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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230568/obesity-hepatic-steatosis-and-their-impact-on-fat-infiltration-of-the-trunk-musculature-using-unenhanced-computed-tomography
#1
Ronnie Sebro
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess whether hepatic steatosis predicts muscle fat content independent of body mass index (BMI). METHODS: Regions of interest were drawn over several trunk muscles and over the right lobe of the liver to obtain the computed tomography (CT) density in 100 subjects with unenhanced CT studies of the abdomen and pelvis. Univariate and multivariate linear regression were used to examine the associations between BMI and hepatic steatosis and between BMI and trunk muscle density...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225653/update-on-ct-and-mri-of-adrenal-nodules
#2
Nicola Schieda, Evan S Siegelman
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to review the current role of CT and MRI for the characterization of adrenal nodules. CONCLUSION: Unenhanced CT and chemical-shift MRI have high specificity for lipid-rich adenomas. Dual-energy CT provides comparable to slightly lower sensitivity for the diagnosis of lipid-rich adenomas but may improve characterization of lipid-poor adenomas. Nonadenomas containing intracellular lipid pose an imaging challenge; however, nonadenomas that contain lipid may be potentially diagnosed using other imaging features...
February 22, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215550/evaluation-of-unenhanced-post-mortem-computed-tomography-to-detect-chest-injuries-in-violent-death
#3
I Sifaoui, C Nedelcu, G Beltran, V Dupont, J Lebigot, A Gaudin, C Ridereau Zins, C Rouge Maillard, C Aubé
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the performances of unenhanced post-mortem computed tomography (CT) to detect thoracic injuries in violent death. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospectively, we conducted a review of unenhanced CT scans of 67 victims of violent deaths with thoracic injuries and compared CT findings with the results of clinical autopsy. Our gold standard was a comparison of CT scans with autopsy discussed in a monthly forensic radiology multidisciplinary team meeting (MDTM)...
February 16, 2017: Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213826/diagnostic-yield-of-ct-urography-in-the-evaluation-of-hematuria-in-young-patients-in-a-military-population
#4
Laura R Mace, Terrel L Galloway, Andrew Ma, Richard S Montgomery, Ryan C Rockhill, William W Reynolds, Robert M Marks
PURPOSE: To assess the diagnostic yield of a computed tomography urography (CTU) study in patients less than 50 years of age, who have a history of military service, and who are at increased risk of urological cancers secondary to harmful practices and work-related exposures. METHODS: 137 Consecutive patients who underwent CTU between 2012 and 2013 for new onset of hematuria were included. Initial review of the clinical interpretations of the CTU studies grouped the studies into negative and positive exams for any urological findings...
February 17, 2017: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213620/post-contrast-acute-kidney-injury-in-intensive-care-unit-patients-a-propensity-score-adjusted-study
#5
Jennifer S McDonald, Robert J McDonald, Eric E Williamson, David F Kallmes, Kianoush Kashani
PURPOSE: To examine the association of intravenous iodinated contrast material administration with the subsequent development of post-contrast AKI (PC-AKI), emergent dialysis, and short-term mortality using a propensity score-adjusted analysis of a cohort of intensive care unit (ICU) patients who underwent CT examination. METHODS: All ICU patients at our institution who received a contrast-enhanced (contrast group) or unenhanced (noncontrast group) CT scan from January 2006 to December 2014 were identified...
February 17, 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185747/lack-of-utility-of-measuring-serum-bilirubin-concentration-in-distinguishing-perforation-status-of-pediatric-appendicitis
#6
William Bonadio, Santina Bruno, David Attaway, Logesh Dharmar, Derek Tam, Peter Homel
BACKGROUND: Pediatric appendicitis is a common, potentially serious condition. Determining perforation status is crucial to planning effective management. PURPOSE: Determine the efficacy of serum total bilirubin concentration [STBC] in distinguishing perforation status in children with appendicitis. METHODS: Retrospective review of 257 cases of appendicitis who received abdominal CT scan and measurement of STBC. RESULTS: There were 109 with perforation vs 148 without perforation...
January 27, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156203/feasibility-of-iterative-model-reconstruction-for-unenhancedlumbar-ct
#7
Yuji Iyama, Takeshi Nakaura, Ayumi Iyama, Masafumi Kidoh, Kazuhiro Katahira, Seitaro Oda, Daisuke Utsunomiya, Yasuyuki Yamashita
Purpose To evaluate the image quality and interobserver reproducibility of unenhanced lumbar spinal computed tomography (CT) images reconstructed with iterative model reconstruction (IMR). Materials and Methods This prospective study was approved by the local ethics committee, and written informed consent was obtained from all patients. The study included 34 patients scanned with unenhanced CT and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for lumbar canal spinal stenosis. The CT images were reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP), hybrid iterative reconstruction (HIR), and IMR...
February 2, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131489/risk-of-acute-kidney-injury-after-intravenous-contrast-media-administration
#8
Jeremiah S Hinson, Michael R Ehmann, Derek M Fine, Elliot K Fishman, Matthew F Toerper, Richard E Rothman, Eili Y Klein
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The study objective was to determine whether intravenous contrast administration for computed tomography (CT) is independently associated with increased risk for acute kidney injury and adverse clinical outcomes. METHODS: This single-center retrospective cohort analysis was performed in a large, urban, academic emergency department with an average census of 62,179 visits per year; 17,934 ED visits for patients who underwent contrast-enhanced, unenhanced, or no CT during a 5-year period (2009 to 2014) were included...
January 19, 2017: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125784/incidence-and-clinical-significance-of-renal-infarct-after-fenestrated-endovascular-aortic-aneurysm-repair
#9
Lauren M B Burke, Jesse M Conyers, Charles T Burke, Robert Dixon, Hyeon Yu, Jeremy Kim, Raghuveer Vallabhaneni, Mark A Farber, Ari J Isaacson
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to determine the incidence and clinical significance of renal infarcts after fenestrated endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (FEVAR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients who underwent FEVAR with unenhanced and contrast-enhanced CT angiography during a 4-year period were retrospectively reviewed. Two staff radiologists reviewed pre- and post-FEVAR CT examinations for the presence of renal infarcts. Pre- and postoperative serum creatinine levels were examined to determine statistical significance...
January 26, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116500/magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-pulmonary-embolism-diagnostic-accuracy-of-unenhanced-mr-and-influence-in-mortality-rates
#10
Lilian Pasin, Matheus Zanon, Jose Moreira, Ana Luiza Moreira, Guilherme Watte, Edson Marchiori, Bruno Hochhegger
OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the diagnostic value for pulmonary embolism (PE) of the True fast imaging with steady-state precession (TrueFISP) MRI, a method that allows the visualization of pulmonary vasculature without breath holding or intravenous contrast. METHODS: This is a prospective investigation including 93 patients with suspected PE. All patients underwent TrueFISP MRI after undergoing CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA). Two independent readers evaluated each MR study, and consensus was obtained...
January 23, 2017: Lung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114785/pelvic-phlebolith-a-trivial-pursuit-for-the-urologist
#11
Angus Chin On Luk, Paul Cleaveland, Louise Olson, Donald Neilson, Shalom Srirangam
OBJECTIVE: Pelvic phleboliths are commonly encountered on plain and CT imaging and remain a source of frustration when attempting to differentiate them from ureteral calculi. Given their frequency, surprising little is known about their significance. We review the literature on pelvic phleboliths, specifically in relation to their history, demography, clinical significance, and methods to distinguish them from ureteral calculi. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was performed for all articles concerning pelvic phleboliths...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Endourology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070657/-how-to-incorporate-dual-energy-imaging-into-a-high-volume-abdominal-imaging-practice
#12
Eric P Tamm, Ott Le, Xinming Liu, Rick R Layman, Dianna D Cody, Priya R Bhosale
Dual-energy CT imaging has many potential uses in abdominal imaging. It also has unique requirements for protocol creation depending on the dual-energy scanning technique that is being utilized. It also generates several new types of images which can increase the complexity of image creation and image interpretation. The purpose of this article is to review, for rapid switching and dual-source dual-energy platforms, methods for creating dual-energy protocols, different approaches for efficiently creating dual-energy images, and an approach to navigating and using dual-energy images at the reading station all using the example of a pancreatic multiphasic protocol...
January 9, 2017: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067202/pulmonary-fibrosis-tissue-characterization-using-late-enhanced-mri-compared-with-unenhanced-anatomic-high-resolution-ct
#13
Lisa P Lavelle, Darragh Brady, Sinead McEvoy, David Murphy, Brian Gibney, Annika Gallagher, Marcus Butler, Fionnula Shortt, Marie McMullen, Aurelie Fabre, David A Lynch, Michael P Keane, Jonathan D Dodd
PURPOSE: We aimed to prospectively evaluate anatomic chest computed tomography (CT) with tissue characterization late gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the evaluation of pulmonary fibrosis (PF). METHODS: Twenty patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and twelve control patients underwent late-enhanced MRI and high-resolution CT. Tissue characterization of PF was depicted using a segmented inversion-recovery turbo low-angle shot MRI sequence...
January 9, 2017: Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology: Official Journal of the Turkish Society of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063406/contemporary-imaging-of-incidentally-discovered-adrenal-masses
#14
REVIEW
Daniel J Wale, Ka Kit Wong, Benjamin L Viglianti, Domenico Rubello, Milton D Gross
Adrenal lesions are routinely encountered incidentally in clinical practice. Although most of these lesions are benign, malignancy needs to be excluded. Therefore, the initial clinical workup is to exclude aggressive characteristics suggesting malignancy and to identify characteristics predictive of the most common benign lesion, an adrenal adenoma. Predicting a benign adenoma using a variety of imaging modalities has been widely studied using unenhanced computed tomography (CT), contrast enhanced CT, and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging...
March 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058482/comparison-of-the-effects-of-model-based-iterative-reconstruction-and-filtered-back-projection-algorithms-on-software-measurements-in-pulmonary-subsolid-nodules
#15
Julien G Cohen, Hyungjin Kim, Su Bin Park, Bram van Ginneken, Gilbert R Ferretti, Chang Hyun Lee, Jin Mo Goo, Chang Min Park
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the differences between filtered back projection (FBP) and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) algorithms on semi-automatic measurements in subsolid nodules (SSNs). METHODS: Unenhanced CT scans of 73 SSNs obtained using the same protocol and reconstructed with both FBP and MBIR algorithms were evaluated by two radiologists. Diameter, mean attenuation, mass and volume of whole nodules and their solid components were measured. Intra- and interobserver variability and differences between FBP and MBIR were then evaluated using Bland-Altman method and Wilcoxon tests...
January 5, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048071/su-f-r-39-effects-of-radiation-dose-reduction-on-renal-cell-carcinoma-discrimination-using-multi-phasic-ct-imaging
#16
M Wahi-Anwar, S Young, P Lo, S Raman, H Kim, M Brown, M McNitt-Gray, H Coy, D Ashen-Garry, E Pace-Soler
PURPOSE: A method to discriminate different types of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) was developed using attenuation values observed in multiphasic contrast-enhanced CT. This work evaluates the sensitivity of this RCC discrimination task at different CT radiation dose levels. METHODS: We selected 5 cases of kidney lesion patients who had undergone four-phase CT scans covering the abdomen to the lilac crest. Through an IRB-approved study, the scans were conducted on 64-slice CT scanners (Definition AS/Definition Flash, Siemens Healthcare) using automatic tube-current modulation (TCM)...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046266/we-fg-207b-09-experimental-assessment-of-noise-and-spatial-resolution-in-virtual-non-contrast-dual-energy-ct-images-across-multiple-patient-sizes-and-ct-systems
#17
J Montoya, A Ferrero, L Yu, S Leng, C McCollough
PURPOSE: To investigate the noise and spatial resolution properties of virtual non-contrast (VNC) dual-energy CT images compared to true non-contrast (TNC) images across multiple patient sizes and CT systems. METHODS: Torso-shaped water phantoms with lateral widths of 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 cm and a high resolution bar pattern phantom (Catphan CTP528) were scanned using 2nd and 3rd generation dual-source CT systems (Scanner A: Somatom Definition Flash, Scanner B: Somatom Force, Siemens Healthcare) in dual-energy scan mode with the same radiation dose for a given phantom size...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046024/chest-fat-quantification-via-ct-based-on-standardized-anatomy-space-in-adult-lung-transplant-candidates
#18
Yubing Tong, Jayaram K Udupa, Drew A Torigian, Dewey Odhner, Caiyun Wu, Gargi Pednekar, Scott Palmer, Anna Rozenshtein, Melissa A Shirk, John D Newell, Mary Porteous, Joshua M Diamond, Jason D Christie, David J Lederer
PURPOSE: Overweight and underweight conditions are considered relative contraindications to lung transplantation due to their association with excess mortality. Yet, recent work suggests that body mass index (BMI) does not accurately reflect adipose tissue mass in adults with advanced lung diseases. Alternative and more accurate measures of adiposity are needed. Chest fat estimation by routine computed tomography (CT) imaging may therefore be important for identifying high-risk lung transplant candidates...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027764/xenon-enhanced-ct-using-subtraction-ct-basic-and-preliminary-clinical-studies-for-comparison-of-its-efficacy-with-that-of-dual-energy-ct-and-ventilation-spect-ct-to-assess-regional-ventilation-and-pulmonary-functional-loss-in-smokers
#19
Yoshiharu Ohno, Takeshi Yoshikawa, Daisuke Takenaka, Yasuko Fujisawa, Naoki Sugihara, Yuji Kishida, Shinichiro Seki, Hisanobu Koyama, Kazuro Sugimura
PURPOSE: To prospectively and directly compare the capability for assessments of regional ventilation and pulmonary functional loss in smokers of xenon-ventilation CT obtained with the dual-energy CT (DE-CT) and subtraction CT (Sub-CT) MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-three consecutive smokers (15 men and 8 women, mean age: 69.7±8.7years) underwent prospective unenhanced and xenon-enhanced CTs, the latter by Sub-CT and DE-CT methods, ventilation SPECT and pulmonary function tests. Sub-CT was generated from unenhanced and xenon-enhanced CT, and all co-registered SPECT/CT data were produced from SPECT and unenhanced CT data...
January 2017: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005510/case-237-renal-cell-carcinoma-with-osseous-metaplasia
#20
Billy Ming Hei Lai, Solomon Yig Joon Ka, Wai Kuen Kan, Man Wah Lam, Tang Fei Lee, Yun Hoi Lui, Jennifer Lai San Khoo
History A 47-year-old man presented with palpitations and decreased exercise tolerance. A peripheral blood smear revealed anemia, thrombocytopenia, and blast cells, and a diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia was made. Immunohistochemistry revealed positivity for cluster of differentiation (or CD) markers, which have been reported to be associated with an increased risk of extramedullary leukemic involvement. Thus, contrast material-enhanced computed tomography (CT) of the thorax, abdomen, and pelvis was requested to enable exclusion of any extramedullary extension of leukemia...
January 2017: Radiology
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