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Retina diseases

M A Zouache, I Eames, C A Klettner, P J Luthert
The development of fluid transport systems was a key event in the evolution of animals and plants. While within vertebrates branched geometries predominate, the choriocapillaris, which is the microvascular bed that is responsible for the maintenance of the outer retina, has evolved a planar topology. Here we examine the flow and mass transfer properties associated with this unusual geometry. We show that as a result of the form of the choriocapillaris, the blood flow is decomposed into a tessellation of functional vascular segments of various shapes delineated by separation surfaces across which there is no flow, and in the vicinity of which the transport of passive substances is diffusion-limited...
October 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
Md Akter Hussain, Alauddin Bhuiyan, Andrew Turpin, Chi D Luu, R Theodore Smith, Robyn H Guymer, Ramamohanarao Kotagiri
OBJECTIVE: We propose an effective, automatic method for identification of four retinal layer boundaries from the Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) images in the presence and absence of pathologies and morphological changes due to disease. METHODS: The approach first finds an approximate location of three reference layers, and then uses these to bound the search space for the actual layers, which is achieved by modeling the problem as a graph and applying Dijkstra's shortest path algorithm...
October 19, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
Isabel N Figueiredo, Susana Moura, Júlio S Neves, Luís Pinto, Sunil Kumar, Carlos M Oliveira, João D Ramos
In this work we propose a novel method for identifying individuals based on retinal fundus image matching. The method is based on the image registration of retina blood vessels, since it is known that the retina vasculature of an individual is a signature, i.e., a distinctive pattern of the individual. The proposed image registration consists of a multiscale affine registration followed by a multiscale elastic registration. The major advantage of this particular two-step image registration procedure is that it is able to account for both rigid and non-rigid deformations either inherent to the retina tissues or as a result of the imaging process itself...
September 26, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Vikram Shetty, Sriram S Ganapathy
Retinoblastoma (RB) is an aggressive intraocular tumor arising from cells of the retina. Infrequently, distant metastasis occurs in advanced stages of the disease. This case report describes the metastasis of the tumor to the mandible, an extremely rare phenomenon. This condition was observed for a recurrent tumor in a patient who initially underwent chemotherapy, making this case report unique and providing new insights into the behavior of this tumor. An overview of the management of a metastatic RB also is discussed...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Eli Kisilevsky, Luminita Tarita-Nistor, Esther G González, Mark S Mandelcorn, Michael H Brent, Samuel N Markowitz, Martin J Steinbach
OBJECTIVE: Patients with central vision loss develop preferred retinal loci (PRLs) in the eccentric retina. The characteristics of the PRLs for the better eye (BE) are well studied, but not those of the worse eye (WE). We examined the distribution of monocular PRLs in the visual field (VF), as well as visual acuity, fixation stability, and PRL eccentricity for the BE and WE of patients with central vision loss. DESIGN: Retrospective consecutive case series. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 87 BE and 50 WE of patients with central vision loss...
October 2016: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
Chong Chen, Kun Liu, Yupeng Xu, Pengwei Zhang, Yan Suo, Yi Lu, Wenyuan Zhang, Li Su, Qing Gu, Huamao Wang, Jianren Gu, Zonghai Li, Xun Xu
Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapies are widely used for the treatment of neovascular fundus diseases such as diabetic retinopathy. However, these agents need to be injected intravitreally, because their strong hydrophilicity and high molecular weight prevent them from penetrating cell membranes and complex tissue barriers. Moreover, the repeated injections that are required can cause infection and tissue injury. In this study, we used in vivo-directed evolution phage display technology to identify a novel dodecapeptide, named CC12, with the ability to penetrate the ocular barrier in a noninvasive (via conjunctival sac instillation) or minimally invasive (via retrobulbar injection) manner...
September 30, 2016: Biomaterials
Xin Zhong, Bogale Aredo, Yi Ding, Kaiyan Zhang, Cynthia X Zhao, Rafael L Ufret-Vincenty
Purpose: Oxidative stress, partly due to light, has an important role in many retinal diseases, including macular degeneration and retinal dystrophies. The Leu450Met variant of RPE65 is expressed in C57BL/6 and in many genetically modified mice. It confers significant resistance to light induced retinal degeneration (LIRD). Our goal was to develop an effective and efficient method to induce LIRD in resistant mice that would recapitulate mechanisms seen in known models of LIRD. Methods: The retinas of C57BL/6J mice were exposed to light using a murine fundus camera...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Richard Bergholz, Mirjam Rossel, Jan Schroeter, Ralf M Dutescu, Daniel J Salchow
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Toxic maculopathy is a rare but severe complication of chloroquine intake. Although the phenotype of established maculopathy was analyzed in detail, few data exist on the ophthalmologic findings in the early stage. METHODS: The authors present 4 female patients with unequivocal signs of chloroquine maculopathy (bilateral [peri-]central scotoma in the visual fields, structural alterations of the macula in the optical coherence tomography) but normal or atypical findings as to fundus autofluorescence imaging...
October 20, 2016: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
Jessica Lee, Richard Rosen
Diabetic retinopathy is a progressive microvascular disease that leads to increased vessel permeability, retinal ischemia, and retinal neovascularization. Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a novel angiography technique that has the capability to advance our understanding of diabetic eye disease by providing high-resolution images of retinal and choroidal microvasculature blood flow and structure. Using OCTA, the vascular changes of diabetic retinopathy including microaneurysms, retinal non-perfusion, intraretinal microvascular abnormalities, and neovascularization can be clearly visualized...
December 2016: Current Diabetes Reports
Christian M Felix, Marc H Levin, Alan S Verkman
BACKGROUND: Neuromyelitis optica (NMO), an autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, is often associated with retinal abnormalities including thinning of the retinal nerve fiber layer and microcystic changes. Here, we demonstrate that passive transfer of an anti-aquaporin-4 autoantibody (AQP4-IgG) produces primary retinal pathology. METHODS: AQP4-IgG was delivered to adult rat retinas by intravitreal injection. Rat retinas and retinal explant cultures were assessed by immunofluorescence...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Dan Cheng, Yuqin Wang, Shenghai Huang, Qiuyan Wu, Qi Chen, Meixiao Shen, Fan Lu
Purpose: To identify macular intraretinal layer changes of patients in remission from Behcet's disease (BD) of short and long duration and evaluate the associations with visual acuity (VA). Methods: Thirty-two eyes from 26 BD patients were enrolled, including 16 eyes with a duration less than 3 years (0.5-2.5 years; BD1) and 16 eyes of longer duration (3-12 years; BD2). Their intraretinal layer thicknesses and integrity of ellipsoid zone (EZ) and interdigitation zone (IZ) were evaluated by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT)...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Agnieszka Antonowicz, Piotr Skrzypczyk, Beata Kępa, Małgorzata Pańczyk-Tomaszewska
: Toxocariasis is a common zoonosis caused by infection with Toxocara canis or cati larvae. Ocular toxocariasis is one of the forms of infestation found in 1/1,000 - 1/10,000 children. Children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) are at high risk of infections, also parasitic infestations, which can, in turn, cause relapses of the disease. A CASE REPORT: We present a case of a 6-year-old boy with steroiddependent nephrotic syndrome. The disease started at age of 2, the boy had 9 relapses of INS, and was treated with oral prednisone, levamisole, and cyclophosphamide...
October 19, 2016: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Michael I Seider, Dilraj S Grewal, Prithvi Mruthyunjaya
Portable, hand-held optical coherence tomography (OCT) revealed three clinically relevant yet not ophthalmoscopically detected or confirmed manifestations of retinoblastoma in a single patient with familial bilateral disease. Specifically, OCT showed new retinal tumors, new vitreous seeds, and tumor recurrence before they could be detected or confirmed by ophthalmoscopy. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2016;47:965-968.].
October 1, 2016: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
Stefan J Lang, Bertan Cakir, Charlotte Evers, Franziska Ludwig, Clemens A K Lange, Hansjürgen T Agostini
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The introduction of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) provides new insights into the retinal vasculature. The aim of this study was to explore the value of OCTA in imaging retinal hemangioblastomas and monitoring laser treatment in patients with von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Ten eyes of 10 patients with VHL disease were included in this retrospective case series. All patients underwent complete ophthalmological work-up including OCTA for retinal and optic nerve head hemangioblastoma...
October 1, 2016: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
Fabiana Q Silva, Mehreen Adhi, Karen M Wai, Leann Olansky, M Cecilia Lansang, Rishi P Singh
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to identify whether endocrinologists and primary care physicians (PCP) adequately screen for ophthalmic symptoms/signs within office visits and provide timely ophthalmology referrals in patients with diabetes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients between the ages of 18 years and 80 years with diabetes who underwent an office visit with an endocrinologist or a PCP between January 1, 2014, and December 31, 2014, were identified...
October 1, 2016: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
Tien Wong
The vasculature in the retina can be viewed directly and non-invasively in vivo, offers a unique perspective of the human microvasculature, and therefore the ability to understand early changes, processes, pathways and consequences of hypertension. In the past 15 years, advances in high resolution digital retinal photography and automated or semi-automated computer image software have been applied to measure and quantify a variety of retinal microvascular parameter, including retinal arteriolar and venular caliber, tortuosity, branching patterns and fractal dimensions...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Tatjana Taubitz, Laura-Pia Steinbrenner, Alexander V Tschulakow, Antje Biesemeier, Sylvie Julien-Schraermeyer, Ulrich Schraermeyer
PURPOSE: Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) drugs are used to treat neovascular eye diseases. Some of these drugs contain Fc fragments (Fc), but it is unknown how their mode of action is influenced by Fc. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of Fc on rat eyes after intravitreal injection. METHODS: Eighteen Long-Evans rats were intravitreally injected with sterile, biotin-labeled rat Fc (9.1 μg in 5 μl PBS). For control, 5 μl PBS was injected in another nine rats...
October 17, 2016: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
George Taylor-Walker, Savannah A Lynn, Eloise Keeling, Rosie Munday, David A Johnston, Anton Page, Jennifer A Scott, Srini Goverdhan, Andrew J Lotery, J Arjuna Ratnayaka
Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) is a common, irreversible blinding condition that leads to the loss of central vision. AMD has a complex aetiology with both genetic as well as environmental risks factors, and share many similarities with Alzheimer's disease. Recent findings have contributed significantly to unravelling its genetic architecture that is yet to be matched by molecular insights. Studies are made more challenging by observations that aged and AMD retinas accumulate the highly pathogenic Alzheimer's-related Amyloid beta (Aβ) group of peptides, for which there appears to be no clear genetic basis...
October 14, 2016: Experimental Eye Research
Pavitra Ramachandran, Vivian Lee, Zhangyong Wei, Ji Yun Song, Giulia Casal, Therese Cronin, Keirnan Willett, Rachel Huckfeldt, Jessica I W Morgan, Tomas S Aleman, Albert M Maguire, Jean Bennett
Within the next decade, we will see many gene therapy clinical trials for eye diseases progress, which may lead to treatments for thousands of visually impaired people around the world. To target retinal diseases that affect specific cell types, several recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) serotypes have been generated and used successfully in pre-clinical mouse studies. Because there are numerous anatomic, and physiologic differences between the eyes of mice and 'men' and because surgical delivery approaches and immunologic responses also differ between these species, we evaluated the transduction characteristics of two promising new serotypes AAV7m8 and AAV8BP2, in retinas of animals that are most similar to those of humans: non-human primates (NHPs)...
October 18, 2016: Human Gene Therapy
Anastasia Pilat, Rebecca J McLean, Frank A Proudlock, Gail D E Maconachie, Viral Sheth, Yusuf A Rajabally, Irene Gottlob
Purpose: To investigate optic nerve (ON) and macular morphology in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Subjects: Twenty-five participants with PD (19 males and 6 females; mean age 60.79; SD ± 9.24) and 25 sex-, age-, ethnicity-, and refraction-matched healthy controls. Methods: A high-resolution SD-OCT device was used to acquire scans in 25 participants with PD (mean age 60.79; ± SD 9...
August 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
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