kidney disease including left ventricular hypertrophy, myocardial fibrosis, microvascular disease, accelerated atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis...
January 4, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107823/biology-of-high-single-doses-of-iort-rbe-5-r-s-and-other-biological-aspects
#16
REVIEW
Carsten Herskind, Lin Ma, Qi Liu, Bo Zhang, Frank Schneider, Marlon R Veldwijk, Frederik Wenz
Intraoperative radiotherapy differs from conventional, fractionated radiotherapy in several aspects that may influence its biological effect. The radiation quality influences the relative biologic effectiveness (RBE), and the role of the five R's of radiotherapy (reassortment, repair, reoxygenation, repopulation, radiosensitivity) is different. Furthermore, putative special biological effects and the small volume receiving a high single dose may be important. The present review focuses on RBE, repair, and repopulation, and gives an overview of the other factors that potentially contribute to the efficacy...
January 19, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107670/pharmaceutical-opioid-use-among-oral-and-intravenous-users-in-australia-a-qualitative-comparative-study
#17
George Dertadian, Jenny Iversen, Thomas C Dixon, Katrina Sotiropoulos, Lisa Maher
BACKGROUND: Between 1992 and 2012 dispensing episodes for pharmaceutical opioids (PO) in Australia increased from 500000 to 7500000. In the US, increases in the prescription of PO have been linked to increases in opioid-related morbidity and mortality and transitions to heroin injection. However, Australian data indicate that morbidity and mortality related to PO are relatively low, particularly when compared to heroin and other drugs. This paper explores the characteristics and patterns of non-medical pharmaceutical opioid (NMPO) use among a sample of young people in Sydney, Australia...
January 17, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107617/fabrication-of-nanostructured-mesoporous-germanium-for-applications-in-laser-desorption-ionization-mass-spectrometry
#18
Hazem H Abdelmaksoud, Taryn M Guinan, Nicolas H Voelcker
Surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS) is a high-throughput analytical technique ideally suited for small molecule detection from different bodily fluids (e.g. saliva, urine, and blood plasma). Many SALDI-MS substrates require complex fabrication processes and further surface modifications. Furthermore, some substrates show instability upon exposure to ambient conditions and need to be kept under special inert conditions. We have successfully optimized mesoporous germanium (meso-pGe) using bipolar electrochemical etching (BEE) and efficiently applied meso-pGe as a SALDI-MS substrate for the detection of cocaine in the context of workplace, roadside, and anti-addictive drug compliance...
January 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107235/an-experimental-biomechanical-study-on-artificial-atlantoodontoid-joint-replacement-in-dogs
#19
Quanjin Zang, Yanming Liu, Dengfeng Wang, Haopeng Li, Pinglin Yang, Dong Wang, Xijing He
STUDY DESIGN: This study tested the biomechanics of artificial atlantoodontoid joint replacement (AAOJR) in a dog model. Dogs were divided into the artificial AAOJR group (n=10), the decompression group (n=10), and the healthy control group (n=10) using a random number table. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the use of AAOJR for repair of atlantoaxial instability retains rotation and restores stability. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Atlantoaxial instability is characterized by excessive movement or laxity at the junction between the atlas (C1) and axis (C2)...
February 2017: Clinical Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107220/treatment-of-primary-acute-patellar-dislocation-systematic-review-and-quantitative-synthesis-of-the-literature
#20
Umile Giuseppe Longo, Mauro Ciuffreda, Joel Locher, Alessandra Berton, Giuseppe Salvatore, Vincenzo Denaro
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical outcomes, rate of redislocation, and complications after conservative or surgical procedures used to treat primary acute patellar dislocation. METHODS: A comprehensive search of PubMed, Medline, CINAHL, Cochrane, Embase, and Google Scholar databases using various combinations of the keywords "patella," "dislocation," "treatment," "acute," "primary" was performed. The following data were extracted: demographics, chondral defects and soft tissue lesions, outcome measurements, type of management, recurrence of instability, and complications...
January 17, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
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