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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817571/automated-segmentation-of-mouse-oct-volumes-asimov-validation-clinical-study-of-a-light-damage-model
#1
Bhavna Josephine Antony, Byung-Jin Kim, Andrew Lang, Aaron Carass, Jerry L Prince, Donald J Zack
The use of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) is becoming commonplace for the in vivo longitudinal study of murine models of ophthalmic disease. Longitudinal studies, however, generate large quantities of data, the manual analysis of which is very challenging due to the time-consuming nature of generating delineations. Thus, it is of importance that automated algorithms be developed to facilitate accurate and timely analysis of these large datasets. Furthermore, as the models target a variety of diseases, the associated structural changes can also be extremely disparate...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814744/monocyte-infiltration-and-proliferation-reestablish-myeloid-cell-homeostasis-in-the-mouse-retina-following-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cell-injury
#2
Wenxin Ma, Yikui Zhang, Chun Gao, Robert N Fariss, Johnny Tam, Wai T Wong
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a leading contributor of vision loss, currently lacks comprehensive treatment. While AMD histopathology involves retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) injury associated with immune cell infiltration, the nature of immune cell responses to RPE injury remains undefined. We induced RPE injury pharmacologically and genetically in transgenic mouse models in which microglia and systemic monocytes were separately tagged, enabling a spatial and temporal dissection of the relative contributions of microglia vs...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813472/an-intronic-line-1-insertion-in-mertk-is-strongly-associated-with-retinopathy-in-swedish-vallhund-dogs
#3
Richard Everson, Louise Pettitt, Oliver P Forman, Olivia Dower-Tylee, Bryan McLaughlin, Saija Ahonen, Maria Kaukonen, András M Komáromy, Hannes Lohi, Cathryn S Mellersh, Jane Sansom, Sally L Ricketts
The domestic dog segregates a significant number of inherited progressive retinal diseases, several of which mirror human retinal diseases and which are collectively termed progressive retinal atrophy (PRA). In 2014, a novel form of PRA was reported in the Swedish Vallhund breed, and the disease was mapped to canine chromosome 17. The causal mutation was not identified, but expression analyses of the retinas of affected Vallhunds demonstrated a 6-fold increased expression of the MERTK gene compared to unaffected dogs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812418/neurotoxicity-of-cgmp-in-the-vertebrate-retina-from-the-initial-research-on-rd-mutant-mice-to-zebrafish-genetic-approaches
#4
Maria Iribarne, Ichiro Masai
Zebrafish are an excellent animal model for research on vertebrate development and human diseases. Sophisticated genetic tools including large-scale mutagenesis methodology make zebrafish useful for studying neuronal degenerative diseases. Here, we review zebrafish models of inherited ophthalmic diseases, focusing on cGMP metabolism in photoreceptors. cGMP is the second messenger of phototransduction, and abnormal cGMP levels are associated with photoreceptor death. cGMP concentration represents a balance between cGMP phosphodiesterase 6 (PDE6) and guanylate cyclase (GC) activities in photoreceptors...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810265/viral-retinopathy-in-experimental-models-of-zika-infection
#5
Zhenyang Zhao, Matthew Yang, Sasha R Azar, Lynn Soong, Scott C Weaver, Jiaren Sun, Yan Chen, Shannan L Rossi, Jiyang Cai
Purpose: Emerging evidence has shown that both congenital and adult Zika virus (ZIKV) infection can cause eye diseases. The goals of the current study were to explore mechanisms and pathophysiology of ZIKV-induced eye defects. Methods: Wild-type or A129 interferon type I receptor-deficient mice were infected by either FSS13025 or Mex1-7 strain of ZIKV. Retinal histopathology was measured at different time points after infection. The presence of viral RNA and protein in the retina was determined by in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence staining, respectively...
August 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810045/scleral-buckle-infection-with-pseudallescheria-boydii
#6
Janice C Law, Mark P Breazzano, Dean Eliott
Pseudallescheria boydii is a ubiquitous fungus that infects soft tissues and is known to cause ocular disease, including keratitis and endophthalmitis, in rare cases. In immunocompromised hosts, P. boydii can disseminate to or from the eye and other organs with lethal consequences. Postoperative P. boydii infections have, in rare cases, complicated several types of ocular surgeries in immunocompetent patients, but never for a scleral buckle. The authors present the first case of an infected scleral buckle from P...
August 1, 2017: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810037/quantitative-features-of-the-choriocapillaris-in-healthy-individuals-using-swept-source-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography
#7
Mayss Al-Sheikh, Khalil Ghasemi Falavarjani, Maximilian Pfau, Akihito Uji, Phillip P Le, SriniVas R Sadda
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To quantify vessel density (VD) and grey value (GV) as a measure of flow in the choriocapillaris (CC) in healthy subjects with optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this prospective, noncomparative case series, 3 mm × 3 mm OCTA images of 36 eyes of 22 healthy individuals were obtained using a swept-source instrument. VD and GV levels were calculated on CC en face slabs in the central 1-mm (subfoveal field) and surrounding 2...
August 1, 2017: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810002/retinal-oximetry-discovers-novel-biomarkers-in-retinal-and-brain-diseases
#8
Einar Stefánsson, Olof Birna Olafsdottir, Anna Bryndis Einarsdottir, Thorunn Scheving Eliasdottir, Thor Eysteinsson, Wouter Vehmeijer, Evelien Vandewalle, Toke Bek, Sveinn Hakon Hardarson
Purpose: Biomarkers for several eye and brain diseases are reviewed, where retinal oximetry may help confirm diagnosis or measure severity of disease. These include diabetic retinopathy, central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO), retinitis pigmentosa, glaucoma, and Alzheimer's disease. Methods: Retinal oximetry is based on spectrophotometric fundus imaging and measures oxygen saturation in retinal arterioles and venules in a noninvasive, quick, safe manner. Retinal oximetry detects changes in oxygen metabolism, including those that result from ischemia or atrophy...
May 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807567/a-new-promoter-allows-optogenetic-vision-restoration-with-enhanced-sensitivity-in-macaque-retina
#9
Antoine Chaffiol, Romain Caplette, Céline Jaillard, Elena Brazhnikova, Mélissa Desrosiers, Elisabeth Dubus, Laëtitia Duhamel, Emilie Macé, Olivier Marre, Patrick Benoit, Philippe Hantraye, Alexis-Pierre Bemelmans, Ernst Bamberg, Jens Duebel, José-Alain Sahel, Serge Picaud, Deniz Dalkara
The majority of inherited retinal degenerations converge on the phenotype of photoreceptor cell death. Second- and third-order neurons are spared in these diseases, making it possible to restore retinal light responses using optogenetics. Viral expression of channelrhodopsin in the third-order neurons under ubiquitous promoters was previously shown to restore visual function, albeit at light intensities above illumination safety thresholds. Here, we report (to our knowledge, for the first time) activation of macaque retinas, up to 6 months post-injection, using channelrhodopsin-Ca(2+)-permeable channelrhodopsin (CatCh) at safe light intensities...
July 20, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807155/effects-of-lycium-barbarum-on-the-visual-system
#10
Abby L Manthey, Kin Chiu, Kwok-Fai So
Lycium barbarum (wolfberry, gogi berry, gouqizi, ) is one of the most widely used Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) and is also one of the most scientifically studied. Indeed, the polysaccharide component of this berry (LBP) has been shown to have antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antiexcitotoxic, and antiapoptotic properties. These properties make it a particularly useful treatment option for the ocular environment. Although there are a handful of studies investigating the use of LBP to treat diseases affecting the lens, the vast majority of the published literature investigating LBP in the visual system focus on the retina...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806613/automatic-blood-vessels-segmentation-based-on-different-retinal-maps-from-octa-scans
#11
Nabila Eladawi, Mohammed Elmogy, Omar Helmy, Ahmed Aboelfetouh, Alaa Riad, Harpal Sandhu, Shlomit Schaal, Ayman El-Baz
The retinal vascular network reflects the health of the retina, which is a useful diagnostic indicator of systemic vascular. Therefore, the segmentation of retinal blood vessels is a powerful method for diagnosing vascular diseases. This paper presents an automatic segmentation system for retinal blood vessels from Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography (OCTA) images. The system segments blood vessels from the superficial and deep retinal maps for normal and diabetic cases. Initially, we reduced the noise and improved the contrast of the OCTA images by using the Generalized Gauss-Markov random field (GGMRF) model...
August 7, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806435/light-therapy-promoting-dopamine-release-by-stimulating-retina-in-parkinson-disease
#12
Zhaoming Li, Tian Tian
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 14, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806434/light-therapy-promoting-dopamine-release-by-stimulating-retina-in-parkinson-disease-reply
#13
Aleksandar Videnovic, Elizabeth B Klerman, Phyllis C Zee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 14, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805663/yap-taz-regulates-sprouting-angiogenesis-and-vascular-barrier-maturation
#14
Jongshin Kim, Yoo Hyung Kim, Jaeryung Kim, Do Young Park, Hosung Bae, Da-Hye Lee, Kyun Hoo Kim, Seon Pyo Hong, Seung Pil Jang, Yoshiaki Kubota, Young-Guen Kwon, Dae-Sik Lim, Gou Young Koh
Angiogenesis is a multistep process that requires coordinated migration, proliferation, and junction formation of vascular endothelial cells (ECs) to form new vessel branches in response to growth stimuli. Major intracellular signaling pathways that regulate angiogenesis have been well elucidated, but key transcriptional regulators that mediate these signaling pathways and control EC behaviors are only beginning to be understood. Here, we show that YAP/TAZ, a transcriptional coactivator that acts as an end effector of Hippo signaling, is critical for sprouting angiogenesis and vascular barrier formation and maturation...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803391/mutational-analysis-of-the-rb1-gene-and-the-inheritance-patterns-of-retinoblastoma-in-jordan
#15
Yacoub A Yousef, Abdelghani Tbakhi, Maysa Al-Hussaini, Ibrahim AlNawaiseh, Ala Saab, Amal Afifi, Maysa Naji, Mona Mohammad, Rasha Deebajah, Imad Jaradat, Iyad Sultan, Mustafa Mehyar
Retinoblastoma (RB) is a childhood cancer developing in the retina due to RB1 pathologic variant. Herein we are evaluating the oncogenic mutations in the RB1 gene and the inheritance patterns of RB in the Jordanian patients. In this prospective study, the peripheral blood of 50 retinoblastoma patients was collected, genomic DNA was extracted, mutations were identified using Quantitative multiplex PCR (QM-PCR), Allele-specific PCR, Next Generation Sequencing analysis, and Sanger sequencing. In this cohort of 50 patients, 20(40%) patients had unilateral RB and 30(60%) were males...
August 12, 2017: Familial Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800019/the-natural-history-of-full-field-stimulus-threshold-decline-in-choroideremia
#16
Ioannis S Dimopoulos, Paul R Freund, Jacob A Knowles, Ian M MacDonald
PURPOSE: To evaluate full-field sensitivity thresholds (FSTs) across a wide range of choroideremia (CHM) disease stages and to determine their applicability as functional endpoints for CHM clinical trials. METHODS: Thirty CHM subjects (60 eyes) and 50 healthy controls (50 eyes) underwent FST testing under dark-adapted conditions to determine rod- and cone-mediated FSTs. Central retinal structure and function were assessed using fundus autofluorescence and microperimetry...
August 9, 2017: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799222/progression-retinal-ganglion-cell-loss-in-multiple-sclerosis-is-associated-with-new-lesions-in-the-optic-radiations
#17
Alexander Klistorner, Elizabeth C Graham, Con Yiannikas, Michael Barnett, John Parratt, Ray Garrick, Chenyu Wang, Yuyi You, Stuart L Graham
BACKGROUND: The mechanism of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) and retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) loss in multiple sclerosis (MS) remains unknown. This study aims to investigate the association between temporal RNFL (tRNFL) thinning and disease activity in the brain determined by T2 lesions on MRI. METHODS: 55 consecutive relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients and 25 controls were enrolled. All patients underwent annual optical coherence tomography (OCT) and high-resolution MRI scans for tRNFL thickness and brain lesion volume analysis, respectively...
August 10, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794849/scaffolds-for-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cell-transplantation-in-age-related-macular-degeneration
#18
REVIEW
Corina E White, Ronke M Olabisi
In several retinal degenerative diseases, including age-related macular degeneration, the retinal pigment epithelium, a highly functionalized cell monolayer, becomes dysfunctional. These retinal diseases are marked by early retinal pigment epithelium dysfunction reducing its ability to maintain a healthy retina, hence making the retinal pigment epithelium an attractive target for treatment. Cell therapies, including bolus cell injections, have been investigated with mixed results. Since bolus cell injection does not promote the proper monolayer architecture, scaffolds seeded with retinal pigment epithelium cells and then implanted have been increasingly investigated...
January 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794130/mutations-in-scaper-cause-autosomal-recessive-retinitis-pigmentosa-with-intellectual-disability
#19
Yasmin Tatour, Iker Sanchez-Navarro, Elana Chervinsky, Hakon Hakonarson, Haithum Gawi, Saoud Tahsin-Swafiri, Rina Leibu, Maria Isabel Lopez-Molina, Guillermo Fernandez-Sanz, Carmen Ayuso, Tamar Ben-Yosef
BACKGROUND: Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is the most common form of inherited retinal dystrophy, with a worldwide prevalence of 1 in 4000 persons. While in most cases of RP, the disease is limited to the eye (non-syndromic), over 40 forms of syndromic RP have been described. OBJECTIVES: To identify the genetic basis for syndromic RP in three unrelated families from Israel and Spain. METHODS: Whole exome sequencing was conducted in one Israeli and two Spanish families segregating autosomal recessive RP with intellectual disability...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791067/optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-a-new-tool-in-glaucoma-diagnostics-and-research
#20
Ramin Daneshvar, Kouros Nouri-Mahdavi
Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a new modality in ocular imaging which provides high resolution view of the vascular structures in the retina and optic nerve head. This technology has the advantages of being noninvasive, rapid and reproducible. OCTA is becoming a valuable tool for evaluating many retinal and optic nerve diseases. This article provides a brief introduction to the technology and its application in the field of glaucoma diagnostics.
July 2017: Journal of Ophthalmic & Vision Research
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