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Retina diseases

David Alonso-Caneiro, Danuta M Sampson, Avenell L Chew, Michael J Collins, Fred K Chen
Adaptive optics flood illumination ophthalmoscopy (AO-FIO) allows imaging of the cone photoreceptor in the living human retina. However, clinical interpretation of the AO-FIO image remains challenging due to suboptimal quality arising from residual uncorrected wavefront aberrations and rapid eye motion. An objective method of assessing image quality is necessary to determine whether an AO-FIO image is suitable for grading and diagnostic purpose. In this work, we explore the use of focus measure operators as a surrogate measure of AO-FIO image quality...
February 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Zhang Li, Fan Huang, Jiong Zhang, Behdad Dashtbozorg, Samaneh Abbasi-Sureshjani, Yue Sun, Xi Long, Qifeng Yu, Bart Ter Haar Romeny, Tao Tan
Multi-modal retinal image registration is often required to utilize the complementary information from different retinal imaging modalities. However, a robust and accurate registration is still a challenge due to the modality-varied resolution, contrast, and luminosity. In this paper, a two step registration method is proposed to address this problem. Descriptor matching on mean phase images is used to globally register images in the first step. Deformable registration based on modality independent neighbourhood descriptor (MIND) method is followed to locally refine the registration result in the second step...
February 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Lamia AbedNoor Muhammed
Examining retinal image continuously plays an important role in determining human eye health; with any variation present in this image, it may be resulting from some disease. Therefore, there is a need for computer-aided scanning for retinal image to perform this task automatically and accurately. The fundamental step in this task is identification of the retina elements; optical disk localization is the most important one in this identification. Different optical disc localization algorithms have been suggested, such as an algorithm that would be proposed in this paper...
2018: International Journal of Biomedical Imaging
Raffaele Nuzzi, Simona Scalabrin, Alice Becco, Giancarlo Panzica
Aim: Gonadal hormones are essential for reproductive function, but can act on neural and other organ systems, and are probably the cause of the large majority of known sex differences in function and disease. The aim of this review is to provide evidence for this hypothesis in relation to eye disorders and to retinopathies in particular. Methods: Epidemiological studies and research articles were reviewed. Results: Analysis of the biological basis for a relationship between eye diseases and hormones showed that estrogen, androgen, and progesterone receptors are present throughout the eye and that these steroids are locally produced in ocular tissues...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Zong-Mei Bian, Matthew G Field, Susan G Elner, Victor M Elner
Human retinal pigment epithelial (hRPE) cells play important immune-regulatory roles in a variety of retinal pathologic processes, including the production of inflammatory cytokines that are essential mediators of the innate immune response within the ocular microenvironment. The pro-inflammatory "alarmin" cytokine IL-1α has been implicated in both infectious and non-infectious retinal diseases, but its regulation in the retina is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the expression and regulation of IL-1α within hRPE cells...
March 15, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Sergio Crespo-Garcia, Nadine Reichhart, Sergej Skosyrski, Marco Foddis, Jim Wu, Aleksandar Figura, Christina Herrspiegel, Martina Füchtemeier, Celeste Sassi, Ulrich Dirnagl, Antonia M Joussen, Olaf Strauss
Animal models of disease are an indispensable element in our quest to understand pathophysiology and develop novel therapies. Ex vivo studies have severe limitations, in particular their inability to study individual disease progression over time. In this respect, non-invasive in vivo technologies offer multiple advantages. We here used bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) in mice, an established model for ischemic retinopathy, and performed a multimodal in vivo and ex vivo follow-up. We used scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO), ocular coherence tomography (OCT) and electroretinography (ERG) over 6 weeks followed by ex vivo analyses...
2018: PloS One
Leonardo R C Mesquita, Maria L G da Fonseca, Rodrigo M da Silva, Eduardo H Morizot
PURPOSE: To report a case involving a patient with presumed panretinal ritonavir-induced retinopathy. METHODS: A 52-year-old, HIV-positive patient, with no criteria for AIDS associated with the use of ritonavir for more than 10 years, underwent clinical examination, fundus photography, spectral domain optical coherence tomography, and fundus autofluorescence imaging. RESULTS: Fundus examination revealed areas of atrophy and hypertrophy in the retinal pigment epithelium throughout the retina...
March 15, 2018: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
Ximena Corso-Díaz, Catherine Jaeger, Vijender Chaitankar, Anand Swaroop
Complex biological processes, such as organogenesis and homeostasis, are stringently regulated by genetic programs that are fine-tuned by epigenetic factors to establish cell fates and/or to respond to the microenvironment. Gene regulatory networks that guide cell differentiation and function are modulated and stabilized by modifications to DNA, RNA and proteins. In this review, we focus on two key epigenetic changes - DNA methylation and histone modifications - and discuss their contribution to retinal development, aging and disease, especially in the context of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and diabetic retinopathy...
March 12, 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
Tanya Moutray, Jennifer R Evans, Noemi Lois, David J Armstrong, Tunde Peto, Augusto Azuara-Blanco
BACKGROUND: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a chronic progressive disease of the retinal microvasculature associated with prolonged hyperglycaemia. Proliferative DR (PDR) is a sight-threatening complication of DR and is characterised by the development of abnormal new vessels in the retina, optic nerve head or anterior segment of the eye. Argon laser photocoagulation has been the gold standard for the treatment of PDR for many years, using regimens evaluated by the Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS)...
March 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Maurizio Battaglia Parodi, Alessandro Arrigo, Robert E MacLaren, Emanuela Aragona, Lisa Toto, Rodolfo Mastropasqua, Maria Pia Manitto, Francesco Bandello
PURPOSE: Choroideremia is a rare degenerative retinal disease that causes incurable blindness. It occurs as a result of the deficiency of the X-linked CHM gene, which encodes the Rab escort protein 1 (REP1). Gene therapy has been developed to treat CHM using adeno-associated viral vectors and is currently undergoing clinical trials. Expression of the CHM gene is ubiquitous throughout the retina, and it is therefore important to identify which retinal layers are affected in the disease process...
March 14, 2018: Retina
Madan Upadhyay, Ranju Kharel Sitaula, Bharat Shrestha, Bhaiya Khanal, Bishnu Psd Upadhyay, Jeevan B Sherchand, Prakash Ghimire
PURPOSE: This review aims to provide a detailed update in Seasonal hypercute panuveitis (SHAPU) which is a blinding disease of unknown etiology reported only from Nepal, occurring every odd year since 1975 predominantly in children. METHODS: Data sources were literature reviewed using PubMed, Medline, and ISI Databases (since 1975 to late 2017). Search items included SHAPU, seasonal endophthalmitis, hypopyon uveitis, caterpillar induced uveitis alone or in combination with white moth, panuveitis, and review...
March 15, 2018: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
A V Tereshchenko, Yu A Belyy, Yu A Sidorova, I G Trifanenkova, M S Tereshchenkova, Yu A Yudina
AIM: to develop the methodology of early primary vitrectomy for aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 10 preterm infants (20 eyes; gestational term - 26-30 weeks, post-conceptual age - 34-39 weeks) with severe forms of aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity (AP-ROP). All patients underwent a complex ophthalmic examination. Their results were compared with retrospective data of earlier treated AP-ROP patients (10 preterm infants, 20 eyes), in whom laser photocoagulation (LC) was done first (gestational period at the time of LC ranged from 26 to 30 weeks, post-conceptual age - from 34 to 39 weeks)...
2018: Vestnik Oftalmologii
O A Konikova, V V Brzhesky
Visual impairment in children with regressive retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) are diverse and widespread. PURPOSE: to describe the electrophysiological characteristics of the retina in children with I-V stages of regressive ROP. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included children with stages I-V aged 5 to 17 (in the disease stages of IV and V - with reattachment of the retina after surgical treatment of its detachment). Patients with concomitant diseases of the eye were excluded from the study...
2018: Vestnik Oftalmologii
Rehan M Hussain, Ninel Z Gregori, Thomas A Ciulla, Byron L Lam
Pharmacotherapy with visual cycle modulators (VCMs) is under investigation for retinitis pigmentosa (RP), Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), Stargardt macular dystrophy (SMD) and nonexudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD), all blinding diseases that lack effective treatment options. Areas covered: The authors review investigational VCMs, including oral retinoids, 9-cis-retinyl-acetate (zuretinol) and 9-cis-β-carotene, which restore 11-cis-retinal levels in RP and LCA caused by LRAT and RPE65 gene mutations, and may improve visual acuity and visual fields...
March 15, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Ivan Bozic, Xiaoyue Li, Yuankai Tao
The zebrafish is a robust model for studying human ophthalmic function and disease because of its fecundity, life-cycle, and similarities between its retinal structure and the human retina. Here, we demonstrate longitudinal in vivo imaging of retinal structure using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and noninvasive retinal vascular perfusion imaging using OCT angiography (OCT-A) in zebrafish. In addition, we present methods for retinal vascular segmentation and biometry to quantify vessel branch length, curvature, and angle...
March 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Yingqian Peng, Edouard Baulier, Yifeng Ke, Alejandra Young, Novruz B Ahmedli, Steven D Schwartz, Debora B Farber
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by virtually every cell of all organisms are involved in processes of intercellular communication through the delivery of their functional mRNAs, proteins and bioactive lipids. We previously demonstrated that mouse embryonic stem cell-released EVs (mESEVs) are able to transfer their content to different target retinal cells, inducing morphological and biochemical changes in them. The main objective of this paper is to characterize EVs derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESEVs) and investigate the effects that they have on cultured retinal glial, progenitor Müller cells, which are known to give rise to retinal neurons under specific conditions...
2018: PloS One
Phoebe Lin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The intestinal commensal microbiota are important in shaping immune cell repertoire and are influenced by host genetics. Because of this intricate interaction, an intestinal dysbiosis has been associated with multiple immune-mediated polygenic diseases. This review summarizes the literature on how alterations in the intestinal microbiota contribute to immune-mediated ocular disease, and how to potentially target the gut microbiome for therapeutic benefit. RECENT FINDINGS: Several groups have demonstrated the importance of the intestinal microbiome in uveitis pathogenesis...
March 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
Kiran Shah, Alka Gandhi, Sundaram Natarajan
Background: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is leading cause of visual impairment in working-age adults. Macular edema can occur with or without other signs of retinopathy. Methods: This was a single-center, retrospective study conducted over 2 years in patients (>40 years of age) having type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Outcome measures were to analyze awareness and prevalence of DR and association of DR with identified risk factors. Results: Overall 6000 T2DM patients over 2 years were retrospectively evaluated...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Kenji Sakamoto, Taishi Suzuki, Kosuke Takahashi, Takumi Koguchi, Tasuku Hirayama, Asami Mori, Tsutomu Nakahara, Hideko Nagasawa, Kunio Ishii
Excitoneurotoxicity is regarded as one of the mechanisms of the death of retinal ganglion cells induced by retinal central artery occlusion and glaucoma. Oxidative stress is at least in part involved in excitoneurotoxicity. Fenton reaction, which is catalyzed by Fe2+ , is known to cause formation of hydroxyl radical, one of reactive oxygen species, suggesting that chelation of iron may be protective against excitoneurotoxicity. In the present study, we histologically evaluated whether zinc-deferoxamine (Zn-DFO) and deferasirox (DFX), common iron-chelating agents, were protective against N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced retinal injury in the rat in vivo...
March 9, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Simon J Epps, Joanne Boldison, Madeleine L Stimpson, Tarnjit K Khera, Philippa J P Lait, David A Copland, Andrew D Dick, Lindsay B Nicholson
Ocular function depends on a high level of anatomical integrity. This is threatened by inflammation, which alters the local tissue over short and long time-scales. Uveitis due to autoimmune disease, especially when it involves the retina, leads to persistent changes in how the eye interacts with the immune system. The normal pattern of immune surveillance, which for immune privileged tissues is limited, is re-programmed. Many cell types, that are not usually present in the eye, become detectable. There are changes in the tissue homeostasis and integrity...
March 9, 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
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