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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327033/disorganization-of-inner-retina-and-outer-retinal-morphology-in-diabetic-macular-edema
#1
Radha Das, Gareth Spence, Ruth E Hogg, Michael Stevenson, Usha Chakravarthy
Importance: In diabetic macular edema (DME), identification of baseline markers on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and their association with severity of diabetic retinopathy (DR) might aid in disease management and the design of future trials. Objective: To examine associations between DR severity, retinal morphology on SD-OCT, and visual acuity in participants with DME. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional observational case series was conducted at a single tertiary care referral center...
January 11, 2018: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326851/recent-advancements-in-gene-therapy-for-hereditary-retinal-dystrophies
#2
REVIEW
Ayşe Öner
Hereditary retinal dystrophies (HRDs) are degenerative diseases of the retina which have marked clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Common presentations among these disorders include night or colour blindness, tunnel vision, and subsequent progression to complete blindness. The known causative disease genes have a variety of developmental and functional roles, with mutations in more than 120 genes shown to be responsible for the phenotypes. In addition, mutations within the same gene have been shown to cause different disease phenotypes, even amongst affected individuals within the same family, highlighting further levels of complexity...
December 2017: Turkish Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326065/hydrogen-sulfide-supplement-attenuates-the-apoptosis-of-retinal-ganglion-cells-in-experimental-glaucoma
#3
Shouyue Huang, Ping Huang, Zhongjing Lin, Xiaohong Liu, Xing Xu, Lei Guo, Xi Shen, Changwei Li, Yisheng Zhong
Glaucoma is a group of neurodegenerative eye diseases characterized by progressive impairment of visual function due to loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGC). As hydrogen sulfide (H2S) was reported to play a role in the process of glaucomatous neuropathy and improve RGC survival in experimental glaucoma, the authors aimed to investigate the anti-apoptosis effect of H2S supplement in a rat glaucoma model, and further tried to explore the involved factors in the neuroprotection. A chronic ocular hypertension (COH) rat model induced by intracameral injection of cross-linking hydrogel was employed to simulate glaucoma and 288 rats were subjected to experimental procedures in the present study...
January 8, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325389/-development-of-en-face-optical-coherence-tomography-and-its-application-in-ocular-fundus-diseases
#4
Y Zhou, M Wang
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is able to obtain the cross-sectional image of the fundus noninvasively and quickly. The cross-sectional image in vivo almost matches the histological section of the retina. OCT has become the most important imaging tool in ophthalmology. Based on the latest OCT technology, en face OCT is a new imaging technique that reveals the structure of retinal and choroidal sections approximately paralleled to the retina surface. Compared to the conventional OCT, en face OCT provides more comprehensive information and makes more accurate diagnosis and assessment of the prognosis...
December 11, 2017: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323215/green-tea-extract-attenuates-lps-induced-retinal-inflammation-in-rats
#5
Jia Lin Ren, Qiu Xiao Yu, Wei Cheng Liang, Pui Ying Leung, Tsz Kin Ng, Wai Kit Chu, Chi Pui Pang, Sun On Chan
Inflammation is in a wide spectrum of retinal diseases, causing irreversible blindness and visual impairment. We have previously demonstrated that Green Tea Extract (GTE) is a potent anti-inflammatory agent for anterior uveitis. Here we investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of GTE on lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced retinal inflammation in rats and explored the underlying mechanism. Adult rats were injected with LPS and GTE was administered intra-gastrically at 2, 8, 26 and 32 hours post-injection. Staining of whole-mount retina showed that the number of activated microglia cells was significantly increased at 48 hours post-injection, which was suppressed after GTE treatment in a dose-dependent manner...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322247/comparison-of-the-neuroinflammatory-responses-to-selective-retina-therapy-and-continuous-wave-laser-photocoagulation-in-mouse-eyes
#6
Jung Woo Han, Juhye Choi, Young Shin Kim, Jina Kim, Ralf Brinkmann, Jungmook Lyu, Tae Kwann Park
PURPOSE: This study investigated microglia and inflammatory cell responses after selective retina therapy (SRT) with microsecond-pulsed laser in comparison to continuous-wave laser photocoagulation (cwPC). METHODS: Healthy C57BL/6 J mice were treated with either a train of short pulses (SRT; 527-nm, Q-switched, 1.7-μs pulse) or a conventional thermal continuous-wave (532-nm, 100-ms pulse duration) laser. The mice were sacrificed and their eyes were enucleated 1, 3, 7, and 14 days after both laser treatments...
January 10, 2018: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319463/guidelines-for-treatment-of-susac-syndrome-an-update
#7
Robert M Rennebohm, Negar Asdaghi, Sunil Srivastava, Elie Gertner
Susac syndrome is an immune-mediated, pauci-inflammatory, ischemia-producing, occlusive microvascular endotheliopathy/basement membranopathy that affects the brain, retina, and inner ear. Treatment of Susac syndrome is particularly challenging. The organs involved can easily become irreversibly damaged, and the window of opportunity to protect them is often short. Optimal outcome requires rapid and complete disease suppression. Adding to the challenge is the absence of objective biomarkers of disease activity and the great variability in presentation, timing and extent of peak severity, duration of peak severity, and natural disease course...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318383/optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-a-review-of-current-and-future-clinical-applications
#8
REVIEW
Marcus Ang, Anna C S Tan, Chui Ming Gemmy Cheung, Pearse A Keane, Rosa Dolz-Marco, Chelvin C A Sng, Leopold Schmetterer
Optical coherence tomography angiography is a non-invasive imaging technique that now allows for simultaneous in vivo imaging of the morphology as well as the vasculature in the eye. In this review, we provide an update on the existing clinical applications of optical coherence tomography angiography technology from the anterior to posterior segment of the eye. We also discuss the limitations of optical coherence tomography angiography technology, as well as the caveats to the interpretation of images. As current optical coherence tomography angiography systems are optimized for the retina, most studies have focused on interpreting images from conditions such as age related macular degeneration and retinal vascular diseases...
January 9, 2018: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316137/have-we-really-demonstrated-the-cardiovascular-safety-of-antihyperglycemic-drugs-rethinking-the-concepts-of-macrovascular-and-microvascular-disease-in-type-2-diabetes
#9
REVIEW
Milton Packer
A primary goal of the treatment of type 2 mellitus is the prevention of morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular disease. However, antihyperglycemic drugs have the capacity to cause deleterious effects on the circulation, a risk that is not adequately reflected by the endpoints selected for emphasis in large-scale clinical trials that are designed to evaluate cardiovascular safety. The primary endpoint of the large-scale studies mandated by regulatory authorities focuses only on 3-4 events that depict only a limited view of the circulatory system...
January 5, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311618/choroidal-vascularity-index-in-type-2-diabetes-analyzed-by-swept-source-optical-coherence-tomography
#10
Mirinae Kim, Min Ji Ha, Seung Yong Choi, Young-Hoon Park
The relationships between changes in choroidal vasculature and the severity of diabetic retinopathy (DR) remain unclear. We assessed choroidal changes in diabetic patients by measuring choroidal vascularity index (CVI) in conjunction with DR stage. In this study, patients with diabetes and healthy controls were retrospectively analyzed. Subjects were divided into seven groups as follows: Healthy controls, no DR, mild/moderate non-proliferative DR (NPDR), severe NPDR, proliferative DR (PDR), panretinal photocoagulation-treated DR, and clinically significant macular edema...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311586/the-corneal-subbasal-nerve-plexus-and-thickness-of-the-retinal-layers-in-pediatric-type-1-diabetes-and-matched-controls
#11
Aline Götze, Sophie von Keyserlingk, Sabine Peschel, Ulrike Jacoby, Corinna Schreiver, Bernd Köhler, Stephan Allgeier, Karsten Winter, Martin Röhlig, Anselm Jünemann, Rainer Guthoff, Oliver Stachs, Dagmar-C Fischer
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) of the retina and corneal confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) of the subbasal nerve plexus (SBP) are noninvasive techniques for quantification of the ocular neurodegenerative changes in individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). In adult T1DM patients these changes are hardly related to T1DM only. Instead, ageing and/or lifestyle associated comorbidities have to be considered as putative confounding variables. Therefore, we investigated pediatric T1DM patients (n = 28; 14...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311218/sirt1-a-guardian-of-the-development-of-diabetic-retinopathy
#12
Manish Mishra, Arul J Duraisamy, Renu A Kowluru
Diabetic retinopathy is a multifactorial disease, and the exact mechanism of its pathogenesis remains obscure. A multifunctional deacetylase Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1), is implicated in regulation of many cellular functions and transcription of genes, and retinal Sirt1 is inhibited in diabetes. Our aim is to determine the role of Sirt1 in the development of diabetic retinopathy, and elucidate the molecular mechanism of its downregulation. Using mice overexpressing Sirt1, diabetic for 8 month, structural, functional and metabolic abnormalities were investigated in vascular and neuronal retina...
January 8, 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309745/alterations-of-ocular-hemodynamics-impair-ophthalmic-vascular-and-neuroretinal-function
#13
Shu-Huai Tsai, Wankun Xie, Min Zhao, Robert H Rosa, Travis W Hein, Lih Kuo
Hypertension is associated with numerous diseases, but its direct impact on the ocular circulation and neuroretinal function remains unclear. Herein, mouse eyes were challenged with different levels of hemodynamic insult via transverse aortic coarctation, which increased blood pressure and flow velocity by 50% and 40%, respectively, in the right common carotid artery, and reduced those parameters by 30% and 40%, respectively, in the left common carotid artery. Blood velocity in the right central retinal artery gradually increased up to 40% at four weeks of transverse aortic coarctation, and the velocity in the left central retinal artery gradually decreased by 20%...
January 5, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309486/comparing-alternative-ranibizumab-dosages-for-safety-and-efficacy-in-retinopathy-of-prematurity-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#14
Andreas Stahl, Tim U Krohne, Nicole Eter, Isabel Oberacher-Velten, Rainer Guthoff, Synke Meltendorf, Oliver Ehrt, Sabine Aisenbrey, Johann Roider, Heinrich Gerding, Claudia Jandeck, Lois E H Smith, Johanna M Walz
Importance: Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapies are a novel treatment option in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Data on dosing, efficacy, and safety are insufficient. Objective: To investigate lower doses of anti-VEGF therapy with ranibizumab, a substance with a significantly shorter systemic half-life than the standard treatment, bevacizumab. Design, Setting, and Participants: This randomized, multicenter, double-blind, investigator-initiated trial at 9 academic medical centers in Germany compared ranibizumab doses of 0...
January 8, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308926/a-mini-review-of-clinical-and-research-applications-of-the-retinal-function-imager
#15
Liang Wang, Hong Jiang, Amiram Grinvald, Chaitra Jayadev, Jianhua Wang
PURPOSE: To review the clinical applications and diagnostic value of the retinal function imager (RFI), briefly compare RFI to other optical imaging devices, and to describe recent developments. METHODS: The search words "Retinal Functional Imager," "optical imaging," "retina angiography," "avascular zone," "foveal avascular zone," and other closely related terms were used in PubMed to review current literature involving the RFI. RESULTS: The functions of the RFI were utilized in over 44 microvascular studies, which reported that the microvasculature may alter in velocity, morphology, and oximetry when affected by a number of ocular, neurological, or systemic diseases...
January 8, 2018: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306863/implementation-of-medical-retina-virtual-clinics-in-a-tertiary-eye-care-referral-centre
#16
Karsten Kortuem, Katrin Fasler, Amanda Charnley, Hussain Khambati, Sandro Fasolo, Menachem Katz, Konstantinos Balaskas, Ranjan Rajendram, Robin Hamilton, Pearse A Keane, Dawn A Sim
BACKGROUND: The increasing incidence of medical retinal diseases has created capacity issues across UK. In this study, we describe the implementation and outcomes of virtual medical retina clinics (VMRCs) at Moorfields Eye Hospital, South Division, London. It represents a promising solution to ensure that patients are seen and treated in a timely fashion METHODS: First attendances in the VMRC (September 2016-May 2017) were included. It was open to non-urgent external referrals and to existing patients in a face-to-face clinic (F2FC)...
January 6, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304271/blau-jabs-syndrome-in-a-tertiary-ophthalmologic-center
#17
Heloisa Nascimento, Jacqueline M Sousa, Délia González Fernández, Gustavo H A Salomão, Elcio H Sato, Cristina Muccioli, Rubens Belfort
In a prospective case series of patients with Blau-Jabs syndrome (BJS) conducted in the Ophthalmology Department/Federal University of Sao Paulo, seven patients with clinical and ophthalmologic manifestations of the disease and a positive genetic test result for the presence of a mutation in the CARD15/NOD2 gene were followed for a minimal period of 1 year. All patients had uveitis, five had nummular corneal subepithelial opacities, and four had multifocal choroiditis. Oral prednisolone was administered to all patients; inflammation was controlled in six patients with at least one immunosuppressive drug...
January 1, 2018: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303889/factors-influencing-the-diagnostic-accuracy-of-laser-scanning-in-vivo-confocal-microscopy-for-acanthamoeba-keratitis
#18
Ahmad Kheirkhah, Vannarut Satitpitakul, Zeba A Syed, Rodrigo Müller, Sunali Goyal, Elmer Y Tu, Reza Dana
PURPOSE: To determine the factors that influence the sensitivity and specificity of laser-scanning in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) for diagnosing Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK). METHODS: This retrospective, controlled study included 28 eyes of 27 patients with AK and 34 eyes of 34 patients with bacterial keratitis (as the control group). All patients had undergone corneal imaging with a laser-scanning IVCM (Heidelberg Retina Tomograph 3 with the Rostock Cornea Module)...
January 4, 2018: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302837/up-regulated-pro-inflammatory-micrornas-mirnas-in-alzheimer-s-disease-ad-and-age-related-macular-degeneration-amd
#19
Aileen I Pogue, Walter J Lukiw
Alzheimer's disease (AD) of the brain neocortex and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) of the retina are two complex neurodegenerative disorders, which (i) involve the progressive dysregulation and deterioration of multiple neurobiological signaling pathways, (ii) exhibit the temporal accumulation of pro-inflammatory lesions including the amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide-containing senile plaques of AD and the drusen of AMD, and (iii) culminate in an insidious inflammatory neurodegeneration ending, respectively, in neural cell atrophy and death and progressive loss of cognition and central visual function...
January 4, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301791/deletion-of-the-von-hippel-lindau-gene-in-hemangioblasts-causes-hemangioblastoma-like-lesions-in-murine-retina
#20
Herui Wang, Matthew Shepard, Chao Zhang, Lijin Dong, Dyvon T Walker, Liliana Guedez, Stanley Park, Yujuan Wang, Shida Chen, Ying Pang, Qi Zhang, Chun Gao, Wai T Wong, Henry Wiley, Karel Pacak, Emily Y Chew, Zhengping Zhuang, Chi-Chao Chan
von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is an autosomal dominant tumor predisposition syndrome characterized by the development of highly vascularized tumors and cysts. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of the VHL gene results in aberrant upregulation of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF) and has been associated with tumor formation. Hemangioblastomas of the central nervous system and retina represent the most prevalent VHL-associated tumors, but no VHL animal model has reproduced retinal capillary hemangioblastomas (RCH), the hallmark lesion of ocular VHL...
January 4, 2018: Cancer Research
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