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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339297/long-term-effect-of-panretinal-photocoagulation-on-spectral-domain-optical-coherence-tomography-measurements-in-diabetic-retinopathy
#1
Haeng-Jin Lee, Tae-Seen Kang, Baek-Soo Kwak, Young-Joon Jo, Jung-Yeul Kim
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of panretinal photocoagulation on spectral domain optical coherence tomography measurements in diabetic retinopathy by comparing the thicknesses of the central macula, retinal nerve fiber layer, and ganglion cell layer, we used a Cirrus HD OCT® (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA, USA) in normal and diabetic retinopathy cohorts. METHODS: We analyzed patients who visited our retinal clinic between May 2013 and July 2014. The patients were classified into four groups: normal (Group A), diabetes without diabetic retinopathy (Group B), severe nonproliferative or proliferative diabetic retinopathy (Group C), and at least 3 years after panretinal photocoagulation treatment (Group D)...
March 24, 2017: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339057/gpr143-mutations-in-chinese-patients-with-ocular-albinism-type-1
#2
Xiuhua Jia, Jin Yuan, Xiaoyun Jia, Shiqi Ling, Shiqiang Li, Xiangming Guo
The aim of the present study was to evaluate mutations of the G protein-coupled receptor 143 (GPR143) gene for ocular albinism type 1 (OA1) in Chinese patients. For the current study, 8 patients with OA1 were selected from the database of ocular genetic diseases. Genomic DNA of OA1 was prepared from venous leukocytes collected from the patients. Cycle sequencing was used to analyze the exons and adjacent introns of GPR143. The variation detected was analyzed by bidirectional DNA sequencing and further evaluated in 96 controls using heteroduplex‑single strand conformational polymorphism analysis...
March 23, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336272/apigenin-7-diglucuronide-protects-retinas-against-bright-light-induced-photoreceptor-degeneration-through-the-inhibition-of-retinal-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation
#3
Minjuan Bian, Yong Zhang, Xiaoye Du, Jing Xu, Jingang Cui, Jiangping Gu, Weiliang Zhu, Teng Zhang, Yu Chen
Vision impairment in retinal degenerative diseases such as age-related macular degeneration is primarily associated with photoreceptor degeneration, in which oxidative stress and inflammatory responses are mechanistically involved as central players. Therapies with photoreceptor protective properties remain to be developed. Apigenin-7-diglucuronide (A7DG), a flavonoid glycoside, is present in an assortment of medicinal plants with anti-inflammatory or ant-oxidant activities. However, the pharmacological significance of A7DG remains unknown in vivo...
March 20, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336262/increased-susceptibility-to-fundus-camera-delivered-light-induced-retinal-degeneration-in-mice-deficient-in-oxidative-stress-response-proteins
#4
Yi Ding, Bogale Aredo, Xin Zhong, Cynthia X Zhao, Rafael L Ufret-Vincenty
Oxidative stress is an important contributor to the pathogenesis of many retinal diseases including age-related macular degeneration and retinal dystrophies. Light-induced retinal degeneration (LIRD) can serve as a model in which to study the response of the retina to stress. Of note, many genetic mutant mice are in a C57BL/6 J background and are thus resistant to the usual LIRD models. We recently developed a new model of fundus camera-delivered light-induced retinal degeneration (FCD-LIRD) which is effective in strains of mice expressing the light-resistant variant of RPE65 (450Met), including C57BL/6 J...
March 20, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335619/over-expression-of-the-x-linked-inhibitor-of-apoptosis-protects-against-retinal-degeneration-in-a-feline-model-of-retinal-detachment
#5
Sarah Wassmer, Brian Leonard, Stuart Coupland, Adam Baker, John Hamilton, William W Hauswirth, Catherine Tsilfidis
Retinal detachment is an acute disorder in humans that is caused by trauma or disease, and it can often lead to permanent visual deficits that result from the death of photoreceptors in the retina. The final pathway for photoreceptor cell death is apoptosis and necroptosis. The X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) has been shown to block both of these cell death pathways. We tested the effects of XIAP on photoreceptor survival in a feline model of retinal detachment. The study was performed in 12 cats, divided into 2 experimental groups...
March 23, 2017: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335564/passage-through-the-ocular-barriers-and-beneficial-effects-in-retinal-ischemia-of-topical-application-of-pacap1-38-in-rodents
#6
Dora Werling, William A Banks, Therese S Salameh, Timea Kvarik, Laszlo Akos Kovacs, Alexandra Vaczy, Edina Szabo, Flora Mayer, Rita Varga, Andrea Tamas, Gabor Toth, Zsolt Biro, Tamas Atlasz, Dora Reglodi
The neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) has two active forms, PACAP1-27 and PACAP1-38. Among the well-established actions are PACAP's neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects, which have also been proven in models of different retinopathies. The route of delivery is usually intravitreal in studies proving PACAP's retinoprotective effects. Recently, we have shown that PACAP1-27 delivered as eye drops in benzalkonium-chloride was able to cross the ocular barriers and exert retinoprotection in ischemia...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334871/proteomics-insights-into-infantile-neuronal-ceroid-lipofuscinosis-cln1-point-to-the-involvement-of-cilia-pathology-in-the-disease
#7
Michal Segal-Salto, Karin Hansson, Tamar Sapir, Anna Kaplan, Talia Levy, Michaela Schwizer, Michael Frotscher, Peter James, Orly Reiner
Mutations in the depalmitoylation enzyme, palmitoyl protein thioesterase (PPT1), result in the early onset neurodegenerative disease known as Infantile Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis. Here, we provide proteomic evidence suggesting that PPT1 deficiency could be considered as a ciliopathy. Analysis of membrane proteins from brain enriched for acylated proteins from neonate Ppt1 knock out and control mice revealed a list of 88 proteins with differential expression levels. Amongst them, we identified Rab3IP, which regulates ciliogenesis in concert with Rab8 and Rab11...
March 6, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334493/glucose-metabolism-in-mammalian-photoreceptor-inner-and-outer-segments
#8
REVIEW
Daniel S Narayan, Glyn Chidlow, John Pm Wood, Robert J Casson
Photoreceptors are the first order neurons of the visual pathway, converting light into electrical signals. Rods and cones are the two main types of photoreceptors in the mammalian retina. Rods are specialized for sensitivity at the expense of resolution and are responsible for vision in dimly lit conditions. Cones are responsible for high acuity central vision and colour vision. Many human retinal diseases are characterized by a progressive loss of photoreceptors. Photoreceptors consist of four primary regions: outer segments, inner segments, cell bodies, and synaptic terminals...
March 23, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333647/automatic-choroidal-layer-segmentation-using-markov-random-field-and-level-set-method
#9
Chuang Wang, Yongmin Li, Ya Xing Wang
The choroid is an important vascular layer that supplies oxygen and nourishment to the retina. The changes in thickness of the choroid have been hypothesised to relate to a number of retinal diseases in the pathophysiology. In this work, an automatic method is proposed for segmenting the choroidal layer from macular images by using the level set framework. The 3D nonlinear anisotropic diffusion filter is used to remove all the OCT imaging artifacts including the speckle noise and to enhance the contrast. The distance regularisation and edge constraint terms are embedded into the level set method to avoid the irregular and small regions and keep information about the boundary between the choroid and sclera...
March 20, 2017: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331635/relationships-among-ocular-blood-flow-shown-by-laser-speckle-flowgraphy-retinal-arteriosclerotic-change-and-chorioretinal-circulation-time-obtained-by-fluorescein-angiography
#10
Hironori Osamura, Tomoaki Shiba, Takashi Itokawa, Tadashi Matsumoto, Yuichi Hori
Purpose. To determine the correlations among the mean blur rate (MBR) in the optic nerve head (ONH) shown by laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG), retinal arteriosclerosis, and the circulation time obtained by fluorescein angiography (FA). Method. We evaluated 118 patients and assessed their time of choroidal flush, arm-to-retina time, and early and late phases of retinal circulation time (RT: sec) obtained by FA. The severity of retinal arteriosclerosis was classified according to the Scheie classification. The MBR values throughout the ONH (MBR-A), in the tissue (MBR-T), and in the vessels (MBR-V) were analyzed...
2017: Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325857/treatment-trends-for-retinopathy-of-prematurity-in-the-uk-active-surveillance-study-of-infants-at-risk
#11
Gillian G W Adams, Catey Bunce, Wen Xing, Lucilla Butler, Vernon Long, Aravind Reddy, Annegret H Dahlmann-Noor
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the incidence of severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) requiring treatment and describe current treatment patterns in the UK. DESIGN: Nationwide population-based case ascertainment study via the British Ophthalmic Surveillance Unit and a national collaborative ROP special interest group. Practitioners completed a standardised case report form (CRF). SETTING: All paediatric ophthalmologists providing screening and/or treatment for retinopathy in the UK were invited to take part...
March 21, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325541/the-relationship-between-diabetic-retinopathy-and-nephropathy-in-sudanese-adult-with-diabetes-population-based-study
#12
Mohamed H Ahmed, Einas S Elwali, Heitham Awadalla, Ahmed O Almobarak
INTRODUCTION: Diabetic nephropathy is responsible for nearly third of the world cases of end stage renal disease; it becomes a major public health problem with social and economic burden. The aim of this study is to explore if there is an association between retinopathy and nephropathy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a cross sectional hospital based study a total of 316 individuals with diabetes were recruited from Makkah eye complex retina clinic. Demographic data, medical history and life style characteristics were taken through standard questionnaire...
March 7, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325294/therapeutic-effect-of-novel-single-stranded-rnai-agent-targeting-periostin-in-eyes-with-retinal-neovascularization
#13
Takahito Nakama, Shigeo Yoshida, Keijiro Ishikawa, Yuki Kubo, Yoshiyuki Kobayashi, Yedi Zhou, Shintaro Nakao, Toshio Hisatomi, Yasuhiro Ikeda, Kazumasa Takao, Kazunori Yoshikawa, Akira Matsuda, Junya Ono, Shoichiro Ohta, Kenji Izuhara, Akira Kudo, Koh-Hei Sonoda, Tatsuro Ishibashi
Retinal neovascularization (NV) due to retinal ischemia remains one of the principal causes of vision impairment in patients with ischemic retinal diseases. We recently reported that periostin (POSTN) may play a role in the development of preretinal fibrovascular membranes, but its role in retinal NV has not been determined. The purpose of this study was to examine the expression of POSTN in the ischemic retinas of a mouse model of oxygen-induced retinal NV. We also studied the function of POSTN on retinal NV using Postn KO mice and human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs) in culture...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325286/inclusion-of-the-woodchuck-hepatitis-virus-posttranscriptional-regulatory-element-enhances-aav2-driven-transduction-of-mouse-and-human-retina
#14
Maria I Patrício, Alun R Barnard, Harry O Orlans, Michelle E McClements, Robert E MacLaren
The woodchuck hepatitis virus posttranscriptional regulatory element (WPRE) has been included in the transgene cassette of adeno-associated virus (AAV) in several gene therapy clinical trials, including those for inherited retinal diseases. However, the extent to which WPRE increases transgene expression in the retina is still unclear. To address this question, AAV2 vectors containing a reporter gene with and without WPRE were initially compared in vitro and subsequently in vivo by subretinal delivery in mice...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324979/strategies-to-improve-stimulation-efficiency-for-retinal-prostheses
#15
Navya S Davuluri, Kiran Nimmagadda, Artin Petrossians, Mark S Humayun, James D Weiland
Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP) is a degenerative disease of the retina that leads to vision loss. Retinal prostheses are being developed in order to restore functional vision in patients suffering from RP. We conducted in-vivo experiments in order to identify strategies to efficiently stimulate the retina. We electrically stimulated the retina and measured electrically evoked potentials (EERs) from the superior colliculus of rats. We compared the strength of EERs when voltage-controlled and current-controlled pulses of varying pulse width and charge levels were applied to the retina...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322199/adrenomedullin-suppresses-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-induced-vascular-hyperpermeability-and-inflammation-in-retinopathy
#16
Akira Imai, Yuichi Toriyama, Yasuhiro Iesato, Kazutaka Hirabayashi, Takayuki Sakurai, Akiko Kamiyoshi, Yuka Ichikawa-Shindo, Hisaka Kawate, Megumu Tanaka, Tian Liu, Xian Xian, Liuyu Zhai, Kun Dai, Keiya Tanimura, Teng Liu, Nanqi Cui, Akihiro Yamauchi, Toshinori Murata, Takayuki Shindo
Diabetic macular edema (DME) is caused by blood-retinal barrier breakdown associated with retinal vascular hyperpermeability and inflammation, and it is the major cause of visual dysfunction in diabetic retinopathy. Adrenomedullin (ADM) is an endogenous peptide first identified as a strong vasodilator. ADM is expressed in the eyes and is up-regulated in various eye diseases, although the pathophysiological significance is largely unknown. We investigated the effect of ADM on DME. In Kimba mice, which overexpress human vascular endothelial growth factor in their retinas, the capillary dropout, vascular leakage, and vascular fragility characteristic of diabetic retinopathy were observed, and these changes were accompanied by retinal inflammation...
March 16, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320674/simulation-study-of-an-ultrasound-retinal-prosthesis-with-a-novel-contact-lens-array-for-noninvasive-retinal-stimulation
#17
Mengdi Gao, Yanyan Yu, Huixia Zhao, Guofeng Li, Hongyang Jiang, Congzhi Wang, Feiyan Cai, Leanne Chan, Bernard Chiu, Wei Qian, Weibao Qiu, Hairong Zheng
Millions of people around the world suffer from varying degrees of vision loss (including complete blindness) because of retinal degenerative diseases. Artificial retinal prosthesis, which is usually based on electrical neurostimulation, are the most advanced technology for different types of retinal degeneration. However, this technology involves placing a device into the eyeball, and such a highly invasive procedure is inevitably highly risk and expensive. Ultrasound has been demonstrated to be a promising technology for noninvasive neurostimulation, making it possible to stimulate the retina and induce action potentials similar to those elicited by light stimulation...
March 15, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319444/retro-orbital-venous-sinus-delivery-of-raav9-mediates-high-level-transduction-of-brain-and-retina-compared-with-temporal-vein-delivery-in-neonatal-mouse-pups
#18
Alisha M Gruntman, Lin Su, Terence R Flotte
In order to pursue a clinical gene therapy for a human neurologic disease, it is often necessary to perform proof-of-concept trials in mouse models of that disease. In order to demonstrate a potential clinical efficacy, one must be able to select an appropriate vector and route of delivery for the appropriate age group in the disease model. Since many diseases require correction early in life, investigators often need to deliver recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors to neonatal mice. Herein, general central nervous system expression patterns of nuclear GFP following delivery of rAAV by three different routes are reported...
March 2017: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318721/-physiology-of-the-visual-retinal-signal-from-phototransduction-to-the-visual-cycle
#19
REVIEW
C Salesse
The retinal photoreceptors (rods and cones) are responsible for light absorption and transduction of the signal, which is transmitted to the other retinal nerve cells and then to the brain. The chromophore of visual pigments of rods and cones is a particular isomer of a vitamin A derivative. Light absorption by this chromophore leads to its isomerization and to a phototransduction cascade, which results in photoreceptor hyperpolarization and cessation of glutamate secretion at their synaptic terminals. Phototransduction of cones and rods differs in their signal amplification and inactivation, which is consistent with their respective functions...
March 17, 2017: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317920/kus121-a-vcp-modulator-attenuates-ischemic-retinal-cell-death-via-suppressing-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#20
Masayuki Hata, Hanako O Ikeda, Chinami Kikkawa, Sachiko Iwai, Yuki Muraoka, Tomoko Hasegawa, Akira Kakizuka, Nagahisa Yoshimura
Ischemic neural damages cause several devastating diseases, including brain stroke and ischemic retinopathies, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been proposed to be the underlying mechanism of the neuronal cell death of these conditions. We previously synthesized Kyoto University substances (KUSs) as modulators of valosin-containing protein (VCP); KUSs inhibit VCP ATPase activity and protect cells from different cell death-inducing insults. Here, we examined the efficacy of KUS121 in a rat model of retinal ischemic injury...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
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