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Skeletal survey

Andy Tsai, Patrick R Johnston, Jeannette M Perez-Rossello, Micheál A Breen, Paul K Kleinman
BACKGROUND: The distal tibia is a common location for the classic metaphyseal lesion (CML). Prior radiologic-pathologic studies have suggested a tendency for medial, as opposed to lateral, cortical injury with the CML, but there has been no formal study of the geographic distribution of this strong indicator of abuse. OBJECTIVE: This study compares medial versus lateral cortical involvement of distal tibial CMLs in a clinical cohort of infants with suspected abuse...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Eduardo Ríos
Ryanodine-sensitive intracellular Ca2+ channels (RyRs) open upon binding Ca2+ at cytosolic-facing sites. This results in concerted, self-reinforcing opening of RyRs clustered in specialized regions on the membranes of Ca2+ storage organelles (endoplasmic reticulum and sarcoplasmic reticulum), a process that produces Ca2+ -induced Ca2+ release (CICR). The process is optimized to achieve large but brief and localized increases in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, a feature now believed to be critical for encoding the multiplicity of signals conveyed by this ion...
March 7, 2018: Journal of General Physiology
Akın Buğra Pişiren, Ayça Arman-Özçırpıcı, Nilüfer İrem Tunçer
PURPOSE: The aim of this survey study was to assess the influence of chin prominence on the perception of profile esthetics between genders by orthodontists, oral and maxillofacial surgeons (OMF), plastic surgeons, orthognathic patients and laypersons. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 731 observers participated in this study. Profile photographs of one female and one male showing ideal soft tissue values, skeletal class 1 relationship, and normodivergent facial type were modified with photo editing program (Adobe Photoshop CC software), so that the chin was moved posteriorly up to 10 mm and anteriorly up to 8 mm at 2-mm intervals...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
S R Sharp, S M Patel, R E Brown, C Landes
AIM: To assess whether the inclusion of skull radiography, as part of the skeletal survey performed in suspected non-accidental injury (NAI), is still justified when volume computed tomography (CT) of the head has also been performed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study which included 94 patients aged between 24 days and 23 months who presented to the Emergency Department between August 2014 to July 2016 and had subsequent investigations for suspected NAI...
March 1, 2018: Clinical Radiology
Carla Van Aller, Jose Lara, Blossom C M Stephan, Lorenzo Maria Donini, Steven Heymsfield, Peter T Katzmarzyk, Jonathan C K Wells, Carla M Prado, Mario Siervo
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: There is no consensus on the definition of sarcopenic obesity (SO), resulting in inconsistent associations of SO with mortality risk. We aim to evaluate association of dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) SO models with mortality risk in a US adult population (≥50 years). SUBJECTS/METHODS: The study population consisted of 3577 participants aged 50 years and older from the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition and Examination Survey with mortality follow-up data through December 31, 2011...
February 15, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Takuya Aoki, Yosuke Yamamoto, Tatsuyoshi Ikenoue, Yoshihiro Onishi, Shunichi Fukuhara
In the present study, we aimed to identify multimorbidity patterns in a Japanese population and investigate whether these patterns have differing effects on polypharmacy and dosage frequency. Data was collected on 17 chronic health conditions via nationwide cross-sectional survey of 3,256 adult Japanese residents. Factor analysis was performed to identify multimorbidity patterns, and associations were determined with excessive polypharmacy [concurrent use of ≥ 10 prescription or over-the-counter (OTC) medications] and higher dosage frequency ( ≥ 3 doses per day)...
February 28, 2018: Scientific Reports
H Ostertag, S Glombitza
Fibrous dysplasia of bone is a connatal but not hereditary disease with monostotic or polyostotic manifestations and may be associated either with the extraskeletal disease McCune-Albright syndrome or with myxoma of the skeletal muscle, termed Mazabraud syndrome.The confirmation of recurrent chromosomal aberrations may lead to the conclusion that fibrous dysplasia is a neoplasia rather than a dysplastic skeletal disease.The primary cause of all forms of the described diseases is the activating GNAS mutation, which is detectable in almost all lesions...
February 27, 2018: Der Pathologe
Kentaro Yamada, Shigenobu Satoh, Yuichiro Abe, Yasushi Yanagibashi, Takahiko Hyakumachi, Takeshi Masuda
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective longitudinal cohort study. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) and reoperation in patients treated surgically for lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) in long-term results. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Few studies have evaluated DISH as a potential risk factor of poor surgical results for LSS. METHODS: This study included 1063 responders to a postoperative postal survey out of 2363 consecutive patients who underwent surgery for LSS between 2002 and 2010...
February 23, 2018: Spine
Riccardo Nucera, Angela Militi, Antonino Lo Giudice, Vanessa Longo, Rosamaria Fastuca, Alberto Caprioglio, Giancarlo Cordasco, Moschos A Papadopoulos
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the skeletal and dental effects of headgear treatment by systematically reviewing the best available scientific evidence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A survey of articles published up to February 2017 investigating the effects of headgear in the treatment of patients with class II malocclusion was performed using 19 electronic databases. Only randomized clinical trials and prospective controlled clinical trials investigating growing patients with class II malocclusion treated with headgear were included...
March 2018: Journal of Evidence-based Dental Practice
T F Sutherland, A M Sterling, M Ou
Benthic video surveys were carried out at two marine finfish aquaculture and associated reference sites in Jervis Inlet (JI), British Columbia. Substrate composition, epifaunal diversity, mat-forming taxa (primary indicators: opportunistic polychaete complexes (OPCs) and sulfide-oxidizing bacteria) and waste pellets were quantitatively assessed. Hard-bottom substrates were dominated by rock wall, skeletal sponge matrix, graded bedrock, rock-veneer, and cobble. Aquaculture waste outputs (modelled depositional carbon fluxes and observations of waste feed/faecal pellets) were correlated with benthic organic enrichment indicators (OPC and sulfide-oxidizing bacteria)...
February 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Jin Sook Lee, Jong-Moon Choi, Moses Lee, Soo Yeon Kim, Sangmoon Lee, Byung Chan Lim, Jung-Eun Cheon, In-One Kim, Ki Joong Kim, Murim Choi, Moon-Woo Seong, Jong-Hee Chae
BACKGROUND: GM1 gangliosidosis is a rare lysosomal storage disorder caused by GLB1 mutations. Because of its extreme rarity and symptoms that overlap with other neurodegenerative diseases, its diagnosis is sometimes challenging, especially in the late infantile form with less severe phenotype. We aim to expand the clinical and genetic spectrum of late infantile GM1 gangliosidosis. METHODS: We confirmed a diagnosis of GM1 gangliosidosis based on GLB1 mutations and/or the deficiency of β-galactosidase activity...
February 10, 2018: Brain & Development
Krister W Fjermestad, Livø Nyhus, Øivind J Kanavin, Arvid Heiberg, Lise B Hoxmark
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a genetic, autosomal dominant multi-organ disease characterized by susceptibility to tumor formation, changes in skin pigmentation, skeletal abnormalities, and neuropsychological deficits. Clinical studies have shown impaired health-related quality of life (HQoL) in adults with NF1. However, little is known about HQoL in non-clinical NF1 samples. We conducted a cross-sectional self-report survey of 142 persons with NF1 (M age = 50.3 years, SD = 12.0, range 32 to 80; 62...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Genetic Counseling
Mohammad H Alasagheirin, Mary K Clark
OBJECTIVES: Children of immigrants and refugees from developing countries are at risk for poor growth that could contribute to adult chronic disease. This study describes the physical growth, bone growth, body composition, metabolic risks, physical activity, and food security of Sudanese children living in the United States. DESIGN AND SAMPLE: Cross-sectional descriptive study of 64 Sudanese children age 5-18. MEASURES: Bone mineral content (BMC), bone density (aBMD), and body composition (fat, lean mass, percent body fat) were measured using DXA...
February 9, 2018: Public Health Nursing
Anilawan Smitthimedhin, Hansel J Otero
Zellweger syndrome is the most severe form of a group of autosomal recessive disorders with defective peroxisomes. We report a case of Zellweger syndrome in a newborn baby, which was first suspected by the presence of scimitar-like patella seen on skeletal survey. The subsequent brain MRI showed germinolytic cysts and polymicrogyria, which furthered the suspicion. Laboratory and genetic results confirmed the diagnosis. To date, there are a limited number of case reports of this rare disease. We emphasize skeletal findings that can lead to targeted genetic and laboratory testing and hence earlier diagnosis...
February 1, 2018: Clinical Imaging
Su Jung Lee, Yoon Jin Park, Kathleen B Cartmell
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the association between sarcopenia and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in cancer survivors. METHODS: We analyzed a consecutive series of 683 cancer survivors from the Korean National Health and Nutritional Exam Survey (2008-2011 years). Sarcopenia was defined as the appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by weight (Kg) < 1 standard deviation below the sex-specific healthy population aged 20-39 years. CVD risks were assessed using the Framingham Risk Score (FRS), which were divided by tertile...
February 6, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Simukayi Mutasa, Peter D Chang, Carrie Ruzal-Shapiro, Rama Ayyala
Bone age assessment (BAA) is a commonly performed diagnostic study in pediatric radiology to assess skeletal maturity. The most commonly utilized method for assessment of BAA is the Greulich and Pyle method (Pediatr Radiol 46.9:1269-1274, 2016; Arch Dis Child 81.2:172-173, 1999) atlas. The evaluation of BAA can be a tedious and time-consuming process for the radiologist. As such, several computer-assisted detection/diagnosis (CAD) methods have been proposed for automation of BAA. Classical CAD tools have traditionally relied on hard-coded algorithmic features for BAA which suffer from a variety of drawbacks...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Digital Imaging: the Official Journal of the Society for Computer Applications in Radiology
Yacong Bo, Changfeng Liu, Zhe Ji, Ruihong Yang, Qianqian An, Xueyuan Zhang, Jie You, Dandan Duan, Yafei Sun, Yiwei Zhu, Han Cui, Quanjun Lu
OBJECTIVE: Sarcopenia, an age-related decline of muscle mass, strength, and physical function, was associated with falls, frailty, and poor quality of life. The aim of the current study is to examine the effect of nutritional supplement containing whey protein, vitamin D and E on measures of sarcopenia. METHODS: A total of 60 sarcopenic older adult subjects participated in the current randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled (iso-caloric control product) trial for 6 months...
January 9, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Andrew C Tiu, Vivian Arguello-Guerra, Gabor Varadi
Introduction: Multiple myeloma is caused by abnormal proliferation of plasma cells that affects more commonly African Americans. It classically presents with hypercalcemia, renal failure, anemia, and lytic bone lesions. The aim of this article is to present an unusual case of a 63-year-old African-American female with multiple myeloma who presented with worsening right-sided eye swelling for the past 3 weeks and to briefly review ophthalmologic manifestations of multiple myeloma. Case description: Our patient's presentation was associated with a throbbing frontal headache, nasal congestion, malaise, and weight loss...
2018: SAGE open medical case reports
Marc O'Donnell, William F Lavelle, Mike H Sun
Spondylolysis is frequently seen in adolescents, typically at the L5 vertebral level. While there may be a congenital predisposition for spondylolysis, it has long been suggested that the defect results from a fatigue or stress fracture of the pars interarticularis. Spondylolisthesis may result from a bilateral spondylolytic defect and is frequently asymptomatic. There is a paucity of literature on infant and toddler spondylolysis, as the focus is primarily on school-aged children, typically those over ten years of age...
December 2017: Journal of Spine Surgery (Hong Kong)
Yoichi Kaneuchi, Kenichi Otoshi, Michiyuki Hakozaki, Miho Sekiguchi, Kazuyuki Watanabe, Takahiro Igari, Shinichi Konno
Background: Although tensile force on an immature tibial tuberosity is considered the main cause of Osgood-Schlatter disease (OSD), the relationship between bony maturity and the pathogenesis of OSD remains obscure. Purpose: To survey the bone maturation process of the tibial tuberosity by age and sex and clarify its relationship to OSD. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A total of 731 Japanese basketball players aged 6 to 14 years were enrolled in this study...
January 2018: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
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