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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450597/unenhanced-320-row-multidetector-computed-tomography-of-the-brain-in-children-comparison-of-image-quality-and-radiation-dose-among-wide-volume-one-shot-volume-and-helical-scan-modes
#1
Sun Kyung Jeon, Young Hun Choi, Jung-Eun Cheon, Woo Sun Kim, Yeon Jin Cho, Ji Young Ha, Seung Hyun Lee, Hyejin Hyun, In-One Kim
BACKGROUND: The 320-row multidetector computed tomography (CT) scanner has multiple scan modes, including volumetric modes. OBJECTIVE: To compare the image quality and radiation dose of 320-row CT in three acquisition modes - helical, one-shot volume, and wide-volume scan - at pediatric brain imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-seven children underwent unenhanced brain CT using one of three scan modes (helical scan, n=21; one-shot volume scan, n=17; wide-volume scan, n=19)...
February 15, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438826/morphometric-analyses-of-small-accessory-liver-lobes-using-radiological-imaging
#2
Kumi Ozaki, Jun Yoshikawa, Toru Yamamoto
AIM: To investigate the prevalence and morphometric characteristics of small accessory liver lobes using computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) images. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study population comprised 3269 patients (1671 men and 1598 women; mean age, 67.1 ± 15.2 years) who had undergone abdominal CT examination. Small accessory liver lobes were identified after verification of their continuity with the liver parenchyma on CT images. Their imaging characteristics were analyzed and presented...
February 6, 2018: Clinical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426788/approach-to-a-patient-with-diplopia-in-the-emergency-department
#3
Edward Margolin, Cindy T Y Lam
BACKGROUND: Diplopia can be the result of benign or life-threatening etiologies. It is imperative for the emergency physician to be proficient at assessing diplopia and recognize when urgent referral or neuroimaging is required. OBJECTIVE: The first part of this review highlights a simple framework to arrive at the appropriate disposition of diplopic patients presenting to the emergency department (ED). The second part of this review provides more detail and further management strategies...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412015/differentiation-of-malignant-and-benign-adrenal-lesions-with-delayed-ct-multivariate-analysis-and-predictive-models
#4
Chaan S Ng, Wei Wei, Emre Altinmakas, Xiao Li, Payel Ghosh, Nancy A Perrier, Elizabeth Grubbs, Victor G Prieto, Jeffrey E Lee, Brian P Hobbs
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to identify imaging and patient parameters that affect the diagnostic performance of delayed contrast-enhanced CT for distinguishing malignant from benign adrenal lesions larger than 1 cm in adult patients and to derive predictive models. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study assessed 97 pathologically proven adrenal lesions that had undergone unenhanced, portal venous, and 15-minute delayed CT. Quantitatively, single-parameter evaluations of lesion attenuation (in Hounsfield units) and absolute percentage enhancement washout (APEW) and relative percentage enhancement washout (RPEW) were performed...
February 7, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412008/subtraction-ct-angiography-in-head-and-neck-with-low-radiation-and-contrast-dose-dual-energy-spectral-ct-using-rapid-kv-switching-technique
#5
Guangming Ma, Yong Yu, Haifeng Duan, Yuequn Dou, Yongjun Jia, Xirong Zhang, Chuangbo Yang, Xiaoxia Chen, Dong Han, Changyi Guo, Taiping He
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the application of low radiation and contrast dose Spectral CT angiology (CTA) using rapid kV-switching technique in the head and neck with subtraction method for bone removal. METHODS: This prospective study was approved by the local ethics committee. 64 cases for head and neck CTA were randomly divided into groups A (n=32) and B (n=32). Group A underwent unenhanced CT with 100kVp, 200mA and contrast-enhanced CT with Spectral CT mode with BMI-dependent low dose protocols...
February 7, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398970/alveolar-soft-part-sarcoma-presenting-as-hypervascular-adrenal-metastasis
#6
Manjunath Goroshi, Anurag R Lila, Tushar Bandgar, Nalini S Shah
Hypervascular adrenal masses include pheochromocytoma, metastases caused by clear renal cell carcinoma/hepatocellular carcinoma. Alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS) causing hypervascular metastases is not described in the literature. Here, we describe the first case of ASPS presenting as hypervascular metastasis. Our case was a 23-year-old male incidentally detected right adrenal mass during the evaluation of pain in the abdomen. On computed tomography (CT), adrenal mass showed bright enhancement in early arterial phase (unenhanced Hounsfield unit [HU]-45...
January 2018: World Journal of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383518/prediction-of-post-tace-necrosis-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-usingvolumetric-enhancement-on-mri-and-volumetric-oil-deposition-on-ct-with-pathological-correlation
#7
Farnaz Najmi Varzaneh, Ankur Pandey, Mounes Aliyari Ghasabeh, Nannan Shao, Pegah Khoshpouri, Pallavi Pandey, Manijeh Zarghampour, Daniel Fouladi, Robert Liddell, Robert Albert Anders, Ihab R Kamel
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether volumetric enhancement on baseline MRI and volumetric oil deposition on unenhanced CT would predict HCC necrosis and response post-TACE. METHOD: Of 115 retrospective HCC patients (173 lesions) who underwent cTACE, a subset of 53 HCC patients underwent liver transplant (LT). Semiautomatic volumetric segmentation of target lesions was performed on dual imaging to assess the accuracy of predicting tumour necrosis after TACE in the whole cohort and at pathology in the LT group...
January 30, 2018: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381379/comparing-dose-length-product-based-and-monte-carlo-simulation-organ-based-calculations-of-effective-dose-in-16-and-64-mdct-examinations-using-automatic-tube-current-modulation
#8
Shawn Haji-Momenian, Amy Ellenbogen, Nadia Khati, Myles Taffel, James Earls, Greggory Miller, Robert K Zeman
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to compare dose-length product (DLP)-based calculation of effective dose (EDDLP) with Monte Carlo simulation organ-based calculation of effective dose (EDMCO) in 16- and 64-MDCT examinations, with the use of clinical examinations with automatic tube current modulation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dose data were obtained from 50 consecutive unenhanced head CT examinations, unenhanced chest CT examinations, and unenhanced and contrast-enhanced abdominopelvic CT examinations performed using 16- and 64-MDCT scanners, as well as from 50 pulmonary CT angiography (CTA) examinations performed using a 64-MDCT scanner and 31 pulmonary CTA examinations performed using a 16-MDCT scanner...
January 30, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380261/intracranial-arterial-calcifications-as-a-prognostic-factor-for-subsequent-major-adverse-cardiovascular-events-mace
#9
Frederik F Strobl, Beatrice Kuhlin, Robert Stahl, Bastian O Sabel, Andreas D Helck, Andreas Schindler, Matthias Witt, Fabian Bamberg, Maximilian F Reiser, Tobias Saam
BACKGROUND: Intracranial arterial calcifications (ICAC) are often detected on unenhanced CT of patients with an age > 60. However, association with the subsequent occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) has not yet been evaluated. PURPOSE: This study aimed at evaluating the association of ICAC with subsequent MACE and overall mortality. METHODS: In this retrospective, IRB approved study, we included 175 consecutive patients (89 males, mean age 78...
January 30, 2018: La Radiologia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372478/arteriosclerosis-is-a-major-predictor-of-small-bowel-vascular-lesions
#10
Taiki Aoyama, Akira Fukumoto, Kenjiro Shigita, Naoki Asayama, Shinichi Mukai, Shinji Nagata
BACKGROUND: Most studies have focused on evaluating the association between the presence of small bowel vascular lesions (SBVLs) and patients' comorbidities. AIMS: We sought to uncover a more fundamental indicator that may predict the presence of SBVLs by considering atherosclerosis qualitatively and quantitatively. METHODS: We enrolled 79 consecutive patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding who had undergone computed tomography (CT) and capsule endoscopy or double-balloon endoscopy from January 2015 to June 2017...
January 25, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364722/low-dose-ct-for-evaluation-of-suspected-urolithiasis-diagnostic-yield-for-assessment-of-alternative-diagnoses
#11
Julius Matthias Weinrich, Peter Bannas, Marc Regier, Sarah Keller, Luis Kluth, Gerhard Adam, Frank Oliver Henes
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to assess the diagnostic yield of low-dose (LD) CT for alternative diagnoses in patients with suspected urolithiasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective study, we included 776 consecutive patients who underwent unenhanced abdominal CT for evaluation of suspected urolithiasis. All examinations were performed with an LD CT protocol; images were reconstructed using iterative reconstruction. The leading LD CT diagnosis was recorded for each patient and compared with the final clinical diagnosis, which served as the reference standard...
January 24, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347968/18f-fdg-pet-ct-and-diffusion-weighted-mri-for-monitoring-a-braf-and-cdk-4-6-inhibitor-combination-therapy-in-a-murine-model-of-human-melanoma
#12
Ralf S Eschbach, Philipp M Kazmierczak, Maurice M Heimer, Andrei Todica, Heidrun Hirner-Eppeneder, Moritz J Schneider, Georg Keinrath, Olga Solyanik, Jessica Olivier, Wolfgang G Kunz, Maximilian F Reiser, Peter Bartenstein, Jens Ricke, Clemens C Cyran
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study was to investigate a novel BRAF and CDK 4/6 inhibitor combination therapy in a murine model of BRAF-V600-mutant human melanoma monitored by 18F-FDG-PET/CT and diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI). METHODS: Human BRAF-V600-mutant melanoma (A375) xenograft-bearing balb/c nude mice (n = 21) were imaged by 18F-FDG-PET/CT and DW-MRI before (day 0) and after (day 7) a 1-week BRAF and CDK 4/6 inhibitor combination therapy (n = 12; dabrafenib, 20 mg/kg/d; ribociclib, 100 mg/kg/d) or placebo (n = 9)...
January 18, 2018: Cancer Imaging: the Official Publication of the International Cancer Imaging Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337450/-emergency-medicine-update-2017
#13
Frédéric Rouyer, Fabrice Dami, Olivier Grosgurin, Valériane Rossier, Majd Ramlawi, Mathieu Pasquier, Olivier T Rutschmann
Emergency medicine is part of the current stream of efficient and qualitative medicine : 1) the modified Valsava maneuver results in the resolution of almost 50% of supra-ventricular tachycardia without any drug; 2) lung echography performed by emergency physicians is a very sensitive and specific diagnostic tool for most thoracic emergencies; 3) cardiopulmonary resuscitation initiated by lay-rescuers improves short and long-term outcome; 4) no anticoagulant treatment is warranted in distal deep vein thrombosis and 5) systematic unenhanced abdominal CT might improve evaluation of elderly patients with acute abdominal pain...
January 10, 2018: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335928/ct-imaging-of-primary-pancreatic-lymphoma-experience-from-three-referral-centres-for-pancreatic-diseases
#14
Enrico Boninsegna, Giulia A Zamboni, Davide Facchinelli, Charikleia Triantopoulou, Sofia Gourtsoyianni, Maria Chiara Ambrosetti, Dino Veneri, Achille Ambrosetti, Roberto Pozzi Mucelli
PURPOSE: To describe CT characteristics of primary pancreatic lymphoma (PPL), a rare disease with features in common with adenocarcinoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fourteen patients were enrolled. CT: unenhanced scan, contrast-enhanced pancreatic and venous phases. Image analysis: tumour location; peri-pancreatic vessel encasement; necrosis; enlarged lymph nodes; fat stranding; enlarged bile duct and pancreatic duct; neoplasm longest dimension, volume and density. RESULTS: Histopathological diagnoses: follicular non-Hodgkin lymphoma (5/14), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (6/14) and high-grade B-cell lymphoma not otherwise specified (3/14)...
January 15, 2018: Insights Into Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332161/the-computed-tomography-adrenal-wash-out-analysis-properly-classifies-cortisol-secreting-adrenocortical-adenomas
#15
Anne-Laure Humbert, Guillaume Lecoanet, Sophie Moog, Fehd Bouderraoui, Laurent Bresler, Jean-Michel Vignaud, Elodie Chevalier, Laurent Brunaud, Marc Klein, Thomas Cuny
PURPOSE: Adrenocortical lesions are characterized through imaging, hormonal and histopathological analysis. Our aim was to compare the radiological features of adrenocortical lesions with their cortisol-secreting status and histopathological Weiss score. METHODS: Seventy five patients operated between 2004 and 2016 in the University Hospital of Nancy for either adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC) or adrenocortical adenomas (ACA) were enrolled in this study. We collected cortisol parameters, Computed Tomography (CT) scans (unenhanced density, wash-out (WO) analysis) and 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) datas...
January 13, 2018: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327940/the-different-faces-of-renal-angiomyolipomas-on-radiologic-imaging-a-pictorial-review
#16
Shanigarn Thiravit, Wanwarang Teerasamit, Phakphoom Thiravit
Renal angiomyolipoma (AML) is an uncommon renal tumour, generally composed of mature adipose tissue, dysmorphic blood vessels, and smooth muscle. Identification of intratumoural fat on unenhanced CT images (UECT) is the most reliable finding for establishing the diagnosis of renal AML. However, AMLs sometimes exhibit atypical findings, including cystic as well as solid forms; some of these variants overlap with the appearance of other renal tumours. A rare type of AML, the epithelioid type, possesses malignant potential...
January 12, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312727/clinical-features-diagnosis-and-thoracoscopic-surgical-treatment-of-thymic-cysts
#17
Xun Wang, Kezhong Chen, Xiao Li, Yun Li, Fan Yang, Jianfeng Li, Guanchao Jiang, Jun Liu, Jun Wang
Background: Thymic cysts are rare benign developmental anomalies and there is no consensus management for thymic cysts. The aim of this study was to disclose the efficacy of perioperative diagnosis for thymic cysts by chest computerized tomography (CT) and to elucidate the surgical procedure by video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) in the management of thymic cysts. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 108 consecutive thymic cyst patients who underwent VATS at our institution between April 2001 and August 2015...
December 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312701/analysis-of-pulmonary-pure-ground-glass-nodule-in-enhanced-dual-energy-ct-imaging-for-predicting-invasive-adenocarcinoma-comparing-with-conventional-thin-section-ct-imaging
#18
Ying Zhang, Jian Tang, Jianrong Xu, Jiejun Cheng, Huawei Wu
Background: To investigate the value of dual energy computed tomography (DECT) parameters (including iodine concentration and monochromatic CT numbers) for predicting pure ground-glass nodules (pGGNs) of invasive adenocarcinoma (IA). Methods: A total of 55 resected pGGNs evaluated with both unenhanced thin-section CT (TSCT) and enhanced DECT scans were included. Correlations between histopathology [adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), minimally IA (MIA), and IA] and CT scan characteristics were examined...
December 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309735/diagnostic-accuracy-of-simulated-low-dose-perfusion-ct-to-detect-cerebral-perfusion-impairment-after-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-a-retrospective-analysis
#19
Saif Afat, Carolin Brockmann, Omid Nikoubashman, Marguerite Müller, Kolja M Thierfelder, Marc A Brockmann, Konstantin Nikolaou, Martin Wiesmann, Jong Hyo Kim, Ahmed E Othman
Purpose To evaluate diagnostic accuracy of low-dose volume perfusion (VP) computed tomography (CT) compared with original VP CT regarding the detection of cerebral perfusion impairment after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Materials and Methods In this retrospective study, 85 patients (mean age, 59.6 years; 62 women) with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and who were suspected of having cerebral vasospasm at unenhanced CT and VP CT (tube voltage, 80 kVp; tube current-time product, 180 mAs) were included, 37 of whom underwent digital subtraction angiography (DSA) within 6 hours...
January 8, 2018: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299826/differentiation-of-antemortem-pulmonary-thromboembolism-and-postmortem-clot-with-unenhanced-mri-a-case-report
#20
Ingo von Both, Silvio Giancarlo Bruni, Jayantha C Herath
We report a case of a 39-year-old woman who died of fulminant pulmonary thromboembolism (PE). Autopsy showed classical findings of fulminant PE with occlusion of the bilateral main stem pulmonary arteries. Ancillary testing revealed inherited thrombophilia (Prothrombin 20,210 G > A and MTHFR 677 C > T mutation). Pre-autopsy postmortem computed tomography was used to test whether virtual imaging studies alone (virtual autopsy) would be sufficient to detect PE. Our studies show that computed tomography (CT) can differentiate antemortem clots from a postmortem clot in certain cases, particularly when combined with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which is superior in the assessment of soft tissue...
January 4, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
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