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Michael Schmid, Claus Steinlein
A detailed cytogenetic study on the leaf litter frog Eleutherodactylus johnstonei from 14 different Caribbean islands and the mainlands of Venezuela and Guyana revealed the existence of multimorphic XY♂/XX♀ sex chromosomes 14. Their male sex determination and development depends either on the presence of 2 telocentric chromosomes 14 (XtYt), or on 1 submetacentric chromosome 14 (Xsm) plus 1 telocentric chromosome 14 (Yt), or on the presence of 2 submetacentric chromosomes 14 (XsmYsm). The female sex determination and development requires either the presence of 2 telocentric chromosomes 14 (XtXt) or 2 submetacentric chromosomes 14 (XsmXsm)...
March 16, 2018: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
Kaushalendra Kumar, Santosh Kumar, Anil Kumar Singh
AIM: To investigate association between socio-demographic characteristics and alcohol consumption in India. METHODS: Analytical data were derived from household surveys conducted by the study team that included 6088 adults in five states of India (male = 3803, female = 2285). The sample was a cross-sectional selected through stratified multistage sampling design. The survey collected data on socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents as well as pattern of alcohol consumption...
February 14, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Cheng-Chen Pan, Christophe Maïano, Alexandre J S Morin
BACKGROUND: Little research has looked at the associations between sex, weight status and culture, and the physical self-perceptions and body dissatisfaction of individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) involved in Special Olympics (SO) sports. AIMS: To examine sex- (male vs female), weight status- (non-overweight/obese vs. overweight/obese), and culture-based (North American vs. Asian) differences in physical self-concept and body dissatisfaction among SO athletes...
March 12, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Gonçalo Forjaz de Lacerda, Scott P Kelly, Joana Bastos, Clara Castro, Alexandra Mayer, Angela B Mariotto, William F Anderson
BACKGROUND: Female breast cancer incidence rates have been increasing in Portugal for years. We, therefore, conducted the first nationwide breast cancer study to assess regional differences. METHODS: Cases were obtained from population-based cancer registries covering the country's Mainland (South, North, Centre), as well as the two Autonomous Regions (Azores and Madeira), for the time-period 1998 through 2011. Analyses were restricted to ages 30-84 years and stratified by region...
March 12, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology
Wenge Chen, Yunlong Cheng, Jianzhong Chen, Jiahang Chen, Kai Jiang, Yuyang Zhou, Lee Jia
Mifepristone (RU486) is developed originally as a contraceptive used by hundreds of millions of women world-wide, and also reported as a safe and long-term psychotic depressant, or as a cancer chemotherapeutic agent used by both sexes. In our preliminary study aimed at developing mifepristone as a cancer metastatic chemopreventive, we coincidentally observed that blood mifepristone concentrations in female rats seem to be higher than those in male ones post administration. To substantiate if the pharmacokinetic differences between sexes exist, we established a fast UPLC-MS/MS method to determine mifepristone concentrations in plasma, and analyzed blood concentrations of mifepristone over time in rats and dogs of both sexes...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Cherilyn N Mclester, Alex D Dewitt, Rasmus Rooks, John R Mclester
The purpose of this study was to compare the body fat per cent (BF%) assessed with a unique handheld electrical impedance myography (EIM) device, along with other popular methods, to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Participants included 33 males (aged 24.3 ± 4.6 years) and 38 females (aged 25.3 ± 8.9 years) who completed 2 visits separated by 24-72 h. The assessments included DXA, bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), skinfold measures (SKF), and three separate EIM measurements. No significant differences in BF% (P > 0...
March 15, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Teruyo Nakatani, Tiffany Chen, Joshua Johnson, Jennifer J Westendorf, Nicola C Partridge
Histone deacetylase 4 (Hdac4) is known to control chondrocyte hypertrophy and bone formation. We have previously shown that parathyroid hormone (PTH) regulates many aspects of Hdac4 function in osteoblastic cells in vitro; however, in vivo confirmation was previously precluded by pre-weaning lethality of the Hdac4 deficient mice. To analyze the function of Hdac4 in bone in mature animals, we generated mice with osteoblast lineage-specific knockout of Hdac4 (Hdac4ob-/- ) by crossing transgenic mice expressing Cre recombinase under the control of a 2...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Stephanie Elyse Ambrose, Julina Ongkasuwan, Kavita Dedhia, Gillian Ruth Diercks, Samantha Anne, Subhadra Shashidharan, Nikhila Raol
Importance: Vocal fold motion impairment (VFMI) is a known risk factor following congenital heart surgery (CHS). The impact of this diagnosis on utilization and outcomes is unknown. Objective: To evaluate the cost, postprocedure length of stay (PPLOS), and outcomes for neonates with VFMI after CHS. Design, Setting, and Participants: A cross-sectional analysis of the 2012 Kids' Inpatient Database (KID) of neonates who underwent CHS was carried out...
March 15, 2018: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
Sophia Y Wang, Mariam S Hamid, David C Musch, Maria A Woodward
Importance: Nearly 2 million patients visit emergency departments (EDs) because of eye concerns annually in the United States. How hospitals currently assign these patients to treatment is important for designing systems that equitably allocate resources for eye care in urgent settings. Objective: To investigate factors associated with ophthalmology consultation for eye-related adult ED encounters to assess possible disparities by sex, race/ethnicity, language preference, or residential distance from the medical center...
March 15, 2018: JAMA Ophthalmology
Yeon Jung Kim, Rafael Rafael de Molon, Fausto Rioiti Horiguti, Guilherme Piragine Contador, Marco Antonio Coelho, Vinicius Ibiapina Mascarenhas, Ana Paula de Souza Faloni, Joni Augusto Cirelli, Wilson Roberto Sendyk
PURPOSE: The objective of this investigation was to assess vertical bone augmentation using deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM) infused or not with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP-2) in rabbit tibiae. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 18 female rabbits (New Zealand) received two blocks of DBBM in each tibia. The DBBM blocks were randomly assigned into four experimental groups: DBBM (only the bone graft); DBBM associated with absorbable collagen sponge (ACS); DBBM plus rhBMP-2 (1...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
Laurits J Holm, Martin Haupt-Jorgensen, Jesper Larsen, Jano D Giacobini, Mesut Bilgin, Karsten Buschard
Sphingolipids are a diverse group of lipids with important roles in beta-cell biology regulating insulin folding and controlling apoptosis. Sphingolipid biosynthesis begins with the condensation of L-serine and palmitoyl-CoA. Here we tested the effect of L-serine supplementation on autoimmune diabetes development and blood glucose homeostasis in female NOD mice. We found that continuous supplementation of L-serine reduces diabetes incidence and insulitis score. In addition, L-serine treated mice had an improved glucose tolerance test, reduced HOMA-IR, and reduced blood glucose levels...
2018: PloS One
Niels Rueegger, Brad Law, Ross Goldingay
Understanding maternity roost requirements is fundamental to guide timber production forest management given such roosts are vital to sustain bat populations. We tracked lactating females of three tree cavity-roosting species: Gould's long-eared bat (Nyctophilus gouldi) (n = 7), eastern broad-nosed bat (Scotorepens orion) (n = 6) and little forest bat (Vespadelus vulturnus) (n = 25), over five weeks in young (predominately <5 years old) forest regenerating from heavy timber harvest in southeast Australia...
2018: PloS One
Tarisai Chiyaka, Phillis Mushati, Bernadette Hensen, Sungai Chabata, James R Hargreaves, Sian Floyd, Isolde J Birdthistle, Frances M Cowan, Joanna R Busza
Young women (aged 15-24) who exchange sex for money or other support are among the highest risk groups for HIV acquisition, particularly in high prevalence settings. To prepare for introduction and evaluation of the DREAMS programme in Zimbabwe, which provides biomedical and social interventions to reduce adolescent girls' and young women's HIV vulnerability, we conducted a rapid needs assessment in 6 towns using a "social mapping" approach. In each site, we talked to adult sex workers and other key informants to identify locations where young women sell sex, followed by direct observation, group discussions and interviews...
2018: PloS One
Lisa Blom, Lucie Laflamme, Helle Mölsted Alvesson
BACKGROUND: Image-based teleconsultation between medical experts and healthcare staff at remote emergency centres can improve the diagnosis of conditions which are challenging to assess. One such condition is burns. Knowledge is scarce regarding how medical experts perceive the influence of such teleconsultation on their roles and relations to colleagues at point of care. METHODS: In this qualitative study, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 medical experts to explore their expectations of a newly developed App for burns diagnostics and care prior to its implementation...
2018: PloS One
Kosuke Ebina, Motomu Hashimoto, Wataru Yamamoto, Akira Ohnishi, Daijiro Kabata, Toru Hirano, Ryota Hara, Masaki Katayama, Shuzo Yoshida, Koji Nagai, Yonsu Son, Hideki Amuro, Kengo Akashi, Takanori Fujimura, Makoto Hirao, Keiichi Yamamoto, Ayumi Shintani, Atsushi Kumanogoh, Hideki Yoshikawa
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the retention and discontinuation reasons of seven biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) in a real-world setting of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). 1,037 treatment courses with bDMARDs from 2009 to 2016 [female, 81.8%; baseline age, 59.6 y; disease duration 7.8 y; rheumatoid factor positivity 81.5%; Disease Activity Score in 28 joints using erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR), 4.4; concomitant prednisolone 43.5% and methotrexate 68...
2018: PloS One
Mariusz Kanturski, Shalva Barjadze, Andrew S Jensen, Karina Wieczorek
The aphid genus Myzaphis van der Goot, 1913 from the tribe Macrosiphini is revised to include eight species. Apterous and alate viviparous females, known fundatrices and known sexual morphs (oviparous females and males) of Myzaphis bucktoni, M. juchnevitschae, M. rosarum, M. tianshanica and M. turanica are re-described and illustrated. Lectotype and paralectotypes of Myzaphis bucktoni and M. turanica are designated. The status of M. komatsubarae nomen dubium is discussed. Myzaphis avariolosa is regarded as a species belonging to the genus Ericaphis...
2018: PloS One
Azael Che-Mendoza, Anuar Medina-Barreiro, Edgar Koyoc-Cardeña, Valentín Uc-Puc, Yamili Contreras-Perera, Josué Herrera-Bojórquez, Felipe Dzul-Manzanilla, Fabian Correa-Morales, Hilary Ranson, Audrey Lenhart, Philip J McCall, Axel Kroeger, Gonzalo Vazquez-Prokopec, Pablo Manrique-Saide
BACKGROUND: There is a need for effective methods to control Aedes aegypti and prevent the transmission of dengue, chikungunya, yellow fever and Zika viruses. Insecticide treated screening (ITS) is a promising approach, particularly as it targets adult mosquitoes to reduce human-mosquito contact. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cluster-randomised controlled trial evaluated the entomological efficacy of ITS based intervention, which consisted of the installation of pyrethroid-impregnated long-lasting insecticide-treated netting material fixed as framed screens on external doors and windows...
March 15, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Meda E Pavkov, Jessica L Harding, Nilka R Burrows
Acute kidney injury is a sudden decrease in kidney function with or without kidney damage, occurring over a few hours or days. Diabetes, hypertension, and advanced age are primary risk factors for acute kidney injury. It is increasingly recognized as an in-hospital complication of sepsis, heart conditions, and surgery (1,2). Its most severe stage requires treatment with dialysis. Acute kidney injury is also associated with higher likelihood of long-term care, incidence of chronic kidney disease and hospital mortality, and health care costs (1,2)...
March 16, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Kristy Marynak, Andrea Gentzke, Teresa W Wang, Linda Neff, Brian A King
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are the most commonly used tobacco product among U.S. middle and high school students (1). Exposure to e-cigarette advertisements is associated with higher odds of current e-cigarette use among middle and high school students (2-4). To assess patterns of self-reported exposure to four e-cigarette advertising sources (retail stores, the Internet, television, and newspapers and magazines), CDC analyzed data from the 2014, 2015, and 2016 National Youth Tobacco Surveys (NYTSs)...
March 16, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Ya-Li Zhang, Xiao-Bin Fu, Hong-Chun Cui, Lei Zhao, Ji-Zhong Yu, Hong-Liang Li
As one of the main lepidopteran pests in Chinese tea plantations, Ectropis obliqua Warren (tea geometrids) can severely decrease yields of tea products. The olfactory system of the adult tea geometrid plays a significant role in seeking behaviors, influencing their search for food, mating partners, and even spawning grounds. In this study, a general odorant-binding protein (OBP) gene, EoblGOBP2 , was identified in the antennae of E. obliqua using reverse transcription quantification PCR (RT-qPCR). Results showed that EoblGOBP2 was more highly expressed in the antennae of males than in females relative to other tissues...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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