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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813194/characterization-of-small-4-cm-focal-renal-lesions-diagnostic-accuracy-of-spectral-analysis-using-single-phase-contrast-enhanced-dual-energy-ct
#1
Bhavik N Patel, Alex Bibbey, Kingshuk R Choudhury, Richard A Leder, Rendon C Nelson, Daniele Marin
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to determine whether single-phase contrast-enhanced dual-energy quantitative spectral analysis improves the accuracy of diagnosis of small (< 4.0 cm) renal lesions, compared with conventional single-energy attenuation measurements. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective study, 136 consecutive patients (95 men and 41 women; mean age, 54 years) with 144 renal lesions (111 benign and 33 malignant) underwent single-energy unenhanced and dual-energy contrast-enhanced CT of the abdomen...
August 16, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811930/improved-ct-detection-of-acute-bowel-ischemia-using-frequency-selective-non-linear-image-blending
#2
Sven Schneeweiss, Michael Esser, Wolfgang Thaiss, Hans Boesmueller, Hendrik Ditt, Konstantin Nikolau, Marius Horger
BACKGROUND: Computed tomography (CT) as a fast and reliable diagnostic technique is the imaging modality of choice for acute bowel ischemia. However, diagnostic is often difficult mainly due to low attenuation differences between ischemic and perfused segments. PURPOSE: To compare the diagnostic efficacy of a new post-processing tool based on frequency selective non-linear blending with that of conventional linear contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) image blending for the detection of bowel ischemia...
July 2017: Acta Radiologica Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796552/diagnostic-accuracy-of-mri-versus-ct-for-the-evaluation-of-acute-appendicitis-in-children-and-young-adults
#3
Sonja Kinner, Perry J Pickhardt, Erica L Riedesel, Kara G Gill, Jessica B Robbins, Douglas R Kitchin, Timothy J Ziemlewicz, John B Harringa, Scott B Reeder, Michael D Repplinger
OBJECTIVE: Appendicitis is frequently diagnosed in the emergency department, most commonly using CT. The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced MRI with that of contrast-enhanced CT for the diagnosis of appendicitis in adolescents when interpreted by abdominal radiologists and pediatric radiologists. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Our study included a prospectively enrolled cohort of 48 patients (12-20 years old) with nontraumatic abdominal pain who underwent CT and MRI...
August 10, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753389/feasibility-of-dose-reduced-chest-ct-with-photon-counting-detectors-initial-results-in-humans
#4
Rolf Symons, Amir Pourmorteza, Veit Sandfort, Mark A Ahlman, Tracy Cropper, Marissa Mallek, Steffen Kappler, Stefan Ulzheimer, Mahadevappa Mahesh, Elizabeth C Jones, Ashkan A Malayeri, Les R Folio, David A Bluemke
Purpose To investigate whether photon-counting detector (PCD) technology can improve dose-reduced chest computed tomography (CT) image quality compared with that attained with conventional energy-integrating detector (EID) technology in vivo. Materials and Methods This was a HIPAA-compliant institutional review board-approved study, with informed consent from patients. Dose-reduced spiral unenhanced lung EID and PCD CT examinations were performed in 30 asymptomatic volunteers in accordance with manufacturer-recommended guidelines for CT lung cancer screening (120-kVp tube voltage, 20-mAs reference tube current-time product for both detectors)...
July 28, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743427/contrast-enhancement-influences-skeletal-muscle-density-but-not-skeletal-muscle-mass-measurements-on-computed-tomography
#5
Jeroen L A van Vugt, Robert R J Coebergh van den Braak, Henk J W Schippers, Kevin M Veen, Stef Levolger, Ron W F de Bruin, Marcel Koek, Wiro J Niessen, Jan N M IJzermans, François E J A Willemsen
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Low skeletal muscle mass and density have recently been discovered as prognostic and predictive parameters to guide interventions in various populations, including cancer patients. The gold standard for body composition analysis in cancer patients is computed tomography (CT). To date, the effect of contrast-enhancement on muscle composition measurements has not been established. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of contrast-enhancement on skeletal muscle mass and density measurements on four-phase CT studies...
July 14, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740677/assessment-of-thoracic-vasculature-in-patients-with-central-bronchogenic-carcinoma-by-unenhanced-magnetic-resonance-angiography-comparison-between-2d-free-breathing-truefisp-2d-breath-hold-truefisp-and-3d-respiratory-triggered-space
#6
Lili Wang, Peng Lv, Shuohui Yang, Mengsu Zeng, Jiang Lin
BACKGROUND: Preoperative assessment of the integrity of major thoracic vessels in central bronchogenic carcinoma is vital for tumor staging and treatment planning. Contrast-enhanced CT is currently the first choice of modality for this purpose in clinical practice with limitations including exposure to ionizing radiation and the use of iodinated contrast material. MRI has been increasingly employed for the staging of lung cancer. More recently, unenhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) which is totally non-invasive and contrast-free has been reported able to show thoracic vessels...
June 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720415/assessment-of-cirrhotic-liver-enhancement-with-multiphasic-computed-tomography-using-a-faster-injection-rate-late-arterial-phase-and-weight-based-contrast-dosing
#7
Kathleen Eddy, Andreu F Costa
PURPOSE: This study aimed to update our liver computed tomography (CT) protocol according to published guidelines, and to quantitatively evaluate the effect of these modifications. METHODS: The modified liver CT protocol employed a faster injection rate (5 vs 3 mL/s), later arterial phase (20-second vs 10-second postbolus trigger), and weight-based dosing of iodinated contrast (1.7 mL/kg vs 100 mL fixed dose). Liver and vascular attenuation values were measured on CTs of patients with cirrhosis from January to September 2015 (old protocol, n = 49) and from October to December 2015 (modified protocol, n = 31)...
July 15, 2017: Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal, Journal L'Association Canadienne des Radiologistes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705069/characterization-of-incidental-renal-mass-with-dual-energy-ct-diagnostic-accuracy-of-effective-atomic-number-maps-for-discriminating-nonenhancing-cysts-from-enhancing-masses
#8
Achille Mileto, Brian C Allen, Jason A Pietryga, Alfredo E Farjat, Jessica G Zarzour, Davide Bellini, Lukas Ebner, Desiree E Morgan
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of effective atomic number maps reconstructed from dual-energy contrast-enhanced data for discriminating between nonenhancing renal cysts and enhancing masses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred six patients (128 men, 78 women; mean age, 64 years) underwent a CT renal mass protocol (single-energy unenhanced and dual-energy contrast-enhanced nephrographic imaging) at two different hospitals...
July 13, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695359/radiation-dose-reduction-for-ct-assessment-of-urolithiasis-using-iterative-reconstruction-a-prospective-intra-individual-study
#9
Annemarie M den Harder, Martin J Willemink, Pieter J van Doormaal, Frank J Wessels, M T W T Lock, Arnold M R Schilham, Ricardo P J Budde, Tim Leiner, Pim A de Jong
OBJECTIVE: To assess the performance of hybrid (HIR) and model-based iterative reconstruction (MIR) in patients with urolithiasis at reduced-dose computed tomography (CT). METHODS: Twenty patients scheduled for unenhanced abdominal CT for follow-up of urolithiasis were prospectively included. Routine dose acquisition was followed by three low-dose acquisitions at 40%, 60% and 80% reduced doses. All images were reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP), HIR and MIR...
July 10, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693292/computed-tomography-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging-features-of-ovarian-fibrothecoma
#10
Jingya Chen, Jianhua Wang, Xiao Chen, Yaohui Wang, Zhongqiu Wang, Dake Li
The aim of the present study was to investigate the imaging characteristics of ovarian fibrothecoma. The cases of 25 female patients with pathologically confirmed ovarian fibrothecomas were retrospectively reviewed. Tumor location, size, density, signal intensity, cystic degeneration, calcification, enhancement pattern and ascites were assessed by computed tomography (CT) (n=20) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (n=5). Clinical and histological features were also evaluated. The results revealed that 23 (92...
July 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691431/low-dose-computed-tomography-in-assessment-of-pulmonary-abnormalities-in-children-with-febrile-neutropenia-suffering-from-malignant-diseases
#11
Urszula Zaleska-Dorobisz, Cyprian Michal Olchowy, Mateusz Łasecki, Dąbrówka Sokołowska-Dąbek, Aleksander Pawluś, Jowita Frączkiewicz, Ewa Gorczyńska
BACKGROUND: Management of febrile neutropenia in pediatric patients is challenging. Chest X-ray and CT help to identify infective foci; however, exposure to radiation is a risk factor for development of secondary cancer. For this reason, attention is paid to reduce radiation exposure. OBJECTIVES: TTo define the role of LDCT examination in early detection of pulmonary lesions in children during oncology or autoimmune treatment complicated by neutropenia related fever...
June 27, 2017: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678670/multiphase-ct-angiography-improves-prediction-of-intracerebral-hemorrhage-expansion
#12
David Rodriguez-Luna, Pilar Coscojuela, Noelia Rodriguez-Villatoro, Jesús M Juega, Sandra Boned, Marián Muchada, Jorge Pagola, Marta Rubiera, Marc Ribo, Alejandro Tomasello, Andrew M Demchuk, Mayank Goyal, Carlos A Molina
Purpose To determine the prevalence of the spot sign and the accuracy of using the spot sign to predict intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) expansion with standardized multiphase computed tomographic (CT) angiography. Materials and Methods This prospective observational cohort study included 123 consecutive patients with acute ICH (onset <6 hours). Patients underwent multiphase CT angiography in three automated phases after injection of contrast material. Patients were classified as having one of four patterns (pattern A, B, C, or D) according to the presence of the spot sign in the three phases...
July 3, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678573/is-ultrasound-useful-for-further-evaluation-of-homogeneously-hyperattenuating-renal-lesions-detected-on-ct
#13
Mahadevaswamy Siddaiah, Satheesh Krishna, Matthew D F McInnes, Jeffrey S Quon, Wael M Shabana, Demetri Papadatos, Nicola Schieda
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of ultrasound (US) to characterize hyperattenuating cysts detected as indeterminate hyperattenuating renal lesions on unenhanced and single phase enhanced CT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 107 consecutive homogeneously hyperattenuating renal lesions underwent gray-scale and Doppler US at our institution between 2010 and 2013. Two radiologists who were unaware of the final diagnosis retrospectively evaluated US images for visibility and diagnosis (simple cyst, intermediate complexity cyst, cystic or solid mass showing internal flow on Doppler US, or indeterminate)...
July 5, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670151/dual-energy-ct-new-horizon-in-medical-imaging
#14
REVIEW
Hyun Woo Goo, Jin Mo Goo
Dual-energy CT has remained underutilized over the past decade probably due to a cumbersome workflow issue and current technical limitations. Clinical radiologists should be made aware of the potential clinical benefits of dual-energy CT over single-energy CT. To accomplish this aim, the basic principle, current acquisition methods with advantages and disadvantages, and various material-specific imaging methods as clinical applications of dual-energy CT should be addressed in detail. Current dual-energy CT acquisition methods include dual tubes with or without beam filtration, rapid voltage switching, dual-layer detector, split filter technique, and sequential scanning...
July 2017: Korean Journal of Radiology: Official Journal of the Korean Radiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660716/diagnostic-utility-of-radiological-heterogeneity-in-acute-severe-fulminant-autoimmune-hepatitis
#15
Keiichi Fujiwara, Shin Yasui, Osamu Yokosuka, Shigeto Oda, Naoya Kato
BACKGROUND: Histological examination is useful for the diagnosis of acute severe (fulminant) autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), but it is sometimes difficult to perform liver biopsy due to the complicated coagulopathy and ascites. We have shown that heterogeneous hypoattenuation on unenhanced computed tomography (CT) is a characteristic imaging feature of acute severe (fulminant) AIH. In the present study, we examined the utility of the imaging feature by applying the score to diagnose acute severe (fulminant) AIH...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Hepato-biliary-pancreatic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660283/a-new-method-for-predicting-uric-acid-composition-in-urinary-stones-using-routine-single-energy-ct
#16
Mats Lidén
Urinary stones composed of uric acid can be treated medically. Prediction of uric acid stone type is, therefore, desirable when a urinary stone is diagnosed with unenhanced CT. The purpose of the present study was to describe single-energy thin slice quantitative CT parameters of urinary stones correlated to chemical stone type and to develop a method to distinguish pure uric acid stones (UA) from other stones (non-UA/Mix). Unenhanced thin slice single-energy CT images of 126 urinary stones (117 patients) with known chemical stone type were retrospectively included in the study...
June 28, 2017: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656592/percentage-arterial-enhancement-an-objective-index-for-accurate-identification-of-parathyroid-adenoma-hyperplasia-in-primary-hyperparathyroidism
#17
Manjunath Goroshi, Anurag R Lila, Swati S Jadhav, Sushil Sonawane, Priya Hira, Shettepppa Goroshi, Mahadev N Garle, Abhay Dalvi, Pragati Sathe, Tushar R Bandgar, Nalini S Shah
BACKGROUND: Radiation exposure to neck by 4DCT is relatively high and limits its use as a first line investigation in evaluation of PHPT. Radiation exposure can be reduced by restricting the number of CT phases. Our aim was to study the performance of 4DCT in cohort of surgery-naïve primary hyperparathyroidism(PHPT) patients, and to evaluate percentage enhancement as an objective radiological index to discriminate parathyroid lesions(adenoma/hyperplasia) from thyroid tissue and lymph nodes...
June 28, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656326/advanced-virtual-monochromatic-reconstruction-of-dual-energy-unenhanced-brain-computed-tomography-in-children-comparison-of-image-quality-against-standard-mono-energetic-images-and-conventional-polychromatic-computed-tomography
#18
Juil Park, Young Hun Choi, Jung-Eun Cheon, Woo Sun Kim, In-One Kim, Seong Yong Pak, Bernhard Krauss
BACKGROUND: Advanced virtual monochromatic reconstruction from dual-energy brain CT has not been evaluated in children. OBJECTIVE: To determine the most effective advanced virtual monochromatic imaging energy level for maximizing pediatric brain parenchymal image quality in dual-energy unenhanced brain CT and to compare this technique with conventional monochromatic reconstruction and polychromatic scanning. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using both conventional (Mono) and advanced monochromatic reconstruction (Mono+) techniques, we retrospectively reconstructed 13 virtual monochromatic imaging energy levels from 40 keV to 100 keV in 5-keV increments from dual-source, dual-energy unenhanced brain CT scans obtained in 23 children...
June 27, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647771/detection-of-potentially-relevant-extracolonic-and-colorectal-findings-at-ct-colonography-in-a-low-risk-symptomatic-patient-population
#19
F R S Netz, P J Pickhardt, M L G Janssen Heijnen, P C G Simons
PURPOSE: CT colonography (CTC) is a widely accepted examination tool for detection of colorectal lesions but evidence of the proportions of relevant extracolonic findings (ECF) in a large symptomatic but still relatively low-risk cohort is lacking, as well as their relationship to symptoms, age, and sex. METHODS: All patients (n = 3208) with colorectal symptoms, imaged between January 2007 and September 2016 with first-time CTC, were retrospectively selected. The majority (96...
June 24, 2017: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647770/ct-value-of-the-intestine-is-useful-predictor-for-differentiate-irreversible-ischaemic-changes-in-strangulated-ileus
#20
Atsushi Kohga, Akihiro Kawabe, Kiyoshige Yajima, Takuya Okumura, Kimihiro Yamashita, Jun Isogaki, Kenji Suzuki, Katsuaki Muramatsu
PURPOSE: To determine the differential points of strangulated ileus with and without irreversible ischaemic changes, especially on preoperative computed tomography (CT) images. METHODS: Seventy patients with strangulated ileus underwent emergency operations between January 2009 and July 2016 in our department. Of these patients, 57 met the study requirements, including 30 patients who had irreversible ischaemic changes (ischaemic group; n = 30) and 27 patients who had reversible ischaemic changes during laparotomy (non-ischaemic group; n = 27)...
June 24, 2017: Abdominal Radiology
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